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  • 1.
    Lundvall, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Automatic Parallelization of Models using Pipeline Extraction from Combined RHS and Inlined Solvers2009In: the 14th Workshop on Compilers for Parallel Computing, 2009Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we report preliminary results from a new integrated method of automatically generating parallel code from equationbased object-oriented mathematical models by combining parallelization at two levels of abstraction. Performing inline expansion of a Runge-Kutta solver combined with fine-grained automatic parallelization of the resulting RHS opens up new possibilities for generating high performance code, which is becoming increasingly relevant when multi-core computers are becoming commonplace. We have introduced a new way of scheduling the task graph generated from the simulation problem which utilizes knowledge about locality of the simulation problem and generates a computation pipeline such that processors early in the pipeline can carry on with subsequent time steps while the end of the pipeline still computes the current step. A prototype implementation has been developed as part of the OpenModelica compiler, which has been used for preliminary measurements.

  • 2.
    Larsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Profile and perceptions of biogas as automobile fuel: A study of Svensk Biogas2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From an environmental- and health perspective, biogas and other biomass-based fuels have several advantages; nevertheless the majority of motorists fill their cars with petroleum-based fuels. This thesis is designed to explore the profile of biogas in relation to its perceptions. It is a study concerning the communication between the biogas producing company Svensk Biogas and their biogas users and non biogas users. To obtain a thorough understanding of the profile and perceptions of biogas a qualitative approach was considered appropriate. Biogas users and non-users were interviewed at gasoline stations, while Svensk Biogas was interviewed as a group.

    The three interview segments were analyzed and compared in order to identify patterns, similarities and differences. Based on research data the thesis concludes that the profiling arguments of biogas correlates to that biogas is the most environmentally friendly fuel, the least expensive fuel, and locally produced. Furthermore, the company profile of Svensk Biogas is equal to sustainable alternative, locally produced, trustworthy, environmentally friendly and climate smart [klimatsmart]. Given the arguments of the company profile, environmental values seem to be the core communicating value. Profiling Svensk Biogas happens through events and by using communication material such as company logotype.

    Motorists have an overall positive perception of biogas. Biogas users states environmental benefits as the key argument behind their commitment. Non-users are positive toward biogas although expressing a lack of knowledge confusing biogas with ethanol and bio-fuels in general. According to motorists the negative perceptions, in addition to the prerequisites of biogas, are connected to insufficient infrastructure of biogas filling stations, a short range of the biogas tank, a high investment cost of a biogas car, a biogas price increase, scarcity of cars, and information (lack of information and misleading information).

    The overall perception of Svensk Biogas among biogas users is positive. Biogas users express a negative perception concerning the Svensk Biogas filling stations and also wish for a lower biogas price. Non-users express modest perceptions of the company. This research also concludes that perceptions of the biogas producer are correlated to the perceptions of biogas. Furthermore, biogas producer, users and non-users wish to be directed by political decisions, guiding them toward environmentally friendly fuel alternatives.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kvalitetsprocesser för Lagring och Distribution av Livsmedel på Schenker Coldsped2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to make plans for how Schenker Coldsped should act to meet customer demands, in this case from Burger King, for the use of EFSIS standards (European Food Safety Inspection Service).

    EFSIS offers independent third party inspection services specially designed for food, beverage and related industries. The standard Schenker Coldsped aims to certify to is the

    EFSIS technical standard for the storage and distribution of foodstuffs. Coldsped is a part of Schenker Sverige AB. The company offers total solutions for transportation and storage of refrigerated and frozen products all over Europe. Coldsped has a total of 800 refrigerated vehicles and also offer storage of refrigerated and frozen products as well as product refinement such as preparation, thawing, sawing, packaging and labelling.

    To be allowed to handle foodstuffs, companies in Sweden are obligated to enact selfregulation applicable to their line of business. This supervision shall include a HACCPplan, which is a system for identifying, assessing and controlling risks of importance to food safety.

    By introducing the EFSIS technical standard for the storage and distribution of foodstuffs at Coldsped establishments, routines and knowledge will be documented. Consequently staff knowledge will be incorporated in the company’s ISO9001:2000 system, Isopeq, as well as being available in files in the corresponding department. A first step towards the implementation of EFSIS is the decision to incorporate the HACCP-plan into Isopeq, the company’s quality system.

    Advantages of working to the EFSIS technical standards are:

    •A safer handling of foodstuffs

    •More documented systems

    •A more effective organisation

    •A more effective and clear communication with new customers

    •Increased competitiveness My recommendation is to implement changes in line with my plan. This calls for:

    • Investment in existing plants

    •Personnel resources for the process

    •Planning the implementation in detail by coordinating resources

    •Join the CIES (an independent network for companies handling food) for benchmarking

  • 4.
    Ardi, Sonay
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Quality of Life of Elderly People in Iran: With Sevice Design Approach2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the aging world of today, more attentions are grabbed towards studies on elderly. New facilities and technologies are emerged to serve to the elderly, maketheir life easier, better and more useful. Having participated in a study on thequality of life of the elderly in Europe, it was aimed to run a similar project toresearch the quality of life of the elderly in a Non-EU country. This was donethrough the research questions “What is the quality of life for them?” and “Howa designer, focused on service design, can improve their quality of life?”The knowledge for the study was obtained from fields Quality of Life of ElderlyPeople, Service Design, Service Design Process, and Qualitative Research. As thekey country for this study, Iran was chosen. Study on the target group in thiscountry was done through Cultural Probes and in analyzing the probes, Processfor Empathy in Design was used. To visualize the results of the target group study,Affinity Diagrams and Personas were drawn.The result was designing a service for the target group, which is presented byConcept Scenario, Storyboards, System Maps and Blueprints. In this concept,called “Virtual Family”, the personas are encouraged to be members of a networkwhich is supported by an organization/community in terms of health, social life,leisure activities and educational programs. This network is forming a virtualfamily regarding the traditional values and ethics which are important for thisage group. Additionally it supports them with entertainment and educationalprograms. Later on, the service concept was evaluated by a number of people inthe same age and social group of the target group. Evaluators found the conceptan excellent complement for mentioned target group who are on the verge oflosing their family and social structure, but the organizational system of the contextcountry should be studied to know if it is planning is practical in that context.

  • 5.
    Linte, Thibault
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Hervier, Ariane
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Bogdan, Vincent
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Being Small and Managing Communities: An explorative study on how SMEs utilize community management to communicate2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on community management conducted in the past has used primarily examples and case studies within large corporations. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) also need to be included in community management, exploring the ways in which they deal with community management and if the large company theories on the subject can be applied to them.

    In an attempt to respond to this gap in community management we respond to the question of how do small and medium-sized companies utilize communities to communicate successfully to their consumers?

    During our work, we noted that SMEs were facing two phases when dealing with community management. A strategic step, where the company has to define its goals, its targets, the means it will invest and the tools it will use to deal with community management. The second phase being an operational step includes the creation of communities and the management of them.

    In the strategic step, we pointed out questions which companies have to address before starting community management including the benefits that the company expects from the community, the amount it will invest in it and the tools the company will use.

    In the operational step, five main principles were highlighted as commonly used by SMEs to communicate through communities: (1) promotion of an Ideal, (2) uniting around shared interests, (3) the use of the myth as a gathering factor, (4) the importance of the community involvement in the company, and (5) the physical interaction between community members and the brand.

    Additionally, we found that SMEs have two main advantages when it comes to collaborating with customers/fans that large businesses did not have: proximity and flexibility. However, we found that it was difficult for small companies to find competent people working in the community management field.

    This lack of knowledge within SMEs appeared to be the primary reason why most brand communities failed. Therefore, in this thesis we aimed to point out good habits in terms of community management in order for SMEs to possess a basic knowledge, thus enabling them to benefit from their advantages of proximity and flexibility, which are a result of by their size and is essential for community management.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordin, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Voice Onset Time among Children with Phonological Impairment.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Speech production requires cooperation between cognitive, linguistic and motor processes. It also requires spatial and temporal control of muscles, as well as simultaneous and coordinated activity of respiration, phonation and articulation (Cheng, Murdoch, Goozée & Scott, 2007; Yorkston, Beukelman, Strand & Bell, 1999; Raphael, Borden & Harris, 2011). Voice Onset Time (VOT) reflects the timing between phonation and articulation (Hoit-Dalgaard, Murry & Kopp, 1983). VOT is the most reliable acoustic cue for distinguishing between voiceless or voiced plosives (Auzou et al. 2000). Studies of English-speaking children with phonological impairment have shown atypical VOT-patterns (Bond & Wilson, 1980). The aim of the present study was to investigate Voice Onset Time (VOT) among Swedish children with phonological impairment and to examine if their VOT-values differ from typically developed Swedish children. Participants were 38 children aged 4;2−11;6 distributed over eight age- groups and five developmental stages of phonology. Audio recordings of minimal pairs were made at preschools, schools or at speech pathology clinics. The results indicated that children with phonological impairment produced VOT with deviant values and with a great variability. A marked acoustic difference between voiceless and voiced stop consonants was present, but not in all cases. Since the VOT-values were distributed over the group of children with phonological impairment, no developmental trend toward adult-like values that could be related to increasing age was found for either the acquisition of producing VOT or the acquisition of producing voicing lead. No differences in VOT were seen between the children in different phonological developmental stages or ages. No correlation between the degree of deviance of VOT and the proportion of Procent Phonemes Correct (PPC), age or phonological processes were found. From the results the conclusion can be drawn that children with phonological impairment have deviant VOT-values that could be caused by lack of phonological knowledge, but in particular since the variability did not decrease with increased age, have difficulties with motor execution. 

