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  • 1.
    Bergh, Torsten
    et al.
    Swedish Transport Adm, Sweden; Movea Trafikkonsult, Sweden.
    Remgard, Mats
    Swedish Transport Adm, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Arne
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Olstam, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Strömgren, Per
    Movea Trafikkonsult, Sweden.
    2+1-roads Recent Swedish Capacity and Level-of-Service Experience2016In: INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ENHANCING HIGHWAY PERFORMANCE (ISEHP), (7TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF SERVICE, 3RD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON FREEWAY AND TOLLWAY OPERATIONS), ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 15, 331-345 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first Swedish 2+1 median barrier road was opened in 1998. The concept was to retrofit the standard existing two-lane 13 m paved width cross-section at 90 and 110 kph posted speed limit without widening. This design has one continuous lane in each direction, a middle lane changing direction every one to three kilometres with a median barrier separating the two traffic directions. Today over 2 700 km 2+1 median barrier roads are opened for traffic. AADTs vary from some 3 000 to 20 000 with an average just below 10 000 nowadays normally with 100 kph. The concept has lately been enhanced also to cover the existing 9 m paved width cross-section. The design concept is the same from a drivers viewpoint, one continuous lane in each direction with a middle lane changing direction and a separating median barrier. This is created by introducing a continuous median barrier and adding overtaking lanes within an overtaking strategy. The differences are the existence of 1+1-sections, less overtaking opportunities and a slightly more narrow cross-section. Some 15 projects are opened. The purpose of this paper is to summarize present knowledge on level-of-service issues as they are presented in Swedish design and assessment guidelines and to give an overview of field measurements and theoretical analytical and simulation studies supporting the recommendations.

  • 2.
    Evangelista, Pietro
    et al.
    IRAT-CNR and Department of Management and Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isaksson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sweeney, Edward
    National Institute for Transport and Logistics, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland.
    A case study investigation on purchasing green transport and logistics services2012In: Purchasing & Supply Management in a Changing World: IPSERA 2012 Conference Proceedings / [ed] Esposito, E., Evangelista, P., Pastore, G., Raffa, M., Napoli, Italia: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane , 2012, WP17-1-WP17-13 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n the context of green supply chain management, green purchasing has received increased attention over the past decade and the strategic importance of introducing green aspects into purchasing practices has been recognised. Despite this growing importance, little has been written in relation to purchasing green transport and logistics services. Considering the strong environmental impact associated with transport and logistics activities, much remains to be learned concerning buyer’s practices when sourcing more sustainable services from third party logistics companies (3PLs). The aim of this paper is to explore practices of buying green transport and logistics services in three different European countries (Italy, Ireland and Sweden) using a multiple case study research approach. The paper analyses how general environmental company ambitions and environmental purchasing practices are reflected when green transport and logistics services are purchased. The results of the paper indicate that while the case companies show a relatively high concern of green issues at company level, a lower importance is attributed to green issues at the purchasing function level. When green concerns in purchasing transport and logistics services are analysed the level of importance decrease dramatically. It emerges a conflicting attitude among the overall company level and the purchasing of transport and logistics services. This suggests that there is the potential for improvements especially in the area of green collaboration in buyer and supplier relationships. 

  • 3.
    Felixon, William
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A case study which aims to streamline Tretti's receiving process by improving the suppliers' delivery processes2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tretti AB är ett e-handelsföretag som säljer produkter inom segmenten vitvaror, hushållsapparater, hem och trädgård, personvård, badrum samt sport och fritid. För företag som är verksamma inom e-handel innebär logistik flera konkurrensfaktorer. Kunderna kräver exempelvis låga leveranstider och framförallt att utlovade leveranstider hålls. Det finns även också goda möjligheter att bli kostnadseffektiv gentemot konkurrenter genom att hela tiden ligga i framkant och utveckla sitt logistiksystem.

    Ankomstprocessen är en kritisk process i ett företags logistikflöde. Främst p.g.a. att den är beroende av leverantörernas leveransprocesser. Undermålig leveransservice av leverantörerna kan leda till långdragna och kostsamma mottagningsprocesser hos kunderna.

    Tretti såg en potentiell utvecklingsmöjlighet i deras ankomstprocess. Som ett första steg i att försöka effektivisera ankomstprocessen ville Tretti undersöka möjligheterna att förbättra leverantörernas leveransservice. Syftet med denna studie är således att genom att skapa en förståelse för hur och på vilket sätt leverantörernas leveransservice påverkar Trettis ankomstprocess föreslå förbättringsförslag som ifall de implementeras leder till en effektivisering av ankomstprocessen.

    För att uppnå syftet behövdes en förståelse skapas för vilka aktiviteter som ingår i ankomstprocessen samt hur de förhåller sig till varandra. Detta gjordes genom att observera Trettis ankomstprocess. För att sedan få en förståelse för vilka aktiviteter i ankomstprocessen som påverkas av leverantörernas leveransservice gjordes intervjuer av anställda i godsmottagningen. En analys av både observationerna och intervjuerna resulterade i en lista med kritiska delar i ankomstprocessen. Om leverantörerna inte presterar tillräckligt bra i sin leveransservice påverkar det dessa kritiska delar negativt och det gör att ankomstprocessen blir långdragen och kostsam.

    Exempel på kritiska delar är ingen individuell kolliuppmärkning, layout på följesedel och leveranser utan följesedel. En jämförelse av två leveranser från två olika leverantörer gjordes under observationerna. En av leverantörerna arbetade med individuell kolliuppmärkning vilket resulterade i en bättre layout på följesedeln. Denna leverantör hade en individuell följesedel på varje kolli som specificerade vad den pallen eller kartongen innehöll. Den andra leverantören samlade hela leveransen i en gemensam följesedel vilket ledde till en lång och ostrukturerad följesedel. Vissa leveranser från denna leverantör hade en 18 sidor lång följesedel. Att en leverantör samlade hela leveransen i en följesedel innebar således att det inte specificerades vad varje individuellt kolli eller kartong innehöll. Jämförelsen visade att leveranserna från leverantören som arbetade med följesedlar som specificerade vad varje kartong eller pall innehöll resulterade i att ankomstprocessen blev effektivare, framförallt för att varje kolli kunde tas emot individuellt. Ankomstprocessen blev mer tidskrävande vid leveranser från leverantören som hade en följesedel per leverans bl.a. för att det krävdes att samtliga kollin i leveransen lokaliserades innan ankomstregistreringen kunde påbörjas, ibland upp emot 40 pallar, samt att det tog längre tid att para ihop en artikelrad på följesedeln med den fysiska artikeln.

    Sista steget för att uppfylla syftet blev att konkret formulera lösningsförslag som vid implementering leder till en effektivare ankomstprocess. Ett lösningsförslag föreslår en implementering av ett standardiserat system för företags värdekedjor utvecklat av den ickevinstdrivande organisationen GS1. Detta system ger varje individuellt kolli en streckkod som samlar information om kollit. Vid skanning av streckkoden kan information om vilka  artiklar kollit innehåller hämtas och syftet är att med detta system i större utsträckning standardisera Trettis ankomstprocess. Ett annat lösningsförslag är att formulera en kravspecifikation för samtliga leverantörer som tydligt klargör vad som förväntas av leverantörer till Tretti.

  • 4.
    Sandberg, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Classification of Different Strategic Roles of Logistics2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Hildebrand, Cisilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hörtin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparative study between Emme and Visum with respect to public transport assignment2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Macroscopic traffic simulations are widely used in the world in order to provide assistance in the traffic infrastructure development as well as for the strategic traffic planning. When studying a large traffic network macroscopic traffic simulation can be used to model current and future traffic situations. The two most common software used for traffic simulation in Sweden today are Emme and Visum, developed by INRO respective PTV.

