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  • 1.
    Schmiterlöw, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Autonomous Path Following Using Convolutional Networks2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles have many application possibilities within many different fields like rescue missions, exploring foreign environments or unmanned vehicles etc. For such system to navigate in a safe manner, high requirements of reliability and security must be fulfilled.

    This master's thesis explores the possibility to use the machine learning algorithm convolutional network on a robotic platform for autonomous path following. The only input to predict the steering signal is a monochromatic image taken by a camera mounted on the robotic car pointing in the steering direction. The convolutional network will learn from demonstrations in a supervised manner.

    In this thesis three different preprocessing options are evaluated. The evaluation is based on the quadratic error and the number of correctly predicted classes. The results show that the convolutional network has no problem of learning a correct behaviour and scores good result when evaluated on similar data that it has been trained on. The results also show that the preprocessing options are not enough to ensure that the system is environment dependent.

  • 2.
    Ferguson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Ukkonen, Merja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Adopting Open Innovation: A New Framework for the Analysis of the Open Innovation Adoption Process2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The term Open Innovation describes a phenomenon where organizations are no longer solely relying on internal R&D to innovate technologies that they then would bring to market. Instead, firms are looking outside for ideas or working with other organizations to develop technologies in order to capitalize on efficiencies of existing knowledge, reduce investment risks and increase speed to market. We identified a need to analyze the existing open innovation adoption frameworks in order to track similarities and differences so that we could create a new framework which is more comprehensive.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to create a framework for the analysis of the open innovation adoption process which is based on organizational change and other relevant streams of research. In order to do this we were to find answers to the following research questions:

    1) How can organizational change theory be used to analyze the movement from a closed to open innovation strategy?

    2) In addition to organizational change theory, which research streams should be considered when analyzing the open innovation adoption process?

    3) To what extent does our new framework provide an adequate foundation for analyzing the open innovation adoption process at SCA Hygiene Products?

    Results: Our new framework is meant for the analysis of open innovation adoption process. The framework helps researchers to analyze how different organizations have adopted open innovation based on the four research streams that we have analyzed. Our framework includes aspects of organizational change theory, knowledge management, networks and managerial roles.

    Key Words: open innovation adoption, organizational change, knowledge management, networks, SCA

  • 3.
    Aria, Erfan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigation of automated vehicle effects on driver’s behavior and traffic performance2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) offer the possibility of helping drivers to fulfill their driving tasks. Automated vehicles are capable of communicating with surrounding vehicles (V2V) and infrastructure (V2I) in order to collect and provide essential information about driving environment. Studies have proved that automated vehicles have a potential to decrease traffic congestion on road networks by reducing the time headway, enhancing the traffic capacity and improving the safety margins in car following. Furthermore, vehicle movement and driver’s behavior of conventional vehicles will be affected by the presence of automated vehicles in traffic networks. Despite different encouraging factors, automated driving raises some concerns such as possible loss of situation awareness, overreliance on automation and degrading driving skills in absence of practice. Moreover, coping with complex scenarios, such as merging at ramps and overtaking, in terms of interaction between automated vehicles and conventional vehicles need more research. This thesis work aims to investigate the effects of automated vehicles on driver’s behavior and traffic performance. A broad literature review in the area of driving simulators and psychological studies was performed to examine the automated vehicle effects on driver’s behavior. Findings from the literature survey, which has been served as setup values in the simulation study of the current work, reveal that the conventional vehicles, which are driving close to the platoon of automated vehicles with short time headway, tend to reduce their time headway and spend more time under their critical time headway. Additionally, driving highly automated vehicles is tedious in a long run, reduce situation awareness and can intensify driver drowsiness, exclusively in light traffic. In order to investigate the influences of automated vehicles on traffic performance, a microscopic simulation case study consisting of different penetration rates of automated vehicles (0, 50 and 100 percentages) was conducted in VISSIM software. The scenario network is a three-lane autobahn segment of 2.9 kilometers including an off-ramp, on-ramp and a roundabout with some surrounding urban roads. Outputs of the microscopic simulation in this study reveal that the positive effects of automated vehicles on roads are especially highlighted when the network is crowded (e.g. peak hours). This can definitely count as a constructive point for the future of road networks with higher demands. In details, average density of autobahn segment remarkably decreased by 8.09% during p.m. peak hours in scenario with automated vehicles. Besides, Smoother traffic flow with less queue in the weaving segment was observed. Result of the scenario with 50% share of automated vehicles moreover shows a feasible interaction between conventional vehicles and automated vehicles. Meaningful outputs of this case study, based on the input data from literature review, demonstrate the capability of VISSIM software to simulate the presence of automated vehicles in great extent, not only as an automated vehicle scenario but also a share of them, in traffic network. The validity of the output values nonetheless needs future research work on urban and rural roads with different traffic conditions.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities.
    Bildhuggaren, soldaten, och modern: Ivar Johnssons ”Arbete och livsbejakelse” (1939)2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay has touched Ivar Johnson's works "Arbete och livsbejakelse" (1939) which are placed on the facade of Östergötlands museum. The purpose of this thesis is to describe the history about the origin of the artwork and examine its relationship to the working-class themes and ideology. The history about the origin of the artwork has been written by a narrative review of protocol, from the comittee of museum building and the contemporary press. For the survey of the work's content and motives image, an analysis has been made based on Erwin Panofsky and Jan-Gunnar Sjölins methods. A discussion is made after the analysis and the results show that one can see the ideological tendencies in the work and that the motives can be seen following the work themes. 

  • 5.
    Steen Lagerstam, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship.
    Expansion av e-handelsverksamhet i detaljhandeln: En studie om utmaningar och framgångsfaktorer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has become a central part of the modern society and has change our everyday life in many ways. An area that’s been strongly affected by this development is the Swedish retail e-commerce market. E-commerce sales have increased six-fold over the course of the past decade and forecasts indicate that this expansive trend will continue. This trend places significant challenges on Swedish retail companies who have a legacy of exclusively carrying out their sales in the traditional brick and mortar format. The subject of this study was originally proposed by the Swedish retail company Företag X[1], who have decided to embark on their e-commerce initiative in early 2016. Företag X asked the author of this report to help with finding out what it takes to develop a small e-commerce store, in such a way that it becomes a successful part of the company, contributing to the company’s overall profitability. The purpose of this study is therefore to identify practices and methods that enable successful expansion of e-commerce for medium-sized, Swedish retail companies.

    In order to achieve the purpose, a qualitative multi-case study design was chosen for the study. Information for the theoretical framework was collected from articles in scientific journals and books, and supplemented with secondary empirical data in the form of reports from companies. Qualitative primary data were then collected from interviews with three chosen companies, which were found with through a small cross-sectional study of 20 competitors to Företag X where their EBITDA margins over the past five years were studied.

    The study results showed an expansive trend on the Swedish retail e-commerce market, and it seems that this trend is set to continue over the next decade. As a consequence, market climate is changing and shifting towards becoming more digitalized, which requires companies to review their sales organizations. The main trend in the market is called “omni-channel retailing" and means that a company is integrating its brick and mortar and e-commerce sales to enable a seamless shopping experience for the customer. This trend has emerged as a response to a new buying patterns observed among customers, who move between their digital and physical sales channels during the purchase.

    The study indicates that the e-commerce-related issues that are most important to address and work with are in the following areas:

    • Customer Focus
      • IT
      • Customer relations
      • Responsiveness to customers
    • Cost effectiveness
      • Supply chain and logistics
      • Strategy and governance
    • Resistance Management
      • Education
      • Synchronization between brick and mortar stores and e-commerce store

    This study represents the author’s master’s thesis in the Industrial Engineering and Management program at Linköping University, Sweden.

    [1] Företag X are known by a different name, but have asked to remain anonymous in this study

  • 6.
    Tipping-Ball, Bethany-Alicia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Everyday Life on Planet Jedward: Thinking of John and Edward Grimes.  On Everyday Life as a Jedward fan.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Identical twins John and Edward Grimes (artist name "Jedward") have been active for six years and have a heterogeneous following of fans. This thesis aims to investigate how and in which situations fans think about Jedward as part of their everyday life. Each of the three informants, plus the author, kept diaries recording the above for the course of one week. The diaries were subsequently coded into the groups Traditional Fandom, Social Media, Music, Places, Family & Friends, Interests & Hobbies, Studies, Film & TV and Food & Drink respectively. Auto-ethnographic method was implemented and combined with work within the spheres of fandom and music. At a later date informants were asked if there are any products or causes that they associate with John and Edward; in lieu of comprehensive answers, the author compiled such a list. For the fours fans taking part, John and Edward are experienced as being close to them in many different situations during their day-to-day lives, in much the same way as a close friend or loved one. The conclusion is that through aiming to portray my own interpretation of fandom, it has been possible to see just how creative and imaginative fans are, an enlightening reflection contrary to those which in many cases have been none too positive.

  • 7.
    Haji Modiri, Shima
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Impacts of Living and Working Conditions on the Health of Immigrants: A Comparative Study on Asylum-Seekers in Germany and the Netherlands2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last several decades, many people, fleeing from disasters or political threats, have applied for asylum in the European countries. Council Directive 2003/9/EC, laying down minimum standards for the reception of asylum-seekers, as well as several other directives, have been developed in the EU in order to ensure fair treatment of the asylum-seekers in all the European countries. However, there are huge differences in the national asylum laws of countries and consequently, the way they treat the asylum-seekers. In this research, the national asylum laws of Germany and the Netherlands are studied and compared, showing that though following the Council Directive, fair or equal treatment of asylum-seekers cannot be guaranteed. In the Netherlands asylum-seekers are granted with a great extent of benefits while in Germany, they are greatly discriminated against. Based on the Social Determinants of Health Model, developed by Dahlgren and Whitehead in 1991, the hypothesis is that the asylum seekers in the Netherlands enjoy better health status than the ones in Germany, because based on the Dutch asylum laws, they have better living and working conditions. In order to confirm or negate this hypothesis, a meta-study of available literature on the health status of asylum-seekers has been done. However, the hypothesis could not be confirmed/ negated due to extreme lack of availability of data in this area.