  • 7.
    Niu, Bingyu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Yan, Sisi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Knowledge transfer in project-based environments: The barriers of knowledge transfer2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nowadays, projects become the common way of working in manycompanies. Knowledge management is important for efficient project management.Knowledge transfer in project-based environments became an attractive and importanttopic for study. Various barriers and challenges will appear during the process ofknowledge transfer in projects. Lots of authors thought the barriers of knowledgetransfer in project are negative, while others mentioned that some barriers may havepositive aspects. We called these two kinds of barriers “positive barriers” and“negative barriers” in this thesis.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to understand knowledge transfer inproject-based environments. Specifically, we aim to explain that barriers ofknowledge transfer in projects can be both negative and positive.

    Method: Due to the special time period and activity limitation, we chose case studyto gain the empirical data. When choosing the sample, we used the conveniencesampling. The sample chosen is a project team in Ericsson of Linköping. The projectmanager we interviewed has worked in Ericsson since 2004 and with his presentproject team for four years. He has already done more than fifteen projects, so he hasenough experience in projects for our study. We combined both inductive anddeductive approach strategies to analyze our thesis.

    Result: This thesis has answered the questions in the part of specified questions andreached the thesis purpose. It has explained the notion of knowledge transfer inprojects and its related barriers. It interprets how both negative and positive barriersaffect knowledge transfer. Furthermore, this thesis points out some suggestions forimproving positive barriers and reducing negative barriers.

  • 8.
    Håkansson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Åberg, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Measuring Interest Rate Risk in the Treasury Operations of an International Industrial Company Group: A Case Study of Toyota Industries Finance International2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The volatility in the interest rate market have increased during the last decade and this have made interest rate risk management more important for  both financial institutions and non-financial companies with short- and long term financial commitments.

    Objective: The main objective of this thesis is to analyze different ways of measuring interest rate risk in the treasury operations an international industrial company group. Further, the study will also examine the way treasury departments of international industrial company group’s measure interest rate risk and explain why this method have been chosen.

    Method: The research method of the thesis is a case study and a mix of both quantitative and qualitative data has been used to conduct it. The quantitative data have been secondary data received from TIFI’s treasury management software and the qualitative data have been collected through a survey with eight treasury managers from other international industrial company groups.

    Conclusion: The repricing model is suitable because it is straight forward, fairly easy to communicate to management and it focuses on the book value. However, defining relevant time buckets might be difficult. The duration model is a good measurement tool because it can be used in a variety of ways, but a disadvantage is that it focuses on the market value, which might not be appropriate for treasury departments. Stress testing captures the true change in market value, but demands forecasts about future interest rate movements and lacks tools to manage the interest rate risk.

    Treasury departments of international industrial company groups use a variety of measurement methods. The most frequently used methods are duration-, maturity- and Value at Risk models and different kinds of stress tests. The method should not only measure the interest rate risk in a correct way but it should also be easily explained to management and other executives in the company that might not have knowledge about financial economics.

    The main difference between treasury departments and commercial banks is that commercial banks try to earn money on interest rate fluctuations, whereas treasury departments want to minimize the impact of interest rate fluctuations in order to support the company group’s core business.

  • 9.
    LIU, ZHI
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Study of the Relationship between Socialization Tactics, Motives to Study and Mental Health in Chinese College Students2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    College students constitute a particular social group that carries hopes and expectations from both parents and society. However, in recent years there have been  reports about increasing problems in many universities in China: students suspension from school, skipping classes, or even committing suicide,. As social isolation, anxiety, fragility etc are possible reasons, the importance of university student’s mental health has been taken seriously more and more. University students’ socialization refers to the process in which college students grow up into independent and mature individuals by learning social and culture knowledge. From social perspective, on one hand, they still need to learn professional knowledge, on the other hand, they have to construct a good philosophy for themselves, a correct world outlook and value conception. This study mainly explores undergraduate students’ mental health in relation to socialization tactics and motives to study. That means that the focus of this survey is not on the degree of socialization, but on the tactic the students have chosen to get into the university society.

    In this study totally 120 students were examined via two questionnaires, the University Personality Inventory(UPI) introduced from Japan, and the combined Motives to Study and Socialization Tactics questionnaire from Israel. Both of them  passed homogeneity testing. The 120 students were from four universities, two  located in Hangzhou city and two in Beijing. Statistical analysis including correlation analysis, multiple regression and t-test, showed that motives to study had little to do with students’ mental health, while scholastic and collegiate socialization tactics were associated with good mental health of the students. There was no big difference in study motives and socialization tactics between the male and the female students in this study.

  • 10.
    Åman, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Joakim, Behrendtz
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Anestesipersonalens peri-operativa omvårdnad av överviktiga och obesa barn2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children are a group of patients that require special knowledge from the anesthesia staff, both general and specific. Theoretical knowledge and practical experience is necessary to adequately care for the child as it anatomically, physiologically and mentally may differ from adult patients.

    A growing problem in the pediatric population is overweight and obesity. From a stagnation in the early 2000s the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in the world are again increasing.The purpose of this study was to examine peri-operative care of overweight and obese children.

    Systematic searches were done in PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus. After the quality audit according to SBU, twelve articles were included for analysis.

    Results suggest that overweight and obese children have a higher risk of respiratory peri-operative complications. The risk of hospital admission after outpatient surgery was also greater in this group as well as higher costs for health care.

    Overweight and obese children are complex subjects with more frequent peri-operative risk factors than normal-weight children. This group requires special knowledge of the anesthesia staff. More studies are required to secure evidence in anesthetic care for overweight and obese children.

  • 11.
    Ferguson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Ukkonen, Merja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Adopting Open Innovation: A New Framework for the Analysis of the Open Innovation Adoption Process2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The term Open Innovation describes a phenomenon where organizations are no longer solely relying on internal R&D to innovate technologies that they then would bring to market. Instead, firms are looking outside for ideas or working with other organizations to develop technologies in order to capitalize on efficiencies of existing knowledge, reduce investment risks and increase speed to market. We identified a need to analyze the existing open innovation adoption frameworks in order to track similarities and differences so that we could create a new framework which is more comprehensive.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to create a framework for the analysis of the open innovation adoption process which is based on organizational change and other relevant streams of research. In order to do this we were to find answers to the following research questions:

    1) How can organizational change theory be used to analyze the movement from a closed to open innovation strategy?

    2) In addition to organizational change theory, which research streams should be considered when analyzing the open innovation adoption process?

    3) To what extent does our new framework provide an adequate foundation for analyzing the open innovation adoption process at SCA Hygiene Products?

    Results: Our new framework is meant for the analysis of open innovation adoption process. The framework helps researchers to analyze how different organizations have adopted open innovation based on the four research streams that we have analyzed. Our framework includes aspects of organizational change theory, knowledge management, networks and managerial roles.

    Key Words: open innovation adoption, organizational change, knowledge management, networks, SCA

  • 12.
    Trygg, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology.
    Blom, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology.
    Ensamkommande flickor och deras framtid: Unga kvinnor som har kommit till Sverige som ensamkommande flickor, hur de talar om sin framtid samt deras upplevelser av utbildning och arbete i Sverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study have set out to oppose the experience and outlook on future regarding education and work within the group of young women who came to Sweden as unaccompanied refugee children. The purpose of the study is also to increase knowledge about young women who came to Sweden as unaccompanied refugee children. Qualitative in-depth interviews with a hermeneutic research approach characterized by the author’s preconceptions have been used for the study. The key features of the study is that young women after they have moved out of the residential care home to their own apartments experience feelings of loneliness and lack of support. Experiences of segregation in school and knowledge gaps regarding education and work is also key features in the study. In the conclusion of the study possible improvements are suggested to improve young women’s contact network before moving to their own apartments, counteract segregation in school and suggest an establishment of regular dialogues. The improvements aims as a way to increase young women’s abilities to reach their goals, increase their wellbeing and improve integration.

  • 13.
    Häger, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision.
    Improving Discriminative Correlation Filters for Visual Tracking2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Generic visual tracking is one of the classical problems in computer vision. In this problem, no prior knowledge of the target is available aside from a bounding box in the initial frame of the sequence. The generic visual tracking is a difficult task due to a number of factors such as momentary occlusions, target rotations, changes in target illumination and variations in the target size. In recent years, discriminative correlation filter (DCF) based trackers have shown promising results for visual tracking. These DCF based methods use the Fourier transform to efficiently calculate detection and model updates, allowing significantly higher frame rates than competing methods. However, existing DCF based methods only estimate translation of the object while ignoring changes in size.This thesis investigates the problem of accurately estimating the scale variations within a DCF based framework. A novel scale estimation method is proposed by explicitly constructing translation and scale filters. The proposed scale estimation technique is robust and significantly improve the tracking performance, while operating at real-time. In addition, a comprehensive evaluation of feature representations in a DCF framework is performed. Experiments are performed on the benchmark OTB-2015 dataset, as well as the VOT 2014 dataset. The proposed methods are shown to significantly improve the performance of existing DCF based trackers.