    The aim of the thesis is to perform a comparison between the software Emme and Visum with respect to the assignment of public transport, in other words how passengers choose their routes on the existing public transport lines. However, in order to make a complete software comparison the run-time, analysis capabilities, multi-modality, capacity to model various behavioural phenomena like crowding, fares etc. this will not be done in this comparison. It is of interest to study the differences between the two software algorithms and why they might occur because the Swedish Transport Administration uses Emme and the Traffic Administration in Stockholm uses Visum when planning public transport. The comparison will include the resulting volumes on transit lines, travel times, flow through specific nodes, number of boarding, auxiliary volumes and number of transits. The goal of this work is to answer the following objective: What are the differences with modelling a public transport network in Emme and in Visum, based on that the passengers only have information about the travel times and the line frequency, and why does the differences occur?

    In order to evaluate how the algorithms work in a larger network, Nacka municipality (in Stockholm) and the new metro route between Nacka Forum and Kungsträdgården have been used. The motivation for choosing this area and case is due to that it is interesting to see what differences could occur between the programs when there is a major change in the traffic network.

    The network of Nacka, and parts of Stockholm City, has been developed from an existing road network of Sweden and then restricted by "cutting out" the area of interest and then removing all public transportation lines outside the selected area. The OD-matrix was also limited and in order not to loose the correct flow of travellers portal zones was used to collect and retain volumes.

    To find out why the differences occur the headway-based algorithms in each software were studied carefully. An example of a small and simple network (consisting of only a start and end node) has been used to demonstrate and show how the algorithms work and why volumes split differently on the existing transit lines in Emme and Visum. The limited network of Nacka shows how the different software may produce different results in a larger public transport network.

    The results show that there are differences between the program algorithms but the significance varies depending on which output is being studied and the size of the network. The Visum algorithm results in more total boardings, i.e. more passengers have an optimal strategy including a transit. The algorithms are very similar in both software programs, since they include more or less parts of the optimal strategy. The parameters used are taken more or less into consideration in Emme and Visum. For example Visum will first of all focus on the shortest total travel time and then consider the other lines with respect to the maximum waiting time. Emme however, first focuses on the shortest travel time and then considers the total travel time for other lines with half the waiting time instead of the maximum wait time. This results in that less transit lines will be attractive in Emme compared to Visum. The thesis concludes that varying the parameters for public transport in each software algorithm one can obtain similar results, which implies that it is most important to choose the best parameter values and not to choose the "best" software when simulating a traffic network.

  • 6.
    Daneva, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization .
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization .
    A Conjugate Direction Frank-Wolfe Method with Applications to the Traffic Assignment Problem2003In: Operations Research Proceedings 2002: Selected Papers of the International Conference on Operations Research (SOR 2002), Klagenfurt, September 2-5, 2002" / [ed] Leopold-Wildburger, U, Springer , 2003, -550 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This proceedings volume contains a selection of papers presented at the International Conference on Operations Research (SOR 2002).The contributions cover the broad interdisciplinary spectrum of Operations Research and present recent advances in theory, development of methods, and applications in practice. Subjects covered are Production, Logistics and Supply Chain Production, Marketing and Data Analysis, Transportation and Traffic, Scheduling and Project Management, Telecommunication and Information Technology, Energy and Environment, Public Economy, Health, Agriculture, Education, Banking, Finance, Insurance, Risk Management, Continuous Optimization, Discrete and Combinatorial Optimization, Stochastic and Dynamic Programming, Simulation, Control Theory, Systems Dynamics, Dynamic Games, Game Theory, Auctioning and Bidding, Experimental Economics, Econometrics, Statistics and Mathematical Economics, Fuzzy Logic, Multicriteria Decision Making, Decision Theory.

  • 7.
    Wenchert, Jonn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    A Contemporary Six Sigma and Lean Integration: Towards the Ideal State2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new reality, where human labor is replaced by automated machines is causing production management to rethink how they can steer the production to meet their customers demand. There is a gap of values, techniques and tools to communicate with the processes existing in the new modern factories, where data sometimes is the single output. This thesis purpose was to develop a model out of Lean and Six Sigma, as an answer to how modern factory could work with an information system, reaching the ideal state.

     

    Through a theoretical analysis, Lean and Six Sigma differences in values, techniques and tools were weighted by the ideal state and recommendations from literature. Through a unstructured interview and system design review with a logistic group at a Swedish Modern Factory (SMF) a concept of an information system was developed. A project to test the model was initialized, where Define, Measure and Analyze phase was conducted. The model was thereafter modified from the projects implications.

     

    The result was a Lean Six Sigma model which values are customer focus, ideal state, result orientation, committed leadership, education and involvement. The technique follow a DMAIC cycle and continuous improvements through a current to future state approach. The used techniques were considered Six Sigma heavy, where Leans principles are considered into the models values. The information system supports the model in setting the processes of the factory in either stability or potential state, where they differ in Measure and Analyze phase. The test at SMF developed several assignable causes to variation on the component As lead time. The model adapted after the test to involve a Measurement System Analysis (MSA), before setting the next current state of the process.

  • 8.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westring, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A decision support system for an improved article placement2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Warehouse storage is an important part of a business’ supply chain. This is where articles temporary are stored before they either are carried on to the next step of the production or to be delivered to the customers of the company. The largest part of the stock keeping often devoted to the order picking. Order picking includes the activities that are occurring when an article is being picked from its stored position and is being transported to the next step of the flow of the materials. The most time- consuming part of the order picking process are often the time to pinpoint and to get the hold of an article. This implies quite likely that an enhancement of the productivity could be realized, inter alia, through cut the transport distances. SKF Mekan AB is an industrial corporation whose primary occupation is to manufacture bearing housings. Currently, the business has a flawed inventory for stock keeping. A great many of the articles stored in the inventory, entitled 104C, are placed in regard to their measures, without any thought in regard of how frequently the articles are picked. In addition, the article placement that is used today is outdated, which has resulted in that a lot of articles are lacking a specific placement in the inventory. The purpose of storing articles in the inventory 104C is to cope with fluctuations in the next step of the manufacturing, which is the processing factory. The aim of the study is to find out how the article placement looks in the current situation and how decisions concerning article placement are determined and what issues occurs due to this. A decision support system has been developed which purpose is to give SKF Mekan AB decision basis regarding where the different kinds of articles should be placed to attain an increased efficiency in business’ stock keeping. The decision support system is adaptable to the extent that the user can adjust the parameters that are determining the article placement. The study has been accomplished by means of observations and interviews. With the help of the observations, the layout of the warehouse and the article placement has been mapped out and with the help of the interviews; the results concerning work models and decision-making of article placement has been answered. Through the observations and the interviews appeared that 42.5 % of the stocked pallets were misplaced and that 15.6 % of the stocked pallets lacked a specific placement in the warehouse. This results in that the truck operators has a hard time localizing the pallets, which leads to inefficient labouring. This causes delays in the next step of the supply chain; i. e. the processing factory, meaning the personnel has to wait for the articles to be delivered. With the articles picking frequency and the principle of family grouping as point of reference for the article placement SKF Mekan AB should be able to eliminate non-value adding activities in the supply chain, which should lead to an increased potential of profitability.

  • 9.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A dynamic capabilities approach to service infusion in manufacturing2009In: QUIS 11 (11th Quality in Services Symposium): Moving Forward with Service Quality, Wolfsburg, Germany: Ingolstadt School of Management , 2009, 331-340 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores key dynamic capabilities needed for industrial firms to become more service oriented, i.e. to increase the service content in the offerings. Applying a dynamic capabilities framework in a service context is novel and by doing this, new, valuable insights can be gained into the research on how to address the increasing service infusion in industrial firms. Based on an explorative, multiple case study (10 companies) with in-depth interviews and focus groups, seven dynamic capabilities are identified.