    By discussing the relationship between life conditions and health of individuals, reviewing current legal instruments regulating asylum in the EU and analyzing the available data on the health status of asylum-seekers, this paper draws the attention to the importance of data and research on these topics and the need for development of practices for collection of such information. Availability of such information can affect future decision and policy makings regarding asylum-seekers and their health and might result in comprehensive reformations in the current national or international legal instruments.

  • 8.
    Hultgren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bemanningsförändringars påverkan på produktivitet. En fallstudie av ett stort svenskt industriföretag2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historically downsizing has led to a reduction in productivity. Since the early 1990-ies, however, downsizing has affected productivity positively. This paper aims to, within the framework of a case study, answer how productivity is affected in the short term, how the productivity change is best explained and how these changes compare to a macroeconomic perspective.The study shows that all studied variables have improved following downsizing. Capital intensity has increased and the law of diminishing returns suggests that the company previously had a labor surplus. With the help of the interviews it can be concluded that the company acted proactively and in cooperation with the trade union, which meant that productivity could be increased and the presence of survival syndrome minimized. Another effect of downsizing is that the occurrence of what have traditionally been considered less productive segments of labor have decreased. From a macro perspective, the studied object shows similarities with the occurrences within the Swedish economy as a whole, and shows signs of being a delayed version of what occurred in the American economy. Several explanations are likely, but differences in labor legislation can be considered a likely contributing factor.

  • 9.
    Mc Glinn, Sarah
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Performing the Jersey: Subjectivity, Identity, and Change within the Scottish Football Culture2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Before the days of cable television it was almost impossible to watch Scottish Football in Sweden. As such, my father would listen to all important Celtic games on the radio. He would go into his bedroom, close the door and listen intently to the crackling, yet passionate voices which tried vigorously to transmit scenes of green grass, screaming crowds, twenty-two men, and a ball, to all the people who lacked the good fortune of being at the stadium. I remember one occasion especially well: it was a Saturday in May, 1998; I was twelve years old and stood in the hall. As I peered through my parents bedroom door, I caught my father kissing the radio as it announced Celtic’s winning goal; the goal which stopped their opponents, Rangers, from winning ten Scottish leagues in a row. He was crying, laughing and yelling, all at once. And after the game had finished, he came down stairs, and we celebrated by putting on our favourite Celtic CD. Dancing, while singing classic Celtic songs, we revelled in ‘our’ victory.

    The memory of this day is dear to me, along with many other recollections I have of amazing afternoons which were spent singing (and sometimes crying), first with my father and, later also with his friends. Because when cable TV finally did come to my hometown Malmö in 1999, we formed a network. We joined forces with other people, (though mainly white, heterosexual men of working-class backgrounds), who, like us, loved Celtic, and thus wanted to watch them as often as they could. And together we sang the same songs which my father and I had danced to on that aforementioned day: the 9th of May 1998. In fact, he and I still sing many of those songs on a weekly basis, as do hundreds of thousands of other fans.

    Yet, some of these songs, as well as others performed by various Scottish clubs, have become increasingly criticised, and in some cases banned, for containing discriminatory, or bigoted ideas and language; an example of this critical shift can be gauged by e.g. the Offensive Behaviour at Football and Threatening Communications (Scotland) Bill, which was passed by the Scottish Parliament on the 14th of December, 2011, and enacted on the 1st of March of the following year. The bill introduces new legislation which criminalizes offensive or threatening behaviour “likely to incite public disorder at certain football matches, and [which] provides for a criminal offence concerning the sending of communications which contain threats of serious violence or which contain threats intended to incite religious hatred” (The Scottish Parliament, 2011; My italics). This law is quite unique for a number of reasons. First, because it is specific to Scotland. Secondly, because it is a national law introduced to tackle the problem of mainly one city: Glasgow, and its famous rivalry between Celtic and Rangers, known as the ‘Old Firm’. Obviously bigoted rivalries exist all over Scotland - all over the world for that matter - but the ‘Old Firm’ is considered one of the most exaggerated rivalries in Europe. What is more, the law was passed soon after the 2011 Scottish cup final, in which two players were sent off, 13 players were given yellow cards, and Celtic’s manager, Neil Lennon pushed Rangers’ assistant manager Ally McCoist. The BBC reports that “Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond held a summit in Edinburgh with representatives from Celtic, Rangers, Scottish football authorities and Strathclyde Police to discuss ways to combat disorder associated with the fixture between Glasgow's main two rival clubs” (BBC, 2011). Scotland’s justice secretary, Kenny MacAskill, claims that “the majority of Scots - 91% - support tougher action to tackle the problem [of sectarianism1]” (STV, 2013). However, the law has been met with resistance from different groups of football fans, who argue that the laws infringe on free expression.

  • 10.
    Vroegop, John
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, National Centre for Outdoor Education (NCU).
    Nature Connectedness & Winter Camping: A Combination of Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A growing body of research indicates that nature connectedness should be an important component of environmental education programs as emerging empirical evidence shows a correlation between connectedness to nature and environmentally responsible behaviour. Despite an increased interest in further examination of the human-nature relationship, research is lacking in terms of specific factors or conditions that influence nature connectedness. In this study, a mixed methods approach was employed to quantitatively assess the impact winter camping had on nature connectedness and then qualitatively determine specific components of the camp experience that influenced this sense of nature connectedness. Nineteen scouts participated on a three day winter camp at Manning Park in British Columba, Canada, where they experienced many challenges such as sleeping in quinzees (snow caves) and learned new skills such as snowshoeing. The Nature Relatedness Scale was used to assess nature connectedness in this study. A pre-test was administered a few days before the winter camp and the post-test two days afterwards. The results from the paired sample T-test show that there was a statistically significant improvement in nature connectedness following the winter camp experience. Eleven scouts were then selected to participate in semi-structured interviews with the aim of gaining insight to the specific conditions of winter camping that influenced nature connectedness. The results indicate that the location of the camp, the condition of being immersed in nature, interacting with wildlife, the positive experience of challenges, the presence of risk, and freedom from technology are all contributing factors that influenced a sense o f nature connectedness. An increased environmental awareness was also a prevalent theme which supports research suggesting that there is a positive relationship between nature connectedness and pro-environmental behaviour. It is recommended that programs with the aim of promoting nature connectedness or environmental awareness should include as many of these components as possible. Further research should alsobe conducted to confirm that these results apply also to other populations as these results cannot be generalized with a sample size of nineteen.

  • 11.
    Danielsson Piazze, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Abelsson, Fanny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Riskhantering och styrningsaspekter vid tidsrelaterade orderförändringar i företag som levererar till projekt2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Uncertainty and risk are often present during construction projects, which can create problems for several parties involved in the process. This could amount to an order change in terms of delivery time. When it is of importance to satisfy the needs of the client concerning correct delivery time, the delay in a construction project can mean that the supplier of the project has to delay its products to achieve customer satisfaction. This draws attention towards the organizations internal behavior and flexibility among its employees to manage the risks that occurs. To make employees act in a way that is in the organizations best interest, management control systems can be used. By applying risk management on companies that deliver to a construction project, uncertainty can be acknowledged and described as well as highlight the difficulties this can create for employees.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to describe and partly chart uncertainty in regard of delivery time, and the management of it concerning customer specific deliveries with special attention to the interaction between different departments.

    Methodology: By using a qualitative method the study wants to, with the help of a multiple case study, compare how two companies manage uncertainty that occurs during customer specific deliveries. This was carried out by interviewing departments concerned with time related order changes at both companies.

    Conclusion: The study concludes that companies delivering to projects are exposed to predictable uncertainty and can handle this by either focus on following established rules or customer satisfaction. Following rules means that there is a predetermined answer on how to handle the uncertainty within the company. Customer satisfaction, on the other hand, means that results control and making the employees feel motivated is in focus. This means that risk management and management control systems are working together to manage uncertainty.

    Keywords: uncertainty, risk management, management control system, time related order changes, delivery

  • 12.
    Olsson, John
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Investeringsstrategier baserade på multipeln Pris/Bokfört värde: En studie på Stockholmsbörsen under perioden 2004-03-31 till 2015-03-312015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a general belief that value stocks, historically, have created a greater return of investment compared to growth stocks. Investors can, through key ratios, compare companies to one another and thereby gain a solid appreciation whether a company is overvalued or undervalued relative to other comparable companies. The problem for investors is how to identify these value stocks and exploit mispricing in the market.

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to analyze investment strategies that are based on the Price-to-Book ratio on the Swedish stock market.

    Completion: To meet the purpose, the study is based on a deductive foundation with a quantitative method. Two investment strategies are investigated based on the Price-to-book ratio. The first strategy sorts the material following the value of the multiple, whereas the other strategy relies on regression analysis where interest on own capital is used as an explaining variable.

    Results: To only look at the price-to-book ratio, in order to distinguish undervalued stocks, does not work in the Swedish stock market during the period of 31-03-04 to 31-03-2015. It can be concluded that the combination used in the developed strategy works to identify value stocks that have a significantly higher cumulative return compared to the OMX Stockholm Price Index.

  • 13.
    Brunosson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lärare, digitalteknik och motivation: En studie om vilka aspekter som påverkar lärares motivation att använda digitalteknik i undervisningen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to develop knowledge around teachers’ motivation to use digital technology in education. The study is performed with the following research questions; Which understanding does a teacher have of the role of digital technology in education? and Which aspects affects the teacher’s motivation to use digital technology in education? Five teachers who actively teach grade 1-6 takes part in the study. Semi-structured qualitative interviews are used to describe and categorize aspects that affect teachers’ motivation to use digital technology in education.

