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  • 1.
    Holmbom, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Giske, Christian G.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.; Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Claesson, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lennart E
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    14-Year Survey in a Swedish County Reveals a Pronounced Increase in Bloodstream Infections (BSI). Comorbidity: An Independent Risk Factor for Both BSI and Mortality2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: we assessed the incidence, risk factors and outcome of BSI over a 14-year period (2000-2013) in a Swedish county.

    Methods: retrospective cohort study on culture confirmed BSI among patients in the county of Östergötland, Sweden, with approximately 440,000 inhabitants. A BSI was defined as either community-onset BSI (CO-BSI) or hospital-acquired BSI (HA-BSI).

    Results: of a total of 11,480 BSIs, 67% were CO-BSI and 33% HA-BSI. The incidence of BSI increased by 64% from 945 to 1,546 per 100,000 hospital admissions per year during the study period. The most prominent increase, 83% was observed within the CO-BSI cohort whilst HA-BSI increased by 32%. Prescriptions of antibiotics in outpatient care decreased with 24% from 422 to 322 prescriptions dispensed/1,000 inhabitants/year, whereas antibiotics prescribed in hospital increased by 67% (from 424 to 709 DDD per 1,000 days of care). The overall 30-day mortality for HA-BSIs was 17.2%, compared to 10.6% for CO-BSIs, with an average yearly increase per 100,000 hospital admissions of 2 and 5% respectively. The proportion of patients with one or more comorbidities, increased from 20.8 to 55.3%. In multivariate analyses, risk factors for mortality within 30 days were: HA-BSI (2.22); two or more comorbidities (1.89); single comorbidity (1.56); CO-BSI (1.21); male (1.05); and high age (1.04).

    Conclusion: this survey revealed an alarming increase in the incidence of BSI over the 14-year study period. Interventions to decrease BSI in general should be considered together with robust antibiotic stewardship programmes to avoid both over- and underuse of antibiotics.

  • 2.
    Asghar, Rizwan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Dake
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    2-D Realization of WiMAX Channel Interleaver for Efficient Hardware Implementation2009In: Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (ISSN: 2070-3740), 2009, 25-29 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The direct implementation of interleaver functions in WiMAX is not hardware efficient due to presence of complex functions. Also the conventional method i.e. using memories for storing the permutation tables is silicon consuming. This work presents a 2-D transformation for WiMAX channel interleaver functions which reduces the overall hardware complexity to compute the interleaver addresses on the fly.  A fully re-configurable architecture for address generation in WiMAX channel interleaver is presented, which consume 1.1 k-gates in total. It can be configured for any block size and any modulation scheme in WiMAX. The presented architecture can run at a frequency of 200 MHz, thus fully supporting high bandwidth requirements for WiMAX.

  • 3.
    Karhu, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3-D Positioning in Large Warehouses using Radio-frequency identification2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In large warehouses, there are a lot of articles that needs do be kept track of. As the number of articles grows larger, the administrative complexity increases. Thus, a solution that automatically keeps track of the position of each article in real-time is of interest. That is, if an item in the warehouse is moved, no manual administration should be needed to know the new position of the item.

    Radio detection and ranging (RADAR) is a ranging technique that doesn’t need to communicate with an object to find the distance to it, instead signals are sent and when they are reflected off the object and returned to the sender, the distance to the object may be calculated. However, you cannot tell two equally shaped objects apart purely based on RADAR techniques. There are many other techniques for ranging, sound navigation and ranging (SONAR) is another example, but they all lack the possibility of detecting the identity of the object.

    So, in order to find a specific item’s position, some kind of  communication with the item is necessary. Radiofrequency identification (RFID) is a neat technology with which this is possible. An RFID reader can send radio signals out in the air, and objects that are in the vicinity of the reader and are tagged with an RFID tag can receive that signal and respond with it’s unique identification number. This way, the RFID reader can identify the RFID tagged object from a distance. There are also a variety of ways to approximate the distance between reader and tag. Unfortunately this is a rather difficult task, especially in indoor  environments.

    There are already some existing products on the market that uses RFID for different kinds of positioning. In this thesis, the theory behind positioning, the fundamentals of RFID and different positioning solutions will be analysed and presented.

    A number of tests were carried out with an RFID system within the ultra-high frequency (UHF) band, which is around 866 MHz. The test system only supported range estimation based on the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the test results showed that narrowband RSSI measurements are highly disturbed by multipath propagation which make the overall positioning performance insufficient. Further analysis of time based range estimation techniques, such as time of arrival (TOA), time of flight (TOF) and time difference of arrival (TDOA), revealed that better positioning accuracy is possible, especially if ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) is used.

  • 4.
    Casas Garcia, Belén
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lantz, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dyverfeldt, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    Ebbers, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    4D Flow MRI-Based Pressure Loss Estimation in Stenotic Flows: Evaluation Using Numerical Simulations2016In: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, ISSN 0740-3194, E-ISSN 1522-2594, Vol. 75, no 4, 1808-1821 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To assess how 4D flow MRI-based pressure and energy loss estimates correspond to net transstenotic pressure gradients (TPG(net)) and their dependence on spatial resolution. Methods: Numerical velocity data of stenotic flow were obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in geometries with varying stenosis degrees, poststenotic diameters and flow rates. MRI measurements were simulated at different spatial resolutions. The simplified and extended Bernoulli equations, Pressure-Poisson equation (PPE), and integration of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and viscous dissipation were compared against the true TPG(net). Results: The simplified Bernoulli equation overestimated the true TPG(net) (8.74 +/- 0.67 versus 6.76 +/- 0.54 mmHg). The extended Bernoulli equation performed better (6.57 +/- 0.53 mmHg), although errors remained at low TPG(net). TPG(net) estimations using the PPE were always close to zero. Total TKE and viscous dissipation correlated strongly with TPG(net) for each geometry (r(2) > 0.93) and moderately considering all geometries (r(2) = 0.756 and r(2) = 0.776, respectively). TKE estimates were accurate and minorly impacted by resolution. Viscous dissipation was overall underestimated and resolution dependent. Conclusion: Several parameters overestimate or are not linearly related to TPG(net) and/or depend on spatial resolution. Considering idealized axisymmetric geometries and in absence of noise, TPG(net) was best estimated using the extended Bernoulli equation. (C) 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance.

  • 5.
    Baron, Ralf
    et al.
    University Klinikum Schleswig Holstein.
    Mayoral, Victor
    Hospital Llobregat.
    Leijon, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Binder, Andreas
    University Klinikum Schleswig Holstein.
    Steigerwald, Ilona
    Grunenthal GmbH.
    Serpell, Michael
    University of Glasgow.
    5% lidocaine medicated plaster versus pregabalin in post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic polyneuropathy: an open-label, non-inferiority two-stage RCT study2009In: CURRENT MEDICAL RESEARCH AND OPINION, ISSN 0300-7995, Vol. 25, no 7, 1663-1676 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare efficacy and safety of 5% lidocaine medicated plaster with pregabalin in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) or painful diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). Study design and methods: This was a two-stage adaptive, randomized, open-label, multicentre, non-inferiority study. Data are reported from the initial 4-week comparative phase, in which adults with PHN or painful DPN received either topical 5% lidocaine medicated plaster applied to the most painful skin area or twice-daily pregabalin capsules titrated to effect according to the Summary of Product Characteristics. The primary endpoint was response rate at 4 weeks, defined as reduction averaged over the last three days from baseline of greater than= 2 points or an absolute value of less than= 4 points on the 11-point Numerical Rating Scale (NRS-3). Secondary endpoints included 30% and 50% reductions in NRS-3 scores; change in allodynia severity rating; quality of life (QoL) parameters EQ-5D, CGIC, and PGIC; patient satisfaction with treatment; and evaluation of safety (laboratory parameters, vital signs, physical examinations, adverse events [AEs], drug-related AEs [DRAEs], and withdrawal due to AEs). Results: Ninety-six patients with PHN and 204 with painful DPN were analysed (full analysis set, FAS). Overall, 66.4% of patients treated with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster and 61.5% receiving pregabalin were considered responders (cor-responding numbers for the per protocol set, PPS: 65.3% vs. 62.0%). In PHN more patients responded to 5% lidocaine medicated plaster treatment than to pregabalin (PPS: 62.2% vs. 46.5%), while response was comparable for patients with painful DPN (PPS: 66.7% vs 69.1%). 30% and 50% reductions in NRS-3 scores were greater with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster than with pregabalin. Both treatments reduced allodynia severity. 5% lidocaine medicated plaster showed greater improvements in QoL based on EQ-5D in both PHN and DPN. PGIC and CGIC scores indicated greater improvement for 5% lidocaine medicated plaster treated patients with PHN. Improvements were comparable between treatments in painful DPN. Fewer patients administering 5% lidocaine medicated plaster experienced AEs (safety set, SAF: 18.7% vs. 46.4%), DRAEs (5.8% vs. 41.2%) and related discontinuations compared to patients taking pregabalin. Conclusion: 5% lidocaine medicated plaster showed better efficacy compared with pregabalin in patients with PHN. Within DPN, efficacy was comparable for both treatments. 5% lidocaine medicated plaster showed a favourable efficacy/safety profile with greater improvements in patient satisfaction and QoL compared with pregabalin for both indications, supporting its first line position in the treatment of localized neuropathic pain.

