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  • 1.
    Doherty, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, KPLAB - Knowledge Processing Lab.
    al, et
    2003 AAAI Spring Symposium Series2003In: The AI Magazine, ISSN 0738-4602, Vol. 24, no 3, 131-140 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The American Association for Artificial Intelligence, in cooperation with Stanford University’s Department of Computer Science, presented the 2003 Spring Symposium Series, Monday through Wednesday, 24–26 March 2003, at Stanford University.  The titles of the eight symposia were Agent-Mediated Knowledge Management, Computational Synthesis: From Basic Building Blocks to High- Level Functions, Foundations and Applications of Spatiotemporal Reasoning (FASTR), Human Interaction with Autonomous Systems in Complex Environments, Intelligent Multimedia Knowledge Management, Logical Formalization of Commonsense Reasoning, Natural Language Generation in Spoken and Written Dialogue, and New Directions in Question-Answering Motivation.

  • 2.
    Bergh, Torsten
    et al.
    Swedish Transport Adm, Sweden; Movea Trafikkonsult, Sweden.
    Remgard, Mats
    Swedish Transport Adm, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Olstam, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Strömgren, Per
    Movea Trafikkonsult, Sweden.
    2+1-roads Recent Swedish Capacity and Level-of-Service Experience2016In: INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ENHANCING HIGHWAY PERFORMANCE (ISEHP), (7TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF SERVICE, 3RD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON FREEWAY AND TOLLWAY OPERATIONS), ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 15, 331-345 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first Swedish 2+1 median barrier road was opened in 1998. The concept was to retrofit the standard existing two-lane 13 m paved width cross-section at 90 and 110 kph posted speed limit without widening. This design has one continuous lane in each direction, a middle lane changing direction every one to three kilometres with a median barrier separating the two traffic directions. Today over 2 700 km 2+1 median barrier roads are opened for traffic. AADTs vary from some 3 000 to 20 000 with an average just below 10 000 nowadays normally with 100 kph. The concept has lately been enhanced also to cover the existing 9 m paved width cross-section. The design concept is the same from a drivers viewpoint, one continuous lane in each direction with a middle lane changing direction and a separating median barrier. This is created by introducing a continuous median barrier and adding overtaking lanes within an overtaking strategy. The differences are the existence of 1+1-sections, less overtaking opportunities and a slightly more narrow cross-section. Some 15 projects are opened. The purpose of this paper is to summarize present knowledge on level-of-service issues as they are presented in Swedish design and assessment guidelines and to give an overview of field measurements and theoretical analytical and simulation studies supporting the recommendations.

  • 3.
    Schenkel, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Sundin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    36 § avtalslagen – till konsumentens värn?: Högsta domstolens domskäls förenlighet med syftet enligt prop. 1975/76: 812015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Provision 36 of the Swedish Contract Act (SFS 1915:218) was introduced in 1976 in order to ensure legal protection for consumers in their relation to traders. The requisit ”unreasonably” however, on the one hand, is claimed to be too imprecise to be percceived to be legally secure for contractors. On the other hand, there is the perception that the meaning of the general clause is to leave room for a legally freer assessment. The purpose of this essay is to, with the data which can be provided by legislative history and the jurisprudence of the Supreme Court, examine the grounds, which are determined to fulfill the original purpose of the general clause, are satisfactory from a legally certain aspect. In the legislative history, we can see that the inquiry established that, the introduction of a general clause in the Swedish Contract Act, would be a valuable addition from a legally secure and predictable perspective. Then the inquiry deemed that an adjustment of unfair terms would be preferable, in case contracts shall be regulated using the general clause. Whether a term can be considered unfair, the inquirys opinion was that, the content of the agreement, the circumstances that existed when the contract was agreed, later occured conditions and the circumstances in general, had to be taken in account. The majority of the respondents concurred in the inquriys opinion about the reading of the general clause. However, according to the respondents assessments, the word ”unreasonably”, was preferable to the word ”unfair”. The rapporteur and the Council on Legislation considered the inquiry having reported to vaguely on the reading of the general clause, but they agreed with the respondents that the word ”unreasonably” was to prefer instead of ”unfair”. From the court cases, which are presented for in the essay, it is possible to determine that the most prominent grounds established by the Supreme Court, is predictability, the inferior position of the consumer and the clarity of contractual terms. In a predominantly number of court cases we believe the Supreme Court´s verdicts to be consistent with the purpose which permeated the legislative history. A few verdicts, however, are ambiguous, since we believe that the Supreme Court's reasoning, in the assessment of certain contractual terms of clarity, is inconsistent. We have found that the consequence of this is that there are far too high demands on the consumer, to the extent that it is required by him, to have firsthand knowledge of current legislation. Another problem with provision 36 of the Swedish Contract Act, seems to be that its enforcement in some cases leads to conflict with legal principles, for instance, the principle of predictability and the within contract law established principle, "pacta sunt servanda".

  • 4.
    Dunström, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Holmberg, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Jannering, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lundberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Tuhkala, Hannes
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Wallström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    3D-Kopiering: Registrering och meshning av punktmoln för utskrift2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The technology to be able to print 3D objects has been available for many years, but it is only recently that 3D printers have been made available for regular consumers. There is one issue though: to be able to use the 3D printer either knowledge of CAD software or 3D models made by others are needed. By using a system for 3D copying a real object can instead be copied. This report presents a bachelor project that was done by seven students studying engineering programs in computer science or software technology at Linköping University, 2017. The goal of the project was to develop a system that could take several point clouds as input and then register them to a complete point cloud. Then use this point cloud to generate a 3D mesh to be printed on a 3D printer. The 3D printer will then be able to print the object. In the early stages of the project the main focus was to develop an already existing system. This goal was then renegotiated since the existing system contained several errors. The project resulted in 3DCopy, a software system that registers point clouds and from these point clouds generates a 3D mesh.

  • 5.
    Sanjuan, Joseba
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3G Energy-Efficient Packet Handling Kernel Module for Android2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile devices is increasing due to the constant development of more advanced and appealing applications and computing features. However, these new features are very power hungry leading to short battery lifetimes. Research shows that a major reason for fast battery depletion is the excessive and inefficient use of the wireless interfaces. This thesis studies how we can attempt to increase the battery lifetime of the devices without having to sacrifice the usage of these advanced features in some applications.

    The thesis focuses on adapting the traffic pattern characteristics of mobile communication using a widespread wireless communication technology like 3G. Traffic pattern adaptation is performed at packet level in kernel space in Android. The data transfers are scheduled with the knowledge of the energy consumption characteristics of 3G. The performed measurements indicate that our solution can provide energy savings ranging from 7% to 59%.

    This work confirms that 3G conscious scheduling of network traffic reduces energy consumption, and that, both applications and energy saving libraries are potential directions to be further studied.

  • 6. Eriksson, IS
    et al.
    Allard, P.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Geriatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MC - Medicincentrum, Geriatrik-LAH.
    (3H)tiagabine binding to GABA uptake sites in human brain.1999In: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, Vol. 18, no 1-2, 183-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The binding of [H-3]tiagabine ((RS-1-(4,4-(3-methyl-2-thienyl)-3-butenyl)-3 carboxylic acid) to homogenates of frozen post-mortem human brain has been characterized. Inhibition experiments with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAB,4), GABA uptake inhibitors, ligands active at postsynaptic GABA receptors and receptors for other neurotransmitters, suggest that [H-3]tiagabine binds with high affinity to GABA uptake sites. Inhibition and kinetic experiments suggests that 70%-80% of the binding is to a high affinity site. Saturation experiments showed that the binding was saturable. B-max was 3.4 pmol/mg protein and K-d 16 nM in frontal cortex. The dissociation constants (K-d) measured in kinetic and equilibrium experiments were in the same range (16-56 nM). The regional distribution was studied in nine brain regions and the binding was heterogenous, with the highest binding in frontal cortex and parietal cortex and the lowest binding in nucleus caudatus and putamen. This is, to our knowledge, the first study on [H-3]tiagabine binding in human tissue. It is concluded that [H-3]tiagabine binding can be used as a specific marker for the GABA transporter GAT-1 in homogenates of human brain.