       The study shows that teachers have an ambiguous understanding of digital technology. Teachers demonstrate understanding of the possibilities with digital technology and use it for personal development and as an information source. In contrast, digital technology is less frequently used while teaching.

       Several aspects affect teachers’ incentive to use digital technology in education, access to technology and institutional involvement are exhibited as the most important factors. Other aspects are time, interest, and knowledge. All the participating teachers are interested in digital technology coupled with education while desiring more knowledge about the field.

  • 14.
    Renström, Klara
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Automatic age estimation of children based on brain matter composition using quantitative MRI2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a child can be monitored by studying the changes in physical appearance or the development of capabilities e.g. walking and talking. But is it possible to find a quantitative measure for brain development? The aim of this thesis work is to investigate that possibility using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) images by answering the following questions:

    • Can brain development be determined using qMRI? If so, what properties of the brain can be used?
    • Can the age of a child be automatically detected with an algorithm? If so, how can this algorithm function? With what accuracy?

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect properties in the brain changing with age, based on MRI images. These properties have e.g. been changes in T1 and T2 relaxation time, i.e. properties in water signal behavior that can be measured using multiple MR acquisitions. In the literature this was linked to a rapid myelination process that occurs after birth. Furthermore the organization and growth of the brain is a property that can be measured and monitored.

    This thesis have investigated several different properties in the brain based on qMRI images in order to identify those who have a strong correlation with age in the range 0-20 years. The properties that were found to have a high correlation were:

    • Position of the first histogram peak in T1 weighted qMRI images,
    • Fraction of white matter in the brain,
    • Mean pixel value of PD weighted qMRI images,
    • Volume of white matter in the brain,

    Curves on the form f(x) = ae^(-bx) +c are fitted to the data sets and confidence intervals are calculated to frame the statistical insecurity of the curve. The mean error in percent for the different properties can be seen in the list below:

    Property, Mean error [%] 0-20 years, Mean error [%] 0-3 years

    Peak position: 53.84, 98.17

    Fraction of WM: 118.97, 71.67

    Mean pixel value: 200.89, 126.28

    Volume of WM: 241.72, 72.58

    The conclusions drawn based on the presented results are that there are properties in the brain that correlates well to aging, but the error is too large for making a valid prediction of age over the entire range of 0-20 years. When decreasing the age range to 0-3 years the mean error becomes smaller, but it is still too large. More data is needed to evaluate and improve this result.

  • 15.
    Savvidis, Charalampos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Geng, Zeyang
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Onboard Impedance Diagnostics Method of Li-ion Traction Batteries using Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and economic reasons have lead automotive companies towards the direction of EVs and HEVs. Stricter emission legislations along with the consumer needs for more cost-efficient and environmental friendly vehicles have increased immensely the amount of hybrid and electric vehicles available in the market. It is essential though for Li-ion batteries, the main propulsion force of EVs and HEVs, to be able to read the battery characteristics in a high accuracy manner, predict life expectancy and behaviour and act accordingly. The following thesis constitutes a concept study of a battery diagnostics method. The method is based on the notion of a pseudo-random binary signal used as the current input and from its voltage response, the impedance is used for the estimation of parameters such as the state of charge and more. The feasibility of the PRBS method at a battery cell has been examined through various tests, both in an experimental manner at the lab but also in a simulation manner. The method is compared for validation against the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method which is being used as a reference. For both the experimental and the simulation examinations, the PRBS method has been validated and proven to work. No matter the change in the parameters of the system, the method behaves in a similar manner as in the reference EIS method.

    The level of detail in the research and the performed experiments is what makes the significance of the results of high importance. The method in all ways has been proven to work in the concept study and based on the findings, if implemented on an EV’s or HEV’s electric drive line and the same functionality is observed, be used as a diagnostics method of the battery of the vehicle.

  • 16.
    Greder, Cecilia Alexis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Heart and ventilation rate changes during tonic immobility in Ornate Tinamou (Nothoprocta ornata) and High Andean chicken (Gallus gallus) compared to Chilean Tinamou (Nothoprocta perdicaria)2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Animals can show different responses to fear for example by playing dead when there is no possibility to escape. This response is called tonic immobility (TI) and is a well-established test of fear to evaluate fearfulness. Long durations of TI are generally considered as high levels of fearfulness. Physiological changes observed during tonic immobility suggest that there are changes in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) strongly involved in this process. The main objective for this study was to analyse duration of tonic immobility and heart and ventilation rate during tonic immobility in three different species; domesticated High Andean chickens (Gallus gallus), wild-caught Ornate Tinamous (Nothoprocta ornata) and Chilean Tinamous born in captivity (Nothoprocta perdicaria). In this study needle electrodes were used to measure heart and ventilation rate. The time following induction of tonic immobility (i.e. after holding the bird on its back for 15 s) was characterized by a large increase in heart and ventilation rate. During tonic immobility a progressive decrease in heart and ventilation rate was observed in all species, significant in all cases except for heart rate between start and end of TI in chickens. The duration of TI was significantly longer in Ornate Tinamou compared to Chilean Tinamou and chickens. The same was observed in latency to first head movement. TI is probably controlled by the autonomic nervous system, but a heart rate variability analysis has to be done in order to determine the different relative contributions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems in these species. 

  • 17.
    Andersson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rundström, Robin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Kommunikation av ekologiskt livsmedel: En intervju- och textanalysstudie av hur ekologiskt livsmedel kommuniceras mot konsumenter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the rhetorical rendering of organic foods, within the research area of environmental communication and ecological theories. The aim is to analyse which renderings are connected to the concept organic foods. Further on Swedish authorities and organisations views on organic foods are examined, in comparison to the grocery retailer’s rhetorical rendering of organic foods. The methodology is based on two methods of data collection. Qualitative research interviews have been conducted with the following authorities: the Swedish Food Agency, the Swedish Consumer Agency and the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Interviews were also conducted with the organisations KRAV and the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation. The interviews were conducted with the intention of making visible the underlying rendering of the concept of organic foods. A textual and metaphor analyses of ICA, Coop and Axfood’s combined communication of organic foods were performed. The aim with these analyses is to examine the grocery retailer’s rhetorical rendering of the concept. The study highlights that there are two main attitudes towards the rendering of organic foods among the actors. Additionally this study clarifies that the authorities, organisations and grocery retailer’s use of the concept differ. Partly the authorities rendering of organics are mainly focused around environmental benefits. While the grocery retailers rendering of organic foods is based on metaphors and idyllic nature values. The study also shows that organic labels is part of green consumerism and thereby legitimize consumption as a solution of environmental and social problems. 

  • 18.
    Eriksson Leidnert, Michaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cederqvist, Jenni
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Interaktion i vardagslivet hos vuxna med Aspergers syndrom. Implikationer för intervention.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Asperger syndrome (AS) results, among other things, in a deficit in social interaction. This deficit causes difficulties with several communicative abilities. Still, there is a limited range of communicative intervention programs for people with AS. The aims of this study were to analyze the interaction in the daily life of adults with AS, to further be able to construct a foundation for the design of future intervention programs. The study consisted of an interview part and a video part. Seven individuals participated in the interview part and two in the video part. The interview part consisted of semi-structured interviews, where the following aspects were investigated: how the participant experienced her/his own and the surrounding’s communicative abilities, conscious strategies to facilitate the communication, and lastly, experiences of and preferences for intervention. The interview part was analyzed with content analysis. Regarding the video part, two film clips were recorded. The film clips were analyzed with Conversation Analysis (CA), in order to describe the interactional strengths and difficulties of the participants.The content analysis resulted in the identification of ten categories, which highlight different aspects of communication in individuals with AS from their own perspective. The majority of the participants showed an interest in participating in communicative. The analysis of the film clips indicated that repair and organization of topics may be problematic areas in the communication of individuals with AS. Continuers proved to be a communicative strength. Considering all of the results in this study, the authors suggest a varied intervention, where group and individual intervention are combined. Examples of communicative abilities that can be practiced are repair, organization of topics and continuers. People close to the individual with AS should be integrated in the intervention. Video recordings of real life situations should be part of the intervention and may advantageously be analyzed with CA. The practice of specific communicative behaviors can be carried out using role-playing. Since the result of both the interview and the video part suggest great individual differences, it is of great importance that the intervention is based on individual abilities.

  • 19.
    Norkvist Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Samuelsen, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Läsförmåga bland högstadieelever utan och med läs- och skrivsvårigheter2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study’s aim was to examine reading ability in secondary school students. The participants; 30 grade 7 students (13 years old) and 30 grade 8 students (14 years old) without literacy problems, and eleven grade 8 students whom either had documented literacy problems or received special education for it, were selected through convenience sample. Text comprehension was tested by three texts which are called the Skobigotexts. Three reading settings were applied: listening, silent reading and silent reading with textsupport. Following the texts, literal and inference questions were asked. The first text was read out loud to each participant, the next text was read silently and the last text was also read in silence but the participants were allowed to have the text in front of them whilst answering the questions. Further, phonological awareness and decoding ability was examined. Whether the comprehension differed within and between the groups regarding reading setting and type of question was looked upon. The results showed that all groups were benefited by silent reading with textsupport and performed better on literal questions. Furthermore, it was found that participants without and with literacy problems performed equivalent regarding text comprehension. However did grade 7 and 8 perform significantly worse than standard average for grade 6. Although the study generated low scores, a conclusion was drawn that secondary school students without or with literacy problems didn’t have any substantial difficulties to interpret and answer questions regarding these texts. Due to the fact that the participants without and with literacy problems performed equally on the Skobigotexts, does not the authors of this study consider these texts as clinically reliable for investigating literacy problems in secondary school students.