  • 6.
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    et al.
    Uppsala.
    Husted, Steen
    Århus,Danmark.
    Koontny, Fredrik
    Oslo, Norge.
    Ståhle, Elisabeth
    Uppsala.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala.
    5-year outcomes in the FRISC-II randomised trial of an invasive versus a non-invasive strategy in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome: a follow-up study2006In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, Vol. 368, no 9540, 998-1004 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The FRISC-II invasive trial compared an early invasive with a non-invasive strategy in terms of death and myocardial infarction in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. We present 5-year follow-up results, overall and in subgroups based on recommended risk stratification criteria. Methods: In the FRISC-II trial, 2457 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome were randomised to early invasive strategy (coronary angiography and, if appropriate, revascularisation, within 7 days from admission) or non-invasive primarily medical strategy. Risk stratification was done on the basis of risk indicators at randomisation: age older than 65 years, male sex, diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial infarction, ST-segment depression, raised troponin concentration (>0·03 μg/L), and raised C-reactive protein or interleukin 6. Information on events after 24 months was taken from national registries. Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. Findings: At 5 years the groups differed in terms of the primary composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or both (invasive 217, 19·9 %, noninvasive 270, 24·5 %, risk ratio 0·81, 95% CI 0·69-0·95, p=0·009). 5-year mortality was 117 (9·7%) in the invasive group compared with 124 (10·1%) in the noninvasive group (0·95, 0·75 -1·21, p=0·693). Rates of myocardial infarction were 141 (12·9 %) in the invasive and 195 (17.7%) in the non-invasive group (0·73, 0·60-0·89, p=0·002). The benefit of the invasive strategy was confined to male patients, non-smokers, and patients with two or more risk indicators. Interpretation: The 5-year outcome of this trial indicates sustained benefit of an early invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome at moderate to high risk. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Havik, Odd
    University of Bergen, Norway; Haukeland Hospital, Norway.
    Nordgreen, Tine
    University of Bergen, Norway; Haukeland Hospital, Norway.
    6 Internet-supported versus face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for depression2016In: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, ISSN 1473-7175, E-ISSN 1744-8360, Vol. 16, no 1, 55-60 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major depression and depressive symptoms are highly prevalent and there is a need for different forms of psychological treatments that can be delivered from a distance at a low cost. In the present review the authors contrast face-to-face and Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for depression. A total of five studies are reviewed in which guided ICBT was directly compared against face-to-face CBT. Meta-analytic summary statistics were calculated for the five studies involving a total of 429 participants. The average effect size difference was Hedges g=0.12 (95% CI: -0.06-0.30) in the direction of favoring guided ICBT. The small difference in effect has no implication for clinical practice. The overall empirical status of clinician-guided ICBT for depression is commented on and future challenges are highlighted. Among these are developing treatments for patients with more severe and long-standing depression and for children, adolescents and the elderly. Also, there is a need to investigate mechanisms of change.

  • 8.
    Heimann, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Nilheim, Katarina
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    6-month-olds and delayed actions: An early sign of an early explicit memory?2004In: Cogniţie, Creier, Comportament/Cognition, Brain, Behavior, ISSN 1224-8398, Vol. VIII, no 3-4, 249-254 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1996 Barr, Dowden and Hayne reported that 6 month old infants imitate new actions with objects after a substantial delay. This is a finding in need of independent replications and the study reported here presents one such attempt. Forty-five 6 months old Swedish infants (22 girls) participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=30) or acontrol condition (n=15). The procedure replicates the method used by Barret al. with one exception: The imposed delay was 10 minutes instead of 24 hours. Overall it was found that the children in the imitation group displayed significantly more target acts than the children in the control group and it is concluded that infants are capable of using deferred imitation as means for learning new actions already at 6 months.

  • 9. Kälkner, Karl Mikael
    et al.
    Westlin, Jan-Erik
    Strang, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Palliative mediicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, ViN, LAH Linnea.
    89Strontium in the management of painful sceletal metastases2000In: Anticancer Research, ISSN 0250-7005, Vol. 20, no 2 B, 1109-1114 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To make a review of the literature of 89strontium-chloride and a retrospective study of time to palliative intended external irradiation number of portals and overall-survival after 89strontium-chloride therapy. Results: In total 93 patients were treated 116 times with 89strontium. The patients with prostatic carcinoma received 91% of all 89strontium therapies. Median over-all survival was 10 months after injection. In those cases when 89strontium was given before palliative radiotherapy, the average of total number of local fields was significantly lower (1.1 versus 4.1) compared to those cases where local fields preceded 89strontium therapy. However, time to 89new external irradiation after 89strontium injection was equal between these groups (3.8 versus 2.9 months). Conclusion:A review of literature conclude that 89strontium is effective for the reduction of pain originating from osteoblastic metastases. It also reduce the need for external radiotherapy and therefore is cost-effective. However, 89strontium is more effective in an early phase of the metastatic disease and preferably as an adjuvance to external radiotherapy.

  • 10.
    Aamir, Syed Ahmed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wikner, J Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 1.2-V pseudo-differential OTA with common-mode feedforward in 65-nm CMOS2010In: 17th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits, and Systems., www.ieee.org , 2010, 29-32 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we describe the implementation of a 1. 2-V pseudo-differential operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) with common-mode feedforward (CMFF) and inher­ent common-mode feedback (CMFB) in a 65-nm, digital CMOS process. The OTA architecture provides an inher­ent CMFB when cascaded OTA structures are utilized andthis work has studied a cascaded amplifier consisting of fourstages. Due to the low-gain using core 65-nm circuit de­vices, the overall gain must be distributed on all four stages to acquire a gain of more than 60 dB, while maintaining a-3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz. To achieve high gain, we propose using a modified, positive-feedback, cross-coupled input differential stage. The modified OTA achieves a high output swing of ± 0.85 V due to only two stacked transistors, 88 dB DC gain and a third-order harmonic of -60 dB for 800 mVpp at 30 MHz. Further on, in a capacitive buffer configuration, we achieve a high slew rate of 1240 V/µS, -3-dB bandwidth of 509 MHz, signal-to-noise ratio of 63 dB while consuming 10.4 mW power.

  • 11.
    Clark, Charlotte
    et al.
    Queen Mary University of London, England .
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    A 3 year update on the influence of noise on performance and behavior2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, Vol. 14, no 61, 292-296 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of noise exposure on human performance and behavior continues to be a focus for research activities. This paper reviews developments in the field over the past 3 years, highlighting current areas of research, recent findings, and ongoing research in two main research areas: Field studies of noise effects on childrens cognition and experimental studies of auditory distraction. Overall, the evidence for the effects of external environmental noise on childrens cognition has strengthened in recent years, with the use of larger community samples and better noise characterization. Studies have begun to establish exposure-effect thresholds for noise effects on cognition. However, the evidence remains predominantly cross-sectional and future research needs to examine whether sound insulation might lessen the effects of external noise on childrens learning. Research has also begun to explore the link between internal classroom acoustics and childrens learning, aiming to further inform the design of the internal acoustic environment. Experimental studies of the effects of noise on cognitive performance are also reviewed, including functional differences in varieties of auditory distraction, semantic auditory distraction, individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction, and the role of cognitive control on the effects of noise on understanding and memory of target speech materials. In general, the results indicate that there are at least two functionally different types of auditory distraction: One due to the interruption of processes (as a result of attention being captured by the sound), another due to interference between processes. The magnitude of the former type is related to individual differences in cognitive control capacities (e.g., working memory capacity); the magnitude of the latter is not. Few studies address noise effects on behavioral outcomes, emphasizing the need for researchers to explore noise effects on behavior in more detail.

  • 12.
    Lindgren, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Mordenfeld, Arne
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Gävle, County Hospital, Sweden/Dept of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Johansson, CB
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hallman, Mats
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Gävle, County Hospital, Sweden/Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Umeå University, Umeå Sweden and Center for Research and Development, Uppsala University/Gävleborg County Council, Sweden.
    A 3-year clinical follow-up of implants placed in 2 differentbiomaterials used for sinus augmentationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aims of the present study were to compare a novel biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) used for maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA) in a split mouth design, and to perform a clinical follow-up of placed dental implants.

    Material and Methods: Nine completely edentulous patients and two partially edentulous patients with a mean age of 67 years requiring bilateral sinus augmentation were included in the study. The patients were randomized for augmentation with BCP (test) and DBB (control) in the contralateral side. After 8 months of graft healing, 62 implants with an SLActive® surface (Strauman®, Basel, Switzerland) were placed. After 3 years of graft healing core biopsies were obtained from the grafted areas for histological and histomorphometrical analysis. After 3 years of functional implant loading, implant survival/success rate, clinical indexes, radiographical examination and resonance frequency analysis (RFA) wereperformed.

    Results: The mean values of the area of newly formed bone in the biopsies was 29% ±14.3% and 32% ± 18.0% for BCP and DBB respectively and graft particles in contact with bone in the BCP group was 38% ± 10.9% compared to 44% ± 12.1% for the DBB group, showing no significant differences between the groups. The mean values of the area of BCP particles and DBB particles were 20% ± 7.5% and 24% ± 13.5% respectively (non-significant).

    Irrespective of particles used, one dental implant was lost from each group, giving an overall implant survival rate of 96.8% after 3-years of loading. Conclusion: The results of this prospective 3-year clinical and histological follow up demonstrated a similar amount of newly formed bone irrespectively of the used biomaterial. The choice of biomaterial does not seem to influence the survival rates of the implants.

  • 13.
    Lindgren, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Mordenfeld, Arne
    Gävle County Hospital, Sweden Gothenburg University, Sweden .
    Johansson, Carina B
    University of Örebro, Sweden .
    Hallman, Mats
    Gävle County Hospital, Sweden Umeå University, Sweden Uppsala University, Sweden .
    A 3-Year Clinical Follow-up of Implants Placed in Two Different Biomaterials Used for Sinus Augmentation2012In: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, ISSN 0882-2786, Vol. 27, no 5, 1151-1162 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aims of the present study were to compare a novel biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) for maxillary sinus floor augmentation in a split-mouth design and to perform a clinical follow-up of dental implants placed in the augmented sinuses. Materials and Methods: Partially or completely edentulous patients requiring bilateral sinus augmentation were included in the study. The patients were randomized for augmentation with BCP (test) and DBB (control) in the contralateral side. Eight months after grafting, dental implants were placed. After 3 years of graft healing, core biopsy specimens were obtained from the grafted areas for histologic and histomorphometric analyses. After 3 years of functional implant loading, implant survival/success rates and clinical indices were assessed and radiographic examination and resonance frequency analysis were performed. Results: Nine completely edentulous patients and two partially edentulous patients (mean age, 67 years) who required bilateral sinus augmentation were included in the study, and 62 implants were placed. The mean values for the area of newly formed bone in the retrieved specimens were 29% +/- 14.3% and 32% +/- 18.0% for BCP and DBB, respectively; the percentage of graft particles in contact with bone was 38% +/- 10.9% in the BCP group and 44% +/- 12.1% in the DBB group (no statistical significant differences between groups). The mean values for the area of BCP particles and DBB particles were 20% +/- 7.5% and 24% +/- 13.5%, respectively (difference not significant). One dental implant was lost from each group, resulting in an overall implant survival rate of 96.8% after 3 years of loading. Conclusion: After 3 years, a similar amount of newly formed bone was present regardless of the biomaterial used. The choice of biomaterial did not seem to influence implant survival rates.

