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  • 1.
    Feldt, Nina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating geographic and information visualization for interactive exploration of statistical data2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fast growing quantity of statistical data with geographical reference, accessible on the Web, creates a growing demand for more powerful exploratory analysis techniques for investigation of socio-economic phenomena in association with their geographical location. Statistics Sweden provides large amounts of census data of economic, social, demographic, and other matters of interest to the governments, government departments, local authorities, businesses, and to the general public.

    The current techniques available to analyze these data sets are limited. Therefore, this diploma work was put together, with the intention of integrating methods used in geographic visualization and information visualization into a prototype tool for interactive exploration of statistical data. This report investigates the tools present today and describes the development of a new one called GeoWizard - a tailor-made easy-to-use application for Statistics Sweden's databases.

  • 2.
    Ström, Ola
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Utvärdering av kuratorers uppfattning om metoden "Förändrande familjesamtal".2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to describe the professional counselors, in Children and Youth Units at Social services in Örebro, opinion on Magnus Ringborgs model Therapeutic family conversations (FFS), and how useful they perceive it to be.

    Seventeen of the Children and Youth Units twenty-five counselors participated in the evaluation. The counselors were interviewed based on an interview form with pre-defined questions and had opportunity to comment. The focus of the evaluation was the various steps of the method and how important the counselors considered them to be. They were then asked general questions about the method´s usefulness and effectiveness.

    Most counselors had a positive approach to FFS. They considered the method to be easy to apply, facilitated family work, gave structure and streamlined the processing work. Some of the counselors did however perceive the method to have limited use in resource poor- and unmotivated families.

  • 3.
    Poelstra, J. W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Vijay, N.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hoeppner, M. P.
    Linköping University. Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wolf, J. B. W.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Science Life Lab, Sweden.
    Transcriptomics of colour patterning and coloration shifts in crows2015In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 24, no 18, 4617-4628 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal coloration is one of the most conspicuous phenotypic traits in natural populations and has important implications for adaptation and speciation. Changes in coloration can occur over surprisingly short evolutionary timescales, while recurrence of similar colour patterns across large phylogenetic distances is also common. Even though the genetic basis of pigment production is well understood, little is known about the mechanisms regulating colour patterning. In this study, we shed light on the molecular elements regulating regional pigment production in two genetically near-identical crow taxa with striking differences in a eumelanin-based phenotype: black carrion and grey-coated hooded crows. We produced a high-quality genome annotation and analysed transcriptome data from a 2 3 2 design of active melanogenic feather follicles from head (black in both taxa) and torso (black in carrion and grey in hooded crow). Extensive, parallel expression differences between body regions in both taxa, enriched for melanogenesis genes (e.g. ASIP, CORIN, and ALDH6), indicated the presence of cryptic prepatterning also in all-black carrion crows. Meanwhile, colour-specific expression (grey vs. black) was limited to a small number of melanogenesis genes in close association with the central transcription factor MITF (most notably HPGDS, NDP and RASGRF1). We conclude that colour pattern differences between the taxa likely result from an interaction between divergence in upstream elements of the melanogenesis pathway and genes that provide an underlying prepattern across the body through positional information. A model of evolutionary stable prepatterns that can be exposed and masked through simple regulatory changes may explain the phylogenetically independent recurrence of colour patterns that is observed across corvids and many other vertebrate groups.

  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.
    Larsson, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.
    Solvärme i Singapore2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world faces big issues regarding its energy supply and its impact on the environment. Something has to be done in order to stop this. One way to do that is to make energy generation more sustainable by shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. Solar energy is one of them, and this report covers hot water produced from it.

    A country that should have good conditions to harvest solar power is Singapore. The country has a very limited land area and almost no natural resources. Because of this, most of its energy is supplied by imported natural gas. In this report, a case has been created to evaluate the performance and profitability of a hot water solar system in a villa in Singapore. In order to do this, literature about the sun, solar heating systems and Singapore has been looked into. Further, thermodynamical correlations have been studied and used in calculations to draw conclusions.

    The result of this report is that an installation of a solar water heating system in a villa in Singapore is feasible and profitable. Other applications of solar thermal power have been evaluated qualitatively and the conclusion is that these also have big potential in Singapore. Ultimately, this could lead Singapore to be less relying on imported energy and also reduce its impact on the environment.

  • 5.
    Fredriksson, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Minskar handel den ekonomiska ojämlikheten i utvecklingsländer?: En studie över tidigare europeiska kolonier med kust2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of trade on the society are a common subject of debate, both in the research field of economics and in the political debate. The lack of consensus poses a risk in political decision-making. New trade agreements are being implemented while the role of developing countries is growing on the global market. Hence, there is an increasing importance of examining the actual impacts of trade. This study, therefore, analyses the impact of trade on the economic inequality in developing countries. This study hypothesizes that trade decreases inequality, which is in accordance with classical economic theory. Using a panel data regression on 41 countries over 23 years, this study examines how Gini index interacts as the dependent variable with trade flow and seven control variables. The countries studied are mainly limited to former European colonies with coastal lines to reduce the risk of heterogeneity within the sample. This study finds that trade reduces inequality, although the result should be interpreted with care due to statistically insignificant effects. This study also finds that presence of corruption is of importance when the relationship between trade and inequality is examined.

  • 6.
    Malesu, Maureen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chen, Xinyu
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Process Perspective of Corporate Rebranding in SMEs: A multiple case study of Restaurants and Bars in Osteragotland2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In recent years, the subject of corporate rebranding has been receiving increasing attention as companies strive to develop new differentiated identities in the minds of their stakeholders. Several studies have been conducted on this subject, however, these studies have been biased towards large companies. Despite small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) being the most common type of businesses, most of the research on corporate rebranding has been focused on large corporations. Owing to the limited research studies on corporate rebranding in SMEs, this study seeks to shed more light on this subject by studying how the corporate rebranding process occurs in SMEs. By doing so, this study seeks to fill part of the research gap identified and contribute to the body of knowledge about corporate rebranding process in SMEs.

    Methodology: The empirical approach involves a multiple case study of four SME companies from the restaurant and bar sector. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews with key informants from each company, through observations and also the use of secondary sources.

    Results:The findings showed that the corporate rebranding process in SMEs involves few actors and is mostly owner- driven with the owner being at the centre of most of the activities and decision making. Furthermore, the findings show that the reasons for corporate rebranding in SMEs are change in ownership structure, bad reputation and change in market preferences. Based on the findings, we propose a corporate rebranding framework for SMEs that consists of the stages Assurance, Analysis, planning, Realisation and Evaluation.

  • 7.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship.
    karabag, solmaz filiz
    Dhruba, J B
    Drivers of a successful acquisition: The case of Jaguar Land Rover’s acquisition by Tata.: The case of Jaguar Land Rover’s acquisition by Tata.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Jaguar and Land Rover are two British premium automobile brands that were acquired by Indian car maker Tata Motors from Ford in the year 2008 for $2.3 billion. Literatures, in the past, have discussed several mergers and acquisition cases from the automobile industry. Although, being one of the largest & successful acquisitions in the industry, this acquisition has not received scholarly attention. What make the acquisition more interesting is the fact that Tata being an Indian low-cost car manufacturer attains success in handling a premiere brands like Jaguar Land Rover, while Ford in spite of its huge experience and size in the industry, failed to live up to the expectation.

    Since the acquisition has taken place, sales and profits of Jaguar Land Rover have seen a tremendous growth. In 2014, financial experts estimated that the valuation of Jaguar Land Rover increased from $2.3 billion to $14 billion in just 5 years. This paper aims to identify the various factors behind Tata-Jaguar Land Rover’s success story by comparing the post-acquisition strategies adopted by the two owners, Ford and Tata and thus, create the opportunity for the following research question:

    RQ1. What are the reasons behind Jaguar Land Rover’s success under Tata’s leadership?

    As Tata is a low cost car manufacturer and Jaguar Land Rover is a premium car maker, literature suggest some major challenges for maintaining the brand image of luxury products after change of such ownerships. In Tata-Jaguar Land Rover case, maintaining the ‘Country of origin, manufacturing and design’ status was found to be a serious challenge for Jaguar Land Rover. This research aims to identify the branding hurdles for Jaguar Land Rover after the change of ownership from Ford to Tata with the help of the following research question:

    RQ2. How has Jaguar Land Rover managed the brand image of “Premium British Brands’’ after the acquisition despite the new owner being a low cost car maker from India?

    This paper uses qualitative study primarily based on ten interviews with top management portfolio holders from Ford, Jaguar Land Rover and Tata as well as industry experts to study the differences in post-acquisition strategies adopted by the two owners. The preliminary findings show that market expansion and increased R&D investments are the major drivers behind the success of the Tata’s acquisition. The study reveals that Ford used organizational integration strategies, which limited the quality of decision making of Jaguar Land Rover management team. On the other hand, Tata has implemented “Separation strategy” and empowered decentralized decision making to Jaguar Land Rover’s managers. That has allowed Jaguar Land Rover to reinvest their profits in technology development and promotion of their brand image. In addition to increased investments and separation strategy, both Jaguar Land Rover and Tata have adopted effective pre and post acquisition communication strategies to develop trust among the internal and external stakeholders, which helped Jaguar Land Rover to sustain its brand image of being a “Premium British Car Maker”.

