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  • 1.
    Bigault, Thierry
    et al.
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buffet, J. C.
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Correa, Jonathan
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Guérard, Bruno
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Khaplanov, Anton
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Piscitelli, Fransesco
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    van Esch, P.
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    10B multi-grid proportional gas counters for large area thermal neutron detectors2012In: Neutron News, ISSN 1044-8632, E-ISSN 1931-7352, Vol. 23, no 4, 20-24 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersen, Ken
    et al.
    European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Bigault, Thierry
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buffet, J. C.
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Correa, Jonathan
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Guerard, Bruno
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khaplanov, Anton
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Kirstein, Oliver
    Linköping University.
    Piscitelli, Fransesco
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    van Esch, P.
    Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, Cedex 9, France.
    Vettier, Christian
    European Spallation Source, Lund, Sweden.
    10B multi-grid proportional gas counters for large area thermal neutrondetectors2013In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 720, 116-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3He was a popular material in neutrons detectors until its availability dropped drastically in 2008. The development of techniques based on alternative convertors is now of high priority for neutron research institutes. Thin films of 10B or 10B4C have been used in gas proportional counters to detect neutrons, but until now, only for small or medium sensitive area. We present here the multi-grid design, introduced at the ILL and developed in collaboration with ESS for LAN (large area neutron) detectors. Typically thirty 10B4C films of 1 μm thickness are used to convert neutrons into ionizing particles which are subsequently detected in a proportional gas counter. The principle and the fabrication of the multi-grid are described and some preliminary results obtained with a prototype of 200 cm×8 cm are reported; a detection efficiency of 48% has been measured at 2.5 Å with a monochromatic neutron beam line, showing the good potential of this new technique.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Johansson, GA
    Hertz, HM
    Gullikson, EM
    Kreissig, U
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window2003In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 28, no 24, 2494-2496 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr/Sc multilayer mirrors, synthesized by ion-assisted magnetron sputter deposition, are proved to have a high near-normal reflectivity of R = 14.5% at a grazing angle of 87.5degrees measured at the wavelength A = 3.11 nm, which is an improvement of more than 31% compared with previously published results. Elastic recoil detection analyses show that the mirrors contained as much as 15 at. % of N and traces of C and O. Soft x-ray reflectivity simulations reveal interface widths of sigma = 0.34 nm and an exceptionally small layer thickness drift of similar to1.6 X 10(-5) nm/multilayer period throughout the stack. Simulations show that a reflectivity of R = 25.6% is attainable if impurities and layer thickness drift can be eliminated. The abrupt interfaces are achieved with ion assistance with a low ion energy of 24 eV and high ion-to-metal flux ratios of 7.1 and 23.1 during Cr and Se sputter deposition, respectively. In addition, a near-normal incidence reflectivity of 5.5% for the C VI emission line (lambda = 3.374 nm) from a laser plasma source was verified. (C) 2003 Optical Society of America.

  • 4.
    Jülich, Solveig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekström, AndersLinköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Snickars, Pelle
    1897: Mediehistorier kring Stockholmsutställningen2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När börjar mediehistorien? Mediehistoria var länge liktydigt med historien om 1900-talets massmedier  press, radio, teve och film. I den här boken skildras istället ett äldre medielandskap. Med utgångspunkt i Stockholmsutställningen 1897 beskriver författarna det utbud av gamla och nya medier som samlades på utställningen, från äldre attraktioner som camera obscura, dioramor och vaxfigurer till spektakulära nyheter som fonograf, kinematograf och röntgenbilder. Boken ger inblickar i några av det sena 1800-talets ledande medieindustrier, och diskuterar bland annat frågor om mediekonsumtion, publikpositioner och historiska medieringsvillkor. De medietekniker som presenterades på Stockholmsutställningen 1897 lagrade på samma gång utställningen för framtiden. Ett centralt tema är därför hur dessa medieringar blivit identiska med minnet av utställningen, och hur detta arkiv organiserats utifrån mediernas specifika egenskaper. På den DVD-skiva som medföljer boken har ett nytt mediearkiv skapats över Stockholmsutställningen 1897 och dess många länkar till en bredare mediekultur.

  • 5.
    Seppänen, Timo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    248 nm cathodoluminescence in Al1-xInxN (0001) thin films grown on lattice-matched Ti1-yZryN (111) seed layers by low temperature magnetron sputter epitaxy2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 89, no 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-crystal Al0.8 In0.2 N (0001) thin films were grown epitaxially onto lattice-matched Ti0.2 Zr0.8 N (111) seed layers on MgO(111) substrates at 300 °C by magnetron sputter epitaxy. Low-energy ion-assisted epitaxial growth conditions were achieved by applying a substrate potential of -15 V. Cross-sectional high-resolution electron microscopy verified the epitaxy and high-resolution x-ray diffraction ω -rocking scans of the Al0.8 In0.2 N 0002 peak (full width at half maximum ∼2400 arc sec) indicated a high structural quality of the films. Cathodoluminescence measurements performed in a scanning electron microscope at 5 K revealed Al0.8 In0.2 N luminescence at 248 nm, or equivalently 5.0 eV, showing that Al0.8 In0.2 N is a promising material for deep-ultraviolet optoelectronic devices. © 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  • 6.
    Khikhlovskyi, Vsevolod
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; TNO, Netherlands.
    van Breemen, Albert J. J. M.
    Holst Centre, TNO-The Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Michels, Jasper J.
    Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPI), Germany.
    Janssen, Rene A. J.
    Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Gelinck, Gerwin H.
    Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands; Holst Centre, TNO-The Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    3D-Morphology Reconstruction of Nanoscale Phase-Separation in Polymer Memory Blends2015In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 53, no 17, 1231-1237 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many organic electronic devices functionality is achieved by blending two or more materials, typically polymers or molecules, with distinctly different optical or electrical properties in a single film. The local scale morphology of such blends is vital for the device performance. Here, a simple approach to study the full 3D morphology of phase-separated blends, taking advantage of the possibility to selectively dissolve the different components is introduced. This method is applied in combination with AFM to investigate a blend of a semiconducting and ferroelectric polymer typically used as active layer in organic ferroelectric resistive switches. It is found that the blend consists of a ferroelectric matrix with three types of embedded semiconductor domains and a thin wetting layer at the bottom electrode. Statistical analysis of the obtained images excludes the presence of a fourth type of domains. The criteria for the applicability of the presented technique are discussed. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 7.
    Godhe, Michael
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    70-talets språkbruk återanvänds i kommersens namn2000In: NT-ÖD, no 29/11Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Om posten.se-reklam och Lukas Moodyssons film Tillsammans