  • 14.
    Aamir, Syed Ahmed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wikner, J Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 500-MHz low-voltage programmable gain amplifier for HD video in 65-nm CMOS2010In: Proceedings of 28th IEEE Norchip Conference., NORCHIP'10, Tampere: www.ieee.org , 2010, 1-4 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes the implementation of a 1.2-V programmable gain amplifier (PGA) for high-definition (HD) video digitizers in a 65-nm digital CMOS process. The “pseudo” switched-capacitor (SC) PGA architecture buffers the video signal, without switching, during the active video. The SC circuitry is used for setup of DC operating point during horizontal and vertical blanking periods. Additionally, it compensates for the `sync-tip' of analog video signals to an equal blanking level for increased dynamic range to the digitizer following the PGA. The operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) employed as main amplifier in the PGA is a pseudo-differential, positive-feedback input stage architecture with a common-mode feedforward (CMFF) technique. The common-mode feedback (CMFB) is provided once two OTAs are cascaded. Schematic-level simulation results show that the OTA maintains a -3-dB bandwidth of 550 MHz, while keeping the distortion HD3 at -60 dB for a 30-MHz, 850 mVpp high definition video signal. The 88 dB DC gain is distributed among four OTA stages and the overall, combined PGA achieves a signal-to-noise ratio of 63 dB. Due to only two stacked transistors, it achieves high output swing of ±0.85 V, 1240 V/μs slew rate while consuming 10.4 mW power.

  • 15.
    Zhang, Dai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bhide, Ameya
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 53-nW 9.1-ENOB 1-kS/s SAR ADC in 0.13-μm CMOS for Medical Implant Devices2012In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, ISSN 0018-9200, Vol. 47, no 7, 1585-1593 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an ultra-low power SAR ADC for medical implant devices. To achieve the nano-watt range power consumption, an ultra-low power design strategy has been utilized, imposing maximum simplicity on the ADC architecture, low transistor count and matched capacitive DAC with a switching scheme which results in full-range sampling without switch boot-strapping and extra reset voltage. Furthermore, a dual-supply voltage scheme allows the SAR logic to operate at 0.4 V, reducing the overall power consumption of the ADC by 15% without any loss in performance. The ADC was fabricated in 0.13-mu m CMOS. In dual-supply mode (1.0 V for analog and 0.4 V for digital), the ADC consumes 53 nW at a sampling rate of 1 kS/s and achieves the ENOB of 9.1 bits. The leakage power constitutes 25% of the 53-nW total power.

  • 16. Amin, AI
    et al.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Lee, AJ
    Sexton, R
    Moran, BJ
    Heald, RJ
    A 5-cm colonic J pouch colo-anal reconstruction following anterior resection for low rectal cancer results in acceptable evacuation and continence in the long term2003In: Colorectal Disease, ISSN 1462-8910, Vol. 5, no 1, 33-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Optimal treatment for low rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision, with most patients suitable for low colo-rectal or colo-anal anastomosis. A colon pouch has early functional benefits, although long-term function, especially evacuation, might mitigate against its routine use. The aim of this study was to assess evacuation and continence in patients with a colon pouch, and to examine the impact of possible risk factors. Methods. In 1998, all 102 surviving patients with a colon pouch, whose stoma had been closed for more than one year, were sent a postal questionnaire. A composite incontinence score was calculated from questions on urgency, use of a pad, incontinence of gas, liquid or faeces, and a composite evacuation score from questions on medication taken to evacuate, straining, the need and number of times returned to evacuate. Results. The response rate was 90% (50 M, 42 F), with a median age of 68 years (IQR 60-78) and median follow-up of 2.6 years (IQR 1.7-3.9). The anastomosis was 3 cm or less from the anus in 45/92 (49%), and incontinence scores were worse in this group (P = 0.001). There were significantly higher incontinence scores in females (P = 0.014). Age, preoperative radiotherapy, part of colon used for anastomosis, post-operative leak and length of follow-up had no demonstrable effect on either score. Conclusion. Gender and anastomotic height were the only variables which influenced incontinence. Ninety percent of patients reported that their bowel function did not affect their overall wellbeing, and none would have preferred to have a stoma.

  • 17.
    Sundström, Timmy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 6‐bit 2.5‐GS/s Flash ADC using Comparator Redundancy for Low Power in 90nm CMOS2010In: Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, ISSN 0925-1030, E-ISSN 1573-1979, Vol. 64, no 3, 215-222 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 2.5 GS/s flash ADC, fabricated in 90nm CMOS utilizes comparator redundancy to avoid traditional power, speed and accuracy trade‐offs. The redundancy removes the need to control comparator offsets, allowing the large process‐variation induced mismatch of small devices in nanometer technologies. This enables the use of small‐sized, ultra‐low‐power comparators with clock‐gating capabilities in order to reduce the power dissipation. The chosen calibration method enables an overall low‐power solution and measurement results show that the ADC dissipates 30 mW at 1.2 V. With 63 comparators, the ADC achieves 3.9 effective number of bits.

  • 18.
    Stefanescu, I.
    et al.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany .
    Abdullahi, Y.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany .
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Defendi, I.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany .
    Hall-Wilton, R.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, Sweden .
    Hoglund, C.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, Sweden .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zee, M.
    Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Zeitelhack, K.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany .
    A B-10-based neutron detector with stacked MultiWire Proportional Counters and macrostructured cathodes2013In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 8, no P12003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of the measurements of the detection efficiency for a 4.7 angstrom neutron beam incident upon a detector incorporating a stack of up to five MultiWire Proportional Counters (MWPC) with Boron-coated cathodes. The cathodes were made of Aluminum and had a surface exhibiting millimeter-deep V-shaped grooves of 45 degrees, upon which the thin Boron film was deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. The incident neutrons interacting with the converter layer deposited on the sidewalls of the grooves have a higher capture probability, owing to the larger effective absorption film thickness. This leads to a higher overall detection efficiency for the grooved cathode when compared to a cathode with a flat surface. Both the experimental results and the predictions of the GEANT4 model suggests that a 5-counter detector stack with coated grooved cathodes has the same efficiency as a 7-counter stack with flat cathodes. The reduction in the number of counters in the stack without altering the detection efficiency will prove highly beneficial for large-area position-sensitive detectors for neutron scattering applications, for which the cost-effective manufacturing of the detector and associated readout electronics is an important objective. The proposed detector concept could be a technological option for one of the new chopper spectrometers and other instruments planned to be built at the future European Spallation Source in Sweden. These results with macrostructured cathodes generally apply not just to MWPCs but to other gaseous detectors as well.

  • 19.
    Lindström, Tom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Grear, Daniel A.
    Colorado State University, USA .
    Buhnerkempe, Michael
    Colorado State University, USA .
    Webb, Colleen T.
    Colorado State University, USA .
    Miller, Ryan S.
    US Anim and Plant Health Inspect Serv, CO USA .
    Portacci, Katie
    US Anim and Plant Health Inspect Serv, CO USA .
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Bayesian Approach for Modeling Cattle Movements in the United States: Scaling up a Partially Observed Network2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Networks are rarely completely observed and prediction of unobserved edges is an important problem, especially in disease spread modeling where networks are used to represent the pattern of contacts. We focus on a partially observed cattle movement network in the U.S. and present a method for scaling up to a full network based on Bayesian inference, with the aim of informing epidemic disease spread models in the United States. The observed network is a 10% state stratified sample of Interstate Certificates of Veterinary Inspection that are required for interstate movement; describing approximately 20,000 movements from 47 of the contiguous states, with origins and destinations aggregated at the county level. We address how to scale up the 10% sample and predict unobserved intrastate movements based on observed movement distances. Edge prediction based on a distance kernel is not straightforward because the probability of movement does not always decline monotonically with distance due to underlying industry infrastructure. Hence, we propose a spatially explicit model where the probability of movement depends on distance, number of premises per county and historical imports of animals. Our model performs well in recapturing overall metrics of the observed network at the node level (U.S. counties), including degree centrality and betweenness; and performs better compared to randomized networks. Kernel generated movement networks also recapture observed global network metrics, including network size, transitivity, reciprocity, and assortativity better than randomized networks. In addition, predicted movements are similar to observed when aggregated at the state level (a broader geographic level relevant for policy) and are concentrated around states where key infrastructures, such as feedlots, are common. We conclude that the method generally performs well in predicting both coarse geographical patterns and network structure and is a promising method to generate full networks that incorporate the uncertainty of sampled and unobserved contacts.

  • 20.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Shaanxi, PR China.
    Ren, Shan
    Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Shaanxi, PR China; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Honghe University, Yunnan, PR China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Si, Shubin
    Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Shaanxi, PR China.
    A big data analytics architecture for cleaner manufacturing and maintenance processes of complex products2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, no 2, 626-641 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaner production (CP) is considered as one of the most important means for manufacturing enterprises to achieve sustainable production and improve their sustainable competitive advantage. However, implementation of the CP strategy was facing barriers, such as the lack of complete data and valuable knowledge that can be employed to provide better support on decision-making of coordination and optimization on the product lifecycle management (PLM) and the whole CP process. Fortunately, with the wide use of smart sensing devices in PLM, a large amount of real-time and multi-source lifecycle big data can now be collected. To make better PLM and CP decisions based on these data, in this paper, an overall architecture of big data-based analytics for product lifecycle (BDA-PL) was proposed. It integrated big data analytics and service-driven patterns that helped to overcome the above-mentioned barriers. Under the architecture, the availability and accessibility of data and knowledge related to the product were achieved. Focusing on manufacturing and maintenance process of the product lifecycle, and the key technologies were developed to implement the big data analytics. The presented architecture was demonstrated by an application scenario, and some observations and findings were discussed in details. The results showed that the proposed architecture benefited customers, manufacturers, environment and even all stages of PLM, and effectively promoted the implementation of CP. In addition, the managerial implications of the proposed architecture for four departments were analyzed and discussed. The new CP strategy provided a theoretical and practical basis for the sustainable development of manufacturing enterprises.