  • 7.
    Cahill, N
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bergh, Ann-Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kanduri, M
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Göransson-Kultima, H
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mansouri, L
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Isaksson, A
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ryan, F
    Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland.
    Smedby, K E
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Juliusson, G
    Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland.
    Sundström, C
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rosén, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rosenquist, R
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    450K-array analysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells reveals global DNA methylation to be relatively stable over time and similar in resting and proliferative compartments2013In: Leukemia, ISSN 0887-6924, E-ISSN 1476-5551, Vol. 27, no 1, 150-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the microenvironment influences gene expression patterns; however, knowledge is limited regarding the extent to which methylation changes with time and exposure to specific microenvironments. Using high-resolution 450K-arrays, we provide the most comprehensive DNA methylation study of CLL to date, analysing paired diagnostic/follow-up samples from IGHV-mutated/untreated and IGHV-unmutated/treated patients (n=36) and patient-matched peripheral blood and lymph node samples (n=20). On an unprecedented scale, we revealed 2239 differentially methylated CpG sites between IGHV-mutated and unmutated patients, with the majority of sites positioned outside annotated CpG islands. Intriguingly, CLL prognostic genes (e.g. CLLU1, LPL, ZAP70, NOTCH1), epigenetic regulator (e.g. HDAC9, HDAC4, DNMT3B), B-cell signaling (e.g. IBTK) and numerous TGF-ß and NF-κB/TNF pathway genes were alternatively methylated between subgroups. Contrary, DNA methylation over time was deemed rather stable with few recurrent changes noted within subgroups. Although a larger number of non-recurrent changes were identified among IGHV-unmutated relative to mutated cases over time, these equated to a low global change. Similarly, few changes were identified between compartment cases. Altogether, we reveal CLL subgroups to display unique methylation profiles and unveil methylation as relatively stable over time and similar within different CLL compartments, implying aberrant methylation as an early leukemogenic event.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 27 August 2012; doi:10.1038/leu.2012.245.

  • 8.
    Evaldsson, Chamilly
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rydén, Ingvar
    Division of Clinical Chemistry, Kalmar County Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Rosén, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Uppugunduri, Srinivas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    4-Thiouridine induces dose-dependent reduction of oedema, leucocyte influx and tumour necrosis factor in lung inflammation2009In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 155, no 2, 330-338 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent reports demonstrate a role for nucleotides as inflammatory modulators. Uridine, for example, reduces oedema formation and leucocyte infiltration in a Sephadex-induced lung inflammation model. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) concentration was also reduced. Previous in vivo observations indicated that 4-thiouridine might have similar effects on leucocyte infiltration and TNF release. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the effects of 4-thiouridine in greater detail. We used a Sephadex-induced acute lung inflammation model in Sprague-Dawley rats. The dextran beads were instilled intratracheally into the lungs, which were excised and examined after 24 h. Sephadex alone led to massive oedema formation and infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils. Microgranulomas with giant cell formations were clearly visible around the partially degraded beads. A significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) content of TNF and leukotrienes was also seen. 4-Thiouridine co-administration affected all variables investigated in this model, i.e. oedema, microscopic and macroscopic appearance of lung tissue, total leucocyte and differential leucocyte counts in BALF, TNF and leukotrienes C-4 (LTC4), LTD4 and LTE4 in BALF, indicating a reproducible anti-inflammatory effect. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that 4-thiouridine has anti-inflammatory effects similar to those of uridine. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of pharmacological 4-thiouridine effects in vivo. The results suggest nucleoside/nucleotide involvement in inflammatory processes, warranting further studies on nucleoside analogues as attractive new alternatives in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  • 9.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science.
    Johansson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Albers, Jan
    City Hospital Ryhov.
    Wiberg, Jan
    City Hospital Ryhov.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Vaxjö University.
    6-month CPAP-treatment in a young male patient with severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome - A case study from the couples perspective2008In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, Vol. 7, no 2, 103-112 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is independently associated with an increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can reduce mortality and morbidity, but low compliance rates are seen. Aim: To explore and describe the experiences of CPAP-treatment in a young male patient with severe OSAS during a 6-month period from the couples perspective.

    Methods and the case: A single case study with a phenomenographic approach was employed. Diagnostic procedures of OSAS and initiation of treatment with Auto-CPAP, humidifier and a nasal mask were performed during 4 visits. Conceptions were collected at 4 different occasions during the 6-month period (before, and 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment initiation) by means of interviews with a 33-year old male patient and his female partner.

    Findings: Totally 17 different structural aspects were found to fluctuate during the 6-month period in relation to; influence of stressors, social reactions and adaptation to increase compliance.

    Conclusion: An increased knowledge about the influence of stressors, the social reactions, and the adaptation can help healthcare personnel to identify and better understand concerns of other patients and spouses during different time phases of the initial 6-month period of CPAP-treatment.

  • 10.
    Kjellman, Görel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A 12-year follow-up of subjects initially sicklisted with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses2001In: Physiotherapy Research International, ISSN 1358-2267, E-ISSN 1471-2865, Vol. 6, no 1, 52-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose Neck/shoulder and low back pain are common in the Western world and can cause great personal and economic consequences, but so far there are few long term follow-up studies of the consequences of back pain, especially studies that separate the location of back pain. More knowledge is needed about different patterns of risk factors and prognoses for neck/shoulder and low back pain, respectively, and they should not be treated as similar conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible long-term differences in neck/shoulder and low back symptoms, experienced over a 12-year period, with regard to work status, present health, discomfort and influence on daily activities.

    Method A retrospective cohort study of individuals sicklisted with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses 12 years ago was undertaken. Included were all 213 people who, in 1985, lived in the municipality of Linköping, Sweden, were aged 25–34 years and who had taken at least one new period of sickleave lasting >28 days with a neck/shoulder or low back diagnosis. In 1996, a questionnaire was mailed to the 204 people who were still resident in Sweden (response rate 73%).

    Results Those initially absent with neck/shoulder diagnoses rated their present state of discomfort as worse than those sicklisted with low back diagnoses. Only 4% of the neck/shoulder group reported no present discomfort compared with 25% of the low back group. Notably, both groups reported the same duration of low back discomfort during the last year, which may indicate a higher risk for symptoms in more than one location for subjects with neck/shoulder problems.

    Conclusions Individuals with sickness absence of more than 28 days with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses appear to be at high risk of developing long-standing symptoms, significantly more so for those initially having neck/shoulder diagnoses.

  • 11.
    Fazli Yeknami, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 2.1 mu W 80 dB SNR DT Delta I pound modulator for medical implant devices in 65 nm CMOS2013In: Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, ISSN 0925-1030, E-ISSN 1573-1979, Vol. 77, no 1, 69-78 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a simple and robust low-power Delta I pound modulator for accurate ADCs in implantable cardiac rhythm management devices such as pacemakers. Taking advantage of the very low signal bandwidth of 500 Hz which enables high oversampling ratio, the objective is to obtain high SNDR and low power consumption, while limiting the complexity of the modulator to a second-order architecture. Significant power reduction is achieved by utilizing a two-stage load-compensated OTA as well as the low-V-T devices in analog circuits and switches, allowing the modulator to operate at 0.9 V supply. Fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS technology, the modulator achieves 80 dB peak SNR and 76 dB peak SNDR over a 500 Hz signal bandwidth. With a power consumption of 2.1 mu W, the modulator obtains 0.4 pJ/step FOM. To the authors knowledge, this is the lowest reported FOM, compared to the previously reported second-order modulators for such low-speed applications. The achieved FOM is also comparable to the best reported results from the higher-order Delta I pound modulators.

  • 12.
    Sundström, Timmy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices.
    A 2.4 GS/s, 4.9 ENOB at Nyquist, single-channel pipeline ADC in 65nm CMOS2010In: IEEE European Solid-State Circuits Conference, Seville: IEEE , 2010, 370-373 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a high-speed single channel pipeline analog-to-digital converter sampling at 2.4 GS/s which, to the authors' best knowledge, is the fastest reported for pipeline converters. The use of a time-borrowing clocking scheme eliminates the comparator latency from the critical path and together with the use of fast open-loop current-mode amplifiers the high sample rate is achieved. Implemented in a 65nm general purpose CMOS technology the effective number of bits is above 4.7 in the Nyquist band, being 5.4 and 4.9 at DC and Nyquist respectively. This shows that very fast pipeline ADCs are possible to implement as key building blocks in interleaved structures.