  • 20.
    Claar, Moa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kognitiva förmågor som förklarar utveckling av läsförståelse från första till andra klass2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Letter knowledge, word decoding and phonological awareness including RAN (rapid automatized naming) are known to predict early reading ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the development of reading comprehension from first to second grade. Phonological awareness holds an important role in this study; different ways to measure this ability will be discussed.  In the study, 36 second graders participated and the following abilities were measured; phonological awareness, word decoding, reading comprehension and letter knowledge. Performances in first and second grade were compared. The results showed that reading comprehension in first grade predicts reading comprehension in second grade. Furthermore, significant correlations between reading comprehension, word decoding and phonological awareness were observed in second grade. Word decoding and phonological awareness together explains 58 % of the variance of reading comprehension in second grade. The test Phonological processing alone explains the biggest part of the variance in reading comprehension. The tests for phonological awareness show that RAN had a significant correlation with the rime test but not with the test Phonological processing. The correlation indicates that the tests measure different aspects of phonological skills. In conclusion reading comprehension in first grade predicts reading comprehension in second grade. Additionally, phonological processing seems to be a strong predictor for reading comprehension in second grade. 

  • 21.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Maslyannikov, Lev
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Arbetsrätten vid partiella företagsförvärv: Med utgångspunkt i förvärvsmetodernas skatterättsliga följder2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate acquisitions often give rise to questions pertaining labour law and tax law, where many people and large amounts of money are involved. In the context of partial acquisitions, these questions come to a head, since difficult delimitations must be done when dividing a company. These delimitations are, furthermore, based upon different grounds within different fields of law. From an economical perspective, a failed transition of staff can carry considerable costs and risks of conflict. A disadvantageous outcome in the context of tax law is expensive as well. For this reason we have chosen, in this thesis, to focus on questions concerning labour law and tax law in the context of partial corporate acquisitions. These questions are treated in the following manner.

    Firstly, a review of the relevant norms within labour law, tax law and corporate law is made. This is done to paint a somewhat nuanced picture of both the assessment process within labour law and the frames of tax and company law, in which the methods of acquisition are stipulated. Against this background, we have constructed three examples that illustrate how the methods can be applied to achieve different effects pertaining labour law. The examples are designed to cover the majority of the norms that were investigated in the first part of the thesis. Finally, a general evaluation of the results is made.

    The method of acquisition, by itself, erects a framework in which labour law can be applied. However, it is the desired outcome in the context of labour law that governs the choice of acquisition method and its arrangement. It is possible to achieve these desired outcomes while receiving an advantageous treatment in the context of tax law as well. The execution of a partial acquisition, with consideration for the methods within tax law and the results within labour law, can therefore amount to a successful ”cherry pick”.

  • 22.
    Näsström, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Control and Development of the Autonomic Nervous System in Posthatch Broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Heart rate is tonically regulated by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS); parasympathetic activation decreases heart rate while sympathetic activation increases it. Previous studies on the ANS in chickens have focused mainly on embryonic development, but it is largely unknown what happens in the weeks following hatching. The present study focused on the development of the autonomic nervous system in 2 and 5 week old broiler and Red Junglefowl (RJF). Since broilers are less fearful, less stressed and less active than their wild ancestor RJF, a possible domestication effect on the sympathetic nervous system was investigated by evaluating both physiological and behavioural responses during stress. I found that the heart is mainly under control from the sympathetic nervous system in 2 and 5 week old broiler and RJF as propranolol significantly decreased heart rate during baseline and stress conditions while injection of atropine had little or no effect on baseline heart rates. When the adrenergic tone was blocked, heart rate still increased during stress, more so in 5 week old birds than in 2 week old birds. This suggests that some other physiological regulatory mechanism with fast recruitment is involved in the stress response and it matures in the weeks following hatch. No differences in behaviour between broiler and RJF were observed when the sympathetic nervous system was blocked. As both breeds show similar responses, a domestication effect on the ANS from these results cannot be confirmed.

  • 23.
    Desai, Avni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Widgren, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Collaboration in Product Service System for Telecom Networks: An "Orange and Ericsson case" study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the research is to study the “Orange and Ericsson case” while developing the method Actors and System Map. The interaction between actors within Ericsson’s Device Connection Platform is investigated in order to identify improvement opportunities in the interaction between the provider and the customer. To answer the purpose the following research questions was formulated:

    RQ1)  What type of actors may be involved in a telecom related IPSO?

    RQ2)  How can the connections between actors in the telecom related IPSO be illustrated?

    RQ3)  How can the Actors and System Map method be refined?

    In order to answer the research questions different methodologies were used for the analysing process. The research started with a widespread literature study to collect knowledge related to the area of Product Service System (PSS) and methodologies for identifying how actors interact with one another. Studying different mapping methods the conclusion was made that Actors and System Map was most suitable for this study.

    In the methodology background the previous selected method, Actors and System Map from an Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO) perspective, was examined in order to be able to refine and improve the mapping method. Actors Map provides a visual and clear overview of the actors involved while a System Map shows the information flows and activities between the actors.

    To understand the interaction between the two companies, the definition of IPSO and the importance of value-based selling for a service offering are described in the theory background. Also, different ways of looking at a business model within the telecommunication industry is presented.

    Obtaining information regarding making an Actors Map and a System Map an improved mapping method was refined. The adaption of the method was divided into eight steps. The refined Actors Maps of the DCP shows the actors involved, how they are connected and their main assignments from each respondent’s point of view at Ericsson. The refined System Map shows what kind of information is transferred between the actors within the companies and between Orange and Ericsson. Both maps delivered as a decision basis will help identification of non-value giving links and non-optimal distances in the information flow for both companies.

  • 24.
    Johannesson, Maja
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stejmar, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gröna obligationer - Vägen till en mer hållbar kreditmarknad: En studie om aktörers motiv och ekonomiska drivkrafter på den svenska marknaden för gröna obligationer2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2007 the World Bank issued the first green bond in the world in co-operation with SEB. Vasakronan issued the first green corporate bond in 2013 and since then the market has expanded. Green bonds have the same financial characteristics as traditional bonds, the difference being that the proceeds from green bonds have to finance environmental or climate friendly projects. Green bonds give incentives to investors and issuers to implement sustainable investments and projects.

    Aim: The purpose of the thesis is to examine and analyze motives and economic incentives behind the participation of players in the Swedish green bond market. In addition, the thesis maps out the institutional conditions that enabled the emergence of green bonds and highlight the future challenges and prospects.

    Completion: This thesis is a qualitative study of 13 interviews conducted by the authors. The interviewees represent the following groups: issuers, investors, banks and certifiers. A literature review about green bonds is provided to illustrate the characteristics of green bonds and the market. The empiric material is analyzed using institutional theory, game theory, financial theory and CSR theories, as well as previous research about CSR and SRI.

    Conclusion: A number of institutional conditions and individual actions have contributed to the rise and development of the Swedish green bond market. The motives and economic incentives that apply to all the players in the market are the opportunity to enhance a green and sustainable profile, the fact that green bonds have the same financial characteristics as traditional bonds and that they include a green feature. Future challenges for the growth of the green bond market include the development of standards and to increase the supply of green bonds.

  • 25.
    Rigaki, Anastasia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Teachers of Greek Model Experimental High: Schools and Lifelong Learning: a mixed methods approach2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lifelong Learning is a key concept in modern ‘knowledge-based’ society and it is viewed as a commodity, a personal drive or a social necessity. This thesis aims to unravel its many dimensions and the values that are ascribed to it by the teachers of Greek Model Experimental High Schools. A Model Experimental High School is a relatively new type of state school in Greece, which is highly differentiated from other schools in terms of curriculum, inter-school activities, staff and students and emerged in the Greek education system in 2011. For this reason, research on the effects of this differentiation in the aspects of Lifelong Learning is scarce. The mixed methods strategy was used in order to form a complete picture of the Lifelong Learning dimensions and the research was conducted in two parts. The first part was quantitative and aimed to categorize the elements that constitute Lifelong Learning for the teachers, the factors that encourage or discourage it and its positive and negative dimensions on a macro level as, through a questionnaire, and as a result responses were collected from the thirty-six Model Experimental High Schools in urban and semi-urban areas of Greece. The second part was qualitative and through semi-structured interviews, it explored more in-depth the issue of Lifelong Learning and the concept of vocational vitality which is related both to Lifelong Learning and a teacher’s professional life. Following the propositions of the Theory of Work Adjustment, the research revealed that through the various non-formal and informal activities that the demanding context of Model Experimental High Schools promotes, Lifelong Learning acts as a reinforcer and a means of sustaining the balance between the school and the teachers by increasing their satisfaction. Moreover, both the quantitative and the qualitative methods revealed that teachers consider Lifelong Learning firstly as a means of personal development and secondly as continuous professional development. Lifelong Learning as investment in the human capital was not found as important as the previous two. Furthermore, the vocational vitality of teachers was found to be thriving due to the importance that Lifelong Learning plays in their life a and despite the difficulties which arise from the work demands or the difficult socioeconomic context in Greece due to the economic crisis of the recent years.

  • 26.
    Tipping-Ball, Bethany-Alicia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Living Life on Planet Jedward: The Genius of John and Edward Grimes: On Jedward. And Fandom.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    John and Edward Grimes (artist name "Jedward") have been active for four and a half years and have a heterogeneous following of fans. This thesis aims to investigate how and why people become Jedward fans, how they view the fandom and what experiences they have of being round the twins. After respondents, independently of one another, began disclosing how the twins and fandom had fundamentally changed their lives, this area of investigation was also pursued. The conclusion is that while there are some negative aspects of fandom, for those taking part in the study, being a fan of Jedward has led to what I've chosen to term "Fandom-Induced Self-Efficacy".