  • 21.
    Hasewinkel, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A blueprint for using commercial games off the shelf in defence training, education and research simulations2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two types of simulations, those made for business and those made for pleasure. The underlying technology is usually the same, the difference being how and for what purpose the simulation is used. Often the two purposes can be combined. Nowhere is this more obvious than in the mutual benefit that exists between the military community and the entertainment business. These mutual benefits have only in recent years begun to be seriously explored.

    The objective of this work is to explore how to modify and use commercial video games off the shelf, in defence training, education and research. The work focuses on the process of how and what to consider when modifying commercial off the shelf games for military needs.

    The outlined blueprint is based on studies performed with combatants from the Swedish Army. To facilitate the develop­ment of the blueprint, a great number of commercial games used by military communities around the world are evaluated. These evaluations, in harmony with literature in the area, are used to develop a basic theoretical framework. The basic theoretical framework characterizes the approach and style throughout the work.

    From a general point of view, there are two overall findings; first there is an urgent need for more intuitive, pedagogical and powerful tools for preparation, management and evaluation of game-based simulation, especially since the real learning often takes place during the modification process rather the during the playing session. Second, there is a defective understanding of the differences between and purposes of a defence simulation and a game. Defence simulations focus on actions and events, while video games focus on human reactions to actions and events. 

  • 22.
    Evangelista, Pietro
    et al.
    IRAT-CNR and Department of Management and Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isaksson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sweeney, Edward
    National Institute for Transport and Logistics, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland.
    A case study investigation on purchasing green transport and logistics services2012In: Purchasing & Supply Management in a Changing World: IPSERA 2012 Conference Proceedings / [ed] Esposito, E., Evangelista, P., Pastore, G., Raffa, M., Napoli, Italia: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane , 2012, WP17-1-WP17-13 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n the context of green supply chain management, green purchasing has received increased attention over the past decade and the strategic importance of introducing green aspects into purchasing practices has been recognised. Despite this growing importance, little has been written in relation to purchasing green transport and logistics services. Considering the strong environmental impact associated with transport and logistics activities, much remains to be learned concerning buyer’s practices when sourcing more sustainable services from third party logistics companies (3PLs). The aim of this paper is to explore practices of buying green transport and logistics services in three different European countries (Italy, Ireland and Sweden) using a multiple case study research approach. The paper analyses how general environmental company ambitions and environmental purchasing practices are reflected when green transport and logistics services are purchased. The results of the paper indicate that while the case companies show a relatively high concern of green issues at company level, a lower importance is attributed to green issues at the purchasing function level. When green concerns in purchasing transport and logistics services are analysed the level of importance decrease dramatically. It emerges a conflicting attitude among the overall company level and the purchasing of transport and logistics services. This suggests that there is the potential for improvements especially in the area of green collaboration in buyer and supplier relationships. 

  • 23.
    Ulfendahl, Mats
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hu, Zhengqing
    Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olivius, Petri
    Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Duan, Maoli
    Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wei, Dongguang
    Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A cell therapy approach to substitute neural elements in the inner ear2007In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 92, no 1-2, 75-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different donor tissues were tested for their capacity to survive, integrate and differentiate in the adult inner ear. Surviving embryonic dorsal root ganglion cells were found within the spiral ganglion neuron region and along the auditory nerve fibers. In the presence of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF), the dorsal root ganglion cells formed extensive growth of neurites that seemed to contact the host neurons. Adult neural stem cells survived relative poorly in the inner car whereas embryonic stem cells showed a somewhat greater capacity for survival and integration. Overall, the survival rate of implanted tissue was quite low in the cochlea. It is concluded that an inner ear cell therapy approach based on the implantation of exogenous cells will require that important survival factors are identified and supplied. In addition, it is possible that the physical properties of the cochlea, e.g., fluid-filled compartments and very limited space for cell proliferation, are unfavorable, at least in the normal cochlea.

  • 24.
    Malm, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saab Group, Business Area Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Henric
    Saab Group, Business Area Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    A change process: transition from 2D to 3D by Model Based Definition2014In: Proceedings of the 6th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS), Gothenburg, Sweden. September 2014, 2014, 1-10 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate factors that are important for the transition from 2D to 3D by Model Based Definition (MBD). Within MBD, 3D models are used as sources of information for design, production, distribution, technical documentation, services and the overall product lifecycle. The introduction and development of MBD at Aeronautics can be described in five transitions that illustrate how knowledge enhancement from project to project and between the projects and the linear organization has evolved. The largest challenges have been in the start-up of the transitions, people are gathered with different prerequisites, seeing solutions or problems from different perspectives.

  • 25.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    A class of Mth-band linear-phase FIR filters synthesized using the frequency-response masking approach2002In: Nordic Signal Processing Symposium,2002, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a class of Mth-band linear-phase FIR filters synthesized using the frequency-response masking (FRM) approach. In the FRM approach, the overall filter makes use of periodic model filters and nonperiodic masking filters which makes it possible to obtain FIR filters requiring few arithmetic operations even when the transition band is narrow. The proposed filters are designed using linear and nonlinear programming. Design examples are included illustrating the efficiency of the proposed filters.

  • 26.
    Löwenborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Wanhammar, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
    A class of two-channel IIR/FIR filter banks2000In: European Signal Processing Conference,2000, 2000, 1897-1900 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A class of digital filter banks is introduced, in which the anal-ysis filters are half band IIR filters and the synthesis filters are FIR filters. The proposed filter bank satisfy approximately perfect reconstruction and has an exact linear phase. Further, it is suitable for applications where a very low complexity analysis filter bank is required. 1 INTRODUCTION This paper introduces a class of two-channel digital filter banks. This class belongs to the general class of two-channel maximally decimated filter banks shown in Fig. 1. It consists of an analysis filter bank, formed by the analysis filters H 0 (z) and H 1 (z), and a synthesis filter bank, formed by the synthesis filters G 0 (z) and G 1 (z). Downsamplers and upsamplers are present between the analysis and synthesis filter banks in order to reduce the computational workload. In the filter banks that have been proposed during the past decades, the analysis and synthesis filters have equal complexities [1], [2]. This holds true for both IIR and FIR filter banks. In this paper, we propose a filter bank in which the analy-sis filters are half-band IIR filters whereas the synthesis filters are FIR filters. The complexity of the analysis filter bank is then very low whereas that of the synthesis filter bank is higher. However, the overall complexity is comparable to that of conventional filter banks. Such filter banks are of interest in applications where it is important to have a very low com-plexity for the analysis filter bank, and where one can afford a higher complexity in the synthesis filter bank. One is mixed discrete-time and digital filter banks for A/D-conversion, where the analysis filters are discrete-time filters, such as SC-filters. Here filter banks are used to reduce the distortion caused by gain-and phase mismatch errors which is inherent in parallel A/D converters. Since it is more difficult to imple-ment high-resolution discrete-time filters than digital filters, it is essential to use low-order analysis filters. The proposed class of filter banks are approximately per-fect reconstruction filter banks. They have magnitude distor-tion, but no phase distortion. Further, the aliasing can be made either exactly zero or approximately zero. In this paper we only consider the case in which the analysis filters have low complexity. Naturally, it is possible to let the synthesis filters be the low-complexity filters by simply interchanging the analysis and synthesis filters.

  • 27.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Class-D outphasing RF amplifier with harmonic suppression in 90nm CMOS2010In: Proceedings of the ESSCIRC, 2010, Seville: IEEE , 2010, 310-313 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a low-power Class-D stage featuring a new harmonic reduction technique, which cancels the 3rd harmonic and reduces the 5th harmonic. The technique creates a voltage level of VDD/2 from a single supply voltage to shape the drain voltage, uses only digital circuits and eliminates the short-circuit current present in inverter-based Class-D stages. From a single Class-D stage operating at 900MHz, the measured output power is +5.1dBm with Drain Efficiency (DE) and Power-Added Efficiency (PAE) of 73% and 59% for a 1.2V supply, while 2nd to 4th harmonics are measured to be -37dBc without any filtering. Connecting two Class-D stages to a PCB-mounted transformer in an outphasing configuration, the overall amplifier is linear enough to amplify EDGE 8-PSK and WCDMA modulated signals at 900MHz without pre-distortion of the input signals or any other linearization technique.

  • 28.
    Olafsdottir, Arndis F.
    et al.
    NU Hospital Grp, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Attvall, Stig
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandgren, Ulrika
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Dahlqvist, Sofia
    NU Hospital Group, Uddevalla, Sweden.
    Pivodic, Aldina
    Statistiska Konsultgruppen, Sweden.
    Skrtic, Stanko
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; AstraZeneca Rand D, Sweden.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Lind, Marcus
    NU Hospital Grp, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A Clinical Trial of the Accuracy and Treatment Experience of the Flash Glucose Monitor FreeStyle Libre in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes2017In: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, ISSN 1520-9156, E-ISSN 1557-8593, Vol. 19, no 3, 164-172 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, FreeStyle Libre a flash glucose monitoring system came onto the market in 2014 as a complement to self-monitoring of blood glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and treatment experience of the FreeStyle Libre system. Methods: Fifty-eight adults with type 1 diabetes used FreeStyle Libre for 10-14 days and measured capillary blood glucose levels with the HemoCue blood glucose measurement system at least six times a day simultaneously. Results: For the entire study period, the mean absolute relative difference (MARD) was 13.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.0%-14.4%). MARD was 13.6% (95% CI 12.1%-15.4%) during week 1 and 12.7% (95% CI 11.5%-13.9%) during week 2. The mean absolute difference (MAD) for the whole study period was 19.8mg/dL (1.1mmol/L) (95% CI 17.8-21.8 mg/dL), including 20.5 mg/dL (1.14 mmol/L) during week 1 and 19.0 mg/dL (1.05 mmol/L) during week 2. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.96. For glucose values amp;lt; 72, 72-180, and amp;gt; 180mg/dL (amp;lt; 4, 4-10, and amp;gt; 10 mmol/L), the MARD was 20.3% (95% CI 17.7%-23.1%), 14.7% (95% CI 13.4%-16%), and 9.6% (95% CI 8.5%-10.8%), respectively, and respective MAD values were 12.3, 17.8, and 23.6 mg/dL (0.69, 0.99, and 1.31mmol/L). Using the 10-item visual analog scale, patients rated their experience with FreeStyle Libre as generally positive, with mean values ranging from 8.22 to 9.8. Conclusions: FreeStyle Libre had a similar overall MARD as continuous blood glucose monitoring systems in earlier studies when studied in similar at-home conditions. The overall patient satisfaction was high.