  • 10. Hedman, J.
    et al.
    Albinsson, L.
    Ansell, C.
    Tapper, H.
    Hansson, O.
    Holgersson, S,
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular genetics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A fast analysis system for forensic DNA reference samples2008In: Forensic Science International: Genetics, ISSN 1872-4973, Vol. 2, no 3, 184-189 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On January 1st, 2006, the Swedish legislation on obtaining DNA reference samples from suspects and the recording of DNA profiles in databases was changed. As a result the number of samples analysed at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science (SKL) increased from about 4500 in 2005 to more than 25,000 in 2006. To meet this challenge, SKL launched a new analysis system to create an unbroken chain, from sampling to incorporation of a profile in the national DNA database and subsequent automatic generation of digitally signed hit reports. The system integrates logistics, digital data transfer, new functions in LIMS (ForumDNA Version 4, Ida Infront AB) and laboratory automation. Buccal swab samples are secured on a FTA® card attached to an identity form, which is barcoded with a unique sample ID. After sampling, the police officer sends a digital request to SKL. The sample is automatically registered in LIMS and processed on delivery. The resulting DNA profiles are automatically classified according to quality using a custom-made expert system. Building the evaluation around mathematical rules makes it reproducible, standardised and minimises manual work and clerk errors. All samples are run in duplicate and the two profiles are compared within LIMS before incorporation in the database. In the first year of operation, the median time for completion of an analysis was 3 days, measured from delivery of the sample to incorporation of the profile in the national DNA database. In spite of the dramatic increase in the number of reference samples there was no backlog. © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Norin, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    A GRASP Heuristic for Scheduling De-icing trucks at Stockholm Arlanda Airport2007In: 6th Eurocontrol Innovative Research Workshop and Exhibition,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a fact that the most delays in the Air Transportation System (ATS) today occur at the airport. One reason for this is the large number of actors operating at the airport and the scarcity of communication between them and other parts of the ATS. Airport Logistics is a concept developed to survey all the flows of ehicles, people, material and information, which can be found on and around the airport. The objective is to increase efficiency, where one part is to decrease the delays. As an initial step, the turn-around process is analysed and an optimization model for the planning of de-icing trucks is implemented. The model shows that large savings can be made both by reducing the travelling distances for the trucks and reducing the delays the de-icing process is causing the ATS. However, most important is the advantage of having a plan for how the de-icing trucks should be utilized, something that is missing today.  

  • 12.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pugna, Adrian
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    Potra, Sabina
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    Negrea, Romeo
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    Mocan, Marian
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    A greenhouse approach for value cultivation2016In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 27, no 7-8, 836-852 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper explores design requirements to take into consideration when designing and developing new products or services. The purpose of this article is to develop a strategic approach for analysing variations between potential customer needs in order better to understand what qualities should be further cultivated before product launch. This new approach is called A Greenhouse Approach for Value Cultivation. Case study data of a new web-based customisation service for a Romanian shoe manufacturing company has been re-analysed by using questionnaire data on 166 respondents perceptions on 14 attributes importance and value. A nonlinear regression model was developed and used to understand relations between importance and value. Such relations were used together with the Greenhouse Model to better understand the service attributes potential life cycles if selected for further cultivation. The Greenhouse Model envisages new perspectives of the evaluation of customer needs to support strategic decision-making regarding further value cultivation for profound affection (= customer delight). Even if there is a need for further tests the suggested Greenhouse Approach for Value Cultivation is regarded as a new and original contribution to the theory of attractive quality creation which deepens its position in the theory of attractive quality and transforms it into a practical management tool to support new product and service design.

    The full text will be freely available from 2017-12-29 14:21
  • 13.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekström, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ringdahl, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bayen, Alexandre M.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California.
    Patire, Anthony D.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California.
    A hybrid approach for short-term traffic state and travel time prediction on highways2016In: TRB 95th annual meeting compendium of papers, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic management and traffic information are essential in urban areas, and require a good knowledge about both the current and the future traffic state. Both parametric and non-parametric traffic state prediction techniques have previously been developed, with different advantages and shortcomings. While non-parametric prediction has shown good results for predicting the traffic state during recurrent traffic conditions, parametric traffic state prediction can be used during non-recurring traffic conditions such as incidents and events. Hybrid approaches, combining the two prediction paradigms have previously been proposed by using non-parametric methods for predicting boundary conditions used in a parametric method. In this paper we instead combine parametric and non-parametric traffic state prediction techniques through assimilation in an Ensemble Kalman filter. As non-parametric prediction method a neural network method is adopted, and the parametric prediction is carried out using a cell transmission model with velocity as state. The results show that our hybrid approach can improve travel time prediction of journeys planned to commence 15 to 30 minutes into the future, using a prediction horizon of up to 50 minutes ahead in time to allow the journey to be completed.

  • 14.
    Oskarsson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A literature review of research within logistics educationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To investigate published research in the area of logistics education, regarding logistical and educational content, pedagogical relevance, and research methods used.

    Design/methodology/approach A structured review of academic journal papers was conducted. A categorisation and content analysis was performed for the 163 papers selected for inclusion.

    Findings A shift can be seen regarding the main focus in the studied literature. Previously, required skills in logistics was the most common theme, but the last two decades, teaching and learning activities has become more prevalent. Even though this mirrors a certain interest in pedagogical aspects of logistics education, the use of pedagogical literature is very sparse. The "average" article does not refer to any such sources at all.

    Research limitations/implications Since the research about teaching and learning within logistics predominantly is based upon case studies where the researchers are investigating their own context, there is a matter of subjectivity. Case studies with researchers as external observers are therefore called for. So are studies aimed at investigating what effect certain educational activities have on students' learning.

    Originality/value This literature review adds to previous reviews by being more up-to-date, having a broader coverage of literature, and putting more focus on pedagogical issues.

  • 15.
    Thunberg, Micael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Persson, FredrikLinköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    A logistics framework for improving constructionsupply chain performance2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, attention has been placed on the logistics activities in constructionprojects in order to reduce total costs. The construction industry is experiencing poorproductivity, resulting from an inability of contractors, subcontractors, and suppliersto cooperate efficiently. Research on logistics in construction lacks a holisticperspective and tends to focus on one activity at a time. This research presents theBuilder’s SCOR model (BSCOR) to be used for logistics improvements inconstruction. The model is based on the Supply Chain Operations Reference Model(SCOR model) covering the total supply chain. The BSCOR model is empiricallyderived through five case studies at different construction sites over a period of fiveyears. This has resulted in a model covering the activities Source, Build, and Plan,that describes the flow of materials to and on the site and how ownership passes to theclient. With the BSCOR model, contractors can map the material and informationflows between supply chain members with standardized process definitions. It is alsopossible to precisely measure the supply chain performance and to know where to putimprovements efforts. The main intention with the BSCOR model is to help theindustry reduce costs and increase productivity.

  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    A Material Flow Evaluation at Scania Production Slupsk S.P.S2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis is performed at Department of Management and Engineering Linköping University, for Scania Omni at Scania Production Slupsk (S.P.S). Omni is responsible for development, manufacturing and marketing of city, suburban and intercity buses. After acquisition of the production unit in Slupsk in 2002 lower production cost per bus is possible. But without control over the organisation costs are rising due to late delivery fees and high stock levels. At the outset, the thesis included three clearly defined objectives:

    - Map the present situation at Scania Production Slupsk regarding material flow from supplier to assembly line including a part and storage analysis.

    - Benchmark the current routines at Scania Production Slupsk with other successful companies. Furthermore, conduct literature research in order to find theories and philosophies that support problem analysis and thesis solution.

    - Develop standard routines for material control methods (MCM) and material supply methods (MSM).

    A complimentary objective is to work as a catalyst during the time of the thesis.

    The mapping of the present situation showed that MCM and MSM are very tight connected to each other. It was questioned whether this structure was the best way to manage the material flow. After a parts and storage analysis, material was divided into different segments depending of price, consumption and movement.

    The benchmarking studies showed different ways to manage the material flow. Implementation of unit load, kanban and clear defined interface between departments showed potential to improve the material handling and increase effectiveness.

    New routines and part segment definitions described in a logistics manual (Appendix I) were made align with a comparison between previous and recommended definitions.

    The result showed that some parts needs to be controlled differently. Primary recommendations are that logistics manual shall be used when new parts are introduced into the Scala system. Responsible personnel are suppose to give suggestion concerning decision making of MCM and MSM and with help of the logistics manual the work can be more efficient, resulting in a material flow that is flexible and have potential for improvements.