  • 8.
    Stefanescu, I.
    et al.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany .
    Abdullahi, Y.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany .
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Defendi, I.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany .
    Hall-Wilton, R.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, Sweden .
    Hoglund, C.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, Sweden .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zee, M.
    Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Zeitelhack, K.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany .
    A B-10-based neutron detector with stacked MultiWire Proportional Counters and macrostructured cathodes2013In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 8, no P12003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of the measurements of the detection efficiency for a 4.7 angstrom neutron beam incident upon a detector incorporating a stack of up to five MultiWire Proportional Counters (MWPC) with Boron-coated cathodes. The cathodes were made of Aluminum and had a surface exhibiting millimeter-deep V-shaped grooves of 45 degrees, upon which the thin Boron film was deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. The incident neutrons interacting with the converter layer deposited on the sidewalls of the grooves have a higher capture probability, owing to the larger effective absorption film thickness. This leads to a higher overall detection efficiency for the grooved cathode when compared to a cathode with a flat surface. Both the experimental results and the predictions of the GEANT4 model suggests that a 5-counter detector stack with coated grooved cathodes has the same efficiency as a 7-counter stack with flat cathodes. The reduction in the number of counters in the stack without altering the detection efficiency will prove highly beneficial for large-area position-sensitive detectors for neutron scattering applications, for which the cost-effective manufacturing of the detector and associated readout electronics is an important objective. The proposed detector concept could be a technological option for one of the new chopper spectrometers and other instruments planned to be built at the future European Spallation Source in Sweden. These results with macrostructured cathodes generally apply not just to MWPCs but to other gaseous detectors as well.

  • 9.
    Fagerholm, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Lagali, Neil S
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Merrett, Kimberley
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute.
    Jackson, W Bruce
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute.
    Munger, Rejean
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute.
    Liu, Yuwen
    CooperVision Inc, Pleasanton, USA .
    Polarek, James W
    FibroGen Inc, San Francisco.
    Söderqvist, Monica
    Synsam Opticians, Linköping.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A biosynthetic alternative to human donor tissue for inducing corneal regeneration: 24-month follow-up of a phase 1 clinical study2010In: Science translational medicine, ISSN 1946-6234, Vol. 2, no 46, 46-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corneas from human donors are used to replace damaged tissue and treat corneal blindness, but there is a severe worldwide shortage of donor corneas. We conducted a phase 1 clinical study in which biosynthetic mimics of corneal extracellular matrix were implanted to replace the pathologic anterior cornea of 10 patients who had significant vision loss, with the aim of facilitating endogenous tissue regeneration without the use of human donor tissue. The biosynthetic implants remained stably integrated and avascular for 24 months after surgery, without the need for long-term use of the steroid immunosuppression that is required for traditional allotransplantation. Corneal reepithelialization occurred in all patients, although a delay in epithelial closure as a result of the overlying retaining sutures led to early, localized implant thinning and fibrosis in some patients. The tear film was restored, and stromal cells were recruited into the implant in all patients. Nerve regeneration was also observed and touch sensitivity was restored, both to an equal or to a greater degree than is seen with human donor tissue. Vision at 24 months improved from preoperative values in six patients. With further optimization, biosynthetic corneal implants could offer a safe and effective alternative to the implantation of human tissue to help address the current donor cornea shortage.

  • 10.
    Murugesan, Murali
    et al.
    Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zanden, Carl
    Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Luo, Xin
    Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; School of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Key Laboratory of New Displays and System Integration, Shanghai University, China .
    Ye, Lilei
    SHT Smart High-Tech AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Johan
    Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; School of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Key Laboratory of New Displays and System Integration, Shanghai University, China .
    A carbon fiber solder matrix composite for thermalmanagement of microelectronic devices2014In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 2, no 35, 7184-7187 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A carbon fiber based tin-silver-copper alloy matrix composite (CF-TIM) was developed via electrospinning of a mesophase pitch with polyimide and carbonization at 1000 °C, followed by sputter coating with titanium and gold, and alloy infiltration. The carbonized fibers, in film form, showed a thermal conductivity of ∼4 W m-1 K-1 and the CF-TIM showed an anisotropic thermal conductivity of 41 ± 2 W m-1 K-1 in-plane and 20 ± 3 W m-1 K-1 through-plane. The thermal contact resistance of the CF-TIM was estimated to be below 1 K mm2 W-1. The CF-TIM showed no reduction in effective through-plane thermal conductivity after 1000 temperature cycles, which indicates the potential use of CF-TIM in thermal management applications.

  • 11.
    Haapaoja, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A collision framework for rigid and deformable body simulation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes methods for collision detection and collision response, implemented in a complete collision framework for both rigid and deformable bodies. The framework is intended to act as a base for new technologies regarding muscle and facial simulation for feature film production, at the visual effects studio MPC. Specifically, we implement sweep and prune as a first step in our collision detection for fast pruning of pairs, followed by optimized spatial hashing to decrease the amount of triangle intersection tests. Further, we use a constraint-based method for collision response based on iterative constraint anticipation, which provides several advantages in terms of accuracy compared to penalty- or impulse-based methods.

  • 12.
    Arumskog, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Combinatorial Chemistry Approach to the Amorphous Al-In-Zn-O Transparent Oxide Semiconductor System2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the successful application of a combinatorial chemistry approach to the evaluation of the amorphous transparent oxide semiconductor Al-In-Zn-O, a-AIZO, for use as channel layers in thin film transistors, TFTs. Many technologies, such as computing and electronic displays, rely on the use of the transistor. In particular, for flat panel displays, the development of new TFTs for the control electronics are necessary for thinner displays with better resolution. In addition, transparent materials deposited at low temperatures would enable a new range of applications. To accomplish this, new materials for the TFT channel layer are needed.

    Transparent oxide semiconductors (TOS) are one alternative the silicon based materials currently in use and the first TOS, amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O, has just gone into production. However, despite its good properties, it suffers from the disadvantage of containing the scarce and expensive metals In and Ga. Several attempts have been made to replace Ga with Al but no systematic study of a-AIZO has been reported. This report describes such a study, using a method known as combinatorial chemistry.

    Initially, a-AIZO thin films with composition gradients were deposited by DC/RF magnetron sputtering and, following characterization, TFTs with a variety of a-AIZO channel layer composition were manufactured and investigated. Two different compositional areas were found to yield TFTs with good characteristics.

  • 13.
    Field, M. R.
    et al.
    RMIT University, Australia.
    Carlsson, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Partridge, J. G.
    RMIT University, Australia.
    McCulloch, D. G.
    RMIT University, Australia.
    McKenzie, D. R.
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Bilek, M. M. M.
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    A combinatorial comparison of DC and high power impulse magnetron sputtered Cr2AlC2014In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 259, 746-750 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a combinatorial approach, Cr, Al and C have been deposited onto sapphire wafer substrates by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) and DC magnetron sputtering. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed to determine the composition and microstructure of the coatings and confirm the presence of the Cr2AlC MAX phase within both coatings. One location in both the DCMS and HiPIMS coatings contained only MAX phase Cr2AlC. The electrical resistivity was also found to be nearly identical at this location and close to that reported from the bulk, indicating that the additional energy in the HiPIMS plasma was not required to form high quality MAX phase Cr2AlC.