  • 29.
    Hassanli, Kourosh
    et al.
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Masoud Sayedi, Sayed
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A compact, low-power, and fast pulse-width modulation based digital pixel sensor with no bias circuit2016In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 244, 243-251 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-speed and compact in-pixel light-to-time converter (LTC), with low power consumption and wide dynamic range is presented. By using the proposed LTC, a digital pixel sensor (DPS) based on a pulse width modulation (PWM) scheme has been designed and fabricated in a standard 180-nm, single-poly, six-metal complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The prototype chip consists of a 16 x 16 pixel array with an individual pixel size of 21 x 21 mu m(2) and a fill factor of 39% in the 180-nm CMOS technology. Experimental results show that the circuit operates at supply voltages down to 800 mV and achieves an overall dynamic range of more than 140 dB. The power consumption at 800 mV supply and room light intensity is approximately 2.85 nW. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Schon, Thomas
    et al.
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Labbe Sandelin, Lisa
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Hedeback, Fredrika
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Wistedt, Annika
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jarnheimer, Per-Ake
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    A comparative study of three methods to evaluate an intervention to improve empirical antibiotic therapy for acute bacterial infections in hospitalized patients2011In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, ISSN 0036-5548, Vol. 43, no 4, 251-257 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In order to limit the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, standardized empirical therapy against acute bacterial infections has been advocated. Methods: Guidelines for acute bacterial infections recommending increased usage of benzylpenicillin and restricted use of fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins have been implemented in Kalmar County, Sweden. We evaluated this strategy by recording therapy in patients with bacteraemia, antibiotic requisition, and point prevalence surveys prior to this intervention and at 6 and 12 months after. Results: Comparing the methods simultaneously, there was good agreement between them and an overall significant change in antibiotic usage. There was a significant shift from cefuroxime to cefotaxime and a borderline significant increase in the use of benzylpenicillin (p == 0.057). Based on the defined daily dose (DDD), a highly significant decrease in total cefotaxime and cefuroxime usage was observed that was not detected when applying the prescribed daily dose (PDD), which is adapted to local treatment practices. No change was found in mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia or the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection. Conclusions: We conclude that the implementation of the new guidelines has resulted in a significant change in antibiotic usage, which could be conveniently monitored by antibiotic requisition if PDD is used in addition to DDD.

  • 31.
    Dang, Nguyen Thong
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Tavanti, Monica
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Rankin, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparison of different input devices for a 3D environment2007In: European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2007,2007, London: ACM Press , 2007, 153- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation - To identify a suitable interaction modality -among the ones currently implemented in a three-dimensional (3D) environment for Air Traffic Control- for allowing interactive exploration of and gathering information about 3D weather structures. Research approach - A usability study entailing four interaction modalities (also called -interaction interfaces-): voice, wand, pen and sketch interfaces, across a task requiring 3D surface exploration, information gathering and recall of information. Quantitative data (time, errors and a composite performance index) as well as qualitative data were collected. Findings/Design - Overall, the results indicate that the wand supported a better performance when compared to the other interaction interfaces. Among the four interaction interfaces, the voice interface seems to present additional limitations, mostly related to time lag in the voice recognition, that were judged as a source of frustration. Originality/Value - The present work provides empirical results deriving from a comparative usability study of four interaction interfaces; it contributes to the study of interaction in 3D environments with new empirical data.

  • 32. Hilding, D.
    et al.
    Torstenfelt, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics .
    Klarbring, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Mechanics .
    A computational methodology for shape optimization of structures in frictionless contact2001In: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, ISSN 0045-7825, Vol. 190, no 31, 4043-4060 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a computational methodology for shape optimization of structures in frictionless contact, which provides a basis for developing user-friendly and efficient shape optimization software. For evaluation it has been implemented as a subsystem of a general finite element software. The overall design and main principles of operation of this software are outlined. The parts connected to shape optimization are described in more detail. The key building blocks are: analytic sensitivity analysis, an adaptive finite element method, an accurate contact solver, and a sequential convex programing optimization algorithm. Results for three model application examples are presented, in which the contact pressure and the effective stress are optimized. cr 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Hjalmarson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A computer-aided approach to design of robust analog circuits2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional design methods for analog circuits are based on rules-of-thumbs, experience, and trial-and-error approaches involving the use of circuit simulators. It is an unstructured process, which is time-consuming, error prone, and requires the attention of a skilled analog designer. This situation calls for design methodologies that are more efficient.

    We have developed an efficient approach and corresponding tools that address these issues. A computer-aided design tool for design of large analog circuits with low level of human intervention has been developed. The tool combines efficient performance measure evaluation and optimization methods to determine the device sizes and generate layouts for analog circuits. Large analog circuits with about 200 devices have been designed. The circuits are optimized with respect to, e.g., power consumption, and subject to a large number of performance requirements. All performance measures are automatically derived, which reduces the probability of introducing errors.

    Experimental results indicate that our approach can be used to design robust high-performance analog circuits with improved performance compared to manual approaches. Furthermore, the computer-aided tool decreases both the overall design time and the time required of a skilled designer.

    To accomplish this, an optimization strategy that enables device sizing without an initial design has been developed. Robust circuits are obtained by taking the variations in the manufacturing process into account. Degrading layout effects are also considered using a parasitic feedback technique. To gain insight and allow exploration of the complex relation between performance measures in analog circuits, we have developed techniques for design space exploration.

  • 34.
    Sharifimajd, Babak
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Continuum Framework for Modeling the Excitation–Contraction Coupling of Smooth Muscle2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Excitation-contraction coupling of smooth muscle refers to a chain of coupled physiological processes which convert a stimulus to a mechanical response. These processes can be disassociated into ionic transport during cell membrane excitation, activation of myosin light chains, and muscle contraction caused by actin-myosin interaction (filament sliding). This thesis concerns the development of a framework which allows to model the smooth muscle excitation-contraction coupling constitutively by applying the principle of virtual power and dissipation inequality. In doing so, the transport of ions through membrane channels is characterized by an ionic flux and an ionic supply, both governed by an electrochemical potential energy. By letting the Helmholtz free energy to be dependent on the myosin light chain configurations during contraction, the myosin light chain activation process, i.e., myosin phosphorylation, is included. The activation process links the membrane excitation to the filament sliding. A contractile element is presented to replicate the active deformation caused by the filament sliding within the smooth muscle cell. This deformation is coupled to the overall deformation of the muscle tissue by assuming a distinct principal alignment for the contractile elements.

    By employing this framework, an electro-chemo-mechanical model is derived by which the mechanical response of smooth muscle to an electrical stimulus is determined. This model is evaluated by comparing the model response to the experimental isometric stress data obtained from rat uterine smooth muscle tissue. By implementing this model in a finite element program, human uterine contractions during labor are simulated. This simulation determines important clinical factors, e.g., intrauterine pressure and provides the opportunity to investigate the effect of physiological and structural parameters on the uterine contractility.

    Finally, a methodology to accommodate individualized parameters from intrauterine pressure measurements is established. This methodology allows to develop models with potentials of being used clinically to diagnose difficulties during labor and delivery.