  • 8.
    Linn, Falck
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visual Communication - How can graphic design elements be used in mathematical problems on a junior high school level?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Visual communication is necessary in order to gain a better understanding for the reader, and also to solve difficult scientific and mathematical problems. Though, this knowledge is rarely used in the design of educational materials, mathematical educational books as an example. Earlier reasearch has been investigating visual communication in mathematic, which has involved primary- and upper primary school, including investigations at high school and university level. Still, instructions is very limited when it comes to the use of visual models and strategies from educational materials. It is very time consuming and requires great effort in order to create comprehensible visualization from raw data. Though, visual communication is necessary in order to decrease vaguenesses and consequences. This study has therefore investigated how visual communication can be designed in mathematical problems, and what  the experience of it is according to secondary school students that have an interest for mathematic. A qualitative investigation has been done through a mathematic test that has been designed in 3 different ways. The design of the test was based on theory involving graphical design elements that is often used in visual communication. The target group consisted of 6  mathematical interested students from 2 classes in the 7th grade. The test contained 5 problems, where 2 students each got to make one of the tests from the 3 designs. The designs of the test contained one picturebased, one textbased, and one text- and picturebased. These 3 designs’ communication was therefore compared in a semistructured interview together with the target group, after the test. The tests got analyzed by the target groups’ opinions. The conclusions from the analyze resulted in a majority that appreciated the text- and picturebased test the most. The common design element pictures, explanatory text, and the redmarked text helped to understand the problems in the test. The test that was textbased and picturebased lacked in communication and therefore seemed difficult by the target group. Compared to the test involving only text or pictures, the combination of both text and pictures gave motivation to solve the problem. At last, text and pictures can thereby be used by, or only in order to inspire, teachers in mathematic when designing mathematical problems in the future.

  • 9.
    Grozelier, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Labrador and German shepherd breed differences in dog-human communication2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As our long-term companions, dogs’ communication with us is perhaps the most developed of all human- animal ones. This study was aimed to investigate breed differences of German Shepherds and Labradors in dog-human communication. This was obtained through two tests: a problem-solving task and a pointing test. These two tests target both directions of communication: how much dogs understand and respond to the pointing and how they communicate with humans when facing a problem. Additionally, hair cortisol was measured in the dogs and dog owners filled a behavioural questionnaire (C-BARQ). The main breed difference I found was that Labradors performed better in both tests. I also found that the latency of the dogs’ choices in the pointing test correlated with many factors, e.g. they chose quicker when: choosing correctly, when they had many physical contacts with the experimenter in the problem-solving task, when they were more intense, energetic dogs, when they had higher hair cortisol levels and when they had a confident body posture. This indicates that the latency of choice could depend on the confidence of the dog and on the trust in the experimenter as well as on energy level and focus ability. Overall, this study revealed a limited amount of breed differences, compared to a parallel study on Labrador types (hunting and show dogs), showing that intra-breed differences can be more important than inter-breed ones on a behavioural level. 

  • 10.
    Sparrefors, John
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fjellström, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Made in Sweden: Små teknikintensiva tjänsteföretags val av etableringsform vid internationalisering2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Small enterprises have become increasingly important in the Swedish business world. Among other things, 60 percent of the contribution to the country’s economy comes from small businesses. To support future growth and development it is important for companies to venture onto the international markets. This is a big step for small enterprises with constrained capital and guidance on the internationalization process and choice of entry mode is needed. Research on these two factors are limited in relation to small technology-focused enterprises in the service sector, which is the most rapidly growing sector in the Swedish economy.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to analyze the internationalization process and the choice of entry mode for small and technology-focused enterprises in the Swedish service sector.

    Methodology: The study has a qualitative research strategy and a deductive research approach. It is based on semi-structured interviews with three small technology-focused enterprises in the Swedish service sector and can be classified as a comparative case study.

    Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is that the most essential tool, for small technology-focused enterprises in the Swedish service sector when going abroad, is a distinct network of contacts. The study also reveals that the technical aspect of these types of companies implies that collaboration is the least risk and capital-intensive choice of entry mode at the beginning of a foreign establishment, which challenges the current research on the topic.

  • 11.
    KNUTFELT, MARKUS
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Charging Cost Optimization of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The future success of chargeable vehicles will, among other factors, depend on their charging costs and their ability to charge with minimal disturbances to the national, local and household electrical grid. To be able to minimize costs and schedule charging sessions, there has to be knowledge of how the charging power varies with time. This is called charging profile. A number of charging profiles for a Volvo V60 plug‑in hybrid electric vehicle have been recorded. For charging currents above 10 A they prove to be more complex than are assumed in most current research papers.

     

    The charging profiles are used together with historical electricity prices to calculate charging costs for 2013 and 2014. Charging is assumed to take place during the night, between 18:00 and 07:00, with the battery being totally depleted at 18:00. By using a timer to have the charging start at 01:00, instead of immediately at 18:00, annual charging costs are reduced by approximately 7 to 8%. By using dynamic programming to optimize the charging sessions, annual charging costs are reduced by approximately 10 to 11%. An interesting issue regarding dynamic programming was identified, namely when using a limited set of predetermined discrete control signals, interpolation returns unrealizable cost-to-go values. This occurs specifically for instances crossing the zero cost-to-go area boundary.

     

    It is concluded that the mentioned savings are realizable, via implementing timers or optimization algorithms into consumer charging stations. Finally, by using these decentralized charging planning tools and seen from a power usage perspective, at least 30% of the Swedish vehicle fleet could be chargeable and powered by the electrical grid.

  • 12.
    Pelikan, Hannah
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Osnabrück.
    How Humans Adapt to a Robot Recipient: An Interaction Analysis Perspective on Human-Robot Interaction2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates human-robot interaction using an Interaction Analysis methodology. Posing the question how humans manage the interaction with a robot, the study focuses on humans and how they adapt to the robot’s limited conversational and interactional capabilities. As Conversation Analytic research suggests that humans always adjust their actions to a specific recipient, the author assumed to also find this in the interaction with an artificial communicative partner. For this purpose a conventional robot was programmed to play a charade game with human participants. The interaction of the humans with the robot was filmed and analysed within an interaction analytic framework.

    The study suggests that humans adapt their recipient design with their changing assumptions about the conversational partner. Starting off with different conversational expectations, participants adapt turn design (word selection, turn size, loudness and prosody) first and turn-taking in a second step. Adaptation to the robot is deployed as a means to accomplish a successful interaction. The detailed study of the human perspective in this interaction can yield conclusions for how robots could be improved to facilitate the interaction. As humans adjust to the interactional limitations with varying speed and ease, the limits to which adaptation is most difficult should be addressed first. 

  • 13.
    Hallqvist, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Faster Locking Differential Through Active Brake-Control2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When a vehicle with wheels aligned in pairs turn, the wheel traveling around the outside of the curve has to roll farther than the wheel on the inside. This means that some sort of device must must be used to allow the drive wheels to rotate at different speeds to prevent wear on the tires. This is usually a mechanical device where the input rotation controls the sum of the two output rotations, this is known as a differential. This solution however has some shortcomings, the biggest one is that the total amount of force that can be transferred between the tires and the road surface is limited by the tire with the least traction. In slippery conditions this can be a big problem since it only takes one wheel to lose traction in order to prevent the vehicle from accelerating. In this thesis a locking differential is used to overcome this shortcoming, this gives the driver the option to lock the shafts of the driving wheels together. This is done by pushing two cogwheels, one attached to each shaft, together. The aim of this thesis is to shorten the lock- and unlock-time of the locking differential by aligning the cogwheels using the service brakes and available sensors. The results were evaluated by implementing the software in a truck and doing test runs on Scanias test track. These tests showed that the system greatly improved both lock- and unlock-times but at cost of lower driver comfort. With additional work with some fine tuning of the system, the overall performance could probably be increased even more.

  • 14.
    Neffati, Hammadi
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Översättning och anpassning av Kortfattad Afasiprövning till arabiska: Jämförelse med arabiska Bilingual Aphasia Test och självskattad språkförmåga2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing amount of citizens with another mother tongue than Swedish, the need for assessment instruments in other languages than Swedish within the Swedish health care increases. To enable this, the knowledge of multilingualism and adequate assessments are required. The aim is to develop a modern Arabic version of a screening material that is comparable to what is used in the Swedish clinic in the assessment of people diagnosed with aphasia. In the present study, Short Aphasia Examination (Kortfattad Afasiprövning), which is one of the few screening material is available in Swedish and among the ten most frequently used assessment materials (Blom Johansson, Carlsson & Sonnander, 2011). Translation and adaptation was made to the Standard Arabic (KAPARABISKA) and Arabic dialect of Hadari (KAPHADARI). The results were also compared with the participants' self-rated language abilities. The study is also implementing a comparison between KAP and the Hadari Arabic screening version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT). The translated assessment materials were tested on six participants, where five had Arabic as their mother tongue and one participant had Arabic and Swedish as mother tongues. The result indicates that the Arabic versions of KAP and BAT are assessing the language ability of the participants almost equally, but that KAP is assessing reading and writing abilities on a higher difficulty. The KAP assessments were conducted during half as long time as BAT. Both the KAP assessments and the BAT assessment identified participants with limited literacy skills, which indicates the importance of inquiring the patient’s education level to avoid false interpretation of the results.

  • 15.
    Persson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ahlström, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Går det att prediktera konkurs i svenska aktiebolag?: En kvantitativ studie om hur finansiella nyckeltal kan användas vid konkursprediktion2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From the early 1900s, banks and lending institutions have used financial ratios as an aid in the assessment and quantification of credit risk. For today's investors the economic environment is far more complicated than 40 years ago when the technology and computerization opened up the world's markets. Credit risk assessment today requires effective analysis of quantitative data and models that can predict risks with good accuracy.

    During the second half of the 20th century there was a rapid development of the tools used for bankruptcy prediction. We moved from simple univariate models to complex data mining models with thousands of observations.