  • 14.
    Tucker, Mark
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bilek, Marcela M. M.
    University of Sydney, Australia .
    McKenzie, David R.
    University of Sydney, Australia .
    A combinatorial investigation of sputtered Ta-Al-C thin films2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 558, 99-103 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a combinatorial experiment investigating the Ta-Al-C material system, conducted with the aim of determining why the tantalum-containing M-n + (1)AX(n) phases have so far proved to be not amenable to thin-film synthesis. Samples were deposited onto (0001) Al2O3 wafers at 850 degrees C and characterized by X-ray diffraction wafer maps, scanning electron microscopy, and surface optical scattering. Elemental Ta, the binary phases TaC, Ta2C, and TaAl3, and the ternary phases Ta3Al2C and Ta5Al3C were identified. The morphology, phase composition and preferred orientation of the films deposited were found to be highly sensitive to the Ta fraction of the incident flux during deposition. No MAX phase material was observed, indicating that the Ta-containing MAX phases do not form under the deposition conditions investigated. Explanations associated with inadequate coverage of stochiometries, preferential sputtering, and thermodynamic instability have been ruled out. An explanation based on reduced surface diffusion of Ta during growth is proposed. A substantially higher substrate temperature during deposition is likely to be required to synthesize Ta-containing MAX phases.

  • 15.
    Björkqvist, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparative study between factual animation and cartoon animation in a learning context2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Film har påvisats vara en populär metod för effektiv inlärning men inga tidigare undersökningar berör hur den visuella stilen av film i undervisning kan påverka inlärningen. Denna studie går därför ut på att undersöka skillnaderna mellan en saklig, informativ animerad film och en cartoon-animerad film i hur de fungerar och uppfattas i ett lärandesammanhang. Studien innefattar en litteratursökning kring multimediainlärning, kommunikation i film och animationsprinciper som sedan mynnat ut i två animerade filmer, en saklig och en med cartoon-karaktär. Dessa filmer har jämförts i kvalitativa användartester med en högstadieklass för att undersöka förståelsen och uppfattningen kring filmerna. Slutsatserna från studien är att båda filmerna skulle passa i ett lärandesammanhang, dock krävs en djupare och större undersökning för att förstå hur de olika filmerna påverkat inlärningen. Den största skillnaden mellan filmerna ligger i hur underhållande de upplevs, den cartoon-animerade filmen upplevs vara roligare och väcker intresset hos många av testpersonerna, dock upplevde flera att den även var distraherande och att de fokuserade mer på underhållningen än faktan som presenterades. För att fullt svara på syftet krävs en fortsatt studie kring ämnet.

  • 16.
    Schmidt, Susann
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Czigany, Zsolt
    Hungarian Academic Science, Hungary.
    Wissting, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A comparative study of direct current magnetron sputtering and high power impulse magnetron sputtering processes for CNX thin film growth with different inert gases2016In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 64, 13-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges of carbon in different inert gas mixtures (N-2/Ne, N-2/Ar, and N-2/Kr) were investigated for the growth of carbon-nitride (CNX) thin films. Ion mass spectrometry showed that energies of abundant plasma cations are governed by the inert gas and the N-2-to-inert gas flow ratios. The population of ion species depends on the sputter mode; HiPIMS yields approximately ten times higher flux ratios of ions originating from the target to process gas ions than DCMS. Exceptional are discharges in Ne with N-2-to-Ne flow ratios <20%. Here, cation energies and the amount of target ions are highest without influence on the sputter mode. CNX thin films were deposited in 14% N-2/inert gas mixtures at substrate temperatures of 110 degrees C and 430 degrees C. The film properties show a correlation to the substrate temperature, the applied inert gas and sputter mode. The mechanical performance of the films is mainly governed by their morphology and composition, but not by their microstructure. Amorphous and fullerene-like CN0.14 films exhibiting a hardness of similar to 15 GPa and an elastic recovery of similar to 90% were deposited at 110 degrees C in reactive Kr atmosphere by DCMS and HiPIMS.

  • 17.
    Fornander, H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ekedahl, L.-G.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparison of the CO and D2 oxidation reactions on Pd supported on MgO(100), MgO(110) and MgO(111)1999In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 440, no 3, 375-386 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidation of D2 and CO on oxygen pre-exposed 200 nm thick Pd films, epitaxially grown on MgO(100), MgO(110) and MgO(111), has been investigated in the temperature range 100–300°C. Oxygen initial sticking coefficients have been determined to be close to 1 for the 100 and 110 films, and around 0.8 for the 111 film. The sticking coefficient and reactive sticking coefficient for CO oxidation on Pd/MgO(100) is also close to 1, and the maximum reactive sticking coefficient for hydrogen oxidation is determined to be around 0.9 at temperatures above 200°C. It is shown that the reactivities for the different surfaces vary strongly with surface and oxygen coverage, and the consequence of this for supported particle catalysts is pointed out.

  • 18.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A critical evaluation of GGA plus U modeling for atomic, electronic and magnetic structure of Cr2AlC, Cr2GaC and Cr2GeC2015In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 27, no 9, 095601- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we critically evaluate methods for treating electron correlation effects in multicomponent carbides using a GGA + U framework, addressing doubts from previous works on the usability of density functional theory in the design of magnetic MAX phases. We have studied the influence of the Hubbard U-parameter, applied to Cr 3d orbitals, on the calculated lattice parameters, magnetic moments, magnetic order, bulk modulus and electronic density of states of Cr2AlC, Cr2GaC and Cr2GeC. By considering non-, ferro-, and five different antiferromagnetic spin configurations, we show the importance of including a broad range of magnetic orders in the search for MAX phases with finite magnetic moments in the ground state. We show that when electron correlation is treated on the level of the generalized gradient approximation (U = 0 eV), the magnetic ground state of Cr(2)AC (A = Al, Ga, Ge) is in-plane antiferromagnetic with finite Cr local moments, and calculated lattice parameters and bulk modulus close to experimentally reported values. By comparing GGA and GGA + U results with experimental data we find that using a U-value larger than 1 eV results in structural parameters deviating strongly from experimentally observed values. Comparisons are also done with hybrid functional calculations (HSE06) resulting in an exchange splitting larger than what is obtained for a U-value of 2 eV. Our results suggest caution and that investigations need to involve several different magnetic orders before lack of magnetism in calculations are blamed on the exchange-correlation approximations in this class of magnetic MAX phases.

  • 19.
    Ørum, Tania
    et al.
    Köpenhamns universitet.
    Olsson, JesperLinköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A cultural history of the Avant-Garde in the nordic countries 1950–19752016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Keshmiri, Vahid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsen, C.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Edman, L.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Current Supply with Single Organic Thin-Film Transistor for Charging Supercapacitors2016In: THIN FILM TRANSISTORS 13 (TFT 13), ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC , 2016, Vol. 75, no 10, 217-222 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a current supply, comprising a single organic thin-film transistor (OTFT), for the charging of supercapacitors. The current supply takes power from the electric grid (115 V AC, US standard), converts the AC voltage to a quasi-constant DC current (similar to 0.1 mA) regardless of the impedance of the load, and charges the supercapacitor. Solution-processed OTFTs based on the popular polymeric semiconductor poly(3-hexylthiophene- 2,5-diyl) have been developed to rectify the 115 V AC voltage. A diodeconfigured OTFT was used as a half-wave rectifier. The single OTFT current supply was demonstrated to charge a 220 mF supercapacitor to 1 V directly using 115 V AC voltage as the input. This work paves the road towards all-printable supercapacitor energy-storage systems with integrated chargers, which enable direct charging from a power outlet.