  • 27.
    Cannermo, Trine P.W.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Non-Intrusive Methods for Documentating Upholstery: five ways to approach an intriguing conundrum2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During my internship at the Upholstery conservation department at the Metropolitan Museum of art in New York, I came across a chair that caught my interest and therefore I chose to dedicate the last two months of my internship, investigating this chair. It was said about the chair that it had the original upholstery and cover, but some questions appeared. These questions I have tried to solve, as I will reveal in the following, by using mostly non-intrusive methods, in attempt to see how much useful information this approach can provide, concerning frame structure, inner-upholstery, showcover and possible campaigns (interventions).

    I found out, that it was possible to gather a great amount of useful information. In fact I will go so far as to claim that I found out even more than I would have found out, by  isassembling the object manually.

  • 28.
    Karetsos, Athanasios
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Extracting analyzable models from multi-threaded programs2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As technology evolves, the need to use software for critical applications increases. It is then required that this software will always behave correctly. Verification is the process of formally proving that a program is correct. Model checking is a technique used to perform verification, which has been successful with finite state concurrent programs. In the recent years, there has been progress in the area of the verification of infinite state concurrent programs. There can be several sources of infiniteness. Relevant to this thesis are recent model checking techniques developed at LiU, that can automatically establish correctness for programs manipulating variables that range over infinite domains, and spawning arbitrary many threads, which can synchronize using shared variables, barriers, semaphores etc. These techniques resulted in the tool PACMAN for the verification of multi-threaded programs.

    The aim of this thesis is to extract analyzable models from multi-threaded C programs, in order to use them for verifying the program that they describe, by using PACMAN. In addition, we augment the C programming language to allow the possibility of expressing some important concepts of multi-threaded programs, such as non-determinism, atomicity etc, with the use of the traditional C syntax.

    In a following step, we target PACMAN's input format, in order to verify our extracted models. Such verification engines usually accept as input the description of a multi-threaded program expressed in some modeling language. We, therefore, translate a minimum subset of the C programming language, which has been augmented, to effectively describe a multithreaded program, to PACMAN's input format and then pass the description to the engine.

    In the context of this thesis, we have successfully defined a set of annotation for the C programming language, in order to assist the description of multi-threaded programs. We have implemented a tool that effectively translates annotated C code into the modeling language of PACMAN. The output of the tool is later passed to the verification engine. As a result, we have contributed to the automation of verifying multi-threaded C programs.

  • 29.
    Hildebrand, Cisilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hörtin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparative study between Emme and Visum with respect to public transport assignment2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Macroscopic traffic simulations are widely used in the world in order to provide assistance in the traffic infrastructure development as well as for the strategic traffic planning. When studying a large traffic network macroscopic traffic simulation can be used to model current and future traffic situations. The two most common software used for traffic simulation in Sweden today are Emme and Visum, developed by INRO respective PTV.

    The aim of the thesis is to perform a comparison between the software Emme and Visum with respect to the assignment of public transport, in other words how passengers choose their routes on the existing public transport lines. However, in order to make a complete software comparison the run-time, analysis capabilities, multi-modality, capacity to model various behavioural phenomena like crowding, fares etc. this will not be done in this comparison. It is of interest to study the differences between the two software algorithms and why they might occur because the Swedish Transport Administration uses Emme and the Traffic Administration in Stockholm uses Visum when planning public transport. The comparison will include the resulting volumes on transit lines, travel times, flow through specific nodes, number of boarding, auxiliary volumes and number of transits. The goal of this work is to answer the following objective: What are the differences with modelling a public transport network in Emme and in Visum, based on that the passengers only have information about the travel times and the line frequency, and why does the differences occur?

    In order to evaluate how the algorithms work in a larger network, Nacka municipality (in Stockholm) and the new metro route between Nacka Forum and Kungsträdgården have been used. The motivation for choosing this area and case is due to that it is interesting to see what differences could occur between the programs when there is a major change in the traffic network.

    The network of Nacka, and parts of Stockholm City, has been developed from an existing road network of Sweden and then restricted by "cutting out" the area of interest and then removing all public transportation lines outside the selected area. The OD-matrix was also limited and in order not to loose the correct flow of travellers portal zones was used to collect and retain volumes.

    To find out why the differences occur the headway-based algorithms in each software were studied carefully. An example of a small and simple network (consisting of only a start and end node) has been used to demonstrate and show how the algorithms work and why volumes split differently on the existing transit lines in Emme and Visum. The limited network of Nacka shows how the different software may produce different results in a larger public transport network.

    The results show that there are differences between the program algorithms but the significance varies depending on which output is being studied and the size of the network. The Visum algorithm results in more total boardings, i.e. more passengers have an optimal strategy including a transit. The algorithms are very similar in both software programs, since they include more or less parts of the optimal strategy. The parameters used are taken more or less into consideration in Emme and Visum. For example Visum will first of all focus on the shortest total travel time and then consider the other lines with respect to the maximum waiting time. Emme however, first focuses on the shortest travel time and then considers the total travel time for other lines with half the waiting time instead of the maximum wait time. This results in that less transit lines will be attractive in Emme compared to Visum. The thesis concludes that varying the parameters for public transport in each software algorithm one can obtain similar results, which implies that it is most important to choose the best parameter values and not to choose the "best" software when simulating a traffic network.

  • 30.
    Bjurling, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design and Implementation of a Secure In-app Credit Card Payment System2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Smartphones are often used in order to make purchases today and mobile payments are estimated to continue growing in numbers the following years. This makes mobile payment systems attractive to companies as a new business platform. It also increases the number of malicious users trying to exploit the systems for financial gain.

    This thesis is conducted for the company TaxiCaller which desires to integrate mobile payments into their existing service. It discusses the current security standards for mobile payments and evaluates existing mobile payment solutions. The focus of the evaluation is on the security of the solutions and vulnerabilities, as well as mitigations of identified vulnerabilities, are discussed.

    Based on the evaluation, a mobile payment solution is designed and implemented. This system fully integrates with TaxiCaller’s existing system. A threat analysis of the implemented mobile payment solution is performed to provide confidence in the security.

    This thesis also provides an insight into the ecosystem of mobile payments including the stakeholders, the regulations, the security standards and difficulties during implementations.

  • 31.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology and Gothenburg School of Economic and Commercial Law.
    Narváez, Rommel
    Chalmers University of Technology and Gothenburg School of Economic and Commercial Law.
    Developing a Balanced Scorecard model for Volvo Information Technology: A new strategy for the integration unit2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the area of financial control of companies has developed substantially. Traditionally, companies were using budget and simple product calculation but today companies need complementary methods for control in a broad perspective. Among these methods, the Balanced Scorecard has developed as a tool to meet the needs for financial control and measurement systems. The aim of the Balanced Scorecard is to increase the efficiency of companies both in the long and short time-perspectives by controlling, measuring, and implementing the results of a specific strategy.

    Today, many companies suffer from internal problems associated with a lack of strategy in the integration of different departments. It is important for the business process to focus on obtaining favourable conditions for creation of new products and services, for increasing quality while reducing the costs by rationalization and simplification, and for reaching a faster delivery in terms of lead time. In order to become top of the line in the area of integration, Volvo IT has decided to perform an integration project incorporating a Balanced Scorecard.

    The main objective for this thesis is to develop a proposal for the Balanced Scorecard, and to identify the critical factors for success and the corresponding strategic measures. The Balanced Scorecard methodology can be used to monitor and balance the whole company, as well as individual divisions, both on the long- and short-term time perspectives. At Volvo IT the vision is to be regarded as the ideal IT supplier among its customers. For Volvo IT we found that the following four perspectives are suitable: the financial, customer, internal, and development perspectives. These perspectives can be applied to processes and activities at all divisions and levels of the company where it is judged to be useful. The idea is that everyone in the organization should know exactly what he or she should be working on for increasing the efficiency both at the level of the own division and for the company as a whole. To reach its vision, the strategy of Volvo IT is to develop a profound competence in the area of integration.

    Since introducing a Balanced Scorecard into an organization is a rather demanding project that normally takes one to two years, we have limited our work to create a proposal for Volvo IT. The design of the Balanced Scorecard also needs to be discussed in detail on the different levels at the company before the actual implementation. For the implementation phase, patience and flexibility is a prerequisite in order to obtain acceptance and understanding on all levels in the organization. Moreover, the use of a Balanced Scorecard is a dynamic process, where modifications are made regularly as internal and external conditions of the company are changing. We recommend Volvo IT to use the Balanced Scorecard, as described in this thesis, as a starting-point for the implementation phase. Based on the information obtained from our research interviews with key personnel, we have identified several critical factors for success and the corresponding strategic measures. We believe that introducing the Balanced Scorecard will be useful for the integration project at Volvo IT, strengthening the company with respect to future challenges.

  • 32.
    Isnard Bagnis, Corinne
    et al.
    Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France..
    Crepaldi, Carlo
    Unità Operativa di Nefrologia, Dialisi e Trapianto, Ospedale San Bortolo, Vicenza, Italy.
    Dean, Jessica
    Salford Royal Hospital, Salford, UK..
    Goovaerts, Tony
    Cliniques Universitaires St. Luc, Service de Néphrologie, Brussels, Belgium.
    Melander, Stefan
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Nephrology.
    Nilsson, Eva-Lena
    Skåne University Hospital, Malmö.
    Prieto-Velasco, Mario
    Unidad de Nefrología, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León, León, Spain.
    Trujillo, Carmen
    Unidad clínica de Gestión de Nefrología, Hospital Regional Carlos Haya, Malaga, Spain.
    Zambon, Roberto
    2Unità Operativa di Nefrologia, Dialisi e Trapianto, Ospedale San Bortolo, Vicenza, Italy.
    Mooney, Andrew
    St James's University Hospital, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, UK.
    Quality standards for predialysis education: results from a consensus conference2015In: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, ISSN 0931-0509, E-ISSN 1460-2385, Vol. 30, no 7, 1058-1066 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This position statement was compiled following an expert meeting in March 2013, Zurich, Switzerland. Attendees were invited from a spread of European renal units with established and respected renal replacement therapy option education programmes. Discussions centred around optimal ways of creating an education team, setting realistic and meaningful objectives for patient education, and assessing the quality of education delivered.