  • 13.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A +32dBm 1.85GHz Class-D Outphasing RF PA in 130nm CMOS for WCDMA/LTE2011In: Proceedings of the IEEE European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC), IEEE , 2011, 127-130 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a Class-D outphasing RF Power Amplifier (PA) which can operate at a 5.5V supply and deliver +32dBm at 1.85 GHz in a standard 130nm CMOS technology. The PA utilizes four on-chip transformers to combine the outputs of eight Class-D stages. The Class-D stages utilize a cascode configuration, driven by an AC-coupled low-voltage driver, to allow a 5.5 V supply in the 1.2/2.5 V 130nm process without excessive device voltage stress. Spectral and modulation requirements were met when a WCDMA and an LTE signal (20 MHz, 16-QAM) were applied to the outphasing PA. At +28.0 dBm channel power for the WCDMA signal, the measured ACLR at 5 MHz and 10 MHz offset were −38.7 dBc and −47.0 dBc, respectively. At +24.9 dBm channel power for the LTE signal, the measured ACLR at 20MHz offset was −34.9 dBc. To the authors' best knowledge, the PA presented in this work has a 3.9 dB higher output power compared to published CMOS Class-D RF PAs.

  • 14.
    Zhang, Dai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bhide, Ameya
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 53-nW 9.12-ENOB 1-kS/s SAR ADC in 0.13-um CMOS for medical implant devices2011In: Proceedings of the IEEE European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC), Helsinki, Finland: IEEE Solid-State Circuits Society, 2011, 467-470 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an ultra-low-power SAR ADC in 0.13-um CMOS technology for medical implant devices. It utilizes an ultra-low-power design strategy, imposing maximum simplicity in ADC architecture, low transistor count, low-voltage low-leakage circuit techniques, and matched capacitive DAC with a switching scheme which results in full-range sampling without switch bootstrapping and extra reset voltage. Furthermore, a dual-supply scheme allows the SAR logic to operate at 400mV. The ADC has been fabricated in 0.13-um CMOS. In 1.0-V single-supply mode, the ADC consumes 65nW at a sampling rate of 1kS/s, while in dual-supply mode (1.0V for analog and 0.4V for digital) it consumes 53nW (18% reduction) and achieves the same ENOB of 9.12. 24% of the 53-nW total power is due to leakage. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the lowest reported power consumption of a 10-bit ADC for such sampling rates.

  • 15. Rantanen, VV
    et al.
    Gyllenberg, M
    Koski, Timo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematical Statistics .
    Johnson, MS
    A Bayesian molecular interaction library2003In: Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, ISSN 0920-654X, Vol. 17, no 7, 435-461 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a library of molecular fragments designed to model and predict non-bonded interactions between atoms. We apply the Bayesian approach, whereby prior knowledge and uncertainty of the mathematical model are incorporated into the estimated model and its parameters. The molecular interaction data are strengthened by narrowing the atom classification to 14 atom types, focusing on independent molecular contacts that lie within a short cutoff distance, and symmetrizing the interaction data for the molecular fragments. Furthermore, the location of atoms in contact with a molecular fragment are modeled by Gaussian mixture densities whose maximum a posteriori estimates are obtained by applying a version of the expectation-maximization algorithm that incorporates hyperparameters for the components of the Gaussian mixtures. A routine is introduced providing the hyperparameters and the initial values of the parameters of the Gaussian mixture densities. A model selection criterion, based on the concept of a 'minimum message length' is used to automatically select the optimal complexity of a mixture model and the most suitable orientation of a reference frame for a fragment in a coordinate system. The type of atom interacting with a molecular fragment is predicted by values of the posterior probability function and the accuracy of these predictions is evaluated by comparing the predicted atom type with the actual atom type seen in crystal structures. The fact that an atom will simultaneously interact with several molecular fragments forming a cohesive network of interactions is exploited by introducing two strategies that combine the predictions of atom types given by multiple fragments. The accuracy of these combined predictions is compared with those based on an individual fragment. Exhaustive validation analyses and qualitative examples ( e. g., the ligand-binding domain of glutamate receptors) demonstrate that these improvements lead to effective modeling and prediction of molecular interactions.

  • 16.
    Bergkvist, Liza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandin, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kågedal, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Brorsson, Ann-Christin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A beta PP processing results in greater toxicity per amount of A beta(1-42) than individually expressed and secreted A beta(1-42) in Drosophila melanogaster2016In: BIOLOGY OPEN, ISSN 2046-6390, Vol. 5, no 8, 1030-1039 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aggregation of the amyloid-beta (A beta) peptide into fibrillar deposits has long been considered the key neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimers disease (AD). A beta peptides are generated from proteolytic processing of the transmembrane A beta precursor protein (A beta PP) via sequential proteolysis through the beta-secretase activity of beta-site A beta PP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) and by the intramembranous enzyme gamma-secretase. For over a decade, Drosophila melanogaster has been used as a model organism to study AD, and two different approaches have been developed to investigate the toxicity caused by AD-associated gene products in vivo. In one model, the A beta peptide is directly over-expressed fused to a signal peptide, allowing secretion of the peptide into the extracellular space. In the other model, human A beta PP is co-expressed with human BACE1, resulting in production of the A beta peptide through the processing of A beta PP by BACE1 and by endogenous fly gamma-secretase. Here, we performed a parallel study of flies that expressed the A beta(1-42) peptide alone or that co-expressed A beta PP and BACE1. Toxic effects (assessed by eye phenotype, longevity and locomotor assays) and levels of the A beta(1-42), A beta(1-40) and A beta(1-38) peptides were examined. Our data reveal that the toxic effect per amount of detected A beta(1-42) peptide was higher in the flies co-expressing A beta PP and BACE1 than in the A beta(1-42)-expressing flies, and that the co-existence of A beta(1-42) and A beta(1-40) in the flies co-expressing A beta PP and BACE1 could be of significant importance to the neurotoxic effect detected in these flies. Thus, the toxicity detected in these two fly models seems to have different modes of action and is highly dependent on how and where the peptide is generated rather than on the actual level of the A beta(1-42) peptide in the flies. This is important knowledge that needs to be taken into consideration when using Drosophila models to investigate disease mechanisms or therapeutic strategies in AD research.

  • 17.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Shaanxi, PR China.
    Ren, Shan
    Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Shaanxi, PR China; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Honghe University, Yunnan, PR China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Si, Shubin
    Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Shaanxi, PR China.
    A big data analytics architecture for cleaner manufacturing and maintenance processes of complex products2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, no 2, 626-641 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaner production (CP) is considered as one of the most important means for manufacturing enterprises to achieve sustainable production and improve their sustainable competitive advantage. However, implementation of the CP strategy was facing barriers, such as the lack of complete data and valuable knowledge that can be employed to provide better support on decision-making of coordination and optimization on the product lifecycle management (PLM) and the whole CP process. Fortunately, with the wide use of smart sensing devices in PLM, a large amount of real-time and multi-source lifecycle big data can now be collected. To make better PLM and CP decisions based on these data, in this paper, an overall architecture of big data-based analytics for product lifecycle (BDA-PL) was proposed. It integrated big data analytics and service-driven patterns that helped to overcome the above-mentioned barriers. Under the architecture, the availability and accessibility of data and knowledge related to the product were achieved. Focusing on manufacturing and maintenance process of the product lifecycle, and the key technologies were developed to implement the big data analytics. The presented architecture was demonstrated by an application scenario, and some observations and findings were discussed in details. The results showed that the proposed architecture benefited customers, manufacturers, environment and even all stages of PLM, and effectively promoted the implementation of CP. In addition, the managerial implications of the proposed architecture for four departments were analyzed and discussed. The new CP strategy provided a theoretical and practical basis for the sustainable development of manufacturing enterprises.

  • 18.
    Borga, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Binary Competition Tree for Reinforcement Learning1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A robust, general and computationally simple reinforcement learning system is presented. It uses a channel representation which is robust and continuous. The accumulated knowledge is represented as a reward prediction function in the outer product space of the input- and output channel vectors. Each computational unit generates an output simply by a vector-matrix multiplication and the response can therefore be calculated fast. The response and a prediction of the reward are calculated simultaneously by the same system, which makes TD-methods easy to implement if needed. Several units can cooperate to solve more complicated problems. A dynamic tree structure of linear units is grown in order to divide the knowledge space into a sufficiently number of regions in which the reward function can be properly described. The tree continuously tests split- and prune criteria in order to adapt its size to the complexity of the problem.

  • 19.
    Saifullah, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Biologically-Inspired Model for Recognition of Overlapped Patterns2011In: Proceedings International ICST Conference on Bio-Inspired Models of Network, Information and Computing Systems, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a biologically-inspired model for recognition of overlapped patterns is proposed. Information processing in the two visual information processing pathways, i.e., the dorsal and the ventral pathway, is modeled as a solution to the problem. We hypothesize that dorsal pathway, in addition to encoding the spatial information, learns the shape representation of the patterns and, later uses this knowledge as a top-down guidance signal to segment the bottom-up, image-based saliency map. This process of segmentation in the dorsal pathway is implemented as an interactive process, where interaction between bottom-up image information and top-down shape cues lead to incremental development of a segmented saliency map for one of the overlapped object at a time. This segmented map encodes spatial as well as shape information of the respective pattern in the input. The interaction of the dorsal channel with the ventral channel leads to modulation and selective processing of the respective pattern in the ventral pathway for final recognition. Simulation results support the presented hypothesis as well as effectiveness of the model in providing a solution to the recognition of overlapped patterns. The behavior of the model is in accordance to the known human behavior on the occluded patterns.