    This study investigates if it’s possible to predict bankruptcy in Swedish limited companies and which variables contain information relevant for this cause. The methods used in the study are discriminant analysis, logistic regression and survival analysis on 50 active and 50 failed companies. The results indicate accuracy between 67.5 % and 75 % depending on the choice of statistical method. Regardless of the selected statistical method used, it’s possible to classify companies as bankrupt two years before the bankruptcy occurs using financial ratios which measures profitability and solvency.

    Societal costs are reduced by better bankruptcy prediction using financial ratios which contribute to increasing the ability of companies to apply financial management with relevant key ratios in the form of stock , retained earnings , net income and operating income.

  • 16.
    Birchwood, Aina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammarberg, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Högteknologiskt samtalsstöd vid demens: En analys av samtal med och utan surfplatta med applikationen Book Creator2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of people who are affected by dementia is expected to increase, from 25 million in the year 2000 to approximately 63 million in the year 2030. Dementia can be described as a global disorder of intellectual functions, where the cognitive ability including communication is affected. High technological communication aids that support people with dementia in their communication are currently an underexplored area with limited evidence. The aim of the present study was to identify interactional phenomena occurring in interaction involving one person with dementia with and without a tablet with the application Book Creator. A further aim was to examine how the conversation partner experienced the communication of the person with dementia. The study was conducted in a residential care facility for people with dementia where a total of nine conversations were recorded, six conversations without the application and three conversations with the application. The material comprised 2 hours and 25 minutes and was transcribed according to Conversation Analytic principles. Five phenomena were identified: initiative, common ground, coherence, incomplete common ground and non-coherence. The frequency of occurrence of these phenomena was calculated in percentage of their occurrence in relation to total number of turns.The result in the present study indicated that the interactional phenomena involving incomplete common ground and non-coherence occurred in a reduced frequency in conversations with the application Book Creator. The person with dementia took the initiative to the same extent in interactions with and without the application. There appeared to be no differences regarding common ground and coherence between the participants in the conversation with and without the application. The analysis also revealed that the person with dementia could handle the tablet with the application Book Creator on her own with some support. The results are in accordance with research regarding communicative difficulties in people with dementia, strategies to address these difficulties and the need of increased training in communicative treatment in dementia.

  • 17.
    Bertlin, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Myndigheters konsultanvändning: Behov, motiv och strategier2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Public spending on consultancy services in Sweden is today substantial and frequent. Even though such procurements are of great strategic importance for client organizations, including government agencies, there is limited research concerning strategies for clients. Therefore empirical studies are needed to shed light on the client perspective, and how the client designs its use of consultants. Against this background a qualitative research method has been conducted to gain insight of the underlying motives for using consultants, and how clients can create value by attaining a strategic exposure with consulting.

    In total 7 in-depth interviews, with an explorative design, were conducted across four government agencies with directors. The empirical study has identified a number of motives, which can be interpreted from the construction of the consultant as an expert, resource or product. The construction of the consultant as an expert refers to an asymmetric relation of knowledge in favour of the consultant. The motives that have been identified within the expert dimension are: access to expertise not profitable developing internally, access to experts that are difficult to recruit, access to industry specific knowledge, new insights and use of the consultant's impartiality. In other circumstances there is a symmetric relationship whereby the consultant is instead viewed as a resource. The motives for such usage have been identified as numerical flexibility and rapid reinforcement. Finally the purchases are sometimes motivated based on the models and concepts that the consultants sell which underline the product dimension of the consultancy services.

    The participating authorities have different views on whether consultants should, or can, be used in the core business. The study indicates that this is due to organizational differences, as well as the possibility of constructing a mix of consultants and permanent employees, working together in various projects.

    In order to deal with consultants strategically the thesis emphasize three strategic processes; legitimation, selection and control. Based on these processes it is proposed, among other things, that formal guidelines and policies are developed, that measures are taken to ensure knowledge transfer, that resources are allocated to carry out continuous market analyzes, and that framework contracts are used when possible. However, it has emerged that the procurement rules and funding structure that characterize the public sector entails a limited strategic adaptability, which may have a negative impact regarding the outcome of the use of consultants. Paradoxically the high level of bureaucracy forces the agencies to act somewhat strategically when dealing with consultants considering the rational, rule-governed, procurement process.

  • 18.
    Eriksson Leidnert, Michaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cederqvist, Jenni
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Interaktion i vardagslivet hos vuxna med Aspergers syndrom. Implikationer för intervention.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Asperger syndrome (AS) results, among other things, in a deficit in social interaction. This deficit causes difficulties with several communicative abilities. Still, there is a limited range of communicative intervention programs for people with AS. The aims of this study were to analyze the interaction in the daily life of adults with AS, to further be able to construct a foundation for the design of future intervention programs. The study consisted of an interview part and a video part. Seven individuals participated in the interview part and two in the video part. The interview part consisted of semi-structured interviews, where the following aspects were investigated: how the participant experienced her/his own and the surrounding’s communicative abilities, conscious strategies to facilitate the communication, and lastly, experiences of and preferences for intervention. The interview part was analyzed with content analysis. Regarding the video part, two film clips were recorded. The film clips were analyzed with Conversation Analysis (CA), in order to describe the interactional strengths and difficulties of the participants.The content analysis resulted in the identification of ten categories, which highlight different aspects of communication in individuals with AS from their own perspective. The majority of the participants showed an interest in participating in communicative. The analysis of the film clips indicated that repair and organization of topics may be problematic areas in the communication of individuals with AS. Continuers proved to be a communicative strength. Considering all of the results in this study, the authors suggest a varied intervention, where group and individual intervention are combined. Examples of communicative abilities that can be practiced are repair, organization of topics and continuers. People close to the individual with AS should be integrated in the intervention. Video recordings of real life situations should be part of the intervention and may advantageously be analyzed with CA. The practice of specific communicative behaviors can be carried out using role-playing. Since the result of both the interview and the video part suggest great individual differences, it is of great importance that the intervention is based on individual abilities.

  • 19.
    Suwala, Pawel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Challenges with modern web testing2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of web applications continues to grow rapidly. Many applications that were traditionally desktop-based such as word processors, email clients or even file managers have now their web alternatives that often have bigger user base.

    While the software world is shifting from providing desktop-based applications to offering cloud-based services, challenges arise to provide high quality software in this radically different environment.

    Web-based applications are different in many aspects to their desktop equivalents. Web-based and desktop-based applications have radically dissimilar architecture, user interface, execution environment, requirements and limitations. To mention a few specific differences: the web application is executed in the context of a web browser, not operating system; code is executed in two separate places: on the server and in the web browser; code for the server is written in a different language than code for the client.

    Because of these differences, the traditional software testing techniques are only of limited use. To properly test a web application one needs to take into account numerous differences in Web-Browsers such as Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome or Apple Safari. Simple input-output testing is useful only to limited degree, because output cannot be just compared to the predefined value but must be compared within the context of all the environments and operating systems the application supports. The fact that an application works in one browser does not guarantee that it will work at all in other browsers.

    The entire complexity of the problem makes testing web applications a very time consuming and difficult task. Often it takes significantly longer time to test the application than it is to implement it. Because of these difficulties, web applications are often tested exclusively manually by humans, and only to a limited degree. New techniques and technologies are necessary to approach the problem of web application testing.

    This paper includes a case study carried out during author’s work on a web-based application. It examines the current state-of-the-art of web application testing and suggests useful techniques in tackling the problem. 

  • 20.
    Johansson, Inga-Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Emotionell prosodi efter högersidig cerebral stroke: Akustisk analys samt skattning av röstens uttrycksfullhet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Important aspects of communication, including emotional prosody, are regulated from the right hemisphere. However, the research in the area of emotional prosody has so far been rather limited. One of the aspects that have not been examined yet is the comparison of the participant’s own rating of voice expression with ratings by listeners. The aim of the study was to assess expressive emotional prosody after right-hemisphere stroke. Participants were three patients with right-hemisphere stroke and three controls without neurological conditions or problems regarding speech or voice. The groups of participants with stroke and the controls were matched regarding sex, age, dialect and level of education. Emotional prosody was examined using multiple methods: acoustic analysis of variation in fundamental frequency and the participants’ own as well as listeners’ rating of voice expression. The results show tendencies that indicate a difference between the participants with right-hemisphere stroke and the controls. The participants with stroke showed smaller variations in fundamental frequency and lower ratings of voice expression. Due to the small sample size in the present study, results should be treated with caution. However, the tendencies shown in the results regarding differences between subjects and controls would justify further studies.

  • 21.
    Backlund, Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sörensson, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valuta och internationellt bistånd: Svenska biståndsorganisationers hantering av valutaköp och valutarisk2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are active in most parts of the world and are consequently exposed to foreign exchange risk. The organizations manage aid funds in both common and uncommon types of currency when they in different ways finance local cooperation partners. The amount of previous research how aid organizations handle the management of currency trade and foreign exchange risk is limited and this study aims to examine the area further.

    Aim: The study aims to analyse the complex of problems regarding exposure to foreign exchange risk for both Swedish NGOs and their cooperation partners, to do so on the basis of foreign exchange risk theory and best practice. The aim is in such a way to discuss general strategies for currency trade and foreign exchange risk management for Swedish NGOs.

    Completion: The qualitative approach consists of nine interviews that have been designed in accordance with theory and previous research. A picture of the organizational processes and needs of Swedish NGOs regarding foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management was given by five interviews with NGOs. Information concerning how foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management is utilized in practice and how experts in the field perceive current management of NGOs was gathered from four interviews with actors within foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management. The empirical data is analysed on the basis of the theoretical framework and previous research.

    Conclusion: The study shows that the complex of problems regarding foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management are not as straightforward as at first glance. It also indicates that foreign exchange risk management differs between for-profit businesses and non-profit organizations. It appears that NGOs currently transfer all foreign exchange risk exposure to its counterpart through contracts. The investigation and implementation of foreign exchange risk management is not possible for NGOs with a large ratio of restricted funds. Finally a number of strategies have been developed for a more cost-effective currency trade. 