  • 14.
    Sivik, Magdalena (Editor)
    Integrationsverket, Analysavdelningen, Norrköping.
    Rundqvist, Mikael (Editor)
    Integrationsverket, Analysavdelningen, Norrköping.
    Verksamhetsintegrerat mångfaldsarbete: en dokumentstudie av tolv statliga myndigheters arbete med mainstreaming av integrationspolitiken2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report Mainstreaming diversity work (Verksamhetsintegrerat mångfaldsarbete) maps twelve strategically important government authorities’ work with including the cross-sectoral integration policy in their respective core activities. In the government bill Sweden, the future and diversity – from immigration policy to integration policy (1997/98:16) the Government points to mainstreaming as an important tool in order to achieve the goals of the integration policy. In the report, the term diversity work is used to describe the perspective government authorities shall mainstream, according to regulations within this policy area.

    Activities in government authorities shall be based on the diversity in society and have everyone’s equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities as the goal. The integration perspective shall permeate activities and developments shall be implemented within the scope of regular activities and by regular staff. The consequences for foreign-born persons and persons with foreign extraction shall in a systematic way be considered in each situation.

    This report develops and tests the tools for examining the progress of mainstreaming diversity work. Through interviews and document analysis (e.g. annual reports), the report surveys whether the government authorities conduct their activities in accordance with the goals of integration policy.

    The result from both interviews and document analysis show that three out of twelve government authorities mainstream their diversity work according to the formulated policy. In another three government authorities does the information gathered through interviews verify that they mainstream their diversity work. Neither interviews, nor annual reports can verify that the remaining six government authorities mainstream their diversity work.

    The report concludes with suggestions dealing with the need for documented impact assessments, method- and interpretation support, as well as clarity, communication and consistency in management.

    The mapping exercise show, first, a need to implement and document impact assessments of how the government authorities’ various activities relate to the goals of integration policy. Such impact assessments can contribute to the government authority itself gaining an understanding of how its activities contribute to the achievement of the goals of integration policy, in addition to giving external actors an insight into the state of play.

    A second conclusion is that government authorities need method- and interpretation support for how to mainstream diversity work. One explanation for the fact that not all government authorities currently work on mainstreaming diversity work is that they lack knowledge about how this can be done.

    A third conclusion is that the Government must think through and decide on a strategy for how government authorities shall implement integration policy. The government authorities must in turn improve their reporting to the Government on how they mainstream their diversity work and the results they achieve.

    The document analyses and interviews are extensively reported for each government authority in a separate appendix (only available in Swedish).

  • 15.
    Karlsson, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Sammanhangets påverkan på språkförståelse: Sammanhang som underlättar för förståelse när tal är svårt att förstå2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How hard it is to understand speech can be affected of noise in the surrounding and/or the individual ability to hear. This study examines if semantic coherence and previous knowledge in the form of textprimes, increases the perceptual clearity of speech that is degraded by Noise Vocoding (see: Shannon, Zeng, Kamath, Wygonski, & Ekelid, 1995). This study showed that the perceptual ability of a degraded speech sentence increased if the sentence was presented after a textprime, compared to if no prime was shown. The perceptual clearity of degraded speech sentences was also increased if the sentence was semantically coherent. This study showed significant results for increased perceptual clearity for the condition with matching primes, independent of if the sentence was semantically coherent or not. The perceptual clearity of spoken sentences was significantly increased if the sentence was semantically coherent, and presented after a matching prime, or if the speech-sentence was less degraded. The perceptual clearity was experienced as highest when a speech sentence was both semantically coherent and presented after a matching textprime. This shows that previous knowledge and semantic context influences perceptual clearity, both together and as separate variables. 

  • 16.
    Johansson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Generating SkePU Code from Automatically Detected Algorithmic Patterns in C Source Programs2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern heterogeneous multi-core architectures containing one or multiple GPU de- vices require expert knowledge in order to be fully utilized through parallelization by the programmer. Software written for one hardware setup might not easily be portable to work as efficiently on a differing architecture. Automatic parallelization of sequential C code to make efficient use of such architecture in an extensible man- ner would facilitate the porting of legacy code and provide a non-expert programmer with a tool granting access to modern hardware architectures.

    We present an early prototype of such an extensible tool-chain and attempt to apply it on domain-specific C source code. It is based on a generic tool for hierarchical pattern matching in C source codes, where the user can define own patterns and recognition rules, and a code generation back-end. We show how it, combined with existing libraries, can be used to automatically port sequential legacy code to different multicore architectures, such as multicore CPUs and GPUs. Our tool is an attempt to do this and yields valid parallelized code, but fails to reach speedup for most implemented patterns. The tool is applied on one test case, a legacy ODE implementation in C, with similar results. A reason for slowdown is discussed in the concluding section.

  • 17.
    Weiser, Wolfgang
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Present Poise In Momentum: Embodied learning of applied aesthetics in our sense of balance – a study about sensorial cultural use of balance2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study lies in investigating the embodied learning of applied aesthetics in our sense of balance in the educational space and how it can contribute to change one of a present major public health related problem, the problem of sedentary behaviour in school and society. The investigation is not an effect study, but aims to question our sensorial cultural practice of applied aesthetics, by looking at how we use our ability to balance in the educational space.  Introducing and including elements from the field of art, the aesthetics field of knowledge and life science, the question of acknowledging embodied learning is explored mainly in the sensorial cultural praxis of our ability to balance. Embodied praxis is represented by the Alexander Technique and Elsa Gindler’s concept, with relation to modern neuromechanics. An educational view of knowledge that unilaterally enhances and rewards abstraction as well as theoretical thinking, by validating matrices and merit points, creates unbalance. Treating this unbalance solely with physical exercises enhances the conflict of how to use learning time in school and seems not to lead to a solution. By seeing the educational space as a space of embodied practice the investigation is built around participants’ sense of balance in embodied learning during a school day. The established sensorial cultural practice of how we are using our sense of balance in movement responses is observed during a school day and in a complementary inquiry explored and discussed with the children. Also the time of sitting is measured. The qualitative analysis or reading in this research of embodied learning is done by analysing directions or pointing in poise in momentum for finding inclusive or exclusive corresponsive sensorial tendencies in relation to sensorial cultural practice, including individual, social and regulative aspects. The minor quantitative part in this investigation is looking at the time spent sitting during the school day in the given conditions for defining the pupils’ sedimentary behaviour. The found embodied learning was not noticably acknowledged and not commented by the teacher.  The learning sessions were varying in space, form and in their content. In spite of the attempt of the teacher to create moveability, the children were sitting 54%  or more of the day in school. Inclusive dynamic responsiveness gave ability to balance and promoted embodied learning. Isolated or excluded responsiveness did not noticably engage the sense of balance and did not promote embodied learning. It resulted into pointing or directing downwards and leaning forward, backward or inwards into supportive furniture in accordance with gravitation. The study finds that inclusive responsiveness increases aligned balancing in poise in momentum. In its conclusion the study recognizes the value and effect of physical activity, but argues that moving to be healthy is not effectively changing sedentary behaviour. It argues instead for embodied health sufficient moving on a general sensorial level.  To be able to use our sense of balance as function of intelligence, we still need to increase acknowledgment of our evolutionary inherited skill further.

  • 18.
    Valtersson, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    How adult migrant students learn maths.: Adult students understanding and engaging with maths.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore the adult immigrant students’ experience of maths in Sweden. I will present an understanding rather than an explanation on how second language adult students learn maths. It can be argued that people who study maths as adults in a new homeland and in a foreign language face particular challenges. At the same time research reports that people sometimes approach the subject in a more fruitful way as adults compared to their childhood experiences. I want to contribute to the general knowledge of the subject and furthermore provide improved understanding of how mathematics teachers can guide their students towards their goals.I have performed semi-structured qualitative research interviews. My informants are my own maths students on the basic level with incomplete grades in maths from secondary school, or they have failed in their maths studies in upper secondary school due to a low level of know-ledge. They are over 20 years of age and they are all immigrants and have arrived in Sweden as adults. I have used my students statements, written as narratives as the material which is to be interpreted and understood. Because of my use of my own students in the interview, I will not take into account their statements about the teacher’s role in my conclusion.I find that:1. The difficult experience of being forced to leave the home country, together with a wish to take revenge on the failures from their youth, can lead to a kind of struggle for decom-pensation that can be reflected in the participants' positive evaluation of their maths studies.2. Having a family is a great motivational help for studying regardless of the time it takes to take care of the same.3. The memories of previous failures with the incomprehensible, abstract mathematics characterise the students’ inception of the subject.4. It seems possible that adult students can understand themselves in a new way and redefine their relationship with maths and their own ability to study the subject.