  • 20.
    Kiflemariam, Jordanos
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    A Biomimetic Manganese Model for Artificial Photosynthesis: Q-band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of a Novel Mn2(II,III) Complex2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In natural oxygen-producing photosynthesis solar energy is stored as chemical energy, in carbohydrates, fats and amino acids, using water as electron source. The large transmembrane protein complex, PSII, is the key enzyme in the light-driven reactions. Water oxidation is accomplished by a triad in PSII in which the Mn-cluster plays an important role. In the artificial photosynthetic system, nature’s photosynthesis will be mimicked such that hydrogen, a sustainable energy source, can be produced from solar energy and water alone. Since water oxidiation requires the catalytic activity of a Mn-cluster in photosynthesis, different artificially constructed manganese complexes are investigated.

    The dinuclear ([Mn2(II,III)L(µ-OAc)2]ClO4), where L is the X-anion of 2-(N,N-Bis(2-methylpyridyl)aminomethyl)-6-(N-(3,5-ditert-butylbenzyl-2-hydroxy)-N-(pyridylmethyl)aminomethyl)-4-methylphenol, an unsymmetric ligand with two coordinating phenolate groups, has been studied. The two Mn-ions are linked via a mono-µ-oxo bridge and two acetate ligands. Q-band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance was conducted on the Unsymmetric Mn2(II,III) Complex. Aquired results show that the complex has a 2600 Gauss broad signal (11 400-14 000 Gauss) with 14-17 lines at g~2 and hyperfines of 120 Gauss. This is consistent with previous X-band studies. Q-band spectra of the Unsymmetric Mn(II,III) display increased hyperfine resolution compared to Qband spectra of the symmetric complex, Mn2(bpmp)(µ-OAC)2. This is noticeable since Unsymmetric Mn2(II,III) and Mn2 (bpmp)(µ-OAC)2 partly overlap in low-frequency experiments (X-band EPR).

    Further investigations are yet to be expected. Nevertheless, the conducted thesis study provides important knowledge in the futuristic goal of building an artificial super-complex.

  • 21.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    A Biopsychosocial Approach to Risk and Resilience on Behavior in Children Followed from Birth to Age 122017In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 48, no 4, 584-596 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on preadolescence behavior. Data from 889 children and mothers from a birth cohort were used. An adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and childrens experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament, social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence. The l/ l genotype of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region was associated with lower internalizing scores, but not mainly related to the level of adversity. An easy temperament was associated with resilience for children exposed to high adversity. Social functioning was found to be promotive independent of the risk level. The results support a multiple-level model of resilience indicating effects, though small, of both biological and psychosocial factors.

  • 22.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Oreland, Lars
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Comasco, Erika
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    A biopsychosocial approach to risk and resilience on behavior in children followed from birth to age twelve2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience in the context of child behavior. Biological factors are seldom considered in psychosocial models of resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on behavior at preadolescence. Data from 889 children and their mothers were used. A cumulative adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and children’s experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament and social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence. Results show that the l/l genotype of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) was associated with lower internalizing scores, especially for children exposed to low adversity. An easy temperament was associated with resilient outcomes for children exposed to high adversity. Child social functioning was found to be more of a general resource variable buffering risk in both high and low adversity groups. The results support a multiple level model of resilience indicating effects, though small, of both biological and psychosocial factors. The present findings call for both preventive actions and further studies on biopsychosocial models in resilience research.

  • 23.
    Quang-Thuy, Ha
    et al.
    Vietnam National University, Xuan Thuy, Hanoi.
    Thi-Lan-Giao, Hoang
    Hue University, Nguyen Hue, Hue city, Vietnam .
    Nguyen, Linh Anh
    University of Warsaw, Banacha, Poland .
    Hung-Son, Nguyen
    University of Warsaw, Banacha, Poland .
    Szalas, Andrzej
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Intergrated Computer systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thanh-Luong, Tran
    Hue University, Nguyen Hue, Hue city, Vietnam .
    A Bisimulation-based Method of Concept Learning for Knowledge Bases in Description Logics2012In: SoICT 2012 - 3rd International Symposium on Information and Communication Technology, ACM Press, 2012, 241-249 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop the first bisimulation-based method of concept learning, called BBCL, for knowledge bases in description logics (DLs). Our method is formulated for a large class of useful DLs, with well-known DLs like ALC, SHIQ, SHOIQ, SROIQ. As bisimulation is the notion for characterizing indis-cernibility of objects in DLs, our method is natural and very promising.

  • 24.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    EAWAG, Switzerland.
    Jaakkola, Elina
    Turku School of Economics, University of Turku, Finland.
    Hammedi, Wafa
    University of Namur, Belgium.
    Patricio, Lia
    Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Portugal.
    Perks, Helen
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    A bricolage perspective on service innovation2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 79, 290-298 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation is often viewed as a process of accessing the necessary resources, (re)combining them, and converting them into new services. The current knowledge on success factors for service innovation, such as formalized new service development (NSD) processes, predominantly comes from studying large firms with a relatively stable resource base. However, this neglect situations in which organizations face severe resource constraints. This paper argues that under such constraints, a formalized new service development process could be counter-productive and a bricolage perspective might better explain service innovation in resource-constrained environments. In this conceptual paper, we propose that four critical bricolage capabilities (addressing resource scarcity actively, making do with what is available, improvising when recombining resources, and networking with external partners) influence service innovation outcomes. Empirical illustrations from five organizations substantiate our conceptual development. Our discussion leads to a framework and four testable propositions that can guide further service research.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-04-01 13:45
  • 25.
    Hallander, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A broad perspective on life cycle considerations in product development2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For products with long life cycles, operational and support costs represent a significant part of the total cost for the product. Moreover, such products frequently tend to be complex and contain a mixture of both mature. stable technology with bng life cycles and new technology with short life cycles. lt is therefore of great interest to industry to determine how to take these factors into consideration in an efficient way during product development.

    Another factor that affects product development for these and other kinds of products with shorter life cycles is interest in taking a wider view of the end-user or customer scenario, for instance by offering support and after sales services for the products. All these interests drive the demand to consider life cycle related issues in product development, not just life cycle cost. This also makes a life cycle perspective interesting for fums that produce products with shorter life cycles than the ones studied here through the opportunity for after market sales and services.

    This research has been explorative, aiming to understand how firms manage to take life cycle related demands into consideration during product development. The aim was to expand from a cost oriented focus to a wider focus, a value oriented focus, here called life cycle value. The dominant question has been "how" life cycle related demands are considered, focusing on barriers to and enablers for this. Equally important has been to determine the implication of life cycle value for different firms and industries and to find out where value is added in product development. A combination of a quantitative and qualitative research approach has been used to collect empirical data.

    One important finding was that there is an interest to deliver a solution to the customer rather than just a product, to consider customer revenue. This adds a new perspective to the implication of life cycle value, moving from a life cycle cost scenario to a life cycle cost versus revenue scenario. The results fom cases were categorized into six main attributes. These attributes were considered to be very influential and important for the ability to take life cycle perspective into account during product development.

    • Holistic Perspective
    • Requirements & Metrics
    • Leadership & Management/Knowledge management
    • Tools & Methods
    • Organizational Factors
    • Enterprise Relationships

    Within each of these attributes, several practices and lessons learned were identified. Some of the results are also worth investigating further in continued research:

    • Requirements formulation and management is considered to be critical. Well defined and clearly stated demands are key to taking life cycle issues into account due to the difficulty of incorporating life cycle related demands into the product. Nonetheless, balancing these demands against others is perceived to be difficult, and there is a clear need for tools, methods or models to support decision-making in this context.
    • The incorporation of new technology and services is another field of interest to industry. Organizational support and planning for technology insertion and new innovations and services into existing products and product lines are needed.
    • The organizational support to balance specialization and integration in a product development context, with a long-term focus
    • The effect of a transfer from delivering a product to delivering product and support services to the organization.
    List of papers
    1. Life cycle value in product development: a case study in the transportation industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle value in product development: a case study in the transportation industry
    2003 (English)In: DS 31: Proceedings of ICED 03, the 14th International Conference on Engineering Design, Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden: ICED'03 , 2003, 417-418 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several factors prevent enterprises from having a holistic perspective during product development. Important aspects include increased product complexity and significant uncertainty with regard to technology. For products with a long life cycle this is extremely important since development and life cycle costs are high. The combination of complexity of system design and the limits of individual human comprehension typically make it difficult to envision a best value solution.