    Secondary, to avoid material handling to some extent implementation of two-bin system is recommended. Additional recommendations regarding two-bin system is to handle material according to unit load, which enable FIFO, traceability and higher turn over rate

  • 17.
    Trönnberg Lundin, André
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strömberg Jonzon, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A method for calculating the carbon footprint at Volvo Logistics Corporation2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis handles the need for Volvo Logistics (VLC) to calculate their total carbon footprint of purchased transportations, i.e. the total carbon dioxide emissions by all vehicles employed by VLC to transport the goods of their customers. The purpose of the thesis is therefore to determine a method with which VLC can calculate the total carbon footprint. To be able to decide upon one method that can fulfil the purpose, the authors searched for various methods, both in the academia and within the transportation sector, with which the emissions can be determined. Simultaneously the available input at VLC was studied to determine what type of method would be best suited to the current state of the company.

    After gathering several methods and determine what input was available and what was not available at VLC, an analysis of the found methods was done. First matching them with the available input to see which were usable as is, and then a more thorough Analytical Hierarchical Process analysis using three main-criterions; credibility, comparability, and simplicity, each with several sub-criterions. The weighting of these criterions was done in a workshop together with VLC employees, particularly the Environmental Manager and an Environmental Analyst, but also with two employees at the Global Logistics Development department at VLC. Using the weighting and the author’s comparisons of the methods within each of the criterions it was possible to obtain the methods with which further analysis should be done.

    After further analysis was conducted, considering VLC’s situation and possible development, the final methods was decided upon, one for each mode of transport; air, rail, road, and sea. These had to be adapted to better suit VLC and the input that was available; the distances, the weight, and the transport mode, factors which are incorporated in the methods recommended by the authors. The adaptation was then done using expertise at VLC to be able to determine what input VLC could affect as to be able to work towards lowering the total carbon footprint once it was calculated the first time. This also led to a revaluation of the method for sea transportation, forcing a change from the previously chosen one to a more suited method. This meant that three of the four modes; air, road, and sea, was covered by the NTM method, while rail used the Green Cargo method.

    While adapting the methods; to make them ready to use for VLC, certain changes required to obtain all the input needed was encountered and forwarded to the environmental department, letting them include it in the annual supplier survey.

    The thesis was concluded by four sets of instructions to be used to calculate the carbon footprint, one two tiered set for each mode of transportation. The instructions are presented in a step by step fashion of how to perform the calculations. The first part; First time usage, depicts those changes needed before the calculations can be attempted, the second part; Annual usage, cover those steps which has to be gone through every time the total carbon footprint for a period is to be calculated.

  • 18.
    Solinen, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Trafikverket, Sundbyberg, Sweden.
    Nicholson, Gemma
    Birmingham Centre for Railway Research and Education, University of Birmingham, Unnited Kingdom.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Microscopic Evaluation of Robustness in Critical Points2017In: 7th International Conference on RailwayOperations Modelling and Analysis (RailLille 2017) / [ed] N. Tomii, I.A. Hansen, J. Rodriguez, P. Pellegrini, S. Dauzère-Pérès, D. De Almeida, International Association of Railway Operations Research , 2017, 83-103 p., 1705Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One method to increase the quality of railway traffic flow is to construct a more robust timetable in which trains are able to both recover from delays and the delays are prevented from propagating. Previous research results show that the indicator Robustness in Critical Points (RCP) can be used to increase timetable robustness. In this paper we present the use of a method for RCP optimization, how can be implemented and assessed ex-post via microscopic simulation and subsequently evaluated. From the evaluation we learn more about how increased RCP values influence a timetable’s performance. The aim is to understand more about RCP increase at a localised level within a timetable in terms of effects to the pairs of trains that are part of the indicator. We present a case study where an initial timetable and a timetable with increased RCP values are evaluated. The ex-post evaluation includes the quantification of measures concerning train-borne delay and robustness of traffic flow, as well as measures capturing the subsequent quality of service experienced by passengers to assess the broader effects of improved robustness. The result shows that it is necessary to use several Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to evaluate the effects of an RCP increase. The robustness will increase at a localised level, but the results also indicate that there is a need to analyse the relationship between ex-post measures and RCP further, to improve the method used to increase RCP and thus its overall effect on timetable robustness.

  • 19.
    Ekström, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A MILP approximation approach for finding optimal toll locations and levels in elastic demand traffic networks2010In: TRANSPORTATION AND URBAN SUSTAINABILITY: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies (HKSTS) / [ed] Sumalee, A; Lam, WHK; Ho, HW; Siu, B, Hong Kong, China: Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies , 2010, 107-114 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The toll design problem (TDP) is to find optimal toll locations and corresponding toll levels in a congestion pricing scheme. The TDP can be formulated as a non-convex mathematical program, in which the road users are assumed to be distributed according to a user-equilibrium with elastic demand. This program is hard to solve due to non-convexity and non-smoothness. In this paper, the TDP is approximated by a mixed integer linear program (MILP), in which the non-linear functions of the TDP are approximated by piecewise linear ones. The MILP can be solved to its global optimal solution by known methods, and its optimal solution will give a lower bound on the optimal solution to the TDP. By iteratively updating the MILP approximation, the error introduced by the approximation is reduced, and for a test network with nine nodes and 18 links, the global optimal solution is obtained.

  • 20.
    Sahlén, Viktoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Daberius, Jessica
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    A model based on total cost and manufacturer performance to evaluate a product as well as possible cost reductions2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Omega Pharma is a distributer of over the counter products, selling thousands of products produced at more than 200 manufacturers and sold in most European countries. The company was founded in Belgium in 1987 and has since then had a high market focus and expanded through acquisitions of brands and products. The company has in recent years started working towards centralization and supplier base management. A project team has been set up to work strategically by choosing key manufacturers and by reducing the supplier base. A first step in this is to look more closely at products with a low turnover and that are not strategically important in order to evaluate if the product is profitable and which products that could be moved to other manufacturers or cancelled from the portfolio. Therefore the purpose of the study is to:

    Create an evaluation model based on revenue, total cost and manufacturer performance to evaluate a product and if cost reductions can be achieved by ending the production of the product or moving the product to a different manufacturer.

    A four step approach for analyzing total cost was followed in order to, in a structured way, create the model and identify the relevant elements related to revenue, total cost and manufacturer performance that were to be present in the model. The four steps were:

    1. In a first step elements and costs were identified that might be relevant for the model. This was done based on previous research, holding interviews at the company and reviewing documents.
    2. The second step was to adapt the elements to the model.
    3. In the third step, it was decided how the elements and costs that were to be in the model would be calculated and presented as well as looking into how the model would be built.
    4. The fourth step consisted of doing test runs and a sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of the model.

    The result handed over to the company is in the form of the evaluation model created based on the above stated purpose. Within the model, there are 4 manufacturer performance parameters and 1 for revenue. When it comes to costs, the amount varies depending on the case analyzed. To evaluate product profitability there are 7 cost elements containing 20 identified costs. When evaluating moving a product to another manufacturer there are the same costs, however an additional element for transfer is added containing 5 costs. For the situation ending a production, there are 2 costs. In order to facilitate the use of the model, estimations were done to the costs to the extent possible. From test runs the model was further adapted to the company as it was identified what values connected to a product where possible for the user to find in the system and in what units of measure. The sensitivity analyses showed that none of the estimated values would, if the estimation was not accurate, affect the evaluation of the product. They could however affect the cost element of that cost.