  • 19.
    Haegeland, Veronica
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Sustainable water management in the textile industry – barriers and opportunities: The case of Swedish retail brand policy on water use in the context of Bangladesh, and the prospects of increased efficiency through dialogue2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although Bangladesh is considered to be a water rich country the groundwater levels are decreasing at a steady rate. The pressure on water resources is to a large extent driven by the wet processing of textiles in the country, and this thesis will therefore focus on the issue of water governance in the textile industry. This thesis will argue that the issue is made complex due to the variety of stakeholders from different cultural backgrounds with vested interests in how the water resources are being managed. Based on interviewees from two Swedish retail brands, the Bangladeshi government, suppliers and organization active in the country, the thesis aims at identifying barriers towards increasing sustainable water management practices in the country. The diversity of cultural background will be analyzed through the lens of institutional theory in order to consider the differences in governance strategies and how they might relate to the barriers. The thesis will also present the prospect of an inclusive stakeholder dialogue platform as a means of overcoming barriers and institutional differences in terms of water governance strategies. Building on the findings the thesis concludes that there are several barriers in terms of agreement, knowledge, and social and political structures. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that the stakeholders approach these barriers differently depending on their cultural background. Lastly, the stakeholder dialogue is considered to have the capacity to create a much needed space for stakeholder collaboration in order to overcome these barriers. 

  • 20.
    Rönn, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques.
    Symvex: A Symbolic Execution System for Machine Code2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a part of an ongoing research project at Link ̈oping University.

    The goal of the thesis work is to design and implement a prototype for a symbolic

    execution system that scales well with larger programs and is capable of performing

    symbolic execution on machine code. For this reason we have analyzed the current

    state of symbolic executors that are able to perform symbolic execution on machine

    code to see if we could use that implementation as base for our prototype. We

    wanted to know if any of the existing systems scaled well with large software. We

    found that neither of the existing systems worked well with the real life software in

    our evaluation. Furthermore, even if it would have been possible to fix one of the

    existing systems, the time required to figure out the faults in their implementation

    would most likely have been too great. For this reason we decided to create

    an implementation of our own from scratch. However, we did note that some

    approaches in the existing systems seemed to work better with large software.

    Specifically saving as little state as possible about the program seemed favorable.

    Armed with the knowledge gained from the analysis, we managed to implement

    a system that compared quite well with the existing systems. Our system was

    able to execute all the real-life programs used in our tests, but unfortunately had

    some issues with high memory usage for certain programs. In order to lessen the

    problem with high memory usage, we present and discuss several potential ways

    to mitigate this issue.

  • 21.
    Nilson, Andrés
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Matter of Form: investigating a theory of design through a bench concept2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report explains my Bachelor thesis, a bench system for public spaces. The work was done in collaboration with Lammhults möbel AB. The examproject is a journey that describes my designprocess which was guided by a very detailed briefing. The report describes my work that was very closely linked with the Lammhults product development team and the challenge was to design a commercial product that can be put into production. Another part of my degreeproject was to do form studies. The form study I did through formexperiments mixed with formtheory. In the experiments, I used my final shape of the bench as a bas. The formstudies is done to gain my deeper knowledge and understanding of the form field. This will work as a base to my more theoretical and analytical part of analyze form. My cooperation with Lammhults extends for a year, so probability risk is that the prototype I will show here unfortunately, not are the final productionready prototype.

  • 22.
    Hammarfrid, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Henningsson, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Multifaktormodeller på den svenska marknaden - En studie av OMX Stockholm mellan 1996 och 20142015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:CAPM isn’t in some cases sufficient for explaining expected stock return. Some of CAPM´smispricing errors are well documented and time persistent which has led rise to the usage of correctivefactors. One model that make use of two such corrective factors are the Fama and French three factormodel. It´s been comprehensively tested on the Swedish market where it has shown to achieve higherexplanatory power then the CAPM. In the year of 2012 and 2014 two new Asset Pricing Models wereintroduced, which on the US stock market better captured many of the best known anomalies.Aim:The aim of the study is to test if the Fama and French five factor model as well as the Q-factor model,could contribute to increased explanatory power beyond the three factor model. The study also analyzethe models cyclical sensitivity as well as the individual factor significance.MethodologyThe knowledge building process takes a deductive approach. Existing theories in the form of assetpricing models are tested based on empirical observations in the Swedish market. The research take aquantitative approach and make use of econometric tools in order to ensure statistic accuratesignificance.Result:This research shows no contribution of explanatory power for the Q-factor model, beyond thatachieved from the Fama and French three factor model. The five factor model achieve marginallyhigher explanatory power compared to the tree factor model. The most likely reason why FF5Machieve better results than the Q-factor model is believed to lie in the usage of the factor HML. Theresults also shows that all of the tested models are very instable when used in a short time perspective.Although there are some clear indication on increasing explanatory power in recession compared to inan ongoing bull market.

  • 23.
    Levin, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Upsetting Offsets: A case study of Colombia and their legislation of biodiversity offsetting2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Upsetting Offsets - A case study of Colombia and their legislation of biodiversity offsetting

    Authors: Linda Levin and Linda Olsson

    Supervisor: Åsa-Karin Engstrand

    Background: The global loss of biodiversity is a very timely debate, and experts are actively working on finding new ways to lessen and reverse the negative impacts placed on the environment. One such way is biodiversity offsetting and it is a methodology that is becoming more prevalent within national environmental legislations. Colombia enforced a legislation regarding biodiversity offsetting in 2012, and it quickly became apparent that the process would not progress without its issues.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to research the government, NGOs and companies in relation to the legislation of biodiversity offsetting in Colombia established in 2012, to acquire knowledge regarding their roles, relationships and the challenges they are experiencing.

    Methodology: The empirical data was collected during a two months field study in Colombia. The data was collected in a qualitative manner, through interviews with employees at governmental entities, NGOs and companies. While conducting the empirical research, theoretical information was gathered, which implies an iterative approach.

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, there are various issues to be found in the implementation process of the legislation, both in regards to practical difficulties, as well as in the relationships between the different actors. Some of these problems could be mitigated with a national habitat banking system, where the offsetting activities are managed by an external part. 

    Key words: Biodiversity offsetting, environmental governance, Colombia, NGOs, the government, companies, roles, relationships, challenges.

  • 24.
    Collryd, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindau, Isabelle
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Benägenheten att ge pengar till tiggande EU-migranter jämfört med etablerade välgörenhetsorganisationer: En empirisk forskningsstudie utförd i Linköpings stad2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the number of homeless EU migrants has increased substantially in Sweden, and almost half of them lack an income whereas many others live by begging. Nowadays, individuals in addition to decide whether to give money to established charities also have to decide whether to give money to begging EU migrants. Based on the assumption that asymmetric information and institutional factors exists, which can affect each type of willingness to donate to charity, it is interesting to investigate whether there are differences in propensity to give money to begging EU migrants compared to established charities.The purpose of the research study is to examine individual’s propensity to give money to begging EU migrants compared to established charities. Furthermore, the aim is also to identify and analyze various individual characteristics that conceivably affect individuals' donation to each type of charity. To answer the purpose of the research study primary data is collected in Linkoping city by a questionnaire and the material is analyzed with econometric models.The results of the study indicate that individuals generally are less likely to give money to begging EU migrants compared with established charities. Variables that affect individuals' willingness to give money to begging EU migrants are gender, age, descent, knowledge of begging EU migrants living situation and attitude towards banning begging. Compared to this, factors that affect the willingness to donate to established charities are age, education, descent, married and social factors.

  • 25.
    Malesu, Maureen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chen, Xinyu
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Process Perspective of Corporate Rebranding in SMEs: A multiple case study of Restaurants and Bars in Osteragotland2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In recent years, the subject of corporate rebranding has been receiving increasing attention as companies strive to develop new differentiated identities in the minds of their stakeholders. Several studies have been conducted on this subject, however, these studies have been biased towards large companies. Despite small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) being the most common type of businesses, most of the research on corporate rebranding has been focused on large corporations. Owing to the limited research studies on corporate rebranding in SMEs, this study seeks to shed more light on this subject by studying how the corporate rebranding process occurs in SMEs. By doing so, this study seeks to fill part of the research gap identified and contribute to the body of knowledge about corporate rebranding process in SMEs.

    Methodology: The empirical approach involves a multiple case study of four SME companies from the restaurant and bar sector. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews with key informants from each company, through observations and also the use of secondary sources.

    Results:The findings showed that the corporate rebranding process in SMEs involves few actors and is mostly owner- driven with the owner being at the centre of most of the activities and decision making. Furthermore, the findings show that the reasons for corporate rebranding in SMEs are change in ownership structure, bad reputation and change in market preferences. Based on the findings, we propose a corporate rebranding framework for SMEs that consists of the stages Assurance, Analysis, planning, Realisation and Evaluation.