    In an attempt to encircle a more holistic perspective of value, the concept of Life Cycle Value has evolved within the Lean Aerospace Initiative, LAI. The implication of this is development of products incorporating life cycle and long-term focus including cost and performance and reliability factors. A similar perspective has evolved within the Lean Aircraft Research Program, LARP, in Sweden.

    This paper contributes a new study of how life cycle aspects are taken into consideration in a large corporation in the transportation industry. The purpose of the research was to examine relative contributions to product development and determine factors that significantly promote the ability to consider the life cycle perspective. The results will be discussed with respect to tools, methods, requirements, metrics, leadership and other organizational factors, innovation, and enterprise relationships.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stockholm, Sweden: ICED'03, 2003
    Keyword
    Life cycle, value, product development, transportation industry
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36398 (URN)31246 (Local ID)1-904670-00-8 (ISBN)31246 (Archive number)31246 (OAI)
    Conference
    ICED 03, the 14th International Conference on Engineering Design, Stockholm
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-12-03
    2. Lifecycle value framework for tactical aircraft product development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lifecycle value framework for tactical aircraft product development
    2001 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a dramatic reduction in defense procurement, the benchmark for developing new defense systems today is performance at an affordable cost. In an attempt to encircle a more holistic perspective of value, lifecycle value has evolved as a concept within the Lean Aerospace Initiative, LAI. The implication of this is development of products incorporating lifecycle and long-term focus instead of a shortsighted cost cutting focus. The interest to reduce total cost of ownership while still improving performance, availability, and sustainability, other dimensions taken into account within the lifecycle value approach, falls well within this context. Several factors prevent enterprises from having a holistic perspective during product development. Some important aspects are increased complexity of the products and significant technological uncertainty. The combination of complexity in system design and the limits of individual human comprehension typically prevent a best value solution to be envisioned. The purpose of this research was to examine relative contributions in product development and determine factors that significantly promote abilities to consider and achieve lifecycle value. This paper contributes a maturity matrix based on important practices and lessons learned through extensive interview based case studies of three tactical aircraft programs, including experiences from more than 100 interviews.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102199 (URN)
    Conference
    2001 Eleventh Annual International Symposium, Melbourne, Australia, 1-5 July 2001
    Available from: 2013-12-03 Created: 2013-12-03 Last updated: 2013-12-03
  • 26.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A case study of factor influencing role improvisation in crisis response teams2013In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 15, no 1, 79-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Common characteristics of crisis situations are ambiguous and unplanned for events. The need for improvised roles can therefore be an imperative factor for the success of an operation. The aim of this study is to deepen the understanding of the processes taking place during improvised work ‘‘as it happens’’. A case study of a crisis management team at work is presented and provides an in-depth analysis of the information and communication flow of persons acting in improvised roles, including con- textual factors influencing the task at hand. The analysis suggests that three main factors lay behind decreased per- formance by the team when some of its members were forced to take on roles for which they lacked professional training; lack of language skills, lack of domain knowledge and insufficient organizational structure of the tasks. Based on the observations from this case study, we suggest three ways of improving a team’s performance and hence resil- ience when forced to improvise due to lack of personnel in one or more required competence areas. These are training to take on the responsibility for tasks or roles outside ones professional area of specialization, developing formal routines for changes in roles and tasks and developing and using tools and routines for information sharing.

  • 27.
    Eliasson, Karolina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CASL - Cognitive Autonomous Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A case-based approach to dialogue systems2010In: Journal of experimental and theoretical artificial intelligence (Print), ISSN 0952-813X, E-ISSN 1362-3079, Vol. 22, no 1, 23-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe an approach to integrate dialogue management, machine-learning and action planning in a system for dialogue between a human and a robot. Case-based techniques are used because they permit life-long learning from experience and demand little prior knowledge and few static hand-written structures. This approach has been developed through the work on an experimental dialogue system, called CEDERIC, that is connected to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A single case base and case-based reasoning engine is used both for understanding and for planning actions by the UAV. Dialogue experiments both with experienced and novice users, where the users have solved tasks by dialogue with this system, showed very adequate success rates.

  • 28.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin Palmerius, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Case-Based Study of Students' Visuohaptic Experiences of Electric Fields around Molecules: Shaping the Development of Virtual Nanoscience Learning Environments2013In: Education Research International, ISSN 2090-4002, E-ISSN 2090-4010, Vol. 2013, 194363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent educational research has suggested that immersive multisensory virtual environments offer learners unique and exciting knowledge-building opportunities for the construction of scientific knowledge. This paper delivers a case-based study of students’ immersive interaction with electric fields around molecules in a multisensory visuohaptic virtual environment. The virtual architecture presented here also has conceptual connections to the flourishing quest in contemporary literature for the pressing need to communicate nanoscientific ideas to learners. Five upper secondary school students’ prior conceptual understanding of electric fields and their application of this knowledge to molecular contexts, were probed prior to exposure to the virtual model. Subsequently, four students interacted with the visuohaptic model while performing think-aloud tasks. An inductive and heuristic treatment of videotaped verbal and behavioural data revealed distinct interrelationships between students’ interactive strategies implemented when executing tasks in the virtual system and the nature of their conceptual knowledge deployed. The obtained qualitative case study evidence could serve as an empirical basis for informing the rendering and communication of overarching nanoscale ideas. At the time of composing this paper for publication in the current journal, the research findings of this study have been put into motion in informing a broader project goal of developing educational virtual environments for depicting nanophenomena.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning.
    Björklund, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    A categorization of teacher feedback in the classroom: A field study on feedback based on routine classroom assessment in primary school2017In: Research Papers in Education, ISSN 0267-1522, E-ISSN 1470-1146, Vol. 32, no 3, 316-332 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine and categorise teachers’ strategies for feedback in day-to-day communication in primary school. The different feedback categories constructed and grounded in data are applicable to feedback on learning and knowledge as well as on behavioural skills. Qualitative classroom observations were conducted in four primary school classrooms, including a total of four teachers and 75 students. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used throughout the analytical process. The analysis of the field data generated five main categories of feedback focuses: expecting, emotionally responding, normalising, steering, and deliberating. The categories are all broad, yet with sub-categories specific and nuanced, presenting concepts by which we can verbalize and communicate teachers’ feedback strategies.  The categories place teachers’ feedback actions in a landscape, not on a linear axis. The complexity of feedback, as it is shown in the present study challenges a dichotomisation of feedback and captures more of a complexity of classroom assessment.

  • 30.
    Fägerskiöld, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A change in life as experienced by first-time fathers2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 22, no 1, 64-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that the attitude of men towards pregnancy, childbirth and child-caring is different from that of women. Up to now, research has focused mainly on motherhood. The aim of this study was to explore first-time fathers’ experiences during early infancy of their children. Grounded theory and constant comparative method were used and 20 fathers aged 20–48 participated. Interviews were carried out in 2002–2003. ‘Changing life’ emerged as the core category consisting of the categories: becoming a father, alternating between work and home, changing relationship towards partner and developing relationship with their child. Changing life implied that they have left bachelor life and become responsible for a child. Becoming a father was much more fantastic than they could have imagined and they suggested that they performed childcare to the same extent as the mother when both parents were at home. Still fathers viewed the mother as the main parent, partly because of their alternating between work and home and because the mothers breast-feed the infants. Fathers’ attitude towards breast-feeding seemed to be ambiguous; it was a matter of necessity, but made them feel insignificant. Changing relationship towards partner was common but it was not necessarily for the worst and often resulted in a more closely united relationship. However, tiredness because of lack of sleep could result in increased irritability towards problems. Developing relationship with their child implied increasing possibilities to learn to know the infant’s signals. Fathers are one of two parents, and hence are important for their child’s growth and development, emotional health and cognitive development. Knowledge about first-time fathers’ experiences during the early infancy of their children may bring about increased support from midwives and child health nurses.