  • 22.
    Broomé, My
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Trosell, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Revisorsassistenters upplevelse av handlingsutrymme och comfort2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The research regarding audit associates is limited, but available researchshows that audit associates perform a great deal of the audit. Our study is motivated bythe lack of research concerning the audit associates own experience of their worksituation, discretion and comfort.

    Purpose: To explore the relationship between audit associates perceived discretion andcomfort.

    Method: We performed ten semistructured interviews. Eight of these with auditassociates and two with former audit associates who left the occupation the latest year.

    Conclusion: We conclude that the main factors that affect the relationship betweenaudit associates perceived discretion and comfort is experience, personality andstructure/controls.

  • 23.
    Haglund, Nathalie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wåhlberg, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Knowledge transfer between projects: Exploring the receiver’s perspective2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: How to facilitate the knowledge transfer between projects is a field that has obtained a lot of attention in research. Despite this wide attention, many organizations still experience difficulties to efficiently transfer knowledge between their projects and thus the problems still remain, which appears contradictory. Previous research has had a tendency to assume that all knowledge can be articulated and codified, which has resulted in that solutions to these problems often have been directed towards the side in the transfer that creates the supply of knowledge. However, limited research has taken the receiver of the knowledge into consideration when analyzing these difficulties, who is considered to be equally influential to motivate a transfer.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of the challenges concerning the knowledge transfer from past to future projects, by exploring the importance of incorporating the receiver’s perspective in the analysis of knowledge transfer practices.

    Methodology: This study has applied a qualitative research methodology where the empirical data has been obtained through an interview-study with nine onsite interviews in two different firms, ABB and SIEMENS. Furthermore, documents were studied in order to compliment and increase the understanding of the information provided in the interviews.

    Conclusions: By incorporating the receiver in the analysis we can conclude that the practices applied are not efficient in actually transferring the complete knowledge. Herewith, socialization becomes vital as a complement to these practices in order to also transfer the ‘hidden’ explicit knowledge as well as tacit knowledge that the receiver is in need of. The findings thus demonstrate the importance of taking the nature of knowledge into account when investigating the challenges with current knowledge transfer practices.

  • 24.
    Kitsiou, Maria
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Children of a lesser school: An interdisciplinary study on disability in the Greek educational reality2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT What is the situation for disabled children in the Greek educational system today, in the aftermath of the deep-seated socio-economic crisis? The present study is going to give an insight in children disability and how this is handled by the Greek educational system. To specify and illustrate the need for a qualitative perspective, it is necessary to take into consideration not only the exact numbers of disabled students and schools existing for them, along with the usefulness and functionality of their facilities, but also different qualitative aspects and intersecting parameters determining the attitude towards those children, such as gender, sexuality, age and bodily ability; all of them contributing to a specific collective mind-set that has arisen from a nexus of economical, educational, European and local structures, and their upheaval. This is such a study, providing a limited, but qualitative picture of the situation from an intersectional Gender Studies perspective onto legislative documents, the experiences of a few current educational practitioners (herein interviewed), and onto the state of the art of existing research on the topic which is mostly quantitative and statistics-based.  The over-arching question, guiding this investigation, is how the educational rights and well-fare of children with special educational needs, are practiced, cared for and discussed in the present Greek educational system with regard to intersectional gender concerns of inclusion and/or integration. This study hopes thus to provide an interdisciplinary snap-shot of the educational situation for disabled children in a disabled societal context.

  • 25.
    Kildén Smith, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chaotic Field Exploration: Exploring systemic field dynamics in bilateral negotiations2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of the social field as described by Pierre Bourdieu as well as to explore the possibility of creating a more focused and tailored set of conditions in the form of a model to repurpose the field theory to more clearly be applicable to bilateral negotiations.

    The methodological approach is conceptual analysis based on the epistemology of critical realism. The supporting theories for the approach are a combination of systemic, chaos and complexity theory while the fundaments for the implementation of the methodological approach are the four main concepts in Bourdieu’s theory of the social field:  the field, habitus, illusio and symbolic capital. One of the main points of repurposing this specific dynamic is to explicitly allow for deliberate human agency within the field.

    Analytical data consists purely of the secondary type. This essay is not empirically based but rather theoretical and abstract. The paper is founded on the basic principles of macrosociology and presumes social agency where appropriate.

    This paper focuses on creating a tentative framework model based on repurposed concepts derived from Bourdieu. The results are arguably interesting but are mostly limited to affecting further development of this tentative model and prefacing application of it through attempting to implement it in an analytical manner on empirical data.

  • 26.
    Hildebrand, Cisilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hörtin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparative study between Emme and Visum with respect to public transport assignment2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Macroscopic traffic simulations are widely used in the world in order to provide assistance in the traffic infrastructure development as well as for the strategic traffic planning. When studying a large traffic network macroscopic traffic simulation can be used to model current and future traffic situations. The two most common software used for traffic simulation in Sweden today are Emme and Visum, developed by INRO respective PTV.

    The aim of the thesis is to perform a comparison between the software Emme and Visum with respect to the assignment of public transport, in other words how passengers choose their routes on the existing public transport lines. However, in order to make a complete software comparison the run-time, analysis capabilities, multi-modality, capacity to model various behavioural phenomena like crowding, fares etc. this will not be done in this comparison. It is of interest to study the differences between the two software algorithms and why they might occur because the Swedish Transport Administration uses Emme and the Traffic Administration in Stockholm uses Visum when planning public transport. The comparison will include the resulting volumes on transit lines, travel times, flow through specific nodes, number of boarding, auxiliary volumes and number of transits. The goal of this work is to answer the following objective: What are the differences with modelling a public transport network in Emme and in Visum, based on that the passengers only have information about the travel times and the line frequency, and why does the differences occur?

    In order to evaluate how the algorithms work in a larger network, Nacka municipality (in Stockholm) and the new metro route between Nacka Forum and Kungsträdgården have been used. The motivation for choosing this area and case is due to that it is interesting to see what differences could occur between the programs when there is a major change in the traffic network.

    The network of Nacka, and parts of Stockholm City, has been developed from an existing road network of Sweden and then restricted by "cutting out" the area of interest and then removing all public transportation lines outside the selected area. The OD-matrix was also limited and in order not to loose the correct flow of travellers portal zones was used to collect and retain volumes.

    To find out why the differences occur the headway-based algorithms in each software were studied carefully. An example of a small and simple network (consisting of only a start and end node) has been used to demonstrate and show how the algorithms work and why volumes split differently on the existing transit lines in Emme and Visum. The limited network of Nacka shows how the different software may produce different results in a larger public transport network.

    The results show that there are differences between the program algorithms but the significance varies depending on which output is being studied and the size of the network. The Visum algorithm results in more total boardings, i.e. more passengers have an optimal strategy including a transit. The algorithms are very similar in both software programs, since they include more or less parts of the optimal strategy. The parameters used are taken more or less into consideration in Emme and Visum. For example Visum will first of all focus on the shortest total travel time and then consider the other lines with respect to the maximum waiting time. Emme however, first focuses on the shortest travel time and then considers the total travel time for other lines with half the waiting time instead of the maximum wait time. This results in that less transit lines will be attractive in Emme compared to Visum. The thesis concludes that varying the parameters for public transport in each software algorithm one can obtain similar results, which implies that it is most important to choose the best parameter values and not to choose the "best" software when simulating a traffic network.

  • 27.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Executive functions and Planning in everyday life: Assistive Technologies for Cognition and their lack of support for children with Attention Deficit / Hyperactive Disorder2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The evaluation of how Assistive Technologies for Cognition (ATC) serve their purpose in providing support for children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (AD/HD) is limited and it is not clear how to best support the cognitive functions in order to help the individual increase task performance in everyday life. This thesis sought to scrutinise how families with at least one child diagnosed with AD/HD incorporate ATCs in their daily life in order to cope with appurtenant difficulties. An online survey, answered by 92 caregivers for children with AD/HD, attended to the cognitive abilities in need of support, the usage of ATCs, and how ATCs supported the executive functions in everyday planning. The results reveal that children encounter difficulty in dealing with cognitive ability, executive functioning and causal inference when it comes to planning in everyday life situations, which relates to lower levels of independence. Executive functioning and causal inference is negatively correlated to number of symptoms of AD/HD. The ATC is not satisfactorily supporting the cognitive functions, which results in another person by default being the one who sets up the ATC, and the child merely follows the instruction. The results has been processed into a table containing concepts which is suggested to be considered both when developing, as well as evaluating, ATCs for children with AD/HD. 

  • 28.
    Lindgren, Lina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Including Additional Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry-activities under the Clean Development Mechanism: Discussions in the United Nations Climate Negotiations2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Land use, land use change and forestry activities (LULUCF) can help mitigate climate change by creating a terrestrial carbon sink, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, while at the same time help increasing adaptive capacity and reduce poverty. Still, carbon stored in biomass or soils are only stored temporary since natural or human induced disturbances can cause a total or partial loss of stored carbon.

    LULUCF-activities under the clean development mechanism (CDM),  one of the flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto protocol, have been limited to afforestation and reforestation (A/R) projects under the first commitment period. Joint implementation projects and national accounting  of  greenhouse  gas  reduction  can  in  addition  to  A/R-project  also  include deforestation,  revegetation,  forest  management,  cropland  management  and  grazing  land management. The exclusion of these types of activities from CDM has been questioned and debated recently.

    This briefing tracks the United Nations (UN) climate negotiations in regards to the possibility of including additional LULUCF-activities under CDM, mainly the negotiations occurring after the adoption of the Bali Road map.