  • 33.
    Petterssen, Max
    et al.
    Linköping University. Linköpings University, Scotland, UK.
    Eljamel, Sarah
    Lothian Radiology Training Programme, Scotland, UK.
    Eljamel, Sam
    University of Dundee, Scotland, UK.
    Protoporphyrin-IX fluorescence guided surgical resection in high-grade gliomas: The potential impact of human colour perception2014In: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, ISSN 1572-1000, Vol. 11, no 3, 351-356 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Protoporphyrin-IX (Pp-IX) fluorescence had been used frequently in recent years to guide microsurgical resection of high-grade gliomas (HGG), particularly following the publication of a randomized controlled trial demonstrating its advantages. However, Pp-IX fluorescence is dependent upon the surgeons eyes perception of red fluorescent colour. This study was designed to evaluate human eye fluorescence perception and establish a fluorescence scale. Materials and methods: 20 of 108 pre-recorded images from intraoperative fluorescence of HGG were used to construct an 8-panel visual analogue fluorescence scale. The scale was validated by testing 56 participants with normal colour vision and three red-green colour-blind participants. For intra-rater agreement ten participants were tested twice and for inter-observer reliability the whole cohort were tested. Results: The intra- and inter-observer reliability of the scale in normal colour vision participants was excellent. The scale was less reliable in the violet-blue panels of the scale. Colour-blind participants were not able to distinguish between red fluorescence and blue-violet colours. Conclusion: The 8-panel fluorescence scale is valid in differentiating red, pink and blue colours in a fluorescence surgical field among participants with normal colour perception and potentially useful to standardize fluorescence-guided surgery. However, colourblind surgeons should not use fluorescence-guided surgery.

  • 34.
    Falk, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Instagram – ett medium för varumärken: En undersökande kvantitativ studie om att utifrån faktorer för konsumenters beteenden skapa varumärkesvärde på Instagram.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies are today active with their brands on the image-based social media Instagram. When using Instagram for marketing purposes, brands are affected by the fact that Instagram as a web 2.0-medium allows users to interact with other users and control what, when, where and how they want to consume information themselves. Marketing that persuade through disruption, repetition and an intrusive presence has become increasingly ineffective. To reach consumers with their marketing companies therefore need to engage Instagram users to follow and continue to follow their brands. In order to create favourable results for the brand, companies must thus understand consumers and what their behaviours are based on. This study therefore intends to examine how Instagram can be used to create brand value based on factors for consumer behaviour on the service.

    The theory that has been used as a basis for this study's data collection and analysis is about customer-based brand equity, human needs and motives for the use of social media. The data collection was based on a quantitative exploratory study using questionnaires and supporting documentation. The survey was used to collect data on consumers' demands and expectations on the service and their motives for following and continue to follow brands there, which was then used to identify factors for consumer behaviour on Instagram.

    The study shows that entertainment-related and information-related aspects are those influencing if consumers choose to follow and continue to follow brands on Instagram the most, while social aspects are not as prominent. The largest individual motives for following brands are entertainment, inspiration, beautiful pictures/videos, and news about the brand. When the factors that are identified in the study are related to brand value it can be seen that brand activities on Instagram mainly affect a brand's image.

  • 35.
    Eriksson, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wennerstål, Rebecka
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hållbart varumärke: En fallstudie på Vattenfall om hur kommunikationen av hållbarhetsarbetet påverkar varumärket2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate social responsibility is a highly relevant subject discussed in media and business. Larger companies are expected to deal with sustainability questions and the corporate brand is highly affected by their sustainability work. The development of new communication channels, such as the internet, mobile broadband and social media, has led to increased demands for transparency and companies who do not communicate their responsibility externally are seen with suspiciousness. The difficulty with sustainability communications is to communicate to the public what the company is doing in terms of sustainability. The communication must create an image of the company that is as close to reality as possible and not being perceived as a manipulating PR trick. The purpose of this study is to understand the link between sustainability work, sustainability communication and corporate brand. It also aims to identify success factors for creating a sustainable corporate brand. The study was conducted as a qualitative case study of the project One Tonne Life, conducted by Vattenfall in collaboration with several other partners in 2009-2011. The One Tonne Life project is seen by Vattenfall as a good example of a successful sustainability communication, which makes it an interesting case to study in order to develop theories about how a company should work.

    A corporate brand is not limited to its logo and graphic profile, but consists of identity and personality. The corporate brand can be seen as a combination of several different identities. In this study we have chosen to focus on seven identities: actual-, communicated-, conceived-, covenanted-, cultural-, ideal- and desired identity. An analytical model was developed to describe the relationship between sustainability, sustainability communications and corporate branding. When sustainability is fully integrated into the company’s strategy and when it is communicated by involving stakeholders in the communication, the work and communications are inseparable. It is only with this approach that the corporate brand can be built for sustainability.

    This study shows that the corporate brand is influenced by all the company’s activities, which means that the company’s sustainability efforts and sustainability communications must be indistinguishable in order to be used to build a strong corporate brand. Findings fromthe case study concludes the importance of 1) working with a relevant sustainability issue, 2) making the work visible and put in context, 3) working with others to solve complex issues and improve the credibility, 4) involving the recipient in the communication, 5) communicating the same message through multiple channels, 6) packaging the sustainability efforts into an interesting story, and 7) gaining support for sustainability efforts internally. When following these factors, the sustainability work can be integrated into the corporate brand.

  • 36.
    Frankenstein, Katri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundberg, Loviisa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    LAURA: Kognitiv beteendeterapi för kvinnor med psykisk ohälsa till följd av en traumatisk förlossning: En randomiserad kontrollerad studie av internetadministrerad vägledd självhjälpsbehandling2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to investigate the effect of internet- administered guided self-help for women suffering from psychological problems following traumatic childbirth. The eight-week treatment program consisted of written chapters based on cognitive behavioral therapy. 56 participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n = 28) or a waiting list group (n = 28).The results showed that post-traumatic symptoms decreased as a result of the treatment, with large within-group effects measured by both the Traumatic Event Scale (TES) (d = 1.33) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) (d = 1.3). The difference between the groups was only significant when measured by the IES-R in which case the between-group effect was large (d = 0.97). The proportion of the participants who showed clinically significant improvement was considerably greater in the treatment group than in the waiting list group. For other measured outcomes, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), the difference between the groups were not significant,however the treatment group showed significant improvements between pre-and post measurements on all accounts.LAURA is most likely the first study to examine the treatment of psychological problems following traumatic childbirth. The results are promising and overall show that internet-administered cognitive behavioral therapy reduces post-traumatic symptoms following a traumatic childbirth, indicating a decrease in symptoms of anxiety and depression, and an improvement in quality of life.

  • 37.
    Berglund, Josefin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hasselquist, Kaisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fonologi hos svenska 5- och 6-åringar med typisk språkutveckling: Referensmaterial till det fonologiska testmaterialet LINUS2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new phonological test, LINUS, for Swedish-speaking children between the ages of three and seven, has been developed at the speech and language pathology department at Linköping University. The aim of the present study was to create a reference manual for the long version of the new test. The participants in the present study were children between the ages of five to seven in a medium-sized municipality in the Northern part of Kalmar County, Sweden. In total, 124 native Swedish-speaking children (58 girls and 66 boys) with typical language development participated. The children were divided into two age groups, 5;0-5;11;31 and 6;0-6;11;31 years. The collected data was analysed with respect to acquisition of phonemes and word structure processes. Percentage of correctly produced words (PWC), consonants (PCC) and vowels (PVC) were calculated.All phonemes, except /s/, were established in both age groups. The phoneme /s/ was found to be either substituted or distorted. Among the 5-year old children /s/ was established for 84%, substitutions of /s/ were found in 7% and distortions were found in 23%. Among the 6-year old children /s/ was established for 88%. Substitutions of /s/ were found in 3% and distortions in 16% of the 6-year old children. The phoneme /r/ proved to be a borderline case for acquisition in the younger age group (91%). The most common word structure process in both groups was assimilation. A significant difference between the two age groups was found for assimilation (p=0,022), with lower occurrence in the older group. Two-consonant clusters (CC) and three-consonant clusters (CCC) were not frequently reduced, although it was found that CC-clusters were reduced more frequently than CCC-clusters. Both the age groups had high percentages of correctly produced words, consonants and vowels. The analysis revealed the following results: PWC for 5-years olds was 93% and 6-years olds 97%. PCC for 5-year olds was 98% and for 6-year olds 99%. PVC for both age groups was 100%. An age difference was shown for PWC, but not for the other measures. No gender differences were found.

  • 38.
    Åkesson, Emilia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Affectivity in the classroom: A contribution to a feminist corpomaterial intersectional pedagogy2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study I aim to contribute to the field of feminist corpomaterial intersectional pedagogies, which I understand as a part of the broader field of feminist postconstructionist pedagogies. Against the background of feminist postconstructionism I wish to overcome binary understandings of for example discourse/materiality, theory/practice, male/female and mind/body in pedagogies. To follow this through I have analysed how affects and emotions are present in a classroom by studying the possibility of taking a starting point in the body while rethinking the anti-oppressive and norm critical pedagogical idea of the self-reflective teacher. In order to challenge the idea of the teacher as a neutral, universal and rational knowledge producer, I have in this study analysed how one can affectively and emotionally situate teacher-bodies and participant-bodies in a classroom.