  • 31.
    Malm, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saab Group, Business Area Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Henric
    Saab Group, Business Area Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    A change process: transition from 2D to 3D by Model Based Definition2014In: Proceedings of the 6th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS), Gothenburg, Sweden. September 2014, 2014, 1-10 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate factors that are important for the transition from 2D to 3D by Model Based Definition (MBD). Within MBD, 3D models are used as sources of information for design, production, distribution, technical documentation, services and the overall product lifecycle. The introduction and development of MBD at Aeronautics can be described in five transitions that illustrate how knowledge enhancement from project to project and between the projects and the linear organization has evolved. The largest challenges have been in the start-up of the transitions, people are gathered with different prerequisites, seeing solutions or problems from different perspectives.

  • 32.
    Nilsson, Annika E.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Changing Arctic Climate: Science and Policy in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has often been framed as a global issue but slow progress in the global climate negotiations and an increasing need to plan for local adaptation have made it increasingly salient to also discuss the potential of other arenas for climate policy and knowledge production. This dissertation analyzes the interplay between science and policy at the international regional level based on a study of an assessment of the impacts of climate change in the Arctic. In this case, the regional arena brought new actors into climate knowledge production and policy with an increased emphasis on the complexity of social and cultural impacts of climate change among indigenous peoples. The dissertation also shows how the structure of regional political cooperation played a role in highlighting the Arctic as a bellwether for global change. Meanwhile, the political negations that were linked to the regional climate impact assessment were ruled by the same political dynamics and policy positions as the global climate negotiations. The process illustrates how the structure of international cooperation can influence knowledge production about climate change. The dissertation emphasizes the role of vertical interplay among political regimes and how new arenas can make an assessment salient, credible, and legitimate to different actors. It also highlights the political dimensions of focusing on particular spatial scales and governance levels in climate knowledge production and policy.

  • 33.
    Doherty, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, KPLAB - Knowledge Processing Lab.
    Lukaszewicz, Witold
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, KPLAB - Knowledge Processing Lab.
    Szalas, Andrzej
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, KPLAB - Knowledge Processing Lab.
    A characterization result for circumscribed normal logic programs. Revised version accepted for publication: Special issue of honor of H. Rasiowa, Fundamenta Informaticae.1995Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Tegnell, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Saeedi, Baharak
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Isaksson, Barbro
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öhman, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A clone of coagulase-negative staphylococci among patients with post-cardiac surgery infections2002In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 52, no 1, 37-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are important causes of hospital-acquired infections such as infections after cardiac surgery. Efforts to reduce these infections are hampered by the lack of knowledge concerning the epidemiology of CoNS in this setting. Forty strains of CoNS collected during the surgical revision of 27 patients operated on between 1997 and 2000 were analysed. Strains were also collected from the ambient air in the operating suite. Their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characteristics and antibiotic resistance were analysed. Using PFGE 19 of 40 strains from 15 of 27 patients were shown to belong to one clone, and strains from this clone were also isolated from the ambient air. This clone had caused infections throughout the period. Antibiotic resistance did not correlate with PFGE patterns. Using PFGE one clone could be identified that caused 56% of the CoNS infections during this period. A strain from this clone was also found in the air of the operating suite suggesting the origin of the CoNS causing infections was the hospital environment.

  • 35.
    Hedblom, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Cognition-Based Definition of Creativity and A Proposition for Approaching Creativity Artificially2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Can a computer truly be creative? This is the philosophical question that defines this thesis. It is suggested that the only way for this question to be answered in the affirmative, is to thoroughly investigate the cognitive nature of creativity.

    First the thesis proposes a definition of creativity based on cognitive research, human intuition and artificial creativity debates. This definition accounts for not only that thecreative product has to be both novel and useful, but that the creative agent has to exceed a certain level of cognitive maturity (in thesis referred to as - intelligence) and be aware of the creative process and context. The framework for the creative process isfounded on the psychologically supported notion of a circle of divergent and convergent thinking, and a cognitive machinery of conceptual blending.

    It is in the framework of the creative process that the criterion for the creative productis generated. In the circle of divergent and convergent thinking and through conceptual blending, novel ideas are first generated, then evaluated. For this to be possible thecreative agent has to exceed a certain level of cognitive abilities, and in order to properly evaluate the product, it also needs to have awareness of the process and context to beable to evaluate the product.

    A second part of the thesis looks at problems with AI and what that means for the approaches to artificial creativity. By using the reasoning behind the definition, the possibility to create truly creative computers are proposed and discussed. In the line of the definition a conceptual suggested approach is presented, that if satisfied it is the author’s suggestion that the artificial system should be deemed "creative".

    The artificial agent has far to go before it is equal in cognitive maturity to human intellect, and the capacity for awareness of the process and context is debatable. Genetic algorithms, randomness and perception is presented as possibilities for artificial agents to create novelty, and a multi layered processing system build on learning through perception, and evaluation build on key concepts from context and statistics of previous knowledge, is introduced as possible means of creating artificial creativity.

  • 36.
    Desai, Avni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Widgren, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Collaboration in Product Service System for Telecom Networks: An "Orange and Ericsson case" study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the research is to study the “Orange and Ericsson case” while developing the method Actors and System Map. The interaction between actors within Ericsson’s Device Connection Platform is investigated in order to identify improvement opportunities in the interaction between the provider and the customer. To answer the purpose the following research questions was formulated:

    RQ1)  What type of actors may be involved in a telecom related IPSO?

    RQ2)  How can the connections between actors in the telecom related IPSO be illustrated?

    RQ3)  How can the Actors and System Map method be refined?

    In order to answer the research questions different methodologies were used for the analysing process. The research started with a widespread literature study to collect knowledge related to the area of Product Service System (PSS) and methodologies for identifying how actors interact with one another. Studying different mapping methods the conclusion was made that Actors and System Map was most suitable for this study.

    In the methodology background the previous selected method, Actors and System Map from an Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO) perspective, was examined in order to be able to refine and improve the mapping method. Actors Map provides a visual and clear overview of the actors involved while a System Map shows the information flows and activities between the actors.

    To understand the interaction between the two companies, the definition of IPSO and the importance of value-based selling for a service offering are described in the theory background. Also, different ways of looking at a business model within the telecommunication industry is presented.

    Obtaining information regarding making an Actors Map and a System Map an improved mapping method was refined. The adaption of the method was divided into eight steps. The refined Actors Maps of the DCP shows the actors involved, how they are connected and their main assignments from each respondent’s point of view at Ericsson. The refined System Map shows what kind of information is transferred between the actors within the companies and between Orange and Ericsson. Both maps delivered as a decision basis will help identification of non-value giving links and non-optimal distances in the information flow for both companies.

  • 37.
    Doherty, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Integrated Computer Systems.
    Kvarnström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Integrated Computer Systems.
    Rudol, Piotr
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Integrated Computer Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wzorek, Mariusz
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Integrated Computer Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conte, Gianpaolo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Integrated Computer Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berger, Cyrille
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Integrated Computer Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hinzmann, Timo
    Stastny, Thomas
    A Collaborative Framework for 3D Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles2016In: PRIMA 2016: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems, Springer Publishing Company, 2016, 110-130 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an overview of a generic framework for collaboration among humans and multiple heterogeneous robotic systems based on the use of a formal characterization of delegation as a speech act. The system used contains a complex set of integrated software modules that include delegation managers for each platform, a task specification language for characterizing distributed tasks, a task planner, a multi-agent scan trajectory generation and region partitioning module, and a system infrastructure used to distributively instantiate any number of robotic systems and user interfaces in a collaborative team. The application focusses on 3D reconstruction in alpine environments intended to be used by alpine rescue teams. Two complex UAV systems used in the experiments are described. A fully autonomous collaborative mission executed in the Italian Alps using the framework is also described.

  • 38.
    Murphy, Robin
    et al.
    Texas A&M University.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, KPLAB - Knowledge Processing Lab. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Community-Driven Roadmap for the Adoption of Safety Security and Rescue Robots2013In: Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR), 2013 IEEE International Symposium on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 1-5 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEEE Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics community has created a roadmap for producing unmanned systems that could be adopted by the Public Safety sector within 10 years, given appropriate R&D investment especially in human-robot interaction and perception. The five applications expected to be of highest value to the Public Safety community, highest value first, are: assisting with routine inspection of the critical infrastructure, “chronic emergencies” such as firefighting, hazardous material spills, port inspection, and damage estimation after a disaster. The technical feasibility of the applications were ranked, with the most attractive scenario, infrastructure inspection, rated as the second easiest scenario; this suggests the maturity of robotics technology is beginning to match stakeholder needs. Each of the five applications were discussed in terms of the six broad enabling technology areas specified in the current National Robotics Initiative Roadmap (perception, human-robot interaction, mechanisms, modeling and simulation, control and planning, and testing and evaluation) and nine specific capabilities identified by the community as being essential to commercialization (communication, alerting, localization, fault tolerance, mapping, manpower needs, plug and play capabilities, multiple users, and multiple robots). The community believes that perception and human-robot interaction are the two biggest barriers to adoption, and require more research, given that their low technical maturity (3rd and 6th rank respectively). However, each of the specific capabilities needed for commercialization are being addressed by current research and could be achieved within 10 years with sustained funding. 