  • 26.
    Hiran, Vaishali Rahul
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Usability evaluation of IPsec configuring components2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The security protocol IPsec is used in the LTE network to achieve a securecommunication from prying eyes. However, the use of IPsec is optional bythe LTE standard. Whether or not to use the IPsec thus becomes a securitydecision that each operator has to make after having considered applicablerisks and anticipated costs. It is also important to consider the OperationalExpenditure (OPEX) for deploying, operating, and maintaining the IPsecinstallation. One important factor that can aect OPEX is usability. Forthis reason understanding the usability properties of a system can help toidentify improvements that can reduce OPEX.This study mainly focused on investigating the challenges and also investigateswhether poor usability was a contributing factor for deploymentchallenges of IPsec in the LTE infrastructure. Additionally, this study alsofocused on prerequisite knowledge for an individual in order to ensure thecorrect deployment of IPsec in the LTE network.Cognitive Walkthrough and Heuristic Evaluation usability methods wereused in this study. By using these methods, several usability issues related toIPsec conguring components like documentation, the MO structure, anda used tool were identied. It was also identied that each componenthad rooms for improvements, especially for documentation which can signicantly aid in the deployment of IPsec. Moreover, in order to smoothlydeploy IPsec in the LTE network, it is important to have beforehand knowledgeof conguring components used to deploy IPsec.

  • 27.
    Tanhua, Inkeri
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Equality Work in Finnish Ministries2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to knowledge about the equality work in public sector organisations. Especially, my aim is to bring light into everyday experiences of doing equality work. This is achieved through interviewing equality workers in Finnish ministries. The study draws also on my personal experiences as an equality consultant. The main question I ask is: Which issues influence the content of equality work? According to feminist research, promoting equality is always a political process, which includes conflicting interests. These conflicting interests are, however, not visible in official descriptions of equality work. For example, ministries’ equality policies mostly hide the various interests under vague definitions and beautiful structures. Despite the invisibility of the tensions in written documents, equality workers describe the negotiative nature of equality work by providing examples of equality negotiations in their organisations. In my analysis I conclude that equality workers are aware of their organisations’ capacities to change and, in their work, they adapt to these limitations by choosing their strategies to do equality work accordingly. The content of equality work reflects the strategies, which are carefully chosen based on the knowledge about the organisation. I argue that this process of choosing equality strategies by equality workers is one of the overlooked factors shaping equality work in organisations.

  • 28.
    Johnsson, Arvid
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Extending a framework for a play and learn game with drag and drop, a subgame and visual feedback2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report documents and describes the process of the extension of a JavaScript frameworkfor the math game Magical Island and implementation of one of its subgames. Moreover itdetails the implementation of visual feedback within this subgame based on literature aboutfeedback within games. The method details the implementation process one system at a time,starting with a study of the code and ending with the implementation of the visual feedback.The results show that a systematic approach where an understanding of the existing code isthe most important thing when extending and implementing new features in a framework.They also show that to properly design a system for visual feedback knowledge of theresearch within this field is needed.

  • 29.
    Odenryd, Theo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hassan, Mohamed
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kapitalstruktur i kris – anpassning eller överlevnad?: En studie om skuldsättning i de Large Cap-noterade svenska industriföretagen under åren 2006-20092015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Regardless of the economy, a company must finance its operations with capital. Capital structure is a controversial area of research without any general applicable theory for the majority of companies. This, together with the relatively unexplored area of capital structure in economic turnarounds enables an interesting contribution to knowledge. The fact that companies within the same industry has proven greater similarities in capital structure raises a delimitation into a specific sector. How was Sweden’s largest export sector, industrial companies, affected by the major economic downturn that prevailed during the years 2006–2009, considering their relatively high leverage ratio?

    Purpose: The aim is to analyse the management of, and what affected the indebtedness in the Swedish industrial companies during the economic downturn the years 2006– 2009.

    Completion: In order to analyse the indebtedness during an economic downturn the study used a quantitative approach based on financial ratios and valuation multiples as explanatory variables. Interviews were conducted in order to make the study more reality-based regarding management of capital structure over time. Previous research in capital structure, together with the empirical results, has been the basis for analysis and comparisons to the economic downturn during 2006–2009.

    Results: Most correlations, which affected the indebtedness during 2006–2009, prevails regardless of the economic climate. However, there is a greater impact by the economic downturn when analysing the explanations of the correlations whereby profitability, growth and risk are seen as contributing factors. Furthermore, industrial companies make no direct adaption in structure at economic turnarounds since they are considered “survivors” in their strategy based on their business and flexibility in the composition of capital structure. 

  • 30.
    Ekström, Ellen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Using Shared Priorities to Support Training of Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Crews2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish nuclear power plant control room crews have training sessions in full scope simulators every year. These sessions are designed to prepare operators to cope with incidents and accidents. The aim is to develop operators’ knowledge, skills and abilities necessary to operate the nuclear power plant in a safe manner. Training sessions is an opportunity to practice and develop the crews’ teamwork, decision processes and working strategies.

    The purpose of this study was to explore if and how the instrument Shared Priorities can support training of nuclear power plant control room crews. Shared Priorities is an instrument to measure teams’ shared awareness of a situation and has in earlier studies been used in military and student teams. During the simulator re-training period of control room crews, 14 crews used the instrument Shared Priorities in one or two of their training scenarios. The instrument consists of two steps. Firstly, crew members generate and prioritise a list of five items they think are most important for the crew to cope with in the scenarios current situation. They also rank another crew member’s list. Secondly, the crews and instructors perform a focus group discussion based on the generated lists.

    Results from questionnaires, focus group discussions and an interview with instructors showed that operators and instructors believe that Shared Priorities can support their training in several ways. Crews see meetings and other disseminations of information as an essential part of maintaining shared understanding of different situations. They believe the instrument may help crews reflect upon and develop their meeting procedures. Operators and instructors also believe that by using the instrument it can help crews to increase their understanding of having a shared situation understanding and shared vision. However the procedure when using Shared Priorities has to be modified in order to be able to support crews’ training in an optimal way.

  • 31.
    Linn, Falck
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visual Communication - How can graphic design elements be used in mathematical problems on a junior high school level?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Visual communication is necessary in order to gain a better understanding for the reader, and also to solve difficult scientific and mathematical problems. Though, this knowledge is rarely used in the design of educational materials, mathematical educational books as an example. Earlier reasearch has been investigating visual communication in mathematic, which has involved primary- and upper primary school, including investigations at high school and university level. Still, instructions is very limited when it comes to the use of visual models and strategies from educational materials. It is very time consuming and requires great effort in order to create comprehensible visualization from raw data. Though, visual communication is necessary in order to decrease vaguenesses and consequences. This study has therefore investigated how visual communication can be designed in mathematical problems, and what  the experience of it is according to secondary school students that have an interest for mathematic. A qualitative investigation has been done through a mathematic test that has been designed in 3 different ways. The design of the test was based on theory involving graphical design elements that is often used in visual communication. The target group consisted of 6  mathematical interested students from 2 classes in the 7th grade. The test contained 5 problems, where 2 students each got to make one of the tests from the 3 designs. The designs of the test contained one picturebased, one textbased, and one text- and picturebased. These 3 designs’ communication was therefore compared in a semistructured interview together with the target group, after the test. The tests got analyzed by the target groups’ opinions. The conclusions from the analyze resulted in a majority that appreciated the text- and picturebased test the most. The common design element pictures, explanatory text, and the redmarked text helped to understand the problems in the test. The test that was textbased and picturebased lacked in communication and therefore seemed difficult by the target group. Compared to the test involving only text or pictures, the combination of both text and pictures gave motivation to solve the problem. At last, text and pictures can thereby be used by, or only in order to inspire, teachers in mathematic when designing mathematical problems in the future.

  • 32.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Increased efficiency of experience feedback between production and budget2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry has during many years been regarded as a problematic industry. As a result of this the government 2002 set up a commission with the aim to discourage negative trends in the industry. The commission acknowledged the problem with work activities being reconstructed between projects. As a result of this the experience being acquired in one project did not come to use in the next. In the construction industry it is a well-known fact that around 10% of the cost of production can be categorized as error and controls. The most of the errors that occur can be eliminated with better planning. A tool to be used is experience feedback which purpose is to use the knowledge gained from earlier projects to predict future projects. The purpose of this study is to examine and highlight problems that can occur when experience shall be fed back between production and budget with the aim to present suggested improvements. The study is divided into three questions where the first question investigates which data is relevant from production in order to make well motivated production budgets. The second question explores, in a collaboration with SM Entreprenad AB, which conditions there are today regarding experience feedback between production and budget. The third and final question reviews improvements to be made. The first question is being answered with literature as reference while the second and third has its focus on interviews. The results of the study shows that a budget is constructed with earlier projects as reference where data mainly regarding time, used amount of material as well as used material/equipment are the central variables that need to be fed back to budget. The situation at SM Entreprenad today is that they more or less are not feeding back any data from production with the aim to make well motived budgets. The study shows regarding improvements to be made that there are a lot of data to be used, but they lack routines in order to use this data.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Knowledge management and throughput optimization in large-scale software development2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale software development companies delivering market-driven products have introduced agile methodologies as the way of working to a big extent. Even though there are many benefits with an agile way of working, problems occur when scaling agile because of the increased complexity. One explicit problem area is to evolve deep product knowledge, which is a domain specific knowledge that cannot be developed anywhere else but at the specific workplace. This research aims to identify impediments for developing domain specific knowledge and provide solutions to overcome these challenges in order to optimize knowledge growth and throughput.