    LULUCF under CDM has been discussed mainly in the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP). There are diverging ideas on whether a more holistic approach should be applied to the treatment of LULUCF under CDM or whether current structure should be kept. Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, El Salvador, New Zealand, Norway, Canada, Australia and several of the Least Developed Countries have been positive towards including additional LULUCF-activities. Some of the arguments brought up are that the LULUCF-sector holds a large potential to mitigate climate change that is lost with the current structure and that a broader inclusion of LULUCF-activities would lead to an inclusion of all parts of the world in the benefits from CDM. China, Brazil and  Alliance of Small  Island States  have, on the other hand, been sceptical towards including additional activities arguing that there are too large uncertainties and that it creates an offset allowing developed nations to delay emission reduction in other sectors. The EU supports the current structure and rules but is open to discuss alternatives.

    The  AWG-KP  has  been  negotiating  a  new  LULUCF-decision,  which  has  not  yet  been adopted. In the draft LULUCF-decision from the Conference of Parties in Copenhagen 2009, the possibility of expanding LULUCF under CDM was however opened. In the draft decision the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) is requested to initiate a work programme on additional LULUCF-activities. Since the LULUCF-decision is not yet adopted, SBSTA cannot initiate this work programme and whether they will be able to do so is dependent upon the outcome of the negotiations on the LULUCF-decision. LULUCF- activities under CDM have so far received little negotiation time.

    LULUCF and CDM have also been discussed outside the formal UN climate negotiations. Several  side events,  for  example,  have treated these questions,  both  for and  against  the inclusion of additional activities.

  • 29.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology and Gothenburg School of Economic and Commercial Law.
    Narváez, Rommel
    Chalmers University of Technology and Gothenburg School of Economic and Commercial Law.
    Developing a Balanced Scorecard model for Volvo Information Technology: A new strategy for the integration unit2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the area of financial control of companies has developed substantially. Traditionally, companies were using budget and simple product calculation but today companies need complementary methods for control in a broad perspective. Among these methods, the Balanced Scorecard has developed as a tool to meet the needs for financial control and measurement systems. The aim of the Balanced Scorecard is to increase the efficiency of companies both in the long and short time-perspectives by controlling, measuring, and implementing the results of a specific strategy.

    Today, many companies suffer from internal problems associated with a lack of strategy in the integration of different departments. It is important for the business process to focus on obtaining favourable conditions for creation of new products and services, for increasing quality while reducing the costs by rationalization and simplification, and for reaching a faster delivery in terms of lead time. In order to become top of the line in the area of integration, Volvo IT has decided to perform an integration project incorporating a Balanced Scorecard.

    The main objective for this thesis is to develop a proposal for the Balanced Scorecard, and to identify the critical factors for success and the corresponding strategic measures. The Balanced Scorecard methodology can be used to monitor and balance the whole company, as well as individual divisions, both on the long- and short-term time perspectives. At Volvo IT the vision is to be regarded as the ideal IT supplier among its customers. For Volvo IT we found that the following four perspectives are suitable: the financial, customer, internal, and development perspectives. These perspectives can be applied to processes and activities at all divisions and levels of the company where it is judged to be useful. The idea is that everyone in the organization should know exactly what he or she should be working on for increasing the efficiency both at the level of the own division and for the company as a whole. To reach its vision, the strategy of Volvo IT is to develop a profound competence in the area of integration.

    Since introducing a Balanced Scorecard into an organization is a rather demanding project that normally takes one to two years, we have limited our work to create a proposal for Volvo IT. The design of the Balanced Scorecard also needs to be discussed in detail on the different levels at the company before the actual implementation. For the implementation phase, patience and flexibility is a prerequisite in order to obtain acceptance and understanding on all levels in the organization. Moreover, the use of a Balanced Scorecard is a dynamic process, where modifications are made regularly as internal and external conditions of the company are changing. We recommend Volvo IT to use the Balanced Scorecard, as described in this thesis, as a starting-point for the implementation phase. Based on the information obtained from our research interviews with key personnel, we have identified several critical factors for success and the corresponding strategic measures. We believe that introducing the Balanced Scorecard will be useful for the integration project at Volvo IT, strengthening the company with respect to future challenges.

  • 30.
    Lemoine, Ida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fredin, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How Does Ego Depletion Affect Moral Judgments and Pro-social Decisions?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Today’s societal changes, including high rate of change and increasing information flows, are increasing the demand on the individual mental capacity. It becomes increasingly difficult to analytically process all the different dilemmas and everyday decisions as individuals have a limited mental capacity available to make these decisions. Thus, it has been suggested that ego-depleted relies more heavily on intuition, which is less burdensome, when making decision. However little is known about to what extent intuitive decisions differ from analytic. Are ego-depleted individuals more or less likely to maximize outcome in moral dilemmas involving conflicting values? Do ego depleted individuals become more or less willing to cooperate? Do ego depleted individuals become more or less altruistic? Is our intuition more or less in accordance with Homo Economicus?AIM: Starting from a Dual Process perspective on decision-making the aim of this study is to examine how ego depletion affects moral judgment and pro-social decisions.METHOD: A laboratory experiment involving 115 subjects, using real monetary incentives, was conducted among students at Linköping University. Subjects were randomized into one of two treatments. Everything was identical across treatments except for the initial ego-depletion manipulation. Using a standard paradigm for ego-depletion subjects in treatment 1 were put under high cognitive load while subjects in treatment two were put under low cognitive load. Subjects faced 16 questions divided into four different decision tasks: Moral dilemmas, Public Goods game, two types of Dictator Game where the type of sacrifice subjects could make in order to contribute money to charity was varied.RESULTS: Subjects in the high cognitive load treatment made fewer consequentialists moral judgments compared to other subjects (p = 0.075). The effect is especially strong when looking only at high-conflict dilemmas such as Crying Baby. No difference between treatments was found for the public goods games. In the dictator game involving monetary sacrifice subjects donated less money to charity when put under high cognitive load. However the finding was not significant (p = 0.292). No difference was found in the dictator game involving effort as personal sacrifice since almost everyone chooses to donate to charity.CONCLUSION: According to The Dual Process perspective this essay shows that intuitive thinking does not evidently lead to that they makes decision that more or less is in accordance with Homo Economicus. The connection between ego depletion and pro-social decisions is more complex. Further research needs to investigate which different mental shortcuts that individuals uses in various types of pro-social decisions and why intuitive and analytical decision-making differ between different decisions. Further research within the area can identify potential mechanisms and policies that can support individuals’ capacity to make decisions in accordance with their own and society’s preferences.

  • 31.
    Franciscus, Margaret
    et al.
    Department of Pediatric Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Nucci, Anita
    Department of Nutrition, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Bradley, Brenda
    Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Suomalainen, Heli
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Greenberg, Ellen
    Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center, Columbia University, New York, USA.
    Laforte, Diane
    Montreal Children’s Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Kleemola, Paivi
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyytinen, Mila
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Salonen, Marja
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Martin, Mary Jean
    Department of Endocrinology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ONT, Canada.
    Catte, Daniel
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
    Catteau, Jacki
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Recruitment and retention of participants for an international type 1 diabetes prevention trial: a coordinators' perspective.2014In: Clinical Trials, ISSN 1740-7745, E-ISSN 1740-7753, Vol. 11, no 2, 150-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Trial to Reduce Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) is the first multicenter international type 1 diabetes (T1D) prevention trial to be undertaken. A unique feature of TRIGR has been recruitment of eligible pregnant women and enrollment of newborns for long-term follow-up assessments.

    PURPOSE: Our purpose is to summarize the recruitment and retention strategies used to conduct TRIGR from the perspective of the study coordinators.

    METHODS: TRIGR was designed to test whether weaning to formula containing hydrolyzed versus intact cow's milk protein would be efficacious in decreasing risk for development of T1D-associated autoantibodies and T1D among infants identified to be at increased risk for T1D based on their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) profile and family history. Multiple strategies tailored to local issues were required to enroll and follow the target number of infants.

    RESULTS: This study was conducted in the United States, Canada, Australia, and 12 countries in Europe. Of the 5606 mothers registered worldwide, 5000 of their infants were randomized. Of these, 2159 were HLA eligible and enrolled in the 8-month intervention and 10-year follow-up phases of this study. The TRIGR study met the accrual goal after 4.7 years of recruitment, 2.7 years longer than projected initially. Challenges included difficulty in finding fathers with T1D, a higher than expected rate of premature delivery among T1D mothers, and implementation of new privacy regulations mid-trial. The majority of participants were recruited from primary care antenatal clinics located near the study centers and from a general hospital or pediatric center that was affiliated with a TRIGR Study center. Internet and magazine advertisements were found to be useful for recruitment of families. Alternative follow-up strategies are offered to families who wish to reduce or discontinue participation.

    LIMITATIONS: Our experience is limited to a single international multicenter trial.

    CONCLUSIONS: TRIGR coordinators played key roles in the recruitment and intervention periods and continue to be instrumental in retaining families and children during the 10-year follow-up period for each child.

  • 32.
    Strid, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aktiebolagsrättens utveckling: En uppsats om risker och entreprenörskap2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The limited company emerged in Sweden during the 17th century and the current law in this area, Aktiebolagslagen (2005:551), is the sixth in the series. 2006 Sweden started to revise and simplify the corporate rules, to reduce companies' administrative costs. The work resulted 2009 in a proposal, SOU 2009:34, containing suggestions for changes that would lead to reduce operating costs for companies. In the end of 2013, another legislation proposal was published.

    This master thesis has discussed these two proposals for a regulatory reform and analysed the effects. At the end of my writing process the Swedish government posted a final legislation proposal, Prop. 2013/14:86. This proposal contains the same suggestions to simplify regulations as was published in the proposal from 2013.