    List of papers
    1. A continuum model for skeletal muscle contraction at homogeneous finite deformations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A continuum model for skeletal muscle contraction at homogeneous finite deformations
    2013 (English)In: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, ISSN 1617-7959, E-ISSN 1617-7940, Vol. 12, no 5, 965-973 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The contractile force in skeletal muscle models is commonly postulated to be the isometric force multiplied by a set of experimentally motivated functions which account for the muscle’s active properties. Although both flexible and simple, this approach does not automatically guarantee a thermodynamically consistent behavior. In contrast, the continuum mechanical model proposed herein is derived from fundamental principles in mechanics and guarantees a dissipative behavior. Further, the contractile force is associated with a friction clutch which provides a simple and well-defined macroscopic model for cycling cross-bridges. To show the performance of the model, it is specialized to standard experiments for rabbit tibialis anterior muscle. The results show that the model is able to capture important characteristics of skeletal muscle.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2013
    Keyword
    Skeletal muscle, Contractile element, Dissipation inequality, Strain-energy function, Continuum model
    National Category
    Other Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85805 (URN)10.1007/s10237-012-0456-x (DOI)000324378900008 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2012-11-28 Created: 2012-11-28 Last updated: 2015-09-02Bibliographically approved
    2. A continuum model for excitation–contraction of smooth muscle under finite deformations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A continuum model for excitation–contraction of smooth muscle under finite deformations
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 355, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus in most of continuum based muscle models is the muscle contraction dynamics while other physiological processes governing muscle contraction, e.g., the cell membrane excitation and the activation, are ignored. These latter processes are essential to initiate contraction and to determine the amount of generated force, and by excluding them, the developed model cannot replicate the true behavior of the muscle in question. The aim of this study is to establish a thermodynamically and physiologically consistent framework which allows to model smooth muscle contraction by including cell membrane excitability and kinetics of myosin phosphorylation, along with dynamics of smooth muscle contraction. The model accounts for these processes through a set of coupled dissipative constitutive equations derived by applying the first principles. To show the performance of the derived model, it is evaluated for two different cases: a mechanochemical study of pig taenia coli cells where the excitation process is excluded, and a complete excitation–contraction process of rat myometrium. The results show that the model is able to replicate important aspects of the smooth muscle EC process acceptably.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keyword
    Smooth muscle excitation–contraction, Smooth muscle continuum model, The membrane model, Hodgkin-Huxley model, Hai-Murphy model
    National Category
    Other Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100778 (URN)10.1016/j.jtbi.2014.03.016 (DOI)000337865100001 ()
    Available from: 2013-11-12 Created: 2013-11-12 Last updated: 2015-09-02Bibliographically approved
    3. Simulating uterine contraction by using an electro-chemo-mechanical model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulating uterine contraction by using an electro-chemo-mechanical model
    2016 (English)In: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, ISSN 1617-7959, E-ISSN 1617-7940, Vol. 15, no 3, 497-510 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Contractions of uterine smooth muscle cells consist of a chain of physiological processes. These contractions provide the required force to expel the fetus from the uterus. The inclusion of these physiological processes is, therefore, imperative when studying uterine contractions. In this study, an electro-chemo-mechanical model to replicate the excitation, activation, and contraction of uterine smooth muscle cells is developed. The presented modeling strategy enables efficient integration of knowledge about physiological processes at the cellular level to the organ level. The model is implemented in a three-dimensional finite element setting to simulate uterus contraction during labor in response to electrical discharges generated by pacemaker cells and propagated within the myometrium via gap junctions. Important clinical factors, such as uterine electrical activity and intrauterine pressure, are predicted using this simulation. The predictions are in agreement with clinically measured data reported in the literature. A parameter study is also carried out to investigate the impact of physiologically related parameters on the uterine contractility.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2016
    Keyword
    Excitation-contraction model of uterine smooth muscle; Uterus contraction; Intrauterine pressure; Uterine electrical activity
    National Category
    Applied Mechanics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121013 (URN)10.1007/s10237-015-0703-z (DOI)000376014800002 ()26162461 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-09-02 Created: 2015-09-02 Last updated: 2016-06-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Identification of the mechanical parameters for the human uterus in vivo using intrauterine pressure measurements
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of the mechanical parameters for the human uterus in vivo using intrauterine pressure measurements
    2017 (English)In: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 2040-7939, E-ISSN 2040-7947, Vol. 33, no 1, 1-11 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    There are limited experimental data to characterize the mechanical response of human myometrium. A method is presented in this work to identify mechanical parameters describing the active response of human myometrium from the in vivo intrauterine pressure measurements. A finite element model is developed to compute the intrauterine pressure during labor in response to an increase in the intracellular calcium ion concentration within myometrial smooth muscle cells. The finite element model provides the opportunity to tune mechanical parameters in order to fit the computed intrauterine pressure to in vivo measurements. Since the model is computationally expensive, a cheaper meta-model is generated to approximate the model response. By fitting the meta-model response to the in vivo measurements, the parameters used to determine the active response of human myometrial smooth muscle are identified.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2017
    Keyword
    human uterine smooth muscle mechanics, intrauterine pressure, parameter identification, response surface methodology
    National Category
    Applied Mechanics Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121014 (URN)10.1002/cnm.2778 (DOI)000393964900001 ()26915913 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84962638845 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    At the time of the thesis presentation this publication was in status Manuscript.

    Available from: 2015-09-02 Created: 2015-09-02 Last updated: 2017-03-27Bibliographically approved
  • 35.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fenton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mejía Dugand, Santiago
    Päivärinne, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A corridor striving for sustainability - Reflecting upon PhD education at a Swedish University2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an overview of interdisciplinary research from Ph.D. students working at the Division of Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping University, Sweden. Each of the Ph.D. students addresses the overall challenge of sustainability transitions in their research, although the themes and content of research varies considerably between individuals, encompassing research on actors, networks, products, materials, services and systems from the public and private sector, operating locally, regionally, nationally and internationally. The scientific literature and methods used to frame and conduct studies varies considerably within the group, as does the individual focus on immediate issues of sustainability.

  • 36.
    Razavi, Amir Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gill, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åhlfeldt, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shahsavar, Nosrat
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Data Mining Approach to Analyze Non-compliance with a Guideline for the Treatment of Breast Cancer2007In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, Vol. 129, 591-597 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) is prescribed in order to reduce the local recurrence of breast cancer and improve overall survival. A guideline supports the trade-off between benefits and adverse effects of PMRT. However, this guideline is not always followed in practice. This study tries to find a method for revealing patterns of non-compliance between the actual treatment and the PMRT guideline.

    Data from breast cancer patients admitted to Linköping University Hospital between 1990 and 2000 were analyzed in this study. Cases that were not treated in accordance with the guideline were selected and analyzed by decision tree induction (DTI). Thereafter, four resulting rules, as representations for groups of patients, were compared to the guideline.

    Finding patterns of non-compliance with guidelines by means of rules can be an appropriate alternative to manual methods, i.e. a case-by-case comparison when studying very large datasets. The resulting rules can be used in a knowledge base of a guideline-based decision support system to alert when inconsistencies with the guidelines may appear.

  • 37.
    Ek, Joel
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Data-Parallel Graphics Pipeline Implemented in OpenCL2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report documents implementation details, results, benchmarks and technical discussions for the work carried out within a master’s thesis at Linköping University. Within the master’s thesis, the field of software rendering is explored in the age of parallel computing. Using the Open Computing Language, a complete graphics pipeline was implemented for use on general processing units from different vendors. The pipeline is tile-based, fully-configurable and provides means of rendering visually compelling images in real-time. Yet, further optimizations for parallel architectures are needed as uneven work loads drastically decrease the overall performance of the pipeline.

  • 38.
    Lindell, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A descriptive study of mental health services provided for physically abused children in Sweden: A four-year follow-up of child and adolescent psychiatric chartsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since there has been a considerable increase in the number of police reports on physical child abuse in Sweden since the mid 1980s, there should be an increased number of children in need of trauma-focused mental health treatment. During 1986-1996 there were 126 children reported as being physically abused by a parent or equivalent and reported to the police in a police district in Sweden. Fifty-seven of these children (45%) had been the objects of interventions from Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Services. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and content of this. Questions addressed were: What interventions were provided prior to, at the acute situation, and during the 4 years after the physical abuse incident? This group of children was referred to (CAPS) for different reasons, but few for physical abuse. Only 35 out of 122 referrals were made under the label of child physical abuse. Overall, interventions were almost exclusively directed toward the parents. Six out of 126 physically abused children received individual therapy. Abuse was not mentioned in the charts for 23 of the children, even though 8 of them had been referred due to  abuse. The results of this study indicate that physically abused children often have been in contact with mental health services prior to the abuse for different reasons. Individual interventions for physically abused children were rare due to for instance CAPS workloads, poor motivation among parents and children, and maybe due to professionals’ lack of knowledge regarding effective treatment.

  • 39.
    Angelakis, Vangelis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sajid, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Siddiqui, Imran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A distributed, load-aware, power and frequency bargaining protocol for LTE-based networks2012In: 2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS (ICC), Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2012, 6525-6529 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A distributed, load-aware, joint power and frequency allocation protocol is introduced for LTE-based cellular networks, and system-level simulations are performed. Our proposed scheme aims to cooperatively limit the impact of Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR) on the center users throughput compared to the Reuse 1 scheme, while providing sufficient throughput for the edge users. This is achieved through an asynchronous, lightweight scheme of local message exchange between neighboring LTE eNodeBs. The proposed scheme facilitates a type of "bargain" where an overloaded sector requests permission to utilize its neighbors edge bands for its center users at a limited set of transmit power levels. Grants are generated at each neighbor by solving a small-scale optimization problem. Using an LTE simulator we evaluate our scheme on a network with 21 sectors of varying load patterns. The proposed schemes performance for center users is consistently improved with respect to FFR-3, while for edge users the performance degradation is controlled by a parameter we set in the optimization problems definitions; compared to Reuse 1 edge users still have gains. Specifically, we observed up to a 46% gain in the sectors center throughput with a cost below 9% at the edges when compared to the classic FFR scheme, while the overall system throughput goes up by up to 26% in heavily loaded scenarios.

  • 40.
    Sajid, Muhammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Siddiqui, Imran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A distributed, load-aware, power and frequency bargaining protocol for LTE-based networks2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis a distributed, dynamic, load aware, joint power and frequency allocation protocol for 4G networks along with system-level simulated results are presented. In all cellular networks, a key limiting factor for throughput is inter-cell interference, especially at the cell edges. Several methods have been proposed and adopted in each mobile network generation to cancel or suppress its effects, whereas each method has its drawbacks in terms of receiver complexity or additional control nodes. However, the proposed protocol presented here does not impose any architectural changes.  In 4G networks such as LTE, the choice of OFDMA for the air interface has paved the way for selective frequency and power allocation in the available spectrum. Taking advantage of this opportunity, fractional frequency reuse (FFR) has been proposed in OFDMA based mobile networks in order to reduce the throughput loss at the cell edges due to inter-cell interference. In FFR, center users lose part of available spectrum that is dedicated to the edge users.  Our protocol aims to minimize this loss of center users incurred by FFR, at the cost of minimal degradation at the edges.

    An eNodeB, only when overloaded, requests its neighbours’ edge band to be used for its center users at a reduced power level. This is done via small message exchange between the eNodeBs. The neighbors of the overloaded eNodeBs solve a small local knapsack problem to decide whether band lending is feasible or not. A distinguishing feature of this protocol is the power level adjustment for the borrowed band, which is mutually decided by the borrower and lender. The band is released when it is not needed or it is causing unacceptable loss to the lender. The implementation is done in a Matlab based LTE system level simulator. For the implementation of our protocol in the simulator, starting point was implementation of FFR-3 functionality, a prerequisite and a baseline for comparison with our protocol.

    Results are compared among three different setups of re-use1, FFR-3 and our protocol by varying number of overloaded eNodeBs for various numbers of scenarios and the comparison is made based on the center users’ throughput, edge users’ throughput. An estimation of time and protocol overhead is also presented. We have observed center users’ throughput gain up to 46%, at the cost of 9% edge users’ throughput loss, when compared to the classic FFR-3 scheme. The overall system throughput goes up to 26 % in heavily loaded scenario.