     

    The analysis was carried out on the basis of empirical material collected at a workshop on corporeality and norm critical pedagogy organised in a teacher-training program at a Swedish university. The workshop was conducted as intra-active-research and the material consists of my field diary, eight written interviews, one oral interview and my experiences from leading the workshop. I argue in this study that teacher-bodies affectively and emotionally could be situated as both following a corporeal schema, an expected plan for how a teacher-body should act and move, and also as stepping away from and disrupting this schema. Further on I argue that teacher-bodies could be situated as memory banks and as working from memory. I stress how important it is in pedagogic situations to be aware of the ways in which bodies in a room affect and are affected by each other, in other words; how bodies “do not end at the skin”. This affective and emotional situatedness shows how it is possible to overcome the idea of teachers and students as bodily neutral. I also argue that it might be important to integrate workshops on corporealities in teacher training. This could be one possible way to start to think on one’s affectively and emotionally situatedness as teacher, something I claim as required if one aspires for a feminist intersectional corpomaterial pedagogy. 

  • 39.
    Mujnovic, Haris
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Månsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ën studie angående SSAB och VMI: Ett beslutsunderlag2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    SSAB is a Swedish producer of steel founded in 1978. In recent years, the company has suffered from reduced margins and been experiencing financial losses. As a result of this, SSAB is trying to increase its competitiveness by offering value added services to its customers. Therefore, SSAB is interested in learning whether VMI is such a service.

    The purpose of this study is to produce a decision support to SSAB regarding whether the prerequisites for VMI collaboration exist between SSAB and its customers, how this collaboration should be designed and what cost changes will occur. The purpose has been divided into three areas. The areas are whether the prerequisites for VMI collaboration exist between SSAB and its customers, how the VMI collaboration should be designed and what cost changes will occur. Following three main questions have been produced to answer the areas:

    1. Do the prerequisites for VMI collaboration exist between SSAB and its customers?
    2. How should SSAB’s VMI offer be designed?
    3. How does the VMI collaboration affect the costs?

    The authors have collected empiricist by interviews and surveys. Three customers have been studied in the empirical data collection who, according to SSAB, are representative for other direct and consignment stock customers. The collected data and the literature studies have enabled the authors to analyze and to do calculations, which have led to conclusions that answer the main questions. These conclusions are summarized in the table below.

    Question 1: Do the prerequisites for VMI collaboration exist between SSAB and its customers?

    Conclusion 1: The study has concluded that the prerequisites for VMI collaboration exist in the studied cases.

    Question 2: How should SSAB’s VMI offer be designed?

    Conclusion 2: SSAB should be responsible for all aspects of the VMI collaboration, except for forecasting and stock-picking in the VMI stock. SSAB’s and the customers’ business systems should be connected by EDI and SSAB should own the products in the VMI stock. The customer is invoiced when the products leave the stock and a Closed End Agreement should be in place.

    Question 3: How does the VMI collaboration affect the costs?

    Conclusion 3: The stock holding costs will especially increase when direct customers become VMI customers. Furthermore, the study indicates that the stock holding costs will decrease in cases of consignment stock customers becoming VMI customers. Other costs that are affected by a VMI collaboration can be neglected.

  • 40.
    Timliden, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Domain-Specific Language data- validation and manipulation in a case handlingsystem2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis creates a Domain-Specific Languages (DSL) implementation and integration inside the iipax case handling software. The implementation investigated advantages with Domain-Specific Languages. Following agile software development methods the paper results in a functioning Domain-Specific Language emulating written English.

  • 41.
    Chung, Yichu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Making Knowledge Permanent in Temporary Structures: The Role of Incentives for Knowledge Integration in Project-based Organizations2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge is increasingly seen as the organization’s most important asset. The knowledge-based view dictates that by understanding the importance of knowledge as a competitive advantage, and leveraging it, organizations can compete in a differentiated and sustainably advantageous way. In project-based organizations where individuals with different specialized knowledge meet and create new knowledge together, this might be seen as especially valuable. Despite having a big impact on both the academic and managerial world, organizations seem struggle when actually faced with the practical implications of integrating knowledge in the firms.This problem has been highlighted both in research, as well as in an empirical pre-study. Understanding where this problem stems from is an important step in finding a way to solve it. Following the idea that the use of incentive systems has long been an effective way of steering behavior in organizational members, we wonder what the role of incentive systems is in the context of knowledge integration in project-based organizations.  

    Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate and analyze if missing or deficient incentive systems is the reason why project-based organizations struggle with knowledge integration.

  • 42.
    Norström, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Measuring Accurancy of Vulnerability Scanners: An Evaluation with SQL Injections2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Web application vulnerabilities of critical are commonly found in web applications. The arguably most problematic class of web application vulnerabilities is SQL injections. SQL injection vulnerabilities can be used to execute commands on the database coupled to the web application, e.g., to extract the web application’s user and passwords data. Black box testing tools are often used (both by system owners and their adversaries) to discover vul- nerabilities in a running web application. Hence, how well they perform at discovering SQL injection vulnerabilities is of importance. This thesis describes an experiment assessing de- tection capability for different SQL injection vulnerabilities under different conditions. In the experiment the following is varied: SQL injection vulnerability (17 instances allowing tautologies, piggy-backed queries, and logically incorrect queries), scanners (four products), exploitability (three levels), input vector (POST/GET), and time investment (three levels). The number of vulnerabilities detected is largely determined by the choice of scanner (30% to 77%) and the input vector (71% or 38%). The interaction between the scanner and input vector is substantial since two scanners cannot handle the POST-vector at all. Substantial differences are also found between how well different SQL injection vulnerabilities are de- tected and the more exploitable variants are detected more often, as expected. The impact of time spent with the scan interacts with the scanner - some scanners required considerable time to configure and other did not – and as a consequence the relationship between time investments to detection capabilities is non-trivial.

  • 43.
    Dalborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henriksson, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Outsourcing R&D in the Defense Industry: Developing Strategies for Collaborating with Indian Suppliers2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An important step in making an impact on the Indian market, Saab India Technology Center, SITC, was inaugurated on October 21, 2011. SITC is a collaboration with the Indian company Tech Mahindra, and supplies all of Saab’s Business Areas with skilled engineers. The growing interest for SITC has spread to TDH, the department for Human Machine Interface and Avionics. Possible benefits, but also challenges, of utilizing SITC have been discussed. This thesis attempts to address challenges and maximize benefits for TDH by exploring how a Swedish R&D organization in the defense industry, that has a tradition of performing most work in-house, can initiate outsourcing to a supplier in India. In order to do this, a literature study was performed. Since gaps in the literature regarding outsourcing in the defense industry were identified, a combination of a descriptive and exploratory research approach was chosen. Following the literature study, interviews were conducted to collect experience from working with external partners at TDH, experience from working with SITC, experience from other companies that have outsourced R&D to India and experience of working with Saab from SITC. Empirical data was also gathered via informal meetings and observations during the researchers’ 5 month stay at TDH in Sweden and SITC in India.

    The outcome of this study shows that drivers and risks for outsourcing R&D, as well as the characteristics of the outsourcer and the supplier, will influence how the strategy for initiating outsourcing should be built. TDH’s main drivers in deciding to use SITC are mainly cost reduction goals, the possibility to access the Indian defense market and the opportunity to gain knowledge from collaborating with international suppliers. The type of risk that is most urgent for TDH is operational risk. Risks in this category, like overestimating cost reduction and risks associated with not understanding cultural differences are all highly relevant for any organization with limited experience in outsourcing.

    Strategy wise, the main finding is that an R&D organization in the defense industry will benefit from working in a more collaborative manner than traditional outsourcing entails. In an R&D organization, tasks are often complex and highly integrated with each other which, combined with a limited level of outsourcing experience, requires a tighter collaboration. With a high level of involvement from the outsourcer, problems can be detected early and insufficient requirements can be handled. Close collaboration also enhances knowledge sharing, which is important to ensure that the goal of gaining knowledge from international collaboration is achieved. Furthermore, organizational acceptance can be improved by a collaboration that enables close contact between outsourcer and supplier. Improving acceptance in the organization for collaborating with the supplier should be prioritized in order to strengthen the positive effects of outsourcing.

  • 44. Garner, B
    et al.
    Li, Wei
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Roberg, K
    Brunk, UT
    On the cytoprotective role of ferritin in macrophages and its ability to enhance lysosomal stability.1997In: Free radical research, ISSN 1071-5762, Vol. 27, 487-500 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Macrophages have a great capacity to take up (e.g. by endocytosis and phagocytosis) exogenous sources of iron which could potentially become cytotoxic, particularly following the intralysosomal formation of low-molecular weight, redox active iron, and under conditions of oxidative stress. Following autophagocytosis of endogenous ferritin/apoferritin, these compounds may serve as chelators of such lysosomal iron and counteract the occurrence of iron-mediated intralysosomal oxidative reactions. Such redox-reactions have been shown to lead to destabilisation of lysosomal membranes and result in leakage of damaging lysosomal contents to the cytosol. In this study we have shown: (i) human monocyte-derived macrophages to accumulate ferritin in response to iron exposure; (ii) iron to destabilise macrophage secondary lysosomes when the cells are exposed to H2O2; and (iii) endocytosed apoferritin to act as a stabiliser of the acidic vacuolar compartment of iron-loaded macrophages. While the endogenous ferritin accumulation which was induced by iron exposure was not sufficient to protect cells from the damaging effects of H2O2, exogenously added apoferritin, as well as the potent iron chelator desferrioxamine, afforded significant protection. It is suggested that intralysosomal formation of haemosiderin, from partially degraded ferritin, is a protective strategy to suppress intralysosomal iron-catalysed redox reactions. However, under conditions of severe macrophage lysosomal iron-overload, induction of ferritin synthesis is not enough to completely prevent the enhanced cytotoxic effects of H2O2.