    SOU 2009:34 contained drastic suggestions for rule changes and most of the current rules were proposed eliminated or made mandatory. The proposal meant consequently considerable risks in the form of an impaired creditor protection and increased opportunities for abuse of the corporate form. Despite the high risks the proposal would also lead to a substantially simplified environment and reduced costs for companies. The other proposal was much more restrained and was thus less risking. The benefits of the proposal, however, were very small and therefore the simplifications would become counterproductive. It's an expensive process to change the rules and if the benefits are only marginal, there is a risk that the simplifications may cost more than they give. Research on the Swedish business environment shows that the regulatory areas that generate the greatest costs are accounting and taxation. It has also been found that the Swedes have a great deal of insecurity and uncertainty about the rules and that they have to spend a lot of time and money to stay current on the law. For a change in the rules to get the best results, I believe it is important that the legal text is formulated in an understandable way and that rules that precludes without protecting either the creditors or the healthy competition are removed. Furthermore, I believe that accounting standards should be reviewed and I'm sympathetic to the introduction of opportunities for special accounting technic for small companies.

  • 33.
    Cecilia, Bill
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Improving anti-drug antibody assay performance in Gyrolab for therapeutic recombinant antibody Infliximab2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Monoclonal antibodies can be used as targeting therapies for several diseases. One major concern when using these therapies is anti-drug antibodies which may hamper the drugs efficiency. Gyrolab is an automated platform which can be used to develop bridging immunoassays where the anti-drug antibodies affinity towards the monoclonal antibody is utilized. Anti-drug antibody immunoassay development on Gyrolab is limited mainly by three factors which may inappropriately affect signal intensity levels. In this project different variants of bridging immunoassays based on drug Fab fragments have been developed for monoclonal antibody Infliximab, with the purpose to illustrate the effects of these three factors.

    Findings indicate that an assay based completely on drug Fab fragments is more sensitive compared to an assay based on intact drug since less affected by unspecific interactions between drug reagents and complex formations. Surprisingly findings also indicate that an assay based completely on drug Fab fragments is affected by human anti-hinge antibodies which decrease assay sensitivity. The most optimal assay variant is based on the combination between intact capture drug and Fab fragment as detection. This variant is insensitive to false positive reactions caused by Rheumatoid factor and human anti-hinge antibodies, less prone to form unspecific interactions between drug reagents and complex formations in the presence of anti-drug antibodies. The optimal assay variant also demonstrates best drug tolerance in combination with acid dissociation.

  • 34.
    Nilsson, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Self-assessed resilience within municipal governments: Creating a self-assessment tool to measure resilience in municipal governments in Sweden.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience engineering has been used in safety research and development within the aviation and nuclear domain for several years but within crisis management for municipal governments in Sweden it is not commonly applied. Therefore there is little to no knowledge about and competency in resilience engineering within the municipal governments in Sweden. The crisis management system in Sweden put almost all responsibility in an event of crisis on the municipal government in which municipal the crisis occurs. This puts a lot of pressure on relatively small and limited organizations and in an effort to relieve some pressure from these organizations resilience engineering can be used as a method to evaluate and further develop safer and more robust organizations which in turn creates a safer crisis management system in Sweden. To quickly spread the use of resilience engineering among municipal governments, or even a limited amount of it, in an easy way this study attempted to create a self-assessment tool for the municipal governments. The self-assessment tool was developed with the RAG in mind and also drawing inspiration from the NASA TLX. The self-assessment tool was created as a survey and went through a two-stage pilot test before being used. In an attempt to validate the self-assessment survey a traditional RAG was conducted in the form of an interview study. The study used an in between group design, were one group were given the self-assessment survey and another group was interviewed in a semi-structured manner. The data collected were evaluated and compared. The results of this study indicated that with further development the self-assessment survey could be used for practical purposes and the greatest contribution of this study is a new method for measuring resilience using self-assessment.

  • 35.
    Bygdén, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Värdeflödesanalys i processindustri med kontinuerlig tillverkning: Fallstudie på Billerud Korsnäs AB Skärblacka2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lean production is a philosophy which purpose can be simplified as: Produce more products with the usage of fewer resources by eliminating waste in the system. At the beginning it was part manufacturing companys who started using the different techniques within lean but in recent years lean has been widespread and applied in service organizations like health care for example. The development of lean against the process industries has however been slower which implies that the companys within that industry still have a lot to learn when it comes to lean. Some critics argue that the possibilities of applying lean techniques in the process industries are limited. Others claim that you just need a different approach and that the lean methods might need to be adjusted so that the conditions of the industry are considered.

    When the main purpose of lean is to eliminate waste from the system there is a generally accepted method called value stream mapping (VSM). The method is used in order to map the material- and information flow and hence identify the waste existing in the system. There is a limited amount of literature considering the applicability of this method in the process industry, whereupon this study comes in handy. This master thesis was carried out as a case study at BillerudKorsnäs Skärblacka’s craft paper production and the purpose is to investigate how VSM can be applied at this type of production in order to eliminate waste. The study resulted in a description of the conditions necessary for the method to be used successfully, how the distinctive characteristics of the process industry affect the implementation of the method and which modifications that needed to be done.

    When the material- and information flow was mapped a number of problem areas were identified where the waste in the system was revealed. It was then detected that the biggest focus should be on the material flow and the production equipment. The identified problem areas lead to a number of improvement suggestions whose purpose is to decrease the amount of waste in the system. Recommendations were also proposed, discussing how the company henceforth can work iteratively with value stream mapping as a part of a process with continuous improvements.

    After the method was carried out conclusions could be drawn. The applicability of the method was considered as good due to problem areas and waste was identified and presented in a lucid way. Though, the data collection and calculation of the included parameters were very time-consuming. The reasons for that were that this was the first time the method was used at the company and the fact that all the data was stored in different systems. With continued mappings of the value stream the data collection and calculation will be less time-consuming parts due to all the formulas are already specified and lessons can be learned from the performance of this study. Due to the fact that radical changes of layout or flow pattern are hard or even impossible to carry out in this kind of industry the main focus of the VSM should be the mapping where the purpose is to identify existing problems and wastes. Hence the output from this method could be foundation for future investments and improvements.

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wennerstål, Rebecka
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hållbart varumärke: En fallstudie på Vattenfall om hur kommunikationen av hållbarhetsarbetet påverkar varumärket2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate social responsibility is a highly relevant subject discussed in media and business. Larger companies are expected to deal with sustainability questions and the corporate brand is highly affected by their sustainability work. The development of new communication channels, such as the internet, mobile broadband and social media, has led to increased demands for transparency and companies who do not communicate their responsibility externally are seen with suspiciousness. The difficulty with sustainability communications is to communicate to the public what the company is doing in terms of sustainability. The communication must create an image of the company that is as close to reality as possible and not being perceived as a manipulating PR trick. The purpose of this study is to understand the link between sustainability work, sustainability communication and corporate brand. It also aims to identify success factors for creating a sustainable corporate brand. The study was conducted as a qualitative case study of the project One Tonne Life, conducted by Vattenfall in collaboration with several other partners in 2009-2011. The One Tonne Life project is seen by Vattenfall as a good example of a successful sustainability communication, which makes it an interesting case to study in order to develop theories about how a company should work.

    A corporate brand is not limited to its logo and graphic profile, but consists of identity and personality. The corporate brand can be seen as a combination of several different identities. In this study we have chosen to focus on seven identities: actual-, communicated-, conceived-, covenanted-, cultural-, ideal- and desired identity. An analytical model was developed to describe the relationship between sustainability, sustainability communications and corporate branding. When sustainability is fully integrated into the company’s strategy and when it is communicated by involving stakeholders in the communication, the work and communications are inseparable. It is only with this approach that the corporate brand can be built for sustainability.

    This study shows that the corporate brand is influenced by all the company’s activities, which means that the company’s sustainability efforts and sustainability communications must be indistinguishable in order to be used to build a strong corporate brand. Findings fromthe case study concludes the importance of 1) working with a relevant sustainability issue, 2) making the work visible and put in context, 3) working with others to solve complex issues and improve the credibility, 4) involving the recipient in the communication, 5) communicating the same message through multiple channels, 6) packaging the sustainability efforts into an interesting story, and 7) gaining support for sustainability efforts internally. When following these factors, the sustainability work can be integrated into the corporate brand.

  • 37.
    Barsomo, Milad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hurtig, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Device-aware Adaptation of Websites2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of handheld devices such as smart phones and tablets have exploded in the last few years. These mobile devices differ from regular desktops by having limited battery power, processing power, bandwidth, internal memory, and screen size. With many device types and with mobile adaptation being done in many ways, it is therefore important for websites to adapt to mobile users. This thesis characterise how websites currently are adapting to mobile devices. For our analysis and data collection, we created a tool which sends modified HTTP GET requests that makes the web server believe the GET requests were sent from a smart phone, tablet, or a regular desktop. Another tool then captured all the HTTP packets and let us analyse these for each platform. We chose to analyse the top 500 most popular websites in the world and the top 100 websites from 15 different categories fetched directly from www.alexa.com. Among other things, we observed that of the total HTTP objects fetched to render an average website, mobile or non-mobile, more than half of the objects were images. Another conclusion is that a website fetched by an iPhone 4 device is more heavily reduced in amount of images than a Nexus 7.

  • 38.
    Ivarsson, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skolvalet: en investering i framtiden?: En narrativ studie om föräldrars resonemang kring grundskolevalet ur ett Bourdieu-inspirerat perspektiv2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis aims to increase our understanding about parents reasoning about the elementary school choice by studying which factors parents perceive as important during the decision making process and also by giving meaning to Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of capital through the parents perspective. The empirical material comes from seven BNIM-interviews made with parents, which has been analyzed according to the thematic field analysis.