  • 21.
    Eriksson Barajas, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    A discursive reception study  of fiction2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the proposed paper is to increase the knowledge on fiction in use. A combination of reader reception studies (cf. Fish, 1980) and discursive psychology (Edwards & Potter, 1992), which I would like to call discursive reception studies (Eriksson & Aronsson, 2009): that is, a discursive-psychological analysis of reader-reception data is used in the paper. Such approach provides possibilities to analyse the role of social interaction in the co-construction of the experience of a film or a play (or the reading of a book). Drawing on detailed analyses of video-recorded pair or group conversations before, during and after the viewing of a stage play or a film, empirically-driven research questions will be addressed: f ex How is fiction used to create ourselves and position each other, to be seen as smart or well-informed, as being part of the cultural elite or as not high-brow? How is talk about fiction used to quarrel, flirt, tie bonds of friendship et cetera? To analyse talk about fiction as interaction makes it possible to understand the potential of action in interpretation of fiction contains, the participants in a conversation around a play or a film do not only report their reading of the piece, they also use their interpretation in social interaction. Hereby, it becomes possible to analyse how readings of fictive stories are created in social interaction and how they are used for different purposes. Hence, the knowledge on fictive characters becomes more dynamic.

    Data from conversations after seeing Shakespeare’s play Romeo & Juliette and films as One Day, Jane Eyre, Real Steel and Arrietty the Borrower is analysed in the paper.

  • 22.
    Peng, Zuosheng
    et al.
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Xia, Yuxin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. S China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Xiong, Kang
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Hu, Zhanhao
    S China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Ian James, David
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Chen, Junwu
    S China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    A dual ternary system for highly efficient ITO-free inverted polymer solar cells2015In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 3, no 36, 18365-18371 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, it has been found that a very fine nanostructure can be realized by mixing 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) - a high-boiling solvent into a binary chlorobenzene (CB) : 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) solvent mixture to form a ternary solvent system. An improvement in energy level alignment is also obtained by doping ICBA into a binary PTB7 : PCBM[70] blend, whereby the ternary solute system provides a new pathway for charge transfer from PTB7 to the PCBM[ 70] : ICBA alloy. This is confirmed by imaging the surface morphology of the active layer using AFM and TEM, monitoring the transient film formation process and measuring the charge transfer states with Fourier transform photocurrent spectroscopy. An encouraging PCE of 7.65% is achieved from the dual ternary system, which is the highest value ever reported for an ITO-free inverted polymer solar cell with a PEDOT:PSS layer as the top semitransparent electrode - a system which is compatible with low-cost large-area roll-to-roll manufacturing.

  • 23.
    ERASIN, BR
    et al.
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,BEDFORD MK43 0AL,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    WHEATLEY, AD
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,BEDFORD MK43 0AL,ENGLAND; .
    A FIXED-FILM BIOASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF MICROPOLLUTANTS TOXIC TO ANAEROBIC SLUDGES1994In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 298, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Micropollutants in waste water streams can be a serious problem for the anaerobic digestion process. A short-term acute bioassay system is described for testing the effects of new and potentially toxic compounds on anaerobic digestion processes. Change in methanogenic activity was used as the monitored process parameter and the performance of intoxicated inocula was compared to activity prior to adding test compounds and to the activity of a parallel control assay. The performance of the bioassay was tested with chlorinated solvents and heavy metals. Trichloroethane caused a 50% reduction in methanogenic activity at 7 mg/l assay. The performance of suspended and fixed biomass assays were compared; the suspended growth was found to be five times more sensitive to trichloroethane. There was no clear inhibition with the heavy metals even at the highest concentration used (up to 750 mg Cu/l). The duration of assay was found to be an important parameter in the evaluation of anaerobic toxicity.

  • 24.
    Turner, Anthony
    et al.
    Cranfield University, UK.
    and two more authors,
    A hexacyanoferrate film lactate biosensor1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Berggren, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A high sensitivity imaging detector for the study of the formation of (anti)hydrogen2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AEGIS (Antimatter Experiment, Gravity, Interferometry and Spectroscopy) isan experiment under development at CERN which will measure earth's gravitationalforce on antimatter. This will be done by creating a horizontal pulsedbeam of low energy antihydrogen, an atom consisting of an antiproton anda positron. The experiment will measure the vertical de ection of the beamthrough which it is possible to calculate the gravitational constant for antimatter.To characterise the production process in the current state of the experimentit is necessary to develop an imaging detector for single excited hydrogenatoms. This thesis covers the design phase of that detector and includes studiesand tests of detector components. Following literature studies, tests and havingdiscarded several potential designs, a baseline design was chosen. The suggesteddetector will contain a set of ionising rings followed by an electron multiplyingmicrochannel plate, a light emitting phosphor screen, a lens system and nallya CCD camera for readout. The detector will be able to detect single hydrogenatoms, measure their time of ight as well as being able to image electronplasmas and measure the time of ight of the initial particles in such a plasma.Tests were made to determine the behaviour of microchannel plates at the lowtemperatures used in the experiment. Especially, the resistance and multiplicationfactor of the microchannel plates have been measured at temperaturesdown to 14 K.

  • 26.
    Wofford, Joseph M.
    et al.
    Paul Drude Institute Festkorperelektron, Germany.
    Nakhaie, Siamak
    Paul Drude Institute Festkorperelektron, Germany.
    Krause, Thilo
    Paul Drude Institute Festkorperelektron, Germany.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ramsteiner, Manfred
    Paul Drude Institute Festkorperelektron, Germany.
    Hanke, Michael
    Paul Drude Institute Festkorperelektron, Germany.
    Riechert, Henning
    Paul Drude Institute Festkorperelektron, Germany.
    Lopes, J. Marcelo J.
    Paul Drude Institute Festkorperelektron, Germany.
    A hybrid MBE-based growth method for large-area synthesis of stacked hexagonal boron nitride/graphene heterostructures2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 43644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Van der Waals heterostructures combining hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene offer many potential advantages, but remain difficult to produce as continuous films over large areas. In particular, the growth of h-BN on graphene has proven to be challenging due to the inertness of the graphene surface. Here we exploit a scalable molecular beam epitaxy based method to allow both the h-BN and graphene to form in a stacked heterostructure in the favorable growth environment provided by a Ni(111) substrate. This involves first saturating a Ni film on MgO(111) with C, growing h-BN on the exposed metal surface, and precipitating the C back to the h-BN/Ni interface to form graphene. The resulting laterally continuous heterostructure is composed of a top layer of few-layer thick h-BN on an intermediate few-layer thick graphene, lying on top of Ni/MgO(111). Examinations by synchrotronbased grazing incidence diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and UV-Raman spectroscopy reveal that while the h-BN is relaxed, the lattice constant of graphene is significantly reduced, likely due to nitrogen doping. These results illustrate a different pathway for the production of h-BN/graphene heterostructures, and open a new perspective for the large-area preparation of heterosystems combining graphene and other 2D or 3D materials.