  • 39.
    Ågren, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Evangelista, L
    n/a.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    A comparative study addressing health-related quality of life, symptoms of depression, perceived control and knowledge in patients with heart failure and their partners.2009In: Esc congress, Barcelona, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Lindskog, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sjöberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Comparison Between Semi-Physical and Black-Box Neural Net Modeling: A Case Study1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers identification of a solar-heated house. Using prior physical knowledge and a semi-physical modeling procedure, a set of physically motivated regressors are determined. With these as inputs a reasonable neural network model of the plant is estimated

  • 41.
    Lindskog, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sjöberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Comparison Between Semi-Physical and Black-Box Neural Net Modeling: A Case Study1995In: Proceedings of the 1995 International Conference on Engineering Applications of Neural Networks, 1995, 235-238 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers identification of a solar-heated house. Using prior physical knowledge and a semi-physical modeling procedure, a set of physically motivated regressors are determined. With these as inputs a reasonable neural network model of the plant is estimated.

  • 42.
    Josefsson, Ann
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Gunnervik, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sydsjö, Adam
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    A Comparison Between Swedish Midwives and Obstetricians and Gynecologists Opinions on Cesarean Section2011In: MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH JOURNAL, ISSN 1092-7875, Vol. 15, no 5, 555-560 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To compare Swedish obstetricians/gynecologists and midwives attitudes and opinions on different aspects of cesarean section (CS). In total 330 midwives from the south east of Sweden and 1280 Swedish obstetricians/gynecologists were asked to answer a study-specific questionnaire anonymously about their opinions on different issues concerning CS. The majority of obstetricians/gynecologists and midwives had more than 10 years of experience in their professions (75.2% vs. 73.6%). The midwives thought that a reasonable CS rate would be 11.5% whereas the corresponding figures for the obstetricians/gynecologists was 13.8% (P andlt; 0.001). There are differences in opinions and attitudes concerning both CS rates and other aspects in connection with CS. There are evident differences in attitudes towards CS and mode of delivery between midwives and obstetricians/gynecologists. These need to be explored and discussed in relation to state-of-the-art knowledge and should become a part of the curriculum for both groups of professionals both in training as well as on a regular clinical basis.

  • 43.
    Doherty, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, KPLAB - Knowledge Processing Lab.
    Peppas, P.
    A comparison between two approaches to ramification: PMON(R) and AR0.1995In: 8th Australian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence,1995, 1995, 267- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Pernestål, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wettig, Hannes
    Complex Systems Computations Group, Department of Computer Science, Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, Finland.
    Silander, Tomi
    Complex Systems Computations Group, Department of Computer Science, Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, Finland.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Myllymäki, Petri
    Complex Systems Computations Group, Department of Computer Science, Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, Finland.
    A Comparison of Baysian Approaches to Learning in Fault Isolation2009In: Pattern Recognition Letters, ISSN 0167-8655Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault isolation is the task of localizing faults in a process, given observations from it. To do this, a model describing the relations between faults and observations is needed.

    In this paper we focus on learning such models both from training data and from prior knowledge. There are several challenges in learning for fault isolation.

    The number of data and the available computing resources are often limited. Furthermore, there may be previously unobserved fault patterns.

    To meet these challenges we take on a Bayesian approach.

    We compare five different approaches to learning for fault isolation, and evaluate their performance on a real application, namely the diagnosis of an automotive engine.

  • 45.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    A comparison of eye movement behavior of inexperienced and experienced drivers in real traffic environments2005In: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, Vol. 82, no 8, 732-739 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The importance of the visual system as the input channel for sensory information necessary when driving is often stated. There are several reports on differences in visual search strategies between experienced and inexperienced drivers, as well as in relation to the roadway. However, the results are ambiguous and are not sampled by similar procedures. Based on previous findings, the aim of the present study was to gain further knowledge on these differences by testing the hypotheses that inexperienced drivers, in comparison to experienced drivers, fixate closer to the vehicle, fixate more often on in-vehicle objects, spread their fixations less along the horizontal meridian, fixate more often on relevant traffic cues, and fixate more often on objects classified as potential hazards. Methods. Data from eye-tracker recordings of visual search strategies of the driver in real-world traffic were used for the analyses. Results. The results confirmed all stated hypotheses regarding differences between inexperienced and experienced drivers, with the exception of fixations closer to the vehicle, in which ambiguous results were found. Conclusions. The present study provides normative data for the understanding of the development of visual search strategies among drivers. The methodology used in the present study, i.e., to combine a quantitative analysis with a qualitative analysis proved, to be useful to compare visual search strategies among inexperienced and experienced drivers. Copyright © 2005 American Academy of Optometry.

  • 46.
    Hietala, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Intergrated Computer systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Comparison of Katz-eig and Link-analysis for Implicit Feedback Recommender Systems2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recommendations are becoming more and more important in a world where there is an abundance of possible choices and e-commerce and content providers are featuring recommendations prominently. Recommendations based on explicit feedback, where user is giving feedback for example with ratings, has been a popular research subject. Implicit feedback recommender systems which passively collects information about the users is an area growing in interest. It makes it possible to generate recommendations based purely from a user's interactions history without requiring any explicit input from the users, which is commercially useful for a wide area of businesses. This thesis builds a recommender system based on implicit feedback using the recommendation algorithms katz-eig and link-analysis and analyzes and implements strategies for learning optimized parameters for different datasets. The resulting system forms the foundation for Comordo Technologies' commercial recommender system.

  • 47.
    Stymne, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Comparison of Merging Strategies for Translation of German Compounds2009In: Proceedings of the Student Research Workshop at the 12th Conference of the European Chapter of the ACL (EACL 2009), Association for Computational Linguistics , 2009, 61-69 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, compound processing for translation into German in a factored statistical MT system is investigated. Compound sare handled by splitting them prior to training, and merging the parts after translation. I have explored eight merging strategies using different combinations of external knowledge sources, such as word lists, and internal sources that are carried through the translation process, such as symbols or parts-of-speech. I show that for merging to be successful, some internal knowledge source is needed. I also show that an extra sequence model for part-ofspeech is useful in order to improve the order of compound parts in the output. The best merging results are achieved by a matching scheme for part-of-speech tags.

  • 48.
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm and School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ekman, Inger
    Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Göteborg.
    Ehnfors, Margareta
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin, Örebro.
    A comparison of the concept of patient participation and patients' descriptions as related to healthcare definitions.2010In: International journal of nursing terminologies and classifications : the official journal of NANDA International, ISSN 1744-618X, Vol. 21, no 1, 21-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. To depict what patients describe as patient participation and whether descriptions of patient participation are affected by gender, age, healthcare contact, and duration of disease. DATA SOURCES. Current patients (n= 362) responded to a questionnaire on participation. DATA SYNTHESIS. Patients' descriptions focused on having knowledge, rather than being informed, and on interacting with health professionals, rather than merely partaking in decision making. CONCLUSIONS. Patients' descriptions of participation correspond with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health's definition, which includes "being involved in a life situation." Healthcare legislation and professionals employ a narrower concept of patient participation as defined by, e.g., Medical Subject Headings. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. Findings suggest that health professionals need to embrace what patients describe as participation.