  • 45.
    Faisal, Fahad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of methods for EMF in-situ measurements of LTE base stations2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze two proposed methods for in-situ measurements of electromagnetic fields transmitted by LTE base stations. One of the methods is based on measurements of physical broadcast channel (PBCH) using basic spectrum analyzer, whereas the other method is based on measurements of the reference signal (RS) using a decoder. Both alternatives are proposed to be used for extrapolation to the maximum electromagnetic field exposure level at full base station traffic load. The analysis is conducted with respect to instrument requirements, accuracy and time requirements. Different instrument settings of the spectrum analyzer and their impact on the measurement results is analyzed and discussed.

    In this work around 70% cases from all the measurements; the spectrum analyzer method overestimate the electric field strength compared with the LTE decoder method. All spectrum analyzer based measurements conducted in the main beam of an antenna at distances of less than 100 m were within ± 20% compared with the decoder results. Measurement results obtained in a reflective environment show that both methods are affected by fading, but significant deviations between the two methods indicate that the spectrum analyzer method is more sensitive to frequency selective fading.

    Based on the results and experiences obtained in this work the following conclusions have been drawn:

    • In the main beam of an antenna and for distances from the antenna of less than 100 m the two methods agree within ± 20 %.
    • When conducting spectrum analyzer based measurements in reflective environments it is important to follow standardized guidelines in order to avoid underestimating results
    • The decoder based method is most suitable when assessing the electric fields within a specific cell, for example to determine the compliance boundary of an antenna, whereas the spectrum analyzer based method is more suitable for general assessment, e.g. measurements in environments such as offices or other areas where no specific antenna is considered and slight deviation is acceptable.
    • The max-hold time for the spectrum analyzer method currently recommended in the latest draft of EN 50492 can be reduced to 5 s.
  • 46.
    Boddu, Srinivas Reddy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    What is the relationship between task-based and open-ended usability testing, in terms of measuring satisfaction?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Usability is one of the most important aspects of Information Technology. Usability plays a vital role in this industry, where organizations thrive to ensure utmost satisfaction of their end-users in regard to the experience of using their product. The systems may be a website or a software application. To measure user satisfaction, the method of usability testing can be performed. Performing usability testing gives a clear picture of difficulties that would be faced by potential target users. There are different types of usability testing such as Task-based usability testing, open ended usability testing, remote usability testing etc. The important point here is about deciding upon the most appropriate type of testing technique to get the accurate user satisfaction level.

    This study is mainly focused to answer the following research question: What is the relationship between the task-based and open ended usability testing, in terms of measuring satisfaction? System Usability Scale (SUS) has been used to measure the satisfaction of the users in this study. For this we used two websites performing task-based usability testing and open ended usability testing respectively.

    This study had involved twenty eight different participants. Participants are divided into two groups, one group to perform open ended usability testing and another for task-based usability testing for both the websites. This study has produced following results; Open-ended testing tended to produce higher SUS-ratings for the tested system. The results in this study showed that users performing open-ended usability testing gave positive responses for both the websites in terms of user satisfaction. Open-ended usability testing is an exploratory testing, where the testing is based on different aspects such as user interface of the system, design etc. Task-based usability testing is goal based where users have to complete the given task without fail. This method drew lower scores when compared to open-ended usability testing for the tested systems from the attained results. Nevertheless that task-based testing attained lower SUS scores, it is fairly straight forward than open-ended testing to measure efficiency and effectiveness. The above results have been discussed in detail. This study has finally concluded that to measure the usability of a system it is recommended to practice both the open-ended and task-based usability testing techniques.

  • 47.
    Willén, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis of azidoethyl 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-α-D-mannopyranoside for future bioconjugation in PET studies2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Positron emission tomography is a powerful imaging method capable of diagnosing and studyingdiseases at atomic levels. The following thesis involves the synthesis of a 2 -deoxy-2 -[18F]uoro-D-glucose derivative able to participate in click chemisty conjugation. The synthesis involves six stepswith D-mannopyranose as starting material; regioselective acetylation and protection of the hydroxylgroup on C-2 of the monosaccharide, glycosylation with 2-azidoethanol, removal of the selectiveprotecting group and substitution of the hydroxyl group on C-2 with uorine. The potential toconjugate the glycoside to other biomolecules and obtain PET data might have uses in diagnosticaland medicinal chemistry.

  • 48.
    Kawai, Maho
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    THE APPLICATION OF POLITENESS THEORY INTO ENGLISH EDUCATION IN JAPAN2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Japan, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) revised the Course of Study in English education twice in the last decade (in 2002 and in 2011), and the drastic changes have been made especially in the section of communicative skills: introduction of English study in elementary school, teaching English in English in high school, requirement of the subject ‘Oral Communication I’ in high school, etc. The aim of the revisions is to produce international individuals, who have high English proficiency not only in input-skills but also in output-skills, especially in speaking (MEXT 2004: 90, MEXT 2011). Despite the revisions of the Course of Study, Japan is still ranked low in English proficiency not only among the developed countries but also among the Asian countries (Sakamoto 2012: 409; Sullivan and Schatz 2009: 586; Educational Testing Service 2012).

    Inputs on different cultures and languages take an important role in language learning especially in the modern society where students have high chances to encounter cross-cultural communication. The politeness strategy is one of those factors that the social actors must learn for the sound relationships with others. Each culture has its own politeness strategy; therefore, miscommunication is observed more often in intercultural conversations due to the various conceptualization of politeness in different cultures (Sifianou 1992: 216). That is, comprehending the diversity in politeness strategy seems to be a clue of smooth communication and better apprehension of different cultures in cross-culture conversations. The Course of Study for foreign languages and English language also refers to the significance of comprehending various cultures and languages (MEXT 2009); however, as previous studies represent the Japanese students studying abroad or the Japanese businessman in intercultural communications seem to lack the understanding of the western politeness strategy (cf. Fujio 2004, Nakane 2006). Besides, it is vague what ‘different cultures’ refers to in the Course of Study for English. Based on the attitudes of the Japanese students towards cross-cultural communication and ambiguous explanation on ‘cultural learning’ by the Course of the Study, I assume that one of the reasons why Japan cannot achieve the communication-focused curriculum might be attributed to the lack of politeness theory perspective in English learning. Taking differences in politeness strategies between the western societies and the Japanese ones into consideration, it seems to be unfeasible and insufficient to only increase the number of communicative lessons and compel students into speaking English. The differences in politeness strategy should be applied into English learning in order to boost the English proficiency of Japanese students and produce globalized students.

    The present paper focuses on the following two aspects of English learning in Japan in order to test the hypothesis:

    • The Course of Study in English learning in Japan does not specify what is ‘cultural learning’, which triggers the lack of politeness perspective
    • The lack of politeness learning obstruct Japanese students to successful crosscultural communication

    In the present paper, in order to observe the application of the politeness theory in English learning, firstly English textbooks used in Japan are analyzed in terms of the politeness theory by focusing on the following four aspects: silence, speech style, ambiguity, and hierarchical relationship. Previous studies have shown that extinctive differences between the western politeness and the Japanese politeness in communication are obviously revealed in those four points (cf. Fujio 2004; Kameda  2001; Nakane 2006). In addition to the analysis of the English textbooks, an interview on the correlation between English learning and politeness theory is conducted on international Japanese in order to observe how they acquire the western politeness strategy, how English learning at school functioned to learn the western politeness strategy, etc. (cf. see 3. for details). To contextualize this paper, the politeness theory and the previous studies on the relation between the Japanese politeness and crossculture communication will be presented first, and a brief overview of English education in Japan and tendencies in Japanese schooling will follow.

  • 49.
    Backström, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bäckman, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rädda världen för 100 kronor i månaden: En kvalitativ textanalys av UNICEF Sveriges hemsida2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted by using a qualitative textual analysis on UNICEF Sweden’s website with the purpose of problematizing the role of UNICEF Sweden in today’s globalised society. This was done in the context of how organisations of civil society have gained influence. Following questions were answered: How does UNICEF Sweden legitimise its operation? Which strategies does UNICEF Sweden use to encourage involvement and donations?

    The study shows how UNICEF Sweden legitimises its work by promoting a unique influence, their unique methods of work and by showing how the organisation helps the most disadvantaged children. This is interpreted as strategies to establish donor trust. UNICEF Sweden encourages involvement and donations by packaging relief efforts into products that conveys a sensation of helping others, which can be understood in relation to the consumer society. UNICEF Sweden’s role in society appears to be significant. It is problematic though that the donor phenomenon tends to simplify the social problems and reduces aid efforts into commercialised products.

  • 50.
    Grujicic, Misel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Madsen, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Återhämtningsprocessen hos en svensk livsmedelsproducent efter ett allvarligt produktfel: En studie av Findus hantering av ”Hästköttsskandalen” under våren 20132014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with a Swedish company in a food industry that got affected by product failure, which led to consumer trust crisis followed by media and was needed to be managed. Situation had a negative impact on company’s trademark, which acquired long recovery work by the company. Study is following a case example of Findus problems with having horse meat in their meat product that was supposed to contain beef meat. Study aims to research how the company dealt with situation, through crisis communication and recovery strategies. This study has conducted two content analyses, one for traditional media and one for blogs (social media channel), one participating observation at Findus production facilities and also conducted one qualitative interview with Findus. The study has been conducted with a slightly deductive approach and is a qualitative study in a constructionist way.

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