  • 27.
    Meshkian, Rahele
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ingason, Arni Sigurdur
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arnalds, U. B.
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Magnus, F.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A magnetic atomic laminate from thin film synthesis: (Mo0.5Mn0.5)2GaC2015In: APL MATERIALS, ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 3, no 7, 076102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present synthesis and characterization of a new magnetic atomic laminate: (Mo0.5Mn0.5)(2)GaC. High quality crystalline films were synthesized on MgO(111) substrates at a temperature of similar to 530 degrees C. The films display a magnetic response, evaluated by vibrating sample magnetometry, in a temperature range 3-300 K and in a field up to 5 T. The response ranges from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic with change in temperature, with an acquired 5T-moment and remanent moment at 3 K of 0.66 and 0.35 mu(B) per metal atom (Mo and Mn), respectively. The remanent moment and the coercive field (0.06 T) exceed all values reported to date for the family of magnetic laminates based on so called MAX phases.

  • 28.
    Stahling, S
    et al.
    SKL, Natl Lab Forens Sci, S-58194 Linkoping, Sweden Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, T
    A method for collection of gunshot residues from skin and other surfaces2000In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 45, no 6, 1299-1302 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method of collecting gunshot residues from the skin of persons who have been injured by firearms has been developed. The method uses a commercially available, adhesive, transparent plastic film. This method is also useful for collecting gunshot residues from other objects, such as leather. The shooting distance is later estimated by ocular, microscopic or IR examination in combination with various chemographic tests.

  • 29.
    Nadali Najafabadi, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utriainen, Esa
    Kinell, Mats
    Loyd, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Modified Correlation for Film Effectiveness Prediction of Cylindrical Holes at the Suction Side of A turbine Guide Vane2011In: Proceedings of the 6th Baltic Heat Transfer Conference, Tampere Convention Bureau , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Mantovani Nardes, Alexandre
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Janssen, Rene A. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    A morphological model for the solvent-enhanced conductivity of PEDOT : PSS thin films2008In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 18, no 6, 865-871 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The well-known enhanced conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films that is obtained by addition of high-boiling solvents like sorbitol to the aqueous dispersion used for film deposition is shown to be associated with a rearrangement of PEDOT-rich clusters into elongated domains, as evidenced from STM and AFM. Consistently, temperature dependent conductivity measurements for sorbitol-treated films reveal that charge transport occurs via quasi ID variable range hopping (VRH), in contrast to 3D VRH for untreated PEDOT:PSS films. The typical hopping distance of 60-90 nm, extracted from the conductivity measurements is consistent with hopping between the 30-40 nm sized grains observed with scanning probe microscopy.

  • 31.
    Tlostanova, Madina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A museum between heaven and earth2017In: Taus Makhacheva. Tightrope / [ed] Vladislav Shapovalov, Milano: Mousse Publishing , 2017, 1, 75-96 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Published to document a project by the Dagestani artist Taus Makhacheva that consists of the film Tightrope and the series of performances On the Benefits of Pyramids in Cultural Education, Strengthening of National Consciousness, and the Formation of Moral and Ethical Guideposts, this book is built around a dialogue between Makhacheva and the protagonist of her film, the tightrope walker Rasul Abakarov. The publication offers insight into the artist’s practice and elaborates on the topics she tackles in her works. The interplay between the histories of art and the narratives that structure one’s identity are further examined in the contributions by curator Bart De Baere, decolonial theorist Madina Tlostanova, and archivist Sabih Ahmed.

  • 32.
    Ingason, Arni Sigurdur
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mockute, Aurelija
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnus, F.
    Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Olafsson, S.
    Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Arnalds, U.
    Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Box 530, S-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjorvarsson, B.
    Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O Å
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Nanolaminated Magnetic Phase: Mn2GaC2014In: Materials Research Letters, ISSN 2166-3831, Vol. 2, no 2, 89-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Layered magnetic materials are fascinating from the point of view of fundamental science as well as applications. Discoveries such as giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in magnetic multilayers have revolutionized data storage and magnetic recording, and concurrently initiated the search for new layered magnetic materials. One group of inherently nanolaminated compounds are the so called Mn+1AXn (MAX) phases. Due to the large number of isostructural compositions, researchers are exploring the wide range of interesting properties, and not primarily functionalization through optimization of structural quality. Magnetic MAX phases have been discussed in the literature, though this is hitherto an unreported phenomenon. However, such materials would be highly interesting, based on the attractive and useful properties attained with layered magnetic materials to date. Here we present a new MAX phase, (Cr1–xMnx)2GeC, synthesized as thin film in heteroepitaxial form, showing single crystal material with unprecedented structural MAX phase quality. The material was identified using first-principles calculations to study stability of hypothetical MAX phases, in an eort to identify a potentially magnetic material. The theory predicts a variety of magnetic behavior depending on the Mn concentration and Cr/Mn atomic conguration within the sublattice. The analyzed thin films display a magnetic signal well above room temperature and with partly ferromagnetic ordering. These very promising results open up a field of new layered magnetic materials, with high potential for electronics and spintronics applications.

  • 33.
    Ederth, Thomas
    et al.
    Phys and Theoret Chem Lab, Oxford OX1 3QZ, England.
    Thomas, R K
    Phys and Theoret Chem Lab, Oxford OX1 3QZ, England; .
    A neutron reflectivity study of drainage and stratification of AOT foam films2003In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 19, no 19, 7727-7733 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural properties of Aerosol-OT (AOT) foam films were studied by neutron reflectometry. The drainage of large (10 cm(2)), horizontally oriented AOT films under zero applied external pressure is slow and proceeds from thick colored or gray films to black films of approximately 200 Angstrom thickness over many hours, resulting in quasi-static conditions over the time scales required for the acquisition of reflectivity profiles throughout the whole drainage process. After formation of the foam film-while still showing colored interference fringes-and during the early stages of thinning, the appearance of Bragg diffraction peaks demonstrates that the film contains multilamellar structure, in agreement with studies at free air/water interfaces. Upon further reduction of the film thickness, below approximately 250 Angstrom, the reflectivity profile is well fitted by a three-layer slab model with two surfactant layers and an aqueous core with a high surfactant content. The composition of the aqueous core and the manner in which the reflectivity during the latter stages of draining evolves from Bragg peaks to a Kiessig fringe structure indicate stratification within the thin foam film.