    The results show that the parents are not especially concerned about making an active school choice. Stability, closeness, friends, rumors, development and adaptability to the reality are the factors that are perceived as the most important in the decision making process. The school choice has a limited meaning as an investment in social capital, from Bourdieu’s perspective. The cultural capital has a somewhat more prominent meaning for the school choice, but the parents’ seems to mainly use the school choice as a reproduction strategy.

  • 39.
    Norberg, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory-related behaviors in the South American Coati (Nasua nasua)2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the use and behavioural relevance of the different senses in the South American Coati is limited. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the use of the sense of smell in this species. Twenty-five captive coatis were observed at the zoo of La Paz for a total of 120 hours to collect data on olfactory-related behaviors. The coatis frequently performed behaviors in response to the detection of odors such as sniffing on the ground, on objects, on food, on conspecifics, or in the air. In contrast, they did not display many odor depositing behaviors such as urinating, defecating, or scent-marking. The most frequently performed olfactory-related behavior was “sniffing on ground” which accounted for an average of 40 % of all recorded behaviors. In general, both adult males and non-males (here defined as adult females, as well as sub-adults and juveniles of both sexes) performed olfactory-related behaviors at similar frequencies. However, a few frequency differences for certain behaviors were found in the morning and in the afternoon, and in food or no food conditions, respectively. When food was present, for example, the coatis spent less time on olfactory-related foraging behaviors like “sniffing on ground” and “nose-digging” compared to when food was not present. The finding that scent-marking was rare in this captive group, indicates little need for territorial marking or communication of reproductive state under these circumstances. Findings from this study support the idea that Nasua nasua use their sense of smell in a variety of different contexts, and further studies are needed to extend the results.

  • 40.
    Prosén, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Byström, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    På spaning efter integration: En studie om integration mellan marknadsfunktioner och logistikfunktioner inom svenska detaljhandelsföretag2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Previous studies highlight the importance of integration between the marketing function and logistics function since it leads to several bene- fits for an organization. For example, an organization can in a more efficient way meet customers’ expectations regarding product availability and delivery service when the functions are integrated. It only exists limited studies on how integration between marketing functions and logistics functions appear in practice. An empirical gap in knowledge regarding integration between marketing functions and logistics functions in Swedish retail companies was detected. This knowledge gap has been the basis for this study.

    Aim

    This study aims to analyze whether or not the marketing functions and the logistics functions within Swedish retail companies are integrated, and in that case, to analyze how they are integrated.

    Execution

    To achieve the aim of this study, interviews were conducted with employyees of the marketing function and the logistics function within three Swedish retail companies. These companies were Cervera, Glitter and KappAhl. Observations were made in two of each company's stores to examine the availability of current campaign products. During the observations interviews were conducted with the stores manager. Finally, interviews were made with industry participants to investigate their experience of integration between marketing functions and logistics functions within the retail industry.

    Conclusion

    This study indicates that market functions and logistics functions within Swedish retail companies can be considered integrated to some extent but it also indicates that the integration can be improved. The functions are primarily integrated by exchanging documents, sharing resources, having a desire to achieve goals together and by sharing a vision and having a common planning. During periods with product campaigns it is important with an effective integration of the two functions since they need to share information. In Swedish retail companies the integration between the functions is affected by the organizational culture, organizational structure, communication, information systems and the physical placement of the functions.

  • 41.
    Fouladi, Amir Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zafari Khorvaj, Omid
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    TryMyLanguage: An Extensible, Web-based Software Development Environment2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing a new programming language can be a challenge to languagedesigners and developers. This is usually due to diculties related to settingup the environment and going through the documentation for people whowant to start using and learning the language. In this thesis, we developeda web-based software system called TryMyLanguage which can be used toalleviate this issue by eliminating the need for users to install and congurerelated software tools such as compiler, interpreter, etc., on their computers.TryMyLanguage can be congured with dierent programming languagesand it is not limited to a set of predened languages. We evaluated thesystem by simulating a production environment and showing how it wouldbehave in such an environment. At the end a case study is presented to showhow the system can be used with a programming language named Modelyzeas an example.

  • 42.
    Bilanovic, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eidberg, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Riskkapital i svensk elitidrott: Framtiden för elitidrottsföretag?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During the 2000s, many clubs in the Swedish Hockey League and the Swedish premier football division Allsvenskan have suffered from financial problems. Many elite sports clubs have changed from previously beeing non-profit organizations to, through corporatisation, operate as elite sports businesses. Private equity is a tool that is used to develop business operations in various industries, where venture capitalists or private equity firms buys into a company. Elite sports businesses, however, are affected by regulations that potentially limit the elite sports businesses possibilities to use private equity.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze if elite sports clubs in Swedish football and ice hockey can develop their business with private equity.

    Research method: The study has a qualitative approach in which interviews were conducted with representatives from ten elite sports clubs in Swedish football and ice hockey.

    Results: The study shows that elite sports clubs in Swedish football and ice hockey should be able to use venture capital to develop their business. Current regulations, the 51-percent rule, inhibits the clubs in their use of private equity, since venture capitalists are limited in their possibility to control their investment. If the venture capitalist is allowed to take on an active ownership role, we see the use of private equity as a opportunity to develop the business in today's elite sports businesses.

  • 43.
    Dalborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henriksson, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Outsourcing R&D in the Defense Industry: Developing Strategies for Collaborating with Indian Suppliers2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An important step in making an impact on the Indian market, Saab India Technology Center, SITC, was inaugurated on October 21, 2011. SITC is a collaboration with the Indian company Tech Mahindra, and supplies all of Saab’s Business Areas with skilled engineers. The growing interest for SITC has spread to TDH, the department for Human Machine Interface and Avionics. Possible benefits, but also challenges, of utilizing SITC have been discussed. This thesis attempts to address challenges and maximize benefits for TDH by exploring how a Swedish R&D organization in the defense industry, that has a tradition of performing most work in-house, can initiate outsourcing to a supplier in India. In order to do this, a literature study was performed. Since gaps in the literature regarding outsourcing in the defense industry were identified, a combination of a descriptive and exploratory research approach was chosen. Following the literature study, interviews were conducted to collect experience from working with external partners at TDH, experience from working with SITC, experience from other companies that have outsourced R&D to India and experience of working with Saab from SITC. Empirical data was also gathered via informal meetings and observations during the researchers’ 5 month stay at TDH in Sweden and SITC in India.

    The outcome of this study shows that drivers and risks for outsourcing R&D, as well as the characteristics of the outsourcer and the supplier, will influence how the strategy for initiating outsourcing should be built. TDH’s main drivers in deciding to use SITC are mainly cost reduction goals, the possibility to access the Indian defense market and the opportunity to gain knowledge from collaborating with international suppliers. The type of risk that is most urgent for TDH is operational risk. Risks in this category, like overestimating cost reduction and risks associated with not understanding cultural differences are all highly relevant for any organization with limited experience in outsourcing.

    Strategy wise, the main finding is that an R&D organization in the defense industry will benefit from working in a more collaborative manner than traditional outsourcing entails. In an R&D organization, tasks are often complex and highly integrated with each other which, combined with a limited level of outsourcing experience, requires a tighter collaboration. With a high level of involvement from the outsourcer, problems can be detected early and insufficient requirements can be handled. Close collaboration also enhances knowledge sharing, which is important to ensure that the goal of gaining knowledge from international collaboration is achieved. Furthermore, organizational acceptance can be improved by a collaboration that enables close contact between outsourcer and supplier. Improving acceptance in the organization for collaborating with the supplier should be prioritized in order to strengthen the positive effects of outsourcing.

  • 44.
    Johansson, Jennie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ansvarsfördelningen i ett aktiebolag: Hur fördelas det rättsliga ansvaret mellan revisorn och styrelsen i ett aktiebolag?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Styrelsen och revisorn i ett aktiebolag har ett parallellt ansvar som främst aktualiseras vid skadeståndstalan när båda bolagsorganen på något sätt varit inblandade. ABL uppställer en ansvarsfördelning som anger att styrelsen är ansvarig för bolagets organisation och förvaltning. Styrelsen har även till uppgift att se till bolagets ekonomiska förhållande och det ska ske fortlöpande. Styrelsens ansvarsområden framgår av 8 kap 4 § ABL. Revisorn däremot, som är ett oberoende organ i förhållande till bolaget, deltar inte i bolagets förvaltning. Istället ska revisorn utgöra ett kontrollerande organ som ska granska det arbete som styrelsen utför. Granskningen ska enligt 9 kap 3 § ABL ske av årsredovisningen, bokföringen och styrelsens och VD:ns förvaltning. Bolagsorganen ansvarar således för olika saker.

    Styrelseledamöterna, VD:n och revisorn bär ett skadeståndsansvar enligt 29 kap 1–2 §§ ABL. Skadeståndsansvaret innebär att bolagsorganen ansvarar för skador som de orsakat av oaktsamhet vid utförandet av sina uppdrag. Det ska även föreligga ett orsakssamband mellan den oaktsamma handlingen och skadan som uppstått. I de fall som det finns fel i årsredovisningen, vilket kan vara en följd av en icke korrekt bokföring, aktualiseras frågan vem som ska bära ansvaret för den uppkomna skadan. Enligt ABL är det styrelsen som ansvarar för bokföringen och således är ansvarig för att bokföringen sköts på ett korrekt sätt. Det skulle därför vara nära till hands att bedöma att styrelsen är ansvarig för den skada som uppstått. Rent generellt sett kan det sägas att styrelsen bär ett ansvar för skadan, eftersom styrelsen brustit i den ekonomiska förvaltningen. Men i flera fall har en skadeståndstalan väckts mot revisorn.