     

    The utility of the protocol for an LTE system is evident from the results, which is supported by the dynamic and decentralized nature of the protocol. This ensures better utilization of spectrum, by temporarily allocating more bandwidth where it is needed more.

  • 41.
    Eriksson, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Larsson, P-G
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital of Sko¨vde, Sweden.
    A double-blind treatment study of bacterial vaginosis with normal vaginal lactobacilli after an open treatment with vaginal clindamycin ovules2005In: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, ISSN 0001-5555, E-ISSN 1651-2057, Vol. 85, no 1, 42-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expected 4-week cure rate after conventional treatment of bacterial vaginosis are only 65-70%. In an attempt to improve the cure rate by adding probiotic lactobacilli we performed a double-blind placebo-controlled study of adjuvant lactobacilli treatment after an open treatment with vaginal clindamycin ovules. Women with bacterial vaginosis as defined by Amsel's criteria were treated with clindamycin ovules. Vaginal smears were collected and analysed according to Nugent's criteria. During the following menstruation period the women used, as an adjuvant treatment, either lactobacilli-prepared tampons or placebo tampons. The lactobacilli tampons were loaded with a mixture of freeze-dried L. fermentum, L. casei var. rhamnosus and L. gasseri. The cure rate was recorded after the second menstruation period. There was no improvement in the cure rate after treatment with lactobacilli-containing tampons compared to placebo tampons, the cure rates as defined by Amsel's criteria were 56% and 62%, respectively, and 55% and 63%, as defined by Nugent's criteria. This is the first study to report cure rates for women with 'intermediate' wet smear ratings according to Nugent's classification and this group had an overall cure rate of 44%. The cure rate of treatment of bacterial vaginosis was not improved by using lactobacilli-prepared tampons for one menstruation.

  • 42.
    Eghbali, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Löwenborg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A farrow-structure-based multi-mode transmultiplexer2008In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems: Seattle, Washington, USA, May. 18-21, 2008, IEEE , 2008, Vol. June, 3114-3117 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a multi-mode transmultiplexer (TMUX) consisting of Farrow-based variable integer sampling rate conversion (SRC) blocks. The polyphase components of general interpolation/ decimation filters are realized by the Farrow structure making it possible to achieve different linear-phase finite-length impulse response (FIR) lowpass filters at the cost of a fixed set of subfilters and adjustable fractional delay values. Simultaneous design of the subfilters, to achieve overall approximately Nyquist (Mth-band) filters, are treated in this paper. By means of an example, it is shown that the subfilters can be designed so that for any desired range of integer SRC ratios, the TMUX can approximate perfect recovery as close as desired.

  • 43.
    Ockander, Marlene
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A female lay perspective on health, disease, and sickness absence2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knowledge about a female perspective on health and disease is important to understand what happens in e.g. the medical meeting. A deeper understanding for the phenomenon of health also has social and economic importance. In Sweden women account for about 60% of the long-term cases of sickness absence.

    Aim: To explore and describe women's perceptions of health and disease and their accounts of sickness absence.

    Methods: The chronic diseases mentioned by elderly women in an interview study are compared with those documented in their respective medical records (n=199). The prevalence of positive diagnoses, overall agreement, and the kappa-coefficient were calculated for each group of diagnoses. Semi-stmctnred interviews were conducted with 82 women who had been on sick leave (60 days or more) or who had disability pension. Sixty of these middle-aged women also carried out a Q-sort.

    Results: The lowest overall agreement between the elderly women report during interviews and their medical records was observed for psychiatric diseases, followed by diseases of the gastrointestinal system. Poor chance-adjusted agreement was found concerning diseases of the gastrointestinal system and diseases of the skin (Paper I). Long-term sickness absence can be said to arise in three distinguishable "spaces": the workspace, the medical-legal space, and the mental space. In the beginning, the women were positive about sick leave as such, which they saw as an opportunity for physical rest. But as time went on, they came to regard sick leave as creating a vicious circle of new problems related to inactivity and isolation. Apart from this vicious circle and chronic physical impairments, certain conditions at the workplace, at the hospital, and the social insurance office transformed seemingly trivial sick leaves into long-term and irreversible sickness absences (Paper II). The women's accounts of being sickness absent contained interpretations of what had happened to them, how things were for the moment, and what they thought the future would bring. Three different accounts could be distinguished: the crisis, the breakpoint, and the migration. The perceptions of their own situation and especially what they thought about their future were associated with their feelings of power to initiative and well-being. The descriptions of life on sick leave are connected to a theory of "loss of work" (Paper III). For these women, to be able to get back to work was found to be equivalent to breaking away from the prospect of isolation and loneliness. Five actors were identified along with suggestions for their actions: the woman who is on sick leave herself, the employer, the health care provider, the social insurance official, and the shop-steward. It was found important to take oneself seriously and also to be taken seriously by others. The results are related to a theory of enduring and suffering (Paper IV). Six accounts representing different conceptions of health, illness, and medicine were identified and described (Paper V).

    Conclusions: The results point to the importance of doing research from different perspectives, using different methods and different sources of information to obtain a deeper understanding of a complex phenomenon like health. Above all, the results presented in this thesis point to a large variation at the individual level in perceptions, which implies the need for care in, for example, the planning of rehabilitation programs. The results also highlight the point that sick leave without follow-up from work, health care, and the social insurance office might have negative consequences on health. Implications for practice are suggested along with proposals for future research.

    List of papers
    1. Patient-doctor Concordance in Elderly Women’s Self-reported Health and Medical Records
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patient-doctor Concordance in Elderly Women’s Self-reported Health and Medical Records
    2002 (English)In: Methods of Information in Medicine, ISSN 0026-1270, Vol. 41, no 2, 119-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the chronic diseases mentioned by elderly women in an interview study with those documented in their respective medical records.

    METHODS: The prevalence of positive diagnoses, overall agreement, and the kappa-coefficient were calculated for each group of diagnoses.

    RESULTS: The lowest overall agreement was observed for psychiatric diseases, followed by diseases of the gastrointestinal system. Poor chance-adjusted agreement was found concerning diseases of the gastrointestinal system and diseases of the skin.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a main reason for discordance was that the elderly women feared "losing face" by reporting some diseases.

    Keyword
    diagnosis, women, medical records, patients, medical decision making
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26291 (URN)12061118 (PubMedID)10807 (Local ID)10807 (Archive number)10807 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved
    2. A female lay perspective on the establishment of long-term sickness absence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A female lay perspective on the establishment of long-term sickness absence
    2001 (English)In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 10, no 1, 74-79 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden women account for about 60% of the long-term cases of sickness absence. The aim of this study was to describe women's explanations as to how long-term sickness absence arises and becomes permanent, with reference to their personal experience. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 82 middle-aged women who have personal experience of long-term sickness absence. Long-term sickness absence can be said to arise in three distinguishable “spaces”: the work space, the medico-legal space and the mental space. In the beginning, the women were positive about sick-leave as such, which they saw as an opportunity for physical rest. But as time went on, they came to regard sick-leave as creating a vicious circle of new problems related to inactivity and isolation. Apart from this vicious circle and chronic physical impairments, certain conditions at the workplace, at the hospital and the social insurance office transformed seemingly trivial sick-leaves into long-term and irreversible sickness absences

    Keyword
    sickness absence, lay explanation models, women, phenomenology, interview
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26067 (URN)10.1111/1468-2397.00154 (DOI)10526 (Local ID)10526 (Archive number)10526 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Women's experiences of long term sickness absence: Is there a "loss of work syndrome"?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women's experiences of long term sickness absence: Is there a "loss of work syndrome"?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In most European countries, long-term sickness absence contribute the greatest number of days that are reimbursed due to sickness absence. This group is growing and it is constituted mainly of women.

    Aim: The present study seeks further knowledge about what happens then and there, i.e., how long-term sickness absent women handle and explain, for themselves and others, this interruption in their daily life.

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews were performed with 82 middle-aged women with personal experience from long-term sickness absence.

    Results: The women's accounts of being sickness absent contained interpretations of what had happen to them, how things were for the moment, and what they thought the future would bring. Three different accounts could be distinguished: the crisis, the breakpoint, and the migration. The perception of their own situation and especially what they thought about their future was associated with their feeling of power to initiative and well-being.

    Conclusion: From our study we have found implications for central topics of importance: time elapse, sense of coherence, reorientation/adaptation, and vital goals.

    Keyword
    Vital goal, life plan, sense of coherence, phenomenology, women, sickness absence
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80264 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved
    4. How to avoid the frightening scenario of long-term sickness absence: The advice from women with personal experience
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How to avoid the frightening scenario of long-term sickness absence: The advice from women with personal experience
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this study was to describe women's perceptions of what can be done to avoid long-term sickness absence.

    Methods: Interviews were conducted with 82 women who had been on sickness absence ( 60 days or more) or had disability pensions.

    Results: For these women, to be able to get back to work was found to be equivalent to breaking away from the prospect of isolation and loneliness. Five actors were identified along with suggestions for their actions: the woman who is on sick leave herself, the employer, the healthcare provider, the social insurance official, and the shop-steward.