  • 34.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A new method for in-situ measurement of nano-friction and nano-wear of thin films by using the Triboindenter TI-9502014In: Nanobrucken 2014, Saarbrucken, Germany: INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials , 2014, 24- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Triboindenter present many advantages for the measurement of friction and wear at the nanoscale. A reciprocating multi-cycle linear test can be programmed, from where it is possible to obtain simultaneously the friction force and wear rate from the lateral force and vertical displacement sensors, respectively. The friction values have high precision but the wear data is usually wrong in long duration tests because the drift rate is only measured just before the test start. Alternatively, one can program the SPM scanning mode of the instrument with a high load in order to produce the wear of the surface. At the end of the experiment, a squared hole is produced which can be measured using the SPM facility of the system. However, this wear experiment does not allow the simultaneous measurement of the friction coefficient.In this talk I will present a new methodology to measure in-situ the friction and wear of thin films using a Triboindenter TI-950 from Hysitron. I will show how the possible changes of drift rate during long-time tests can be overcome, obtaining simultaneous precise values of friction and wear rate as a function of time. I will discuss how the Triboimage® software can be adapted to this methodology in order to get realistic values of friction and wear. Finally I will show some results for soft (H < 1GPa) Pb films and very hard (H ~ 35 GPa) nitride coatings

  • 35.
    Mikhelashvili, V.
    et al.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    Meyler, B.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    Yofis, S.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    Salzman, J.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cohen-Hyams, T.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    Kaplan, W. D.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    Eisenstein, G.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    A Nonvolatile Memory Capacitor Based on a Double Gold Nanocrystal Storing Layer and High-k Dielectric Tunneling and Control Layers2010In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 157, no 4, H463-H469 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a metal-insulator-semiconductor nonvolatile memory capacitor based on two gold nanoparticle charge storage layers, two HfO(2) layers, and a multilayer HfNO/HfTiO stack. The device exhibits an equivalent oxide thickness of 7.3 nm, a hysteresis of 15 V at a gate voltage of +11 to -8 V, and a storage charge density of 2.75x10(13) cm(-2). A leakage of 3.6x10(-5) A/cm(2) at -10 V, a breakdown voltage of 13.3 V, and good retention properties with a hysteresis window of 10 V following more than 10 h of consecutive write/erase operations with a +/- 7 V swing were demonstrated. The capacitor characteristics are frequency-independent in the 10 kHz-1 MHz range.

  • 36.
    Mikhelashvili, V.
    et al.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    Meyler, B.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    Yoffis, S.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    Salzman, J.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cohen-Hyams, T.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    Kaplan, W. D.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    Eisenstein, G.
    Technion Israel Institute Technology, Israel.
    A nonvolatile memory capacitor based on Au nanocrystals with HfO2 tunneling and blocking layers2009In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 95, no 2, 023104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a nonvolatile memory capacitor based on gold nanocrystals serving as charge storage elements located between two HfO2 films acting as the tunneling and control layers. The capacitor has an equivalent oxide thicknesses of 7 nm and exhibits a large hysteresis in the C-V characteristics of 1 and 9 V for gate voltage sweeps of +/- 1 and +/- 7 V, respectively, with no frequency dependence in the range of 10 kHz to 1 MHz. The storage charge density is similar to 1.2x10(13) cm(-2) and the flat band voltage shift is stable for write/erases operations with a voltage swing of +/- 5 V for over 18 h.

  • 37.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aijaz, Asim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A novel high-power pulse PECVD method2012In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 206, no 22, 4562-4566 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) technique has been developed in order to combine energetic particle bombardment and high plasma densities found in ionized PVD with the advantages from PECVD such as a high deposition rate and the capability to coat complex and porous surfaces. In this PECVD method, an ionized plasma is generated above the substrate by means of a hollow cathode discharge. The hollow cathode is known to generate a highly ionized plasma and the discharge can be sustained in direct current (DC) mode, or in high-power pulsed (HiPP) mode using short pulses of a few tens of microsecond. The latter option is similar to the power scheme used in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), which is known to generate a high degree of ionization of the sputtered material, and thus providing new and added means for the synthesis of tailor-made thin films. In this work amorphous carbon coatings containing copper, have been deposited using both HiPP and DC operating conditions. Investigations of the bulk plasma using optical emission spectroscopy verify the presence of Ar+, C+ as well as Cu+ when running in pulsed mode. Deposition rates in the range 30 mu m/h have been obtained and the amorphous, copper containing carbon films have a low hydrogen content of 4- 5 at%. Furthermore, the results presented here suggest that a more efficient PECVD process is obtained by using a superposition of HiPP and DC mode, compared to using only DC mode at the same average input power.

  • 38.
    Khan, Azam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A novel investigation on carbon nanotube/ZnO, Ag/ZnO and Ag/carbon nanotube/ZnO nanowires junctions for harvesting piezoelectric potential on textile2014In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 116, no 3, 034505- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, three junctions were fabricated on textile fabric as an alternative substrate for harvesting piezoelectric potential. First junction was formed on ordinary textile as (textile/multi-walled carbon nanotube film/zinc oxide nanowires (S1: T/CNTs/ZnO NWs)) and the other two were formed on conductive textile with the following layer sequence: conductive textile/zinc oxide nanowires (S2: CT/ZnO NWs) and conductive textile/multi-walled carbon nanotubes film/zinc oxide nanowires (S3: CT/CNTs/ZnO NWs). Piezoelectric potential was harvested by using atomic force microscopy in contact mode for the comparative analysis of the generated piezoelectric potential. ZnO NWs were synthesized by using the aqueous chemical growth method. Surface analysis of the grown nanostructures was performed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The growth orientation and crystalline size were studied by using X-ray diffraction technique. This study reveals that textile as an alternative substrate have many features like cost effective, highly flexible, nontoxic, light weight, soft, recyclable, reproducible, portable, wearable, and washable for nanogenerators fabrication with acceptable performance and with a wide choice of modification for obtaining large amount of piezoelectric potential.

  • 39.
    Broitman, Esteban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Becker, Richard
    Studsvik Nuclear AB.
    Dozaki, Koji
    The Japan Atomic Power Company.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Novel Oxide Characterization Method of Nickel Base Alloy 600 Used in Nuclear Plant Reactors2013In: / [ed] F. Marquis, Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2013, 415- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Alloy 600 is a polycrystalline nickel base alloy used in pressurized water reactors (PWR) of nuclear power plants. Long term exposure of the alloy to primary water of PWR generates an oxide film that strongly influences the stress corrosion cracking behavior of the alloy. Recently, it has been shown that the oxide film structure, composition and thickness depend on the dissolved hydrogen content in the primary water. In this work we have explored a novel approach which enables a high spatial resolution oxide thickness measurement by nanomechanical testing. Oxide films have been grown on Alloy 600 specimens exposed between 5000 and 35000 hours at 320-330°C with hydrogen levels in the range 5 to 25 mL H2/kg H2O. A Triboindenter TI-950 from Hysitron was used to measure the change of nanomechanical properties in polished cross-sections. The increase of hardness has been correlated to the presence of oxides.

  • 40.
    Midbjer, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    A NOx sensor for high-temperature applications based on SiC2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new NOx sensor for high-temperature applications has been developed and thouroghly characterised. The sensor layers are a mixed oxide of CoO, MgO and MgO2 deposited by thermal evaporation with a porous platinum gate on top, deposited by thermal evaporation or sputtering. The sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor is promising and is shown to depend upon the ratio between Co and Mg in the film and a number of competing mechanisms are shown to take place on the sensor surface. Response and recovery of the device is still slow and there are some drift, which are suggested to be due to a restructuring sensor surface during operation that was found by SEM-studies. Finally,the oxide surface has been characterized by XPS and a novel process for deposition of the sensor layers by lift-off technique has been developed.