  • 21.
    Strömgren, Per
    et al.
    Division of Transport planning, Economics and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olstam, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    A Model for Capacity Reduction at Roadwork Zone2016In: International Symposium on Enhancing Highway Performance (ISEHP), (7th International Symposium on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service, 3rd International Symposium on Freeway and Tollway Operations), Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 15, 245-256 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an investigation of capacity reduction in connection with roadwork zones. The paper presents a state-of-the-art description on roadwork effects on capacity. Based on the literature on this topic the most important parameters that should be incorporated in a Swedish capacity manual for the operation and maintenance roadwork are: the proportion of heavy traffic; lane width; number of closed lanes; closed road shoulder; proportion of commuter traffic; and length of roadwork zone. The paper presents a comparison of a composite model of correction factors from Germany, USA and Denmark and the Dutch model for computation of capacity reduction. The comparison show that the two models essentially gives the same results. Based on these results a model was developed. The model developed was validated using empirical data from a full scale test at the motorway network in Gothenburg. The throughput was measured in two cases during the morning and afternoon peak hour. The capacity for the normal site conditions was estimated based on traffic flow and speed data from the same site. The result shows that the empirically estimated capacity reduction is consistent with the reduction calculated with the new model for the different road work designs evaluated. The conclusion is that the model developed seems to be valid for capacity reduction estimations of roadworks on Swedish motorways but that more empirics are needed to ensure general validity.

  • 22.
    Aronsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Naim, M
    Lalwani, C
    Fortuin, L
    Schmidt, T
    Taylor, J
    A model for logistics systems engineering management education in Europe2000In: European Journal of Engineering Education, ISSN 0304-3797, Vol. 25, no 1, 65-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Aronsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    A model for measuring logistics structures2003In: ESTIEM magazine, ISSN 0874-5242, Vol. 25, no 2/2003Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 24.
    Strömgren, Per
    et al.
    Department of Transportation and Logistics (ToL), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olstam, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Model for Traffic Simulation of Flared Rural Road Intersections2015In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 6, no 2015, 239-258 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a micro-simulation model that takes flared design of rural intersections into consideration. The intersection model is designed with input parameters that describe the geometric conditions of the flare. The behavior model includes both a traditional gap-acceptance sub-model and a passage model for modelling of vehicles’ possibility to pass other vehicles using the flare. The intersection model developed has been implemented in the traffic micro simulation model RuTSim. The gap-acceptance part of the model has been calibrated using data for stop and yield 3-way intersections. The validation was performed by using video recordings to calculate delay for the yield regulated intersection and time in queue and service time for the stop regulated intersection. The results from the validation simulations correspond well with the empirical validation data. The effect of the flare on delay has been studied by using 3 different intersection lay-outs and different levels of minor and major flow. The result shows that the delay is decreasing with increasing intersection radius.

  • 25.
    Åberg, Nils
    et al.
    Sahlgren’s Academy, University of Gothenburg, The Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahl, Å
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Benson, M
    Sahlgren’s Academy, University of Gothenburg, The Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A nasally applied cellulose powder in seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) in children and adolescents; reduction of symptoms and relation to pollen load.2011In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 22, no 6, 594-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A nasally applied cellulose powder is increasingly used in many countries as a remedy for allergic rhinitis. The absence of side effects makes the treatment particularly attractive in children. The efficacy in pollen allergic children, however, is not studied, nor is the relation to various pollen exposures.

    METHODS: During the birch pollen season in 2009, a double blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 53 subjects, aged 8-18 yr, with allergic rhinitis attributed to birch pollen. All children were on daily oral antihistamine. Reminders and reporting of symptom scores were made by SMS on mobile phones. Pollen was collected in a volumetric trap from which figures of pollen concentrations from 1979 to 2009 were available.

    RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in total symptom scores from the nose (Placebo 7.29, Active 6.07, p = 0.033) and specifically for running nose (Placebo 2.56, Active 2.03, p = 0.017). All symptoms from the nose, eyes and lower airways were lower in the active group but reached significance only as earlier. The best effect was seen after days with low or moderate pollen counts (≤100/m(3)), the predominating pollen load over 31 yr in the area. No clinically significant adverse effects were seen.

    CONCLUSIONS: The product reduces symptoms of SAR in children and adolescents. Original data on pollen concentrations over 31 yr are presented with levels mainly in the low range favouring the observed efficacy profile. SMS communication on mobile phone for reminders and recording symptom scores was an excellent logistics tool.

  • 26.
    Dahlberg, Joen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Göthe-Lundgren, Maud
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engevall, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A note on the nonuniqueness of the Equal Profit Method2017In: Applied Mathematics and Computation, ISSN 0096-3003, E-ISSN 1873-5649, Vol. 308, 84-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a set of players cooperate, they need to decide how the collective cost should be allocated amongst them. Cooperative game theory provides several methods or solution concepts, that can be used as a tool for cost allocation. In this note, we consider a specific solution concept called the Equal Profit Method (EPM). In some cases, a solution to the EPM is any one of infinitely many solutions. That is, it is not always unique. This leads to a lack of clarity in the characterization of the solutions obtained by the EPM. We present a modified version of the EPM, which unlike its precursor ensures a unique solution. In order to illustrate the differences, we present some numerical examples and comparisons between the two concepts.

  • 27.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Polishchuk, Tatiana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Polishchuk, Valentin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Christiane
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Novel MIP-based Airspace Sectorization for TMAs2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Abdelrahman, Islam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Suez Canal University, Egypt.
    Moghazy, Amr
    Suez Canal University, Egypt.
    Abbas, Ashraf
    Suez Canal University, Egypt.
    Elmasry, Moustafa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Suez Canal University, Egypt.
    Adly, Osama
    Suez Canal University, Egypt.
    Elbadawy, Mohamed
    Suez Canal University, Egypt.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    A prospective randomized cost billing comparison of local fasciocutaneous perforator versus free Gracilis flap reconstruction for lower limb in a developing economy2016In: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, ISSN 1748-6815, E-ISSN 1532-1959, Vol. 69, no 8, 1121-1127 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distal half leg complex wounds are usually a formidable problem that necessitates either local or free flap coverage. The aim of this study was to compare cost billing charges in free Gracilis flap (fGF) and local fasciocutaneous perforator flap (lFPF) in reconstructing complex soft tissue leg and foot defects. Patients and methods: Thirty consecutive adult (amp;gt; 15-year-old) patients with soft tissue defects in the leg and/or foot requiring tissue coverage with a flap in the period between 2012 and 2015 were randomly assigned (block randomization) to either an fGF or lFPF procedure. The outcome measures addressed were total billed charges costs, perioperative billed charges cost, partial or complete flap loss, length of hospital stay, inpatient postsurgical care duration, complications, operating time and number of operative scrub staff. Results: One patient suffered from complete flap loss in each group. Reconstruction with lFPF showed total lower billed charges costs by 62% (2509 USD) (p amp;lt; 0.001) and perioperative billed charges cost by 54% (779 USD) (p amp;lt; 0.001), and shorter total hospital stay (36.5 days; p amp;lt; 0.001), inpatient postsurgical care duration (6.4 days; p amp;lt; 0.001), operating time (4.3 h; p amp;lt; 0.001) and fewer scrub staff (2.2 persons; p amp;lt; 0.001). Conclusion: These results suggest that neither flap is totally superior to the other; the choice should instead be based on the outcome sought and logistics. lFPF requires lower billed charges cost and resource use and saves operative time and personnel and reduces length of hospital stay. Our approach changed towards using perforator flaps in medium-sized defects, keeping the free flap option for larger defects. (C) 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Engström, Jon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    A self-determination theory perspective on customer participation in service development2015In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 29, no 6/7, 511-521 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to explore what motivates patients to participate in service development and how participation may influence their well-being. Health-care providers are increasingly adopting practices of customer participation in such activities to improve their services.Design/methodology/approach– This paper builds on an analysis of data from a service development project in which lung cancer patients contributed by sharing their ideas and experiences through diaries. Out of the 86 lung cancer patients who were invited to participate, 20 agreed to participate and 14 fully completed the task. The study builds on participants’ contributions, in-depth interviews with six participants and the reasons patients gave for not participating.Findings– This paper identifies a number of motives: non-interest in participating, restitution after poor treatment, desire for contact with others, volunteerism, desire to make a contribution and the enjoyment of having a task to complete. A self-determination theory perspective was adopted to show how the need to satisfy basic human needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness determines if and how patients participate. Participation may have important benefits for patients, especially an improved sense of relatedness.Practical implications– Service providers must be prepared to meet different patient needs in service development, ranging from the need to express strong distress to expressing creativity. By understanding the dynamics of motivation and well-being, organizers may achieve better results in terms of improved services and in patient well-being.Originality/value– This study makes a significant contribution to the study of customer participation in service development, especially in relation to health care, by offering a self-determination-based typology for describing different styles of patient participation.