    The result of the research shows that impediments occur in four different categories, based on a framework for knowledge sharing drivers. These are people-related, task-related, structure-related and technology-related. The challenging element with knowledge growth is to integrate the training into the feature development process, without affecting the feature throughput negatively.

    The research also shows that by increasing the knowledge sharing, the competence level of the whole organization can be increased, and thereby be beneficial from many perspectives, such as feature-throughput and code quality.

  • 34.
    KNUTFELT, MARKUS
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Charging Cost Optimization of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The future success of chargeable vehicles will, among other factors, depend on their charging costs and their ability to charge with minimal disturbances to the national, local and household electrical grid. To be able to minimize costs and schedule charging sessions, there has to be knowledge of how the charging power varies with time. This is called charging profile. A number of charging profiles for a Volvo V60 plug‑in hybrid electric vehicle have been recorded. For charging currents above 10 A they prove to be more complex than are assumed in most current research papers.

     

    The charging profiles are used together with historical electricity prices to calculate charging costs for 2013 and 2014. Charging is assumed to take place during the night, between 18:00 and 07:00, with the battery being totally depleted at 18:00. By using a timer to have the charging start at 01:00, instead of immediately at 18:00, annual charging costs are reduced by approximately 7 to 8%. By using dynamic programming to optimize the charging sessions, annual charging costs are reduced by approximately 10 to 11%. An interesting issue regarding dynamic programming was identified, namely when using a limited set of predetermined discrete control signals, interpolation returns unrealizable cost-to-go values. This occurs specifically for instances crossing the zero cost-to-go area boundary.

     

    It is concluded that the mentioned savings are realizable, via implementing timers or optimization algorithms into consumer charging stations. Finally, by using these decentralized charging planning tools and seen from a power usage perspective, at least 30% of the Swedish vehicle fleet could be chargeable and powered by the electrical grid.

  • 35.
    Brunosson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lärare, digitalteknik och motivation: En studie om vilka aspekter som påverkar lärares motivation att använda digitalteknik i undervisningen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to develop knowledge around teachers’ motivation to use digital technology in education. The study is performed with the following research questions; Which understanding does a teacher have of the role of digital technology in education? and Which aspects affects the teacher’s motivation to use digital technology in education? Five teachers who actively teach grade 1-6 takes part in the study. Semi-structured qualitative interviews are used to describe and categorize aspects that affect teachers’ motivation to use digital technology in education.

       The study shows that teachers have an ambiguous understanding of digital technology. Teachers demonstrate understanding of the possibilities with digital technology and use it for personal development and as an information source. In contrast, digital technology is less frequently used while teaching.

       Several aspects affect teachers’ incentive to use digital technology in education, access to technology and institutional involvement are exhibited as the most important factors. Other aspects are time, interest, and knowledge. All the participating teachers are interested in digital technology coupled with education while desiring more knowledge about the field.

  • 36.
    Danielsson, Tina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Intergrated Computer systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Portering från Google Apps REST API till Microsoft Office 365 REST API2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stress på arbetsplatsen relaterat till många inkommande och utgående kommunikationskanaler är ett reellt problem. Applikationer som samlar alla kanaler i samma verktyg kan hjälpa till på det här området. För att förenkla vid utveckling av en sådan applikation kan ett modulärt system skapas, där varje modul ser liknande ut och enkelt kan kopplas in i en huvudapplikation. Den här studien undersöker de problem som kan uppstå när flera tjänster ska integreras, mer specifikt genom att titta på hur en befintlig modul för e-post via Google Apps kan porteras för att stödja e-post via Microsoft Office 365. Arbetet har skett enligt metoder för testdriven portering och varje steg i porteringen har dokumenterats noggrant. Ett antal problemområden har identifierats och möjliga lösningar föreslås. Utfrån de problem som uppstått dras slutsatsen att de är av en sådan karaktär att de inte utgör något hinder för en portering.

  • 37.
    Forsman, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wiström, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Experter i revisionsprocessen: Hur upplever revisorn att revisionskvaliteten påverkas?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Problem: Accountants have become dependent with using experts in theirwork because of the complexity that has occurred around both accountingand auditing. It is the auditor that decides when an expertshould be included and how great of impact the experts work willhave on the audit. Meanwhile the auditor’s duty is to deliver qualityassured information to stakeholders and it is the auditor that willdecide when adequate audit quality is achieved. The question ishow the auditor experiences the influence on audit quality whenthey include experts in their work?

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explain how the auditors experiencethe influence on audit quality when they include experts in theirwork.

    Method: This study has mainly a quantitative method where surveys havebeen sent to auditors to obtain answers to the study’s purpose. Toget a deeper understanding of the experts work has a qualitativefeasibility study with interviews been conducted.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that auditors feel that audit quality will behigher when the experts are used in the audit. The results from ourfirst regression model suggests that when the experts get moreleeway/influence auditors experience that audit the quality will behigher. Audit quality is also affected slightly by the extent towhich auditors are taking the help of experts. Accountants whotake the help of experts to a greater extent perceive that auditquality will be higher. The result from our second regression modelindicates that it’s only the expert's influence that leads to higheraudit quality. Our results indicate that, according to auditors isworth spending time and resources on experts when they contributeto higher quality audits.

  • 38.
    Melin, Linnea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenberg, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Redovisning är sällan ren och aldrig enkel: En studie om svårigheter och komplexitet vid framtagning av IFRS 152015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background As a result of the increased globalization, Standard-setters constantly strive to harmonize international accounting standards. In May 2014 IASB (International Accounting Standards Board) published a new standard revenue recognition - IFRS 15. With the development of new accounting standards, IASB must keep within a general mindset, commonly known as Conceptual Framework. The fact that the actors on the capital market in recent years have had considerable more leverage, could influence the IASB's approach to the general Framework. Another problem IASB faces while establishing a new accounting standard is disclosure. Today's complex economic reality requires extensive disclosures. Mean while it may appear there are too many disclosures, this is known as disclosure overload.

    Purpose The study's purpose is to create an understanding of how IFRS 15 relates to the IASB's Conceptual Framework and how the views of actors on the capital market have affected the approach. This study also aims to examine how the IASB's work on IFRS 15 stands in relation to the concept of disclosure overload.

    Methodolgy We conducted a qualitative study in which we have used secondary analysis. Furthermore, we have had an iterative approach and used current research in a deductive manner, we also searched new knowledge in accordance to an inductive approach.

    Conclusions This study concludes that IFRS 15, in comparison with previous standards for revenue recognition have a better approach to the Conceptual Framework. Actors on the capital market have in some cases contributed to a better approach, while in other cases have gone against the Conceptual Framework. The concept disclosure overload is complex and IFRS 15 will reqire accountants to use many disclosures. In view of the ongoing projects aimed at improving disclosure requirements, development of IFRS 15 can be regarded as bad timing.

  • 39.
    Ekholm, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Betydelsen av återskapade våtmarkers ålder, area och fiskförekomst för simfåglar: En biologistudie ur ett lärarperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Restored wetlands are of great importance for biodiversity, and especially important for endangered waterfowl. In order to increase knowledge about how factors such as wetlands area, age, and fish occurrence affect waterfowl in restored wetlands four wetlands in Tinnerö nature reserve, Linköping municipality, were studied. Of special interest was the horned grebe (Podiceps auritus). The number of horned grebes in the studied wetlands had seen a positive development during the wetlands first years. Between 2009 and 2011, the number of horned grebes in the area declined. The numbers were stabilized in 2011, after the establishment of Ekängsdalsgångens wetlands. The conclusion is that newly created, fish-free wetlands provide good conditions for endangered species such as the horned grebe. In addition to this the study also examined the didactic opportunities, based on the curriculum for biology, which excursions offers.

  • 40.
    Elm, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hur arbetar tre Östgötakommuner med klimatanpassning?: En intervjustudie kring klimatanpassningsarbete över tid.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a changing climate, we face great pressure in the future. In order to adapt to both the current and future climate we need to work with climate adaptation. Climate change can have a large impact on the functioning of society and thus create great damage on society. In this paper, we have chosen to look at climate change adaptation at the municipal level. We have chosen three different municipalities to interview, Norrköping, Linköping and Söderköping. The purpose of this paper is to examine how three municipalities in Östergötland are dealing with climate adaptation and determine if this has changed over time, with a lot of focus on the official’s perception of the problem. The method that has been used is a semi- structured interview study and the respondents has been officials who work or who have worked with climate adaptation. After completing the interviews a compilation of responses was made and analysed more profound. The results of the study show that the prioritization of climate adaption differs between the municipalities. In Norrköping and Linköping the climate adaptation work is considered to be well prioritized, and is rising on the agenda. It is less prioritized in Söderköping and has been so over the years. Based on the interviews, there is an interest in working more with climate adaptation than is done in the current situation, and there are several factors that affect climate adaptation efforts, which can be seen as both barriers and driving forces depending on situation. Those are for example: amount of resources, politics, size of the municipality, experience of past climate related events, knowledge, support from higher levels and distribution of responsibilities.