  • 41.
    Wijk, Linda
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Edelbring, Samuel
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svensson, Anna-Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karlgren, Klas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Fors, Uno GH
    Karolinska Institutet.
    A pilot for a computer-based simulation system for risk estimation and treatment of mentally disordered offenders.2009In: Informatics for Health and Social Care, ISSN 1753-8157, E-ISSN 1753-8165, Vol. 34, no 2, 106-115 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk/need analysis and treatment of mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) take place in constrained clinical settings, but violence has to be considered in a context where both social and cultural factors are of significance. One way to improve treatment and risk/need analysis of MDOs could be to develop simulation systems where users interact with video-based scenarios. The objective of this study was to develop and pilot test a simulation system to be used as a tool to study MDOs and possibly also to play a part in their rehabilitation. Collaboration between simulation and forensic psychiatry experts and a professional film team was set up. A simulation system called 'Reactions on Display' (RoD) was developed and a pilot study with eight patients and 13 staff members was carried out. Results from the study showed that RoD's interface and design were well received by patients and staff. Participants indicated that they found the video sequences realistic and the system enjoyable to use. The pilot study of RoD was positive, but further research should study possible clinical outcomes of the system. However, we believe that RoD could provide an advance in treatment and risk/need analysis of MDOs.

  • 42.
    Granlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Theander, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, M
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Ruzeckas, A
    Lunds universitet.
    Sundström, V
    Lunds universitet.
    Björk, G
    KTH.
    Granström, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A polythiophene microcavity laser1998In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 288, no 5-6, 879-884 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report photopumped lasing in a microcavity device with a polythiophene layer as the emitter. These microcavity devices are built by joining two polymer coated dielectric mirrors at elevated temperature. When photopumping the film, a lasing threshold is observed at 120 nJ/cm(2). Comparative studies with fast pump-probe spectroscopy of thin polythiophene films and the same polymer in photopumped lasing studies, indicate that the gain coefficient is 80 +/- 20 cm(-1), and that the exciton concentration is 2 X 10(17) cm(-3) at the lasing transition, well below the exciton-exciton recombination level. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Bergström, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Proof-of-Concept Implementation of a Non-linear Video Player for HTTP-based Adaptive Streaming2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Video consumption on the Internet has been growing over the last decade and is expected to continue to increase. Video streaming is a widely used approach to viewing video on the Internet, which allows users to watch the video while it is being downloaded. Adaptive streaming is a video streaming technique that allows the player to change the downloading video’s bit rate depending on the user’s available bandwidth.

    Another approach to a more personal viewing experience is non-linear videos. These videos can be played in a non-sequential order. For example, a viewer can be given the choice of what ending to watch in a movie, or the path through an exhibition.

    This thesis will present the design and implementation of a novel structure for non-linear video. This structure is used by a video player for downloading and viewing an adaptive video intended for non-linear viewing, stored at some server. Media creators will also have an easier time to both visualize and create uniform video experiences.

    This thesis presents modifications to Adobe’s Open Source Media Framework and Strobe Media Playback which allow playing non-linear video. Presented in this thesis are the design and implementation details. Changes in the player include a user interface for non-linear media. The changes to the back-end include buffer management for parallel downloading and techniques to handle the new structure.

    Finally, this thesis presents proof-of-concept validation tests that show the functionality of the design and implementation. The thesis is concluded with a discussion of future work in this area.

  • 44.
    Svärd, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A readout IC for an uncooled microbolometer infrared FPA with on-chip self-heating compensation in 0.35 mu m CMOS2013In: Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, ISSN 0925-1030, E-ISSN 1573-1979, Vol. 77, no 1, 29-44 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a readout integrated circuit architecture for an infrared focal plane array intended for infrared network-attached video cameras in surveillance applications. The focal plane array consists of 352 x 288 uncooled thin-film microbolometer detectors with a pitch of 25 mu m, enabling ambient temperature operation. The circuit features a low-noise readout path, detector resistance mismatch correction and a non-linear ramped current pulse scheme for the electrical biasing of the detectors in order to relax the dynamic range requirement of amplifiers and the ADC in the readout channel, imposed by detector process variation and self-heating during readout. The design is implemented in a 0.35-mu m standard CMOS process and two versions of a smaller 32 x 32-pixel test chip have been fabricated and measured for evaluation. The latest test chip achieves a dynamic range of 97 dB and an input-referred RMS noise voltage of 6.4 mu V yielding an estimated NETD value of 26 mK with f/1 optics. At a frame rate of 60 FPS the chip dissipates 170 mW of power from a 3.4 V supply.

  • 45.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bolz, S.
    CemeCon AG, Germany.
    Koelker, W.
    CemeCon AG, Germany.
    Schiffers, Ch.
    CemeCon AG, Germany.
    Lemmer, O.
    CemeCon AG, Germany.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A review of metal-ion-flux-controlled growth of metastable TiAlN by HIPIMS/DCMS co-sputtering2014In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 257, 15-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review results on the growth of metastable Ti1-xAlxN alloy films by hybrid high-power pulsed and dc magnetron co-sputtering (HIPIMS/DCMS) using the time domain to apply substrate bias either in synchronous with the entire HIPIMS pulse or just the metal-rich portion of the pulse in mixed Ar/N-2 discharges. Depending upon which elemental target, Ti or Al, is powered by HIPIMS, distinctly different film-growth kinetic pathways are observed due to charge and mass differences in the metal-ion fluxes incident at the growth surface. Al+ ion irradiation during Al-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS at 500 degrees C, with a negative substrate bias V-s = 60 V synchronized to the HIPIMS pulse (thus suppressing Ar+ ion irradiation due to DCMS), leads to single-phase NaCl-structure Ti1-xAlxN films (x less than= 0.60) with high hardness (greater than30 GPa with x greater than 0.55) and low stress (0.2-0.8 GPa compressive). Ar+ ion bombardment can be further suppressed in favor of predominantly Al+ ion irradiation by synchronizing the substrate bias to only the metal-ion-rich portion of the Al-HIPIMS pulse. In distinct contrast Ti-HIPIMS/Al-DCMSTi1-xAlxN layers grown with Ti+/Ti2+ metal ion irradiation and the same HIPIMS-synchronized V-s value, are two-phase mixtures, NaCl-structure Ti1-xAlxN plus wurtzite AlN, exhibiting low hardness (similar or equal to 18 GPa) with high compressive stresses, up to -3.5 GPa. In both cases, film properties are controlled by the average metal-ion momentum per deposited atom less thanp(d)greater than transferred to the film surface. During Ti-HIPIMS, the growing film is subjected to an intense flux of doubly-ionized Ti2+, while Al2+ irradiation is insignificant during Al-HIPIMS. This asymmetry is decisive since the critical less thanp(d)greater than limit for precipitation of w-AlN, 135 [eV-amu](1/2), is easily exceeded during Ti-HIPIMS, even with no intentional bias. The high Ti2+ ion flux is primarily due to the second ionization potential (IP2) of Ti being lower than the first IP (IP1) of Ar. New results involving the HIPIMS growth of metastable Ti1-xAlxN alloy films from segmented TiAl targets are consistent with the above conclusions.