  • 30.
    Kohn, Christofer
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A shipper perspective on intermodal transport: Exploring the role of rail-truck intermodal transport in three shippers’ logistics systems2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the public debate on companies’ impact on the environment, the negative impact of transport is often put forward as an area in which companies need to find new solutions in order to decrease the amount of emissions incurred by transport. One possible way of achieving such a shift is through intermodal transport, but even though such solutions are often advocated they are not employed that extensively in industry. One reason for this could be the fact that decisions influencing logistics and transport are made by multiple stakeholders with diverging perspectives and decision scopes. For instance, whereas public authorities make decisions with respect to e.g. a country’s transport policy decisions regarding logistics from a company perspective are made with reference to the overall goal of achieving cost efficient customer service.

    The paper has an explorative approach and presents empirical studies of three companies that have employed or are about to employ an intermodal transport solution that combines rail and truck transport. The purpose is to illustrate how these companies have incorporated intermodal transport into their logistics systems and what experiences they have from using this type of transport solution. The findings show that transport quality is an issue, but this is weighed against the cost advantage that this transport solution provides. Also, the companies are very conscious with regards to for what part of their respective logistics systems they can use intermodal transport without jeopardising the overall performance of the system. It is the perception of inferior quality that keeps these companies from transferring more transport tonnage from truck to a rail-truck combination. If intermodal transport is to be used by shippers more extensively than current practice reveals then there is a need to congregate the objectives of the multiple stakeholders discussed above.

  • 31.
    Lindberg, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden; K2 - The Swedish Knowledge Center for Public Transport, Lund, Sweden.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tapani, Andreas
    VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden; K2 - The Swedish Knowledge Center for Public Transport, Lund, Sweden.
    A Simulation Model of Local Public Transport Access at a Railway Station2017In: Proceedings of Raillille 2017 - 7th lnternational Conference on Railway Operations Modelling and Analysis / [ed] N. Tomii, I.A. Hansen, J. Rodriguez, P. Pellegrini, S. Dauzère-Pérès, D. De Almeida, 2017, 922-943 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A high quality railway service requires that all parts of the complete journey, from door to door, are well-functioning. This includes any transfers taking place, as well as last mile transportation to and from the railway station. Since the last mile often consists of local public transport, the access to this mode at stops and terminals and how well these are functioning are of great importance. A critical aspect is the capacity of the stop or the terminal in relation to the number of departures, where a higher capacity generally means an increase in size. At the same time it is desirable to limit the use of valuable land and keeping the facility as small as possible. The trade-off between capacity and size needs to be evaluated when designing stops and terminals. In this study we have developed a discrete event simulation model of a combined bus and tram stop, which is a part of a larger multi-modal station. The objective of the study is to evaluate the modelling approach for the situation at hand. Of special interest are the complexities due to the different driving patterns of buses and trams. The developed model is capable of evaluating design alternatives and is applied in a case study of a stop at Norrköping railway station in southern Sweden. The model was found to realistically capture the various events occurring at such a stop and the case study further showed that the model is a useful tool in design evaluation.

  • 32.
    Sim, Patrick Puay-I
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    A Sociocultural Investigation of Learning and Transition in SFEC2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the advent of globalisation driving the People.s Republic of China to embrace its future, the local government has shown great enthusiasm promulgating one of the oldest industries. Foreign higher educational providers that operate in China through the mode of joint venture cooperatives between a Chinese and foreign institution of higher learning are becoming increasingly .knowledgeable-hungry. public or private universities and colleges. Such operations commonly known as Sino-foreign educational cooperatives

    (SFEC), are hotly spawned on the mainland, enrolling Chinese students through the division of responsibilities, roles and resources. The Chinese party is mostly responsible for the hardware support, supplying facilities and logistics as the part of the bargain, whereas the foreign party provides the intellectual software of academic programs. The locus of this qualitative study aims to present and investigate a distinct phenomenon of learning in SFEC through the theories of sociocultural perspective encumbered in a transitional context; Sino-foreign (SF) graduates to other workplace communities. Without common interests of social interaction, co-participation, and transformation, SFEC are often discredited due to various factors. The learning aims will feature participative and transformative themes that feature qualitative and interpretive methods. Thus, this research involves interviewing four relevant participants from the likes of two Chinese nationals and two non-Chinese, and how they view learning in SFEC applied to a transitional context, the workplace. My furtherance of analysis will generally stress learning, co-participation and transformative learning in activities that circumvents discriminatory elements of artifacts, identity profiling, relationships, commitment and workplace employment for the necessary transition. In the initial research phase, it did seem that putting learning into community practice in China was essential. In the closing stages, thoughts will flow to the legitimisation of participative and transformative learning, which forms the backdrop of this original theme of research gathered through previous works of similar purview. Prawatt and Floden (1994) remark that knowledge, and the belief that knowledge is the result of social interaction and language usage, and thus is a shared, rather than an individual, experience. Presumably, my chosen theories frame the interactive and shared communal nature of the Chinese society and learning systems.

  • 33. Josefsson, Billy
    et al.
    Polishchuk, Tatiana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Polishchuk, Valentin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Christiane
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Step Towards Remote Tower Center Deployment: Optimizing Staff Scheduling2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A strategy for increased public transport usage: The effects of implementing a welfare maximizing policy2014In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, Vol. 48, 221-226 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time public transport has experienced a struggle against rising costs and increasing car ownership. So far, public transport appears to be on the losing side in terms of market shares. The aim if this paper is to investigate if a different policy could result in higher public transport usage and improved social welfare. In order to achieve this, a model, explaining public transport usage, public transport supply and costs, is estimated. The model is then used in order to simulate the outcome of an alternative policy of social welfare maximization. It is found that the current policy of the Swedish transport is not efficient in terms of maximizing welfare. In 2011, public transport fares should have been lower in 20 of 21 counties and the supply of vehicle kilometres should have been higher in 17 of 21 counties. Implementing a welfare maximizing policy would have increased the number of trips per capita by 17.2% in 2011 and by an average of 6.7% for the period 1986-2011.

  • 35.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A strategy for increasing public transport market share : an investigation of an alternative development2013In: Thredbo 13 - The 13th International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fora long time public transport has experienced a struggle against rising costsand increasing car ownership. So far, public transport appears to be on the losingside in terms of market shares. The aim if this paper is to investigate if adifferent policy could result in higher public transport usage and improvedsocial welfare. In order to achieve this, a model, explaining public transportusage, public transport supply and costs, is estimated. The model is then usedin order to simulate the outcome of an alternative policy of social welfaremaximization. It is found that the current policy of the Swedish transport isnot efficient in terms of maximizing welfare. Implementing a welfare maximizingpolicy would have increased the number of trips per capita by 12.5 per cent in2011.

  • 36.
    Wikner, Joakim
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics .
    A structural framework for closed-loop supply chains2008In: International Journal of Logistics Management, ISSN 0957-4093, Vol. 19, no 3, 344-366 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Logistics and Transportation, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wänström, Carl
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Johansson, Mats I.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Medbo, Lars
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    A structured procedure for materials planning during production transfer2015In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 26, no 9, 738-752 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores materials planning procedures to ensure the materials’ availability during production transfers. The paper defines a production transfer as the preparation, physical transfer, and start-up of relocated production. A structured procedure of materials planning during production transfer is developed based on theory, and then validated and refined based on the analysis of four case studies. The paper shows that there is a need for a structured procedure of materials planning during production transfers. It also explains the importance of activities that create prerequisites for the materials’ availability during production transfer, such as updating and adapting documentation, planning and control systems, and describes the activities that ensure the materials’ availability, such as preventive and corrective actions. A valid estimation of the time needed to reach a steady state and a combination of several preventive actions improves the ability to ensure that materials are available. The cases showed differences across company size, because large companies took more and farther-reaching preventive actions.