  • 41.
    Backlund, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Luuk, Liisa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    DAY: Allians, komorbiditet och kunskap i KBT-behandling bestående av fyra behandlingsträffar och tio veckors internetbehandling för depression2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien utvärderades en KBT-behandling för depression bestående av fyra behandlingsträffar i kombination med ett internetprogram under tio veckor. Syftet var att undersöka om behandlingen ledde till ökad kunskap om behandlingsinnehållet samt om kunskap, allians och komorbiditet kunde predicera symptomförbättring. Kunskapsökning undersöktes med ett kunskapstest som analyserades med ANCOVA och resultatet visade på en trend mot att behandlingen ledde till ökad kunskap. När skattningar av deltagarnas säkerhet på svaren på frågorna i kunskapstestet inkluderades i analysen var resultatet signifikant bättre för behandlingsgruppen jämfört med kontrollgruppen. Huruvida kunskap, allians och komorbiditet kunde predicera förbättring i behandlingsgruppen undersöktes med Pearsons produktmomentkorrelationskoefficient. Allians och kunskap kunde inte predicera symptomförbättring. Däremot fanns ett negativt samband mellan antalet komorbida tillstånd och symptomförbättring på ett av utfallsmåtten, vilket kan indikera att formatet fungerar sämre för personer med en generellt hög symptombörda. Forskningsområdet är nytt, varför det behövs fler studier om faktorer som påverkar behandlingsresultatet när sedvanlig KBT-behandling kombineras med internetbehandling.

  • 42.
    Karlsson, Therése
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lawrence, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    English as a Second Language for Kenyan Children in Primary School: A Trial of the Spoken Language Assessment Profile – Revised Edition2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sub-Saharan Africa is a multilingual environment and there is a lack of materials available for speech and language assessment in this area (Hartley & Krämer, 2013). The norms for assessment material cannot be used for both monolinguals and bilinguals, since bilinguals may have different levels of knowledge in their languages (Kohnert, 2010). The Spoken Language Assessment Profile – Revised edition (SLAP-R) is an assessment that can be used to evaluate English as a second language (ESL) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this instrument is an attempt to fill the gap of suitable speech and language assessment tools that can be used for all those involved in setting up clinics, schools or speech and language assessment tools (Hartley & Krämer, 2013). The aim of the present study was to assess English as a second language for Kenyan children in primary school based on their result on the SLAP-R. The present study consisted of 68 participants with reported typically developed language and hearing that attended first or second grade in a public school in western Kenya. All participants were between six and nine years old, had a Bantu language as their first language and had been exposed to English for less than one year up to eight years. They had also attended preschool at their current school. The independent variables in the present study were grade, age and exposure to English. SLAP-R consists of six subtests that test expressive and receptive phonology, semantics and grammar. These parts constituted the dependent variables. In addition there is a part called ultimate expressive language skill (UELS) that consists of picture sequences where the participant should tell a story of what is happening in the pictures. The result indicated that grade had the largest effect on the participant’s performance in English as a second language. Grade two had significantly higher results regarding receptive phonology as well as expressive and receptive semantics and grammar than the participants in grade one. Most of the incorrect answers were made in the subtest expressive grammar. These answers were mainly incorrect due to other reasons than an answer in Kiswahili.

  • 43.
    Neffati, Hammadi
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Översättning och anpassning av Kortfattad Afasiprövning till arabiska: Jämförelse med arabiska Bilingual Aphasia Test och självskattad språkförmåga2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing amount of citizens with another mother tongue than Swedish, the need for assessment instruments in other languages than Swedish within the Swedish health care increases. To enable this, the knowledge of multilingualism and adequate assessments are required. The aim is to develop a modern Arabic version of a screening material that is comparable to what is used in the Swedish clinic in the assessment of people diagnosed with aphasia. In the present study, Short Aphasia Examination (Kortfattad Afasiprövning), which is one of the few screening material is available in Swedish and among the ten most frequently used assessment materials (Blom Johansson, Carlsson & Sonnander, 2011). Translation and adaptation was made to the Standard Arabic (KAPARABISKA) and Arabic dialect of Hadari (KAPHADARI). The results were also compared with the participants' self-rated language abilities. The study is also implementing a comparison between KAP and the Hadari Arabic screening version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT). The translated assessment materials were tested on six participants, where five had Arabic as their mother tongue and one participant had Arabic and Swedish as mother tongues. The result indicates that the Arabic versions of KAP and BAT are assessing the language ability of the participants almost equally, but that KAP is assessing reading and writing abilities on a higher difficulty. The KAP assessments were conducted during half as long time as BAT. Both the KAP assessments and the BAT assessment identified participants with limited literacy skills, which indicates the importance of inquiring the patient’s education level to avoid false interpretation of the results.

  • 44.
    Schenkel, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Sundin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    36 § avtalslagen – till konsumentens värn?: Högsta domstolens domskäls förenlighet med syftet enligt prop. 1975/76: 812015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Provision 36 of the Swedish Contract Act (SFS 1915:218) was introduced in 1976 in order to ensure legal protection for consumers in their relation to traders. The requisit ”unreasonably” however, on the one hand, is claimed to be too imprecise to be percceived to be legally secure for contractors. On the other hand, there is the perception that the meaning of the general clause is to leave room for a legally freer assessment. The purpose of this essay is to, with the data which can be provided by legislative history and the jurisprudence of the Supreme Court, examine the grounds, which are determined to fulfill the original purpose of the general clause, are satisfactory from a legally certain aspect. In the legislative history, we can see that the inquiry established that, the introduction of a general clause in the Swedish Contract Act, would be a valuable addition from a legally secure and predictable perspective. Then the inquiry deemed that an adjustment of unfair terms would be preferable, in case contracts shall be regulated using the general clause. Whether a term can be considered unfair, the inquirys opinion was that, the content of the agreement, the circumstances that existed when the contract was agreed, later occured conditions and the circumstances in general, had to be taken in account. The majority of the respondents concurred in the inquriys opinion about the reading of the general clause. However, according to the respondents assessments, the word ”unreasonably”, was preferable to the word ”unfair”. The rapporteur and the Council on Legislation considered the inquiry having reported to vaguely on the reading of the general clause, but they agreed with the respondents that the word ”unreasonably” was to prefer instead of ”unfair”. From the court cases, which are presented for in the essay, it is possible to determine that the most prominent grounds established by the Supreme Court, is predictability, the inferior position of the consumer and the clarity of contractual terms. In a predominantly number of court cases we believe the Supreme Court´s verdicts to be consistent with the purpose which permeated the legislative history. A few verdicts, however, are ambiguous, since we believe that the Supreme Court's reasoning, in the assessment of certain contractual terms of clarity, is inconsistent. We have found that the consequence of this is that there are far too high demands on the consumer, to the extent that it is required by him, to have firsthand knowledge of current legislation. Another problem with provision 36 of the Swedish Contract Act, seems to be that its enforcement in some cases leads to conflict with legal principles, for instance, the principle of predictability and the within contract law established principle, "pacta sunt servanda".

  • 45.
    Petersson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Engström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kunskapsöverföring inom och mellan samverkansprojekt: En studie av Norrköpings kommuns sociala investeringsfond2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste fem åren har tilltagande intresse i svenska kommuner riktats mot arbete med sociala investeringar. För att utveckla förebyggande lösningar på sociala problem samarbetar olika aktörer i samverkansprojekt där expertkunnande nyttjas över organisatoriska gränser. På så vis utgör projekten värdefulla forum för såväl kunskapsöverföring mellan projektmedlemmar som utveckling av ny kunskap. Tidigare forskning visar emellertid att samverkansprojektens temporära natur innebär att kortsiktiga resultat sätts i fokus snarare än lärande utvärdering och kunskapsöverföring. Därtill har forskning påvisat att projektformen försvårar hantering och överföring av vunna erfarenheter och kunskaper vid upplösning av projekt, varför adekvata mekanismer för att hantera problemet betonats. Kunskapsöverföring i samband med projektorganisering har dock tidigare främst studerats i privata företag samtidigt som forskning om sociala investeringar och projektorganisering i offentlig sektor är begränsad.

    Föreliggande studie riktar därför intresse mot sociala investeringsfonders samverkansprojekt som kunskapsgenererande system i syfte att bidra med förståelse för hur organisatorisk kunskap kan hanteras för att stödja kunskapsöverföring inom och mellan samverkansprojekt. Med hänsyn till syftet anläggs en kvalitativ ansats och data har genererats via fallstudier av Norrköpings sociala investeringsfond samt två samverkansprojekt som bedrivs inom ramen för fonden. Dokumentstudier och intervjuer har i samspel med tidigare forskning beträffande organisatoriskt lärande, projektorganisering samt institutionell teori bidragit till studiens resultat.