    Conclusions: It is important to take oneself seriously and also to be taken seriously by others. Thus, it is important to not wait too long to take action which concerns both the individual herself and all those who get involved in her case at work, at hospital or at the social insurance office. Practical advice to reach recovery and avoid sickness absence is presented.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80265 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved
    5. Accounts of health, illness and medicine in women on long-term sickness absence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accounts of health, illness and medicine in women on long-term sickness absence
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term sickness absence has grown to an important social and economic question and it affects women more than men. The specific aim of the study was to identify patterns of association between ideas of health endorsed by groups of women having a close firsthand experience of long-term sickness absence. Using the Q-methodology, in a group of 60 middle-aged women, six accounts representing different conceptions of health, illness, and medicine were identified. Future studies should be implemented to investigate the prospective value of the categorisation identified in this study e.g. to see whether, and in that case how, these conceptions affect sick leave and rehabilitation.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80266 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved
  • 44.
    Gustafsson, Josef
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Overier, Gustaf
    Linköping University.
    Arlitt, Martin
    University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
    Carlsson, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A first look at the CT landscape: Certificate transparency logs in practice2017In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) / [ed] Uhlig S.,Amann J.,Kaafar M.A., 2017, Vol. 10176, 87-99 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of today’s web-based services rely heavily on secure end-to-end connections. The “trust” that these services require builds upon TLS/SSL. Unfortunately, TLS/SSL is highly vulnerable to compromised Certificate Authorities (CAs) and the certificates they generate. Certificate Transparency (CT) provides a way to monitor and audit certificates and certificate chains, to help improve the overall network security. Using an open standard, anybody can setup CT logs, monitors, and auditors. CT is already used by Google’s Chrome browser for validation of Extended Validation (EV) certificates, Mozilla is drafting their own CT policies to be enforced, and public CT logs have proven valuable in identifying rogue certificates. In this paper we present the first large-scale characterization of the CT landscape. Our characterization uses both active and passive measurements and highlights similarities and differences in public CT logs, their usage, and the certificates they include. We also provide insights into how the certificates in these logs relate to the certificates and keys observed in regular web traffic.

  • 45.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet Uppsala.
    Arman, Maria
    Karolinska institutet Stockholm.
    Backman, Maria
    Röda Korsets Högskola Stockholm.
    Flatters, Ursula
    Vidarkliniken Järna.
    Hatschek, Thomas
    Karolinska inst Stockholm.
    Hamrin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology .
    A five-year follow-up of quality of life in women with breast cancer in anthroposophic and conventional care2006In: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1741-427X, Vol. 3, no 4, 523-531 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complementary and alternative medicine is used by many cancer patients in most parts of the world, and its use is increasing. The aim of the present study was to examine, over 5 years, the perceived quality of life/life satisfaction in two samples of women with breast cancer who were treated with anthroposophic care or conventional medical treatment only. Data from admission, after 1 year and after 5 years are used for the comparisons. On admission to the study the women in anthroposophic care perceived their quality of life to be lower than that of the women in the conventional treatment group, especially for emotional, cognitive and social functioning and overall quality of life. Sixty women who actively chose treatment with anthroposophic medicine and 60 individually matched women treated with conventional medicine participated. Quality of life was measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire. Twenty-six women within anthroposophic care and 31 women within conventional medicine survived the 5 years. Effect size (ES) estimation favored the anthroposophic group in seven of the subscales mostly measuring emotional functioning. The ES for four of the subscales favored the conventional treatment group, mostly concerning physical functioning. After 5 years there were improvements in overall quality of life and in emotional and social functioning compared to admission for the women in anthroposophic care. The improvements took place between admission and 1 year, but not further on. Only minor improvements were found in the matching group. © 2006 The Author (s).

  • 46.
    Antepohl, Wolfram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Domeij, Erica
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    A follow-up of medical graduates of a problem-based learning curriculum2003In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, Vol. 37, no 2, 155-162 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is little information available on the effects of problem-based undergraduate curricula on doctors and their performances after graduation. Therefore, we conducted a questionnaire study of all graduates of the new medical programme at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Link÷ping University. Methods: All 446 medical students who had graduated from the new programme were asked to fill in a questionnaire about selected activities during their studies and their careers after graduation. They were also asked to evaluate the quality of their undergraduate education retrospectively. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive, multivariate and bivariate approaches. Results: A total of 77% of the graduates responded. They showed a high degree of overall contentment with their undergraduate education and felt well prepared for professional life during their preregistration period and specialist education (mean = 4.0 on a 6-point Likert scale ranging from 0 to 5). They felt especially well prepared in terms of skills for communication with patients, collaboration with other health professionals and development of critical thinking/scientific attitudes. The students' age at the beginning of their studies correlated positively with their contentment as graduates, especially in terms of preparation for patient communication and collaboration with other health professionals. No differences between students originally admitted via a local admission procedure and those admitted via a national procedure were detected concerning retrospective evaluation of undergraduate medical education. Conclusion: Graduates of the new curriculum showed a high degree of satisfaction with their undergraduate education and its preparation of them for medical practice. Specifically, they were very content with the particular emphases of the new curriculum.

  • 47.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    et al.
    Northwestern Polytech University, Peoples R China.
    Ren, Shan
    Northwestern Polytech University, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huisingh, Donald
    University of Tennessee, TN USA.
    A framework for Big Data driven product lifecycle management2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 159, 229-240 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimization of the process of product lifecycle management is an increasingly important objective for manufacturing enterprises to improve their sustainable competitive advantage. Originally, this approach was developed to integrate the business processes of an organization and more effectively manage and utilize the data generated during lifecycle studies. With emerging technologies, product embedded information devices such as radio frequency identification tags and smart sensors are widely used to improve the efficiency of enterprises routine management on an operational level. Manufacturing enterprises need a more advanced analysis approach to develop a solution on a strategic level from using such lifecycle Big Data. However, the application of Big Data in lifecycle faces several challenges, such as the lack of reliable data and valuable knowledge that can be employed to support the optimized decision-making of product lifecycle management. In this paper, a framework for Big Data driven product lifecycle management was proposed to address these challenges. Within the proposed framework, the availability and accessibility of data and knowledge related to lifecycle can be achieved. A case study was presented to demonstrate the proof-of-concept of the proposed framework. The results showed that the proposed framework was feasible to be adopted in industry, and can provide an overall solution for optimizing the decision-making processes in different phases of the whole lifecycle. The key findings and insights from the case study were summarized as managerial implications, which can guide manufacturers to ensure improvements in energy saving and fault diagnosis related decisions in the whole lifecycle. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 48.
    Angelakis, Vangelis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Lei
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Fully Decentralized and Load-Adaptive Fractional Frequency Reuse Scheme2011In: Modeling, Analysis & Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS), 2011 IEEE 19th International Symposium on, 2011, 425-428 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new fully decentralized dynamic fractional frequency reuse (FFR)-based scheme for cellular OFDMA networks is introduced. FFR is a technique to mitigate inter-cell interference to improve the throughput of interference-limited users on the cell edge, to the expense of the rest of the cell's users and the aggregate throughput. The proposed scheme aims to limit the FFR-incurred loss of the center users' throughput, while still providing sufficient bandwidth for the cell edge users' communication. This is done by local information sharing and distributed optimization. The resulting flexibility of frequency reuse can be especially beneficial in scenarios with non-uniform and time-varying load. The optimization task is accomplished by solving a knapsack problem in each cell, where the goal is to maximize the center throughput while maintaining acceptable degradation on the cell edge with respect to the original FFR allocation. The performance improvement resulting from the distributed and dynamic FFR scheme is demonstrated by snapshot simulations on an 81-cells network with asymmetric cell load. The proposed scheme achieves up to a 62% gain in cell-center throughput with a cost of no more than 18% at the edges when compared to the classic FFR scheme. The overall system throughput improvement ranges from 22% to 58%.

  • 49.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gonzaléz, Pablo del Rio
    Institute for Public Policies and Goods Madrid, Spain..
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A function of innovation systems approach for analysing the roles of intermediaries in eco-innovation2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article draws from two bodies of literature, innovation intermediaries and technological innovation systems, to develop an approach for analysing the functions of intermediaries in eco-innovation. The link between the functions of innovation intermediaries and the functions of technological innovation systems has seldom been explicitly established in the scientific discourse and thus this article contributes to theoretical development in both literatures. To the technological innovation systems literature, this article addresses the lack of attention to the functions of innovation intermediaries who are a critical part in the formation of networks and also contribute to a number of innovation system functions. To the innovation intermediary literature, the functional approach advocates for a synthesis and consensus building in the literature regarding intermediary functions in view of the several redundancies and ambiguities on the subject matter. Empirical operationalization of the analytical approach including methodological choices from case studies in Region Scania, Sweden and North Rhine Westphalia, Germany are also discussed. The results of our analysis show that the functions of the innovation intermediaries are particularly relevant for the overall goals of an innovation system as compared to the configuration of intermediary actors. Particular challenges with a functional approach in this context include the difficulties of establishing a causal relation between the support functions of intermediaries and eco-innovation outcomes in firms.

  • 50.
    Östberg, AL
    et al.
    Public Dental Services and Skaraborg Institute, Skövde.
    Halling, Arne
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Public Dental Service.
    Lindblad, U
    Public Dental Services and Skaraborg Institute, Skövde.
    A gender perspective of self-perceived oral health in adolescents: associations with attitudes and behaviours2001In: Community Dental Health, ISSN 0265-539X, Vol. 18, no 2, 110-116 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To investigate the associations between dental attitudes and behaviours, and self-perceived oral health from a gender perspective in an adolescent population. Design A census survey. Self-reported questionnaires were answered anonymously in a standardised manner in classrooms. Attitudes studied included the importance of sound teeth and feelings towards visits to the dentist. Behaviours were represented by floss usage and sweets consumption. Setting All senior and upper secondary level schools in Skaraborg County, Sweden. Subjects 17,280 students, aged 13-18 years, Outcome measures Self-perceived oral health. represented by a single-item rating: satisfaction with the appearance of the teeth: self-assessed gum bleeding and a perceived oral health (POH) index. Results Recognising sound teeth as important was a predominating attitude among the respondents (boys 94%, girls 97%) and was significantly associated with a good perceived oral health overall. Individuals who experienced visits to dentist as unpleasant (boys 36%, girls 43%) were less likely to perceive good oral health as single-item rated (OR for boys 0.55[0.49, 0.63], girls 0.40[0.34, 0.47]). Regular use of floss had a small protective effect on bleeding gums. Daily sweets consumption showed a significant and inverse association with self-perceived oral health as single-item rated (OR for boys 0.53[0.44, 0.66], girls 0.49[0.40, 0.60]). Girls, more often than boys, perceived their oral health to be good, except in the perception of the appearance of their teeth. Conclusions It is concluded that the strong associations between attitudes and self-perceived oral health should be recognised in strategies for oral health promotion and that gender differences must be considered.

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