  • 38.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Study of Environmental and Other Sustainable Activities in supply Chain Relationships at Clas Ohlson2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a case study conducted at the Swedish retail company Clas Ohlson. The study has been conducted as one step in the PhD process of the author of this report and is financed by the Swedish Energy Agency (Energimyndigheten). In this first chapter, some background information to the case study is given: the aim of the study, the rationale behind choosing Clas Ohlson as the case company and data collection methods. Finally, the structure of the remaining parts of the report is presented.

    The aim of this case study is to illustrate how environmental work can be conducted in different types of supply chain relationships, seen from the perspective of one focal shipper in a supply chain. The relationships include both upstream (such as suppliers and inbound logistics service providers) and downstream (such as outbound logistics service providers and stores in a city logistics context) parts of the supply chain. As these examples illustrate, the supply chain relationships can include shippers as well as logistics service providers (LSPs).

  • 39.
    Bodeström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Österdahl, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A study of increased frequency of deliveries at Runsven2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Det här examensarbetet har genomförts för Runsven och har haft som syfte att studera de effekter som kan uppstå i butik om leveransfrekvensen från lager till butik ökar. Runsven AB är tillsammans med ÖoB helägda dotterbolag till Runsvengruppen AB, där Runsven svarar för varuförsörjning och logistik medan ÖoB svarar för marknadsarbete och försäljning. I dagsläget får ÖoB-butikerna två ordinarie leveranser i veckan från Runsvens centrallager. Runsven tror att en ökad leveransfrekvens kan ge positiva effekter i form av ett minskat butikslager samtidigt som fyllnadsgraden, det vill säga andelen tillgängliga produkter i butiken, ökar. Man tror också att förändringen kan ge förbättringar för butikspersonalen. Syftet i arbetet uppfylls genom en studie av tre olika frågeställningar: Hur påverkas butikslagret? Hur påverkas orderkvantiteterna? Hur påverkas personalen? Metoden i arbetet, som har använts för att besvara frågeställningarna, har varit en konstruktion av en modell som studerar lagerstorlek och lagerföringskostnader samt tidsåtgång för arbete i samband med leveranser. Baserat på modellens resultat utfördes sedan Activity-based costing-kalkyl (ABC-kalkyl), som visar olika produkters kostnad för de aktiviteter som krävs i samband med leverans. Arbetets resultat visar att butikerna idag har för mycket produkter i lager. Modellens resultat visar att en ökad leveransfrekvens kan ge en minskning av en butiks lagerföringskostnader med mellan 21 och 49 procent, beroende på hur leveransfrekvensen ökas. Rapportens resultat visar också att en ökad leveransfrekvens skulle ge förbättringar för butikspersonalen. Slutligen visar ABC-kalkylen att den aktivitet som förbrukar flest resurser och därmed kostar mest är aktiviteten upplockning. För aktiviteten mottagning är däremot kostnaderna genomgående låga, på grund av detta har mindre fokus lagts på denna aktivitet.

  • 40.
    Larsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tica, Selma
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A study of the order picking process at PostNord Logistic - improving the picking process by identifying factors that inhibit the prodctivity2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study was to find factors affecting the pickers’ productivity negatively, in the order picking process, and to suggest a change that can increase the pickers’ productivity. By a qualitative approach the initial situation at PostNord was studied. The obtained results, after analyzing the initial situation, showed various factors that affect the pickers’ productivity negatively. All these contributed to waste, meaning that the picker did not use its time correctly according to Lean theory. These factors were analyzed and categorized into four problem areas, which are quality of tools, standardization of routines and leadership, article placement and jam in the corridors. Possible suggestions to improve the situation can be done with smaller or bigger changes. One solution is to improve the work procedures by standardizing the methods, which could be done by cooperating more with PEMA and using the pickers’ knowledge. Some suggestions and adjacent activities must be investigated further to find the best solutions.

  • 41.
    Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Seth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A supply chain view on electronic commerce impact on value, relations and loyalty: field survey e-B2B project2003Book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Sandberg, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Hamid
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    A systematic review of retail supply chain responsiveness2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Cronemyr, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Åsa
    SIQ - Swedish Insititute for Quality, Sweden.
    A Tool For Measuring Quality Culture2016In: 19th QMOD Proceedings: International Conference on Quality and Service Sciences / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park, Jens J. Dahlgaard, Lund University Library Press , 2016, 1272-1285 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s organizations face the challenge of measuring the right things and then using those measurements as a starting point to work with improved quality.  It is important to design a measurement tool that corresponds to the initiatives taken when a new management implementation such as adopting quality values is carried out. The failure to generate a shared value base is pointed out as one main cause for the inability to effectively apply Quality Management and Lean within organizations, thus it appears central to measure these values. However, the measuring of values and organizational culture, e.g. the soft side, seems to be missing within both concepts. The managers have great influence on what culture will be predominant in an organization, and how they act and behave affects the attitudes and behaviours of the co-workers within the organization. Therefore, there is a need for a tool that measures not only quality values, but also behaviours that support or obstruct a quality culture. Furthermore, it is of interest how the employees rank both the performance and the importance of quality values and behaviours. The tool should not be a ‘certification’ but rather a diagnostic tool for continuous improvement.

  • 44.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paulsson, Ulf
    Ekonomihögskolan, Lunds universitet.
    Academic papers and theses: to write and present and to act as an oponent2014 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An educational method that is becoming all the more common at colleges and universities is that of the seminar. In the seminar, students write academic papers and reports, present them, and act as opponents on each other’s work. The book covers all the sections that are normally included in the seminar. The learning environment of the seminar is based on a scientific way of thinking and on scientific methods. With its point of departure in this foundation, the book aims to provide easily accessible information and advice about the ways in which academic work can be organized and carried out. Furthermore, the book takes up issues regarding layout, presentation of one’s work, opposition, and cheating, as well as criteria used to assess academic papers and theses.

    The book is intended for use on first-cycle levels at university colleges and universities, and within other forms of post-secondary school education.

    There is also a Swedish version of the book with the title: Seminarieboken – att skriva, presentera och opponera.

  • 45.
    Fenton, Paul David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Accelerating local transitions to sustainable mobility2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the challenge of developing policies and incentives to achieve sustainable mobility in urban areas. Urban transport systems must undergo a profound transition in order to contribute to sustainable urban development and improve quality of life for residents and other users of urban spaces. There is substantial knowledge about the range of policy options available to decision-makers, planners and other stakeholders, yet past research has focused less on the practical organisation and implementation of policies aiming for sustainable mobility. Although many municipalities have adopted policies that promote sustainable mobility, organisational hinders and other behavioural practices have obstructed progress towards goals. Transport planning remains highly normative, prioritising the use of cars, yet some European municipalities achieve much higher modal splits for walking, cycling and public transport than many others. Basel, Göttingen and Odense are examples of three cities with strong performance: attractive, competitive cities in which the modal split for cars is low and other forms of mobility thrive. How are these cities succeeding and what can other municipalities learn from their examples? What organisational processes, methods, activities and innovations have influenced their strong performance?

  • 46.
    Al Farra, Hussni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Acceptance Tests – FAT & SAT: An Empirical Case Study of Utility Poles2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this project is to devise improved quality acceptance procedures to examine quality characteristics of utility poles at the factory of the supplier (FAT) and on-site upon receipt by the customer (SAT). To that end, the thesis draws upon available standards, literature, and industry practices regarding wood, fiberglass and steel poles. As far as the design of the research, a single case study of a major power company was chosen. Then, a data collection plan was developed in order to build upon the existing knowledge found in the literature, and upon the data that can be collected from three of the Company’s suppliers, in addition to the Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP). Documents’ analysis, interviews, observations, and a survey were the tools of that plan. It was found that criteria, inspection and test methods of wood poles are all sufficiently covered in the standards and the literature; for wood is the most commonly used material for utility poles. Next, in coverage of research, are the steel poles; while there is currently no standard that covers fiberglass utility poles. Indeed, quality characteristics, criteria, and acceptance procedures can altogether form parts of a sustainable solution, as long as the quality is managed as a process whether at the Company’s end or at the fabrication sites; that is especially true if there is some form of backward partnership between the Company and its suppliers.