    För att hantera och överföra kunskap inom och mellan samverkansprojekt i kommuner bidrar studien med förståelse för vikten av kontextanpassning av mekanismer för kunskapsöverföring efter kunskapsanspråk, institutionella arrangemang och avsatta resurser. I studien konstateras att olika grader av explicita mekanismer utgör ett system där mekanismer kompletterar varandra för att kunskap ska kunna överföras från individnivå till interorganisatorisk nivå. Resultaten visar även att ett starkt beroendeförhållande föreligger mellan enskilda projekt och aktiva ägare. Här framhåller vi vikten av projektöverskridande ägare etablerade på permanent basis som har möjlighet att hantera och överföra kunskap mellan enskilda projekt över tid och rum. Studien visar att ägarnas uppgift att tillgodose att projekt redan innan de initieras besitter tillräckliga kunskaper och förutsättningar för att kunna samverka är avgörande för att säkerställa ett kvalitetssäkrat arbete. På så sätt minskas risken med att fel återupprepas och fokus kan istället sättas på projektens huvudsakliga syfte, det vill säga social innovation.

  • 46.
    Söderberg, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Heuristisk utvärdering av typografi i responsiva gränssnitt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to develop a set of heuristics for evaluating typography in responsive user interfaces. By combining traditional design principles for typography with principles for responsive web design, twelve heuristics has been created. This list of heuristics has been used by graphic designers and user interface developers in two heuristic evaluations. The heuristics ability to lead to finding typographic problems in two different responsive interfaces has been analyzed, and the results from the user interface developers has been in main focus, since the goal was to create a tool for developers with a lack of knowledge in typography to create interfaces with better design. The results has shown that even though developers struggle to find the samt amount of typography problems as graphic designers, the heuristics does help to find problem. Even so, this indicate that a heuristic evaluation with non-typographic experts may need a few more participants than an evaluation with only typographic experts. The results also shows that an evaluation of a responsive user interface is best made through evaluation of the same interface on different devices with different screen sizes.

  • 47.
    Johansson, Whilma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sköld, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Behavioral Finance: Svenska fondbolags hantering av psykologiska fallgropar i praktiken2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research has shown that people always are influenced by biases. Empirical studies have previously been conducted in order to find ways to reduce the biases. In the literature review for this thesis was however no qualitative study found which concerned the handling in practice, why it was of interest to study. Since the empirical studies, to some extent, have been based on practice when creating their hypotheses regarding the problem of biases, it was also relevant for this paper to survey the knowledge that Swedish fund companies currently have regarding behavioral finance as a research field.

    Aim: This paper aims to survey and analyse Swedish fund companies’ knowledge regarding behavioral finance as a research field. The paper also intends to analyse if and to what extent ways of handling biases, by previous research presented, in practice are used by Swedish fund companies when making investment decisions.

    Completion: To achieve the purpose of this paper, a qualitative approach has been used based on eight interviews conducted with representatives from Swedish fund companies. All representatives have an overall insight into how the fund management is done in respective fund companies. The collected empirical data has been analyzed partly on the basis of one, for this paper developed, analytical model with the aim to survey were Swedish fund companies are in terms of knowledge regarding behavioral finance, and partly on previous empirical research in the field of this research area.

    Conclusion: This paper table a new hypothesis which means that the industry lacks theoretical knowledge in behavioral finance and that the methods used by Swedish fund companies generally do not reduce biases. It is explained by the fact that a majority of the methods used by Swedish fund companies are not supported in precious research.

  • 48.
    Bertlin, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Myndigheters konsultanvändning: Behov, motiv och strategier2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Public spending on consultancy services in Sweden is today substantial and frequent. Even though such procurements are of great strategic importance for client organizations, including government agencies, there is limited research concerning strategies for clients. Therefore empirical studies are needed to shed light on the client perspective, and how the client designs its use of consultants. Against this background a qualitative research method has been conducted to gain insight of the underlying motives for using consultants, and how clients can create value by attaining a strategic exposure with consulting.

    In total 7 in-depth interviews, with an explorative design, were conducted across four government agencies with directors. The empirical study has identified a number of motives, which can be interpreted from the construction of the consultant as an expert, resource or product. The construction of the consultant as an expert refers to an asymmetric relation of knowledge in favour of the consultant. The motives that have been identified within the expert dimension are: access to expertise not profitable developing internally, access to experts that are difficult to recruit, access to industry specific knowledge, new insights and use of the consultant's impartiality. In other circumstances there is a symmetric relationship whereby the consultant is instead viewed as a resource. The motives for such usage have been identified as numerical flexibility and rapid reinforcement. Finally the purchases are sometimes motivated based on the models and concepts that the consultants sell which underline the product dimension of the consultancy services.

    The participating authorities have different views on whether consultants should, or can, be used in the core business. The study indicates that this is due to organizational differences, as well as the possibility of constructing a mix of consultants and permanent employees, working together in various projects.

    In order to deal with consultants strategically the thesis emphasize three strategic processes; legitimation, selection and control. Based on these processes it is proposed, among other things, that formal guidelines and policies are developed, that measures are taken to ensure knowledge transfer, that resources are allocated to carry out continuous market analyzes, and that framework contracts are used when possible. However, it has emerged that the procurement rules and funding structure that characterize the public sector entails a limited strategic adaptability, which may have a negative impact regarding the outcome of the use of consultants. Paradoxically the high level of bureaucracy forces the agencies to act somewhat strategically when dealing with consultants considering the rational, rule-governed, procurement process.

  • 49.
    Karlsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zetterlund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Behandlas barn olika?: Smärtskattning på barn efter skoliosoperation2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite improved guidelines and treatment of children, postoperative pain is still a problem. Painassessment in children and specially children with cognitive disibilities demands knowledge in existing pain measurement tools for nurses. Then all children have the opportunity to express their pain.

    Aim: To find out if there is a difference in the frequency of assessment in postoperative pain in children after surgery for scoliosis.

    Design: A retrospective study.

    Methods: The study was performed in Linköping University hospital. Children admitted 2008-2009 for Idiopatic scoliosis or Neuromuscular scoliosis surgery, in age 0-18 years and available via the data journal were included in the study.

    Results: Children with Idiopatic scoliosis had a higher freqvence of painassessment compared with Neuromuscular scoliosis. Children who didn´t understood verbal information had less frequence of painassesment compered with those who understood verbal information. Girls were assessed for pain significant more often as compared to boys in the group who understood verbal information.

    Conclusion: There was differences between children who were able to express themselves and those who weren´t in painassessment, but also gender matters and to ensure all children’s right to similar care it´s of importance to access different pain measurement tools.

  • 50.
    Ahmed, Uday
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ayo, Priscilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Developing Common Questions about Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE), Ecodesign and Engineering Education2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, more and more manufacturing firms recognize the benefit of providing products together with related services with an aim to gain higher profits as compared to supplying products without additional services. On the other hand, the competition in the global markets has been increased dramatically through increased sales of services in order to gain additional value for their products. In addition, several environmental challenges such as climate change, pollution, global warming impact, greenhouse gases emissions have played a vital role by influencing on the production protocols and trend of the companies. These challenges forced manufacturing countries to take into consideration environmentally conscious approach to their design thinking and industrial production processes. As a result, it became an important drive for manufacturing industries to shift from traditional product-oriented to service-oriented business models that has been witnessed during the last few years.

     

    The objective of this study research is to develop common questions that capture fundamental and common issues about Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE), Design for Environment (DFE) and Engineering education are effectives for industries to check and develop their knowledge, because the Engineering education plays a necessary role in associating socio-ethical knowledge with scientific and technological advances. The strategy taken to conduct this thesis task was first to study and understand the concept of Product Service System (PSS), IPSE, and Ecodesign as well as Engineering Education. Informative knowledge on these concepts were collected by reviewing several related journal articles, CIRP IPS2 conference proceedings.

     

    In this thesis the concepts of PSS, IPSE, DFE and Engineering Education discussed to develop the key common questions and issues to address the environmental, economic and social problems. Since PSS aims to reduce consumption through alternative schemes of product use as well as to increase overall resource productivity and dematerialization, but IPSE does not focus on a single factor but incorporates a wide range of factors such as environmental, social and economic issues. Whilst one of the main problems in this research focused on how to develop and strengthen the relationship between the academia and industry, and how this relation can be used to improve the academic performance and scientific research at universities and transfer them to industry.

     

    Sustainability and the life cycle concept have become a main solution for various problems such as a growing world population and a change in the industrial culture to come. As results Ecodesign and environmental considerations, financial aspects, product improvement as well as the commercial aspects were discussed in this project by understanding the previous concepts. The university considered as an important base of cultivating the talents, basic of inputs business organizations which help them to develop and improve their level of performance and quality of their products and services, and enhance its competitive position in the market. Changes in organized science further encouraged university interests in expanding technology transfer, because the scientific disciplines play an important role in influencing the type of interactions with industry as well as the University and Industry collaboration became the basic method of solving the problems to achieve (environmental, economic and social) sustainability.

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