  • 49.
    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A comprehensive picture of ethical values in caring encounters, based on experiences of those involved: Analysis of concepts developed from empirical studies2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Older people should have a life with a sense of value and should feel confident. These ethical values, which are expressed in normative ethics, are expected to prevail in empirical ethics. Central components of nursing are the ethical issues of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and the principles of justice. The general aim of this thesis is to identify and describe the ethical values that are apparent in the caring encounter and their influence on the people involved. This is done from the perspective of the older person in study (I), next of kin in study (II) and nurses in study (III). In study (IV) the aim was to synthesize the concepts from empirical studies (I- III) and analyze, compare and interrelate them with normative ethics. Studies (I, III) were empirical observational studies including follow-up interviews. Twenty-two older people participated voluntarily in study (I), and in study (III) 20 nurses participated voluntarily. In study (II) fourteen next of kin were interviewed. In studies (I- III) constant comparative analysis, the core foundation of grounded theory, was used. Five concepts were used in the analysis in study (IV); three from the grounded theory studies (I- III) and two from the theoretical framework on normative ethics i.e. the ICN code and SFS law. Five categories; being addressed, receiving respect, desiring to participate, increasing self-determination and gaining self-confidence formed the basis for the core category ‚Approaching‛ in study (I). ‘Approaching’ indicates the ethical values that guide nurses in their caring encounters with older people. These ethical values are noted by the older people and are greatly appreciated by them, and also lead to improved quality of care. Four categories were identified in study (II): Receiving, showing respect, facilitating participation and showing professionalism. These categories formed the basis of the core category ‚Being amenable‛, a concept identified in the next of kin’s description of the ethical values that they and the older patients perceive in the caring encounter. In study (III), three categories were identified: showing consideration, connecting, and caring for. These categories formed the basis of the core category ‚Corroborating‛. Corroborating deals with support and interaction. Empirical ethics and normative ethics are intertwined, according to the findings of this study (IV). Normative ethics influence the nurse’s practical performance and could have a greater influence in supporting nurses as professionals. Criteria of good ethical care according to this thesis are: showing respect, invitation to participation, allowing self-determination, and providing safe and secure care. These criteria are elements of the concept of being professional. Professionalism of nurses is shown by: the approach nurses adapt to the performance of their duties, and their competence and knowledge, but also how they apply laws and professional codes

    List of papers
    1. The importance of ‘approaching’ older people: a grounded theory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of ‘approaching’ older people: a grounded theory
    2012 (English)In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, Vol. 7, no 1, 29-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the ethical values in caring encounters as experienced by older patients in their daily interaction with nurses in wards for older people.

    Background. Ethical values and morals are important aspects that influence the quality of care.

    Methods. Empirical observational study including follow-up interviews. Twenty-two older patients participated voluntarily in this study. Constant comparative analysis, the core foundation of grounded theory was used.

    Results. Five categories: being addressed, receiving respect, desiring to participate, increasing self-determination and gaining self-confidence formed the bases for the core category.

    Approaching. Approaching concerns how people become closer to each other in a physical space. It also includes how people become closer to each other in a dialogue, involving verbal or bodily communication.

    Conclusions and relevance to clinical practice. Approaching indicates the ethical values that guide nurses in their caring encounters with older patients. These values are noted by the patient and have an individual value as well as leading to improved quality of their care. The older patient will be confident and satisfied with the caring encounter if the desired components in the nurse's approaching are exhibited.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley, 2012
    Keyword
    Ethics, nursing care, older people, qualitative methods
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67874 (URN)10.1111/j.1748-3743.2010.00248.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2013-09-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Ethical values in caring encounters on a geriatric ward from the next of kin´s perspective: An interview study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethical values in caring encounters on a geriatric ward from the next of kin´s perspective: An interview study
    2010 (English)In: International Journal of Nursing Practice, ISSN 1322-7114, E-ISSN 1440-172X, Vol. 16, no 1, 20-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the governing ethical values that next of kin experience in interaction with nurses who care for elderly patients at a geriatric clinic. Interviews with fourteen next of kin were conducted and data were analysed by Constant comparative analysis. Four categories were identified: Receiving, showing respect, facilitating participation and showing professionalism. These categories formed the basis of the core category: “Being amenable”, a concept identified in the next of kin’s description of the ethical values that they and the elderly patients perceive in the caring encounter. Being amenable means that the nurses are guided by ethical values; taking into account the elderly patient and the next of kin. Nurses’ focusing on elderly patients’ well-being as a final criterion affects the next of kin and their experience of this fundamental condition for high quality care seems to be fulfilled.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley, 2010
    Keyword
    Ethical values, geriatric wards, grounded theory, nursing ethics, next of kin
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51737 (URN)10.1111/j.1440-172X.2009.01805.x (DOI)000274177000004 ()
    Note

    On the day of the defence day the status of this article was: Manuscript. This is the author’s version of the following article: Lise-Lotte Jonasson, Per-Erik Liss, Björn Westerlind and Carina Berterö, Ethical values in caring encounters on a geriatric ward from the next of kin´s perspective: An interview study, 2010, International Journal of Nursing Practice, (16), 1, 20-26. which has been published in final form at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-172X.2009.01805.x Copyright: Blackwell Publishing Ltd http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/Brand/id-35.html

    Available from: 2009-11-16 Created: 2009-11-16 Last updated: 2014-01-16Bibliographically approved
    3. Corroborating indicates nurses’ ethical values in a geriatric ward
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corroborating indicates nurses’ ethical values in a geriatric ward
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of the study was to identify nurses’ ethical values, which become apparent through their behavior in the interactions with older patients in caring encounters at a geriatric clinic.

    Background. Descriptions of ethics in caring practice are a problem since they are vague compared with the four principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice.

    Methods. A Grounded Theory methodology was used. In total, 65 observations and follow-up interviews with 20 nurses were conducted, and data were analysed by constant comparative analysis.

    Findings. Three categories were identified: showing consideration, connecting, and caring for. These categories formed the basis of the core category: ―Corroborating‖. In corroborating the focus is on the person in need of integrity and self-determination, that is, the autonomy principle. A similar concept was earlier described in regard to confirming. Corroborating deals more with support and interaction. It is not enough to be kind and show consideration, i.e. to benefit someone; nurses must also connect and care for the older person, i.e. demonstrate nonmaleficence, in order to corroborate that person.

    Conclusion. The findings of this study can improve the ethics of nursing care. There is a need for research on development of a high standard of nursing care to corroborate the older patients in order to maintain their autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence. The principal of justice was not specifically identified as a visible nursing action. However, all older patients received treatment, care and reception in an equivalent manner.

    Keyword
    Ethical values, geriatric wards, grounded theory, nursing ethics, nurses’ behaviour, nursing
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67875 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2013-09-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Empirical and normative ethics: a synthesis relating to the care of older patients
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empirical and normative ethics: a synthesis relating to the care of older patients
    2011 (English)In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 18, no 6, 814-824 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to synthesize the concepts from empirical studies and analyze, compare and interrelate them with normative ethics. International Council of nurses (ICN) and the Health and Medical Service Act are normative ethics. Five concepts were used in the analysis; three from the grounded theory studies and two from the theoretical framework on normative ethics. A simultaneous concept analysis resulted in five outcomes; interconnectedness, interdependence, corroboratedness, completeness and good care are all related to the empirical perspective of the nurse’s interaction with the older patient, and the normative perspective, i.e. that found in ICN code and SFS law. Empirical ethics and normative ethics are intertwined according to the findings of this study. Normative ethics are supporting documents for nurses as professionals and by extension also beneficial for older patients.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2011
    Keyword
    Empirical ethics, Normative ethics, ICN code, Health and Medical Service Act, Beneficence, Nurse
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Nursing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67876 (URN)10.1177/0969733011405875 (DOI)000297476000007 ()
    Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2013-09-12Bibliographically approved
  • 50.
    Svensson, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A computational parametric study on the development of confluent round jet arrays2015In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 53, 129-147 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and response surface methodology is employed in a parametrical investigation of an in-line array of confluent round jets. Confluent round jet arrays are common within several fields of engineering, as detailed knowledge of the flow field development of confluent round jets is of great importance to design engineers working with, for example, chemical mixing, multiple jet burners, waste water disposal systems or ventilation supply devices. In this paper, five independent factors affecting flow field development are investigated with a multi-variable approach using a Box–Behnken design method.

    The results include decay of maximum velocity, turbulence intensity, location of merging and combined points and development of volumetric flow rate. Dimensionless nozzle spacing, S/d0S/d0, is an important design parameter and has a large impact on several properties, such as merging and combined points, decay of maximum velocity, and development of turbulence intensity. Other factors, such as the number of jets per row and inlet velocity, are also of importance. The analysis of decay in maximum velocity led to the definition of a new zone of development, referred to as the Confluent Core Zone (CCZ), as its behaviour is reminiscent of the potential core of a single jet. The CCZ has uniform velocity, lacks considerable decay in streamwise velocity and has a rather low turbulence intensity. The CCZ has a characteristic footprint in confluent round jet arrays, and its properties are investigated in detail.

    The development of volumetric flow can be divided into two regions. The initial region, close to the nozzles, features a high entrainment but decreasing entrainment rate. As the jets combine, the entrainment rate is lower, but rather constant. While S/d0S/d0 is generally an important design parameter, there is no direct correlation between S/d0S/d0 and entrainment rate of the combined jet.

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