  • 47.
    Chicksand, Daniel
    et al.
    Aston Business School.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dehn, Torsten
    Aston Business School.
    Achieving a competitive advantage: What is missing from research into supplychain management and servitization?2016In: 25th Annual Ipsera Conference: Purchasing and Supply Management, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will highlight that at the heart of supply chain management (SCM) andservitization research is the concept of value. However, it will be argued that currentwork in these fields do not, in the first instance, adequately define value and often omit afull discussion of value appropriation. To fill these gaps this paper will first introduce aconceptual model of value and will then suggest how it would be possible to empiricallydetermine the sharing of value in a business relationship through the presentation of amodel based on resource dependency theory (RDT). The paper will conclude that muchmore work is required to better conceptualize value in the context of SCM andservitization and that there needs to be more focus on understanding which factorsdetermine how value is shared in business relationships.

  • 48.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jönsson, Petter
    Inflight Service AB.
    Acquisition and network identity change2011In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, Vol. 45, no 9/10, 1470-1500 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to discuss whether or not an acquisition changes the network identity of an acquired firm and, if so, how. This study aims to bring new insights to the corporate marketing field, as it examines corporate identity in the context of how a company is perceived because of its relationships with other firms. The focus of this research is acquired innovative firms. Design/methodology/approach - This paper adopts a multiple case study approach. Data on four acquisitions of innovative firms were collected using 41 interviews, which were supplemented with secondary data. Findings - Based on the case studies, it can be concluded that the network identity of the acquired firms does change following an acquisition. The acquired firms inherited the acquirers identity, regardless of whether or not the companies were integrated. Previous, present and potential business partners regarded the innovative firms as being more solvent, but distanced themselves. In addition, some of them regarded the innovative firms as competitors. Practical implications - Changes in the way a firm is perceived by its business partners, following an acquisition, will influence the future business operations of the firm. Expected changes to business relationships should ideally be considered part of due diligence. Acquirers need to consider how they can minimise the risks associated with business partners changed perceptions of acquired firms. Originality/value - This paper contributes to the research on identity, through discussion of the consequences of an acquisition for the identity and relationships of a firm. It also contributes to the existing corporate marketing literature, through consideration of perceptions at a network level. Furthermore, this paper contributes to merger and acquisition literature, by highlighting the influence of ownership on relationships with external parties.

  • 49.
    Nilsson, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Actions to Decrease Delay for Public Transport in Linköping2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Linköpings kommun har i senaste trafikstrategin från 2010 antagit målet att år 2030 ska var femte resa i kommunen ske med kollektivtrafik. För att nå målet behöver kollektivtrafikens attraktionskraft öka. För att ta fram exempel på hur detta kan göras genomfördes examensarbetet med syftet att ”analysera hur korsningen mellan Brokindsleden och Söderleden i Linköping kan förändras för att minska fördröjningen för kollektivtrafik år 2030”. Analysen genomfördes med hjälp av mikrosimuleringsprogrammet PTV Vissim. I en simuleringsstudie jämfördes fyra olika scenarier. NU0 och NU1 som beskriver nuläget utan och med kollektivtrafiksprioritet. Jämförelsealternativet, JA, bygger på en trafikprognos för 2030 och i utredningsalternativet, UA, förändras JA för att minska kollektivtrafikens fördröjning. Den kollektivtrafiksprioritering som används idag beräknades i genomsnitt minska fördröjningen med fem procent per buss motsvarande tre sekunder. Denna minskning är dock inte signifikant. Om korsningen inte förändras till 2030 beräknades fördröjningen för kollektivtrafiken öka med 87 procent. Den övriga trafiken kommer att få en ökning med 45 procent. Utifrån dessa resultat gjordes flera förändringar i simuleringsmodellen, bland annat infördes prioritet för alla bussar och kollektivtrafikskörfält på Brokindsleden. Med förändringarna minskade fördröjningen för buss med 78 procent. Den övriga trafiken påverkas också positivt med en minskning på elva procent, nästan tio sekunder per fordon. Utifrån detta drogs slutsatsen att en förändring med de förslagna åtgärderna mycket väl kan vara alla trafikanter till nytta.

  • 50.
    Lindskog, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Actors’ systems thinking in a logistics context: An application of cognitive mapping2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has indicated that the level of logistics development in many companies still is not as sophisticated as can be expected from visionary outlooks in literature, especially those relating to the promises of Supply Chain Management (SCM). Although there hardly exists any universally accepted definition of what SCM is, certain related themes such as coordination, integration, and cooperation are often repeated in different guises. Although sometimes expressed implicitly, these are often seen as imperative for SCM success. Coordination of logistics along an entire supply chain is put forth as having a potential to lend great benefits, but it requires the chain to be “… managed as one single entity where end customer satisfaction is the superior goal for all involved actors. This demands collaboration on a strategic level and that all involved actors have a true supply chain orientation.”

    The majority of contemporary logistics practices are however far from this vision. There are sporadic reports on the odd case in which logistics collaboration have rendered exceptional results, but the majority of companies have not yet reached the full potential. As put by Spekman et al: “… business has yet to crack the code … talk is cheap and supply chain management is still only part of today’s jargon.” Companies are reported to, at best, focus internal optimisations and have neither managed to implement SCM in reality, nor adopt the underlying philosophy.

    One possible explanation for this might be that the vast majority of logistics research neglects a very important factor: actors. It is the actors1 who carry out all the tasks and activities, from strategic to operative, of the logistics practices. Therefore the actors are of utmost importance for which logistics solutions that are implemented. As put so aptly by Skjoett-Larsen (2000): “In the end, it is the employees and not the systems and processes that will ensure solutions to the logistics tasks and provide the company with the necessary competitiveness.  Therefore, it is crucial not to underestimate the human and cultural aspects in the implementati on of projects of change in the company.” (p. 386).

    Anything that happens in the logistics practices of enterprises, apart from ‘catastrophic’ events such as accidents, are the effect of human decisions and actions. Decisions in a logistics system span a range from strategic, e.g. localization of facilities or outsourcing of entire service bundles, to operative, e.g. batch sizing, picking routes in a warehouse, or issuing dispatch orders. Actions are the effectuation of such decisions as well as any physical and administrative tasks that are necessary for the logistics to function. We can see an immense spectrum of actions and decisions dispersed over time and space, made by different actors in the logistics practices.

    In a recent publication, actors are in fact the very basis for defining logistics: “Logistics and supply chain systems are networks of interacting human decision makers.” This contrasts the finding of Gammelgaard (2004), who, based on the framework of three methodological approaches presented by Arbnor & Bjerke (1997), concludes that it is the analytical and systems approaches that so far have dominated logistics. Regarding the third, the actors approach, it is stated: “The implication is that this approach may not be relevant in logistics, or maybe logistics researchers have not yet seen its potential for investigating new aspects of their field.” This paper intends to show that the latter alternative is most likely, by demonstrating the relevance of an actors approach (an interpretive approach).

    To be more specific, the purpose of this paper is to apply an interpretive approach to actors’ systems thinking. The aim is to explore whether the systems thinking of actors within a mutual context (i.e. a certain shared logistics practice) differs, even in a context where a high degree of homogeneity in systems thinking can be assumed a priori. If differences can be demonstrated, it calls for the logistics research community to alter its systems thinking.

    The purpose is pursued by first discussing the systems perspective that thus far seems to have dominated the discipline. Thereafter an alternative, ‘soft’, viewpoint regarding systems is presented, and from this perspective it is argued that an approach that can accommodate for differences in individual systems thinking is necessary. In order to handle this, a construct from cognitive psychology (mental models) as well as techniques for studying these (cognitive mapping) are adopted. These are then applied on a group of actors who are all related to one shared  logistics practice, a retail chain store based in Sweden. Causal maps are created for all actors, and these are then compared in order to identify any similarities or discrepancies. The paper is wrapped up with a discussion of which implications the finding from this actors perspective can have for both research and practice.

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