  • 46. Liu, Yuwen
    et al.
    Gan, Lisha
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Ophthalmology.
    Carlsson, David J
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Ophthalmology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL.
    Lagali, Neil
    University of Ottawa.
    Watsky, Mitchell A
    Munger, Rejean
    Hodge, William G
    Priest, David
    Griffith, May
    A simple, cross-linked collagen tissue substitute for corneal implantation2006In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 47, no 5, 1869-1875 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. To develop a simple corneal substitute from crosslinked collagen. METHODS. Porcine type I collagen (10%, pH 5), was mixed with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). The final homogenous solution was molded to corneal dimensions, cured, and then implanted into rabbits and minipigs by lamellar keratoplasty. The implants were followed for up to 6 months after surgery. Clinical examinations of the cornea included detailed slit lamp biomicroscopy, in vivo confocal microscopy, topography and esthesiometry for nerve function. Histopathologic examinations were also performed on rabbit corneas harvested after 6 months. RESULTS. Cross-linked collagen (refractive index, 1.35) had optical clarity superior to human corneas. Implanted into rabbit and porcine corneas, only 1 of 24 of the surgical corneas showed a slight haze at 6 months after surgery. All other implants showed no adverse reactions and remained optically clear. Topography showed a smooth surface and a profile similar to that of the contralateral nonsurgical eye. The implanted matrices promoted regeneration of corneal cells, tear film, and nerves. Touch sensitivity was restored, indicating some restoration of function. The corneas with implants showed no significant loss of thickness and demonstrated stable host- graft integration. CONCLUSIONS. Collagen can be adequately stabilized, using water soluble carbodiimides as protein cross-linking reagents, in the fabrication of corneal matrix substitutes for implantation. The simple cross-linking methodology would allow for easy fabrication of matrices for transplantation in centers where there is a shortage of corneas, or where there is need for temporary patches to repair perforations in emergency situations. Copyright © Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.

  • 47.
    Persson, P.O.A.
    et al.
    Persson, P.O.Å., School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Rosen, Johanna
    School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    McKenzie, D.R.
    School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Bilek, M.M.M.
    School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    A solid phase reaction between Ti Cx thin films and Al2 O3 substrates2008In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 103, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti Cx thin films were deposited on Al2 O3 substrates at 900 °C by using a multiple cathode high current pulsed cathodic arc. The Ti:C pulse ratio and, hence, the composition was varied from C rich to Ti rich. It is found that the Al2 O3 substrate is decomposed and reacts with the Ti Cx film to incorporate significant amounts of O and Al in the growing film. When the stoichiometry is suitable, epitaxially oriented Ti2 AlC MAX phase with significant O incorporated is formed. The results indicate that Al2 O3 is not an ideal substrate material for the growth of transition metal carbides and MAX phase thin films. © 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  • 48.
    Vicente, Antonio T.
    et al.
    University of Nova Lisboa, Portugal; CEMOP UNINOVA, Portugal.
    Wojcik, Pawel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Nova Lisboa, Portugal; CEMOP UNINOVA, Portugal.
    Mendes, Manuel J.
    University of Nova Lisboa, Portugal; CEMOP UNINOVA, Portugal.
    Aguas, Hugo
    University of Nova Lisboa, Portugal; CEMOP UNINOVA, Portugal.
    Fortunato, Elvira
    University of Nova Lisboa, Portugal; CEMOP UNINOVA, Portugal.
    Martins, Rodrigo
    University of Nova Lisboa, Portugal; CEMOP UNINOVA, Portugal.
    A statistics modeling approach for the optimization of thin film photovoltaic devices2017In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 144, 232-243 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing interest in exploring thin film technologies to produce low cost devices such as n-i-p silicon solar cells, with outstanding performances and capability to address the highly relevant energy market, turns the optimization of their fabrication process a key area of development. The usual one-dimensional analysis of the involved parameters makes it difficult and time consuming to find the optimal set of conditions. To overcome these difficulties, the combination of experimental design and statistical analysis provides the tools to explore in a multidimensional fashion the interactions between fabrication parameters and expected experimental outputs. Design of Experiment and Multivariate Analysis are demonstrated here for the optimization of: (1) the low temperature deposition (150 degrees C) of high quality intrinsic amorphous silicon (i-a-Si:H); and (2) the matching of the n-, i-, and p-silicon layers thickness to maximize the efficiency of thin film solar cells. The multiple regression method applied, validated through analysis of variance and evaluated against exact numerical simulations, is shown to predict the overall intrinsic layer properties and the devices performance. The results confirm that experimental design and statistical data analysis are effective approaches to improve, within a minimum time frame and high certainty, the properties of silicon thin films, and subsequently the layer structure of solar cells.(C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 49. McVey, Graham
    et al.
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Dance, David
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    A study and optimization of lumbar spine X-ray imaging systems2003In: British Journal of Radiology, ISSN 0007-1285, E-ISSN 1748-880X, Vol. 76, no 903, 177-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Monte Carlo program has been developed that incorporates a voxel phantom of an adult patient in a model of the complete X-ray imaging system, including the anti-scatter grid and screen-film receptor. This allows the realistic estimation of patient dose and the corresponding image (optical density map) for a wide range of equipment configurations. This paper focuses on the application of the program to lumbar spine anteroposterior and lateral screen-film examinations. The program has been applied to study the variation of physical image quality measures and effective dose for changing system parameters such as tube voltage, grid design and screen-film system speed. These variations form the basis for optimization of these system parameters. In our approach to optimization, the best systems are those that can match (or come close to) the calculated image quality measure of systems preferred in a recent European clinical trial, but with lower patient dose. The largest dose savings found were 21% for a 400 speed class system with a grid having a strip density of 40 cm-1 and a grid ratio of 16. A further dose saving of 13% was possible when a 600 speed class system was employed. The best systems found from the optimization correspond to those recommended by the European Commission guidelines on image quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images.

  • 50.
    Zhu, Baiwei
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jarfors, Anders E. W.
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    Jonköping University, Sweden; SP Technical Research Institute Sweden, Sweden.
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    A study of formation and growth of the anodised surface layer on cast Al-Si alloys based on different analytical techniques2016In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 101, 254-262 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to investigate the mechanisms of formation and growth of the anodised surface layer on Al-Si castings by applying different analytical techniques such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and X-ray computer tomography (X-ray CT) scanning. Three different Al alloys with various Si content (2.43%, 3.53% and 5.45%) were investigated. Si particle morphological modification by Sr addition, as well as directional solidification, was used to vary the microstructural coarseness in a controlled manner to study the influence of these parameters on the growth behaviour of the oxide layer. This study observed residual unanodised Al phases trapped beneath or between Si particles in the oxide layer. It was found, depending on the geometry and morphology of Si particles, that Al can be shielded by Si particles and prevented from oxidising. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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