    Frågan blir då om revisorn i vissa fall kan bli ansvarig för fel som orsakats av styrelsens förvaltning med avseende på ekonomin. Revisorn är inte ansvarig för att bokföringen sköts på ett korrekt sätt. Det är inte revisorn som ska se till att det finns ett bra bokföringssystem och tillsynssystem som kontrollerar att bokföringen sköts korrekt, men revisorn utgör, som tidigare nämnts, ett granskande bolagsorgan. Det åligger således revisorn att kontrollera de uppgifter som finns i bokföringen. Revisorn är ansvarig för skador som kunnat uppstå på grund av att han/hon inte har fullgjort sitt uppdrag på ett korrekt sätt. Det innebär att även om det inte är revisorn som är ansvarig för skadan, som styrelsen ursprungligen orsakat, kan revisorn ändå bli skadeståndsansvarig på grund av att han/hon inte utfört sitt granskningsuppdrag korrekt. Det medför att både revisorn och styrelsen kan bli skadeståndsansvariga för samma skada men på olika grunder, eftersom de har olika uppdrag i grunden. Vid domstol har dock flertalet parter endast väckt skadeståndstalan mot revisorn. I de fall som revisorn har dömts till ansvar och att betala skadestånd tycks domstolarna ha gjort en ansvarsförskjutning från styrelsen mot revisorn. Det har medfört att revisorn har fått svara för sådant som enligt lagen är styrelsens ansvar.

  • 45.
    Neffati, Hammadi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Höglund, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Träning av lexikal förmåga hos ett svensk-arabisktalande förskolebarn: Utredning och intensiv intervention av det svenska ordförrådet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a growing proportion of children living in a multilingual environment. It is thus highly important that caretakers as well as professionals who meet these children have knowledge of multilingualism and its impact on language development. Also, an increase of referrals of multilingual children with suspected language impairment to speech and language pathology clinics is seen.

    The objective of this study was to investigate the linguistic ability in both Swedish and Arabic in a four year old child with suspected language impairment. A further aim was to implement an intensive intervention and evaluate the efficacy of it. Language testing in both languages showed that the boy’s greatest need was in the lexical domain. Thus, the intervention focused on strengthening the vocabulary within a limited number of categories. The study was performed with a single-subject design with multiple baseline assessments before intervention and efficacy measurement after the intervention. These were made with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III and the Boston Naming Test and both in Arabic and Swedish. The intervention was made in Swedish.

    After the intervention a significant increase in both passive and active Swedish vocabulary was seen. No transfer effect to the non-trained language was noted.

  • 46.
    Sadjadee, Sahand
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Meteor framework, a new approach to webdevelopment: an experimental analysis2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional definition of a dynamic web application is about a collection of programs executed at server-side to provide content for clients. These types of web applications produce content at server-side and deliver it to their clients via multiple pages. In result, the client-side has the responsibility to render the content and perform a limited amount of calculations to increase the performance and user experience.

       Meteor is a web framework designed for developing Single Page Applications and compared with traditional web frameworks, it takes a new approach in which most of the computations are done at the client-side. This leads to having the server-side primarily used for data storage and secondarily performing a limited amount of computations based on the Model View View-Model pattern.

       This thesis tries to examine how web development is affected by Meteor framework from different angles by performing an experimental analysis on Meteor framework. It will investigate different attributes of Meteor framework used for developing a real-world application and finally concludes by presenting the advantages and disadvantages of using it.

  • 47.
    Dahl, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordström, Michaela
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Varumärkeskommunikation och positionering med en begränsad marknadsföringsbudget: Marknadsföring med små medel i ett bilpoolsföretag2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Thesis deals with the two concepts branding and position, more precisely how companies with a small marketing budget needs to work with these two concepts. The purpose of this thesis is to understand how these companies are able to assert a position  on their specific market. The thesis treats theories and empirical data to be  able to answer the purposes of the thesis and for the authors to be able to give recommendations of how companies in this situation can improve their marketing strategies. To be able to give these recommendations a more in depth study had been made of a carsharing company, Sunfleet. This to be able to se how a specific company works with branding and positioning as well as what can be improved. The authors have given recommendations on how improvements can be done.

  • 48.
    Larsson, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vestlund, Emilie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekonomistyrning?: En studie om formella styrmedel i mindre bemanningsföretag2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM

    The most of the companies in Sweden are small, this group include companies with less

    than 49 employees and over 99 percent of the companies in Sweden belongs to this group.

    The fact result in that the most of the companies differ from the large enterprise often

    described in accessible literature for students within the economic control area. This

    depends on that large-scale enterprises are overrepresented in student literature, which

    is the first problem that the study covers. Many researchers also consider that there is a

    gap between the theory in student literature and practice, which is seen as the second

    problem that’s the study covers.

    The focus of this study is to examine how small staffing agencies in the region

    Östergötland, which include the cities Linköping and Norrköping, are using formal

    instruments as a part of their economic control. The question is which formal instruments

    are used and why, as well as what role filling the formal instrument?

    PURPOSE

    The purpose with the study is to become absorbed in how small enterprises applying

    economic control in their organization, what type of formal instruments they use and why.

    DELIMITATION

    The study only covers formal instruments that are used by small enterprises active in the

    business of staffing agencies within Sweden. The collection of empirical data is limited by

    one sample, the method of selection is described in the methodology section.

    METHOD

    The data collection was conducted using interviews with four companies. The selection

    process was carried out using the selection criteria and a business directory, resulting in

    a population of eight companies in the staffing industry with 4-49 employees represented

    in Linköping. From these eight companies, four were selected to be included in the sample

    of the study.

    RESULT

    The study results show that all companies use budgets and estimates, some companies

    use forecasts and also of non-financial indicators. One company uses a balanced

    scorecard. The result also shows how companies choose which economic instruments

    should be included in the company's economic control, key aspects here are needs,

    circumstances, knowledge and beliefs, as well as individual preferences. The result also

    describes what type of role the formal instrument should fill in the organization, which

    the results shows differs between different economic instruments and depending on

    which organization the instrument is used.

  • 49.
    Kallentoft, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Boström, Camilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Att bygga legitimitet i en värld av förändring: En studie av hur företag kan hantera en ny standard för intäktsredovisning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting for revenues is both a big and important issue. The procedure is often difficultbecause of the many different ways in which revenue can be treated in different accountingstandards and by different countries around the world. The International AccountingStandards Board (IASB) and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) have beenworking together since 2002 on harmonizing their accounting standards concerning revenues.Their ambition is one complete standard for revenues that could be applied by companies incountries worldwide. IASB has presented an exposure draft to the new standard whichreceived many reactions from different companies in different industries. Most of thecriticism has been directed to the increased amount of disclosures in the companies’ financialreports. The new standard for revenues will be mandatory for companies in the EuropeanUnion (EU) and is planned to be introduced in 2015.

    While companies need to adapt to accounting rules and standards they also have to relate totheir stakeholders and the stakeholders’ demands and expectations on the companies and theirfinancial reports. There are different types of stakeholders and their expectations can varydepending on who they are. A company’s ability to satisfy their stakeholders’ expectationsaffect the stakeholders’ view on the company and thereby the company’s legitimacy.

    In our essay we study companies’ opinions towards the increased amount of disclosures thatthe new standard for revenues requires and if this can affect the companies’ legitimacy.

    The result of the study shows that the opinion of the companies represented is that the newaccounting standard for revenues will have limited effect on their legitimacy. The companiesconsider the increased amount of disclosures that the new standard requires as the part of thestandard that could have the biggest effect on their legitimacy, for example through thedisclosures’ impact on their financial report’s qualitative characteristics.

  • 50.
    Shayeghpour, Omid
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improving information perception from digital images for users with dichromatic color vision2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Color vision deficiency (CVD) is the inability or limited ability to recognize colors and discriminate between them. A person with this condition perceives a narrower range of colors compared to a person with a normal color vision. A growing number of researchers are striving to improve the quality of life for CVD patients. Finding cure, making rectification equipment, providing simulation tools and applying color transformation methods are among the efforts being made by researchers in this field. In this study we concentrate on recoloring digital images in such a way that users with CVD, especially dichromats, perceive more details from the recolored images compared to the original image. The main focus is to give the CVD user a chance to find information within the picture which they could not perceive before. However, this transformed image might look strange or unnatural to users with normal color vision. During this color transformation process, the goal is to keep the overall contrast of the image constant while adjusting the colors that might cause confusion for the CVD user. First, each pixel in the RGB-image is converted to HSV color space in order to be able to control hue, saturation and intensity for each pixel and then safe and problematic hue ranges need to be found. The method for recognizing these ranges was inspired by a condition called “unilateral dichromacy” in which the patient has normal color vision in one eye and dichromacy in another. A special grid-like color card is designed, having constant saturation and intensity over the entire image, while the hue smoothly changes from one block to another to cover the entire hue range. The next step is to simulate the way this color card is perceived by a dichromatic user and finally to find the colors that are perceived identically from two images and the ones that differ too much. This part makes our method highly customizable and we can apply it to other types of CVD, even personalize it for the color vision of a specific observer. The resulting problematic colors need to be dealt with by shifting the hue or saturation based on some pre-defined rules. The results for the method have been evaluated both objectively and subjectively. First, we simulated a set of images as they would be perceived by a dichromat and compared them with simulated view of our transformed images. The results clearly show that our recolored images can eliminate a lot of confusion from user and convey more details. Moreover, an online questionnaire was created and 39 users with CVD confirmed that the transformed images allow them to perceive more information compared to the original images.

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