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  • 1.
    Larsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Profile and perceptions of biogas as automobile fuel: A study of Svensk Biogas2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From an environmental- and health perspective, biogas and other biomass-based fuels have several advantages; nevertheless the majority of motorists fill their cars with petroleum-based fuels. This thesis is designed to explore the profile of biogas in relation to its perceptions. It is a study concerning the communication between the biogas producing company Svensk Biogas and their biogas users and non biogas users. To obtain a thorough understanding of the profile and perceptions of biogas a qualitative approach was considered appropriate. Biogas users and non-users were interviewed at gasoline stations, while Svensk Biogas was interviewed as a group.

    The three interview segments were analyzed and compared in order to identify patterns, similarities and differences. Based on research data the thesis concludes that the profiling arguments of biogas correlates to that biogas is the most environmentally friendly fuel, the least expensive fuel, and locally produced. Furthermore, the company profile of Svensk Biogas is equal to sustainable alternative, locally produced, trustworthy, environmentally friendly and climate smart [klimatsmart]. Given the arguments of the company profile, environmental values seem to be the core communicating value. Profiling Svensk Biogas happens through events and by using communication material such as company logotype.

    Motorists have an overall positive perception of biogas. Biogas users states environmental benefits as the key argument behind their commitment. Non-users are positive toward biogas although expressing a lack of knowledge confusing biogas with ethanol and bio-fuels in general. According to motorists the negative perceptions, in addition to the prerequisites of biogas, are connected to insufficient infrastructure of biogas filling stations, a short range of the biogas tank, a high investment cost of a biogas car, a biogas price increase, scarcity of cars, and information (lack of information and misleading information).

    The overall perception of Svensk Biogas among biogas users is positive. Biogas users express a negative perception concerning the Svensk Biogas filling stations and also wish for a lower biogas price. Non-users express modest perceptions of the company. This research also concludes that perceptions of the biogas producer are correlated to the perceptions of biogas. Furthermore, biogas producer, users and non-users wish to be directed by political decisions, guiding them toward environmentally friendly fuel alternatives.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology.
    Biophysical characterization of the *5 protein variant of human thiopurine methyltransferase by NMR spectroscopy2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of thiopurine drugs, which are widely used in leukemia and inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn´s disease. Due to genetic polymorphisms, approximately 30 protein variants are present in the population, some of which have significantly lowered activity. TPMT *5 (Leu49Ser) is one of the protein variants with almost no activity. The mutation is positioned in the hydrophobic core of the protein, close to the active site.

    Hydrogen exchange rates measured with NMR spectroscopy for N-terminally truncated constructs of TPMT *5 and TPMT *1 (wild type) show that local stability and hydrogen bonding patterns are changed by the mutation Leu49Ser. Most residues exhibit faster exchange rates and a lower local stability in TPMT *5 in comparison with TPMT *1. Changes occur close to the active site but also throughout the entire protein. Calculated overall stability is similar for the two constructs, so the measured changes are due to local stability.

    Protein dynamics measured with NMR relaxation experiments show that both TPMT *5 and TPMT *1 are monomeric in solution. Millisecond dynamics exist in TPMT *1 but not in TPMT *5, even though a few residues exhibit a faster dynamic. Dynamics on nanosecond to picosecond time scale have changed but no clear trends are observable.

  • 3.
    Ravanbakhsh, Samyar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elastic travel demand analysis - An application to the West link railway in Gothenburg2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the regional railway system lacks the capacity at the central station in order to meet the demand for both the public and freight transportation. The West link is a railway infrastructure project that is expected to both increase train commuting and also increase the train capacity at the central station in Gothenburg. The purpose of this thesis work is to do an elastic demand analysis between car traffic and the West Link in modal shift to determine how many travelers will change mode. Also traffic simulations will be made to investigate the traffic conditions around the stations when the West link has been implemeted. The simulation results showed that nowadays there are congestions on the major highways and some of the smaller low capacity roads. In the future, congestions will become more significant if no countermeasures are implemented like the West link. In the elastic demand analysis the results were overall around 47% – 51% on a demand of between 350 000 – 400 000 trips. As a conclusion it cannot be said whether the West link will ease the pressure on car traffic or not. The reasons are that the population will increase about 100 000 inhabitants until 2030 and the West link is assumed by the region to have this amount of travelers each day. This would result in the same traffic pressure as today with congestions in certain parts. If the number of West link users will be around 200 000, as the results of this thesis shows, then the West link will ease the pressure on car traffic.

  • 4.
    Svensson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Outsourcing och backsourcing av IT-lösningar: Utveckling och bakomliggande faktorer2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Outsourcing, that is to say when an organization's services or products within a function or an activity are being contracted out to an external vendor, became increasingly noticeable during the 1990s. The trend has grown to represent the norm in today’s society and nowadays organizations outsource operations ranging from the management of information technology (IT) to whole functions. The outsourcing of IT is considered to be a growing and increasingly global phenomenon. However, problems with an outsourcing agreement or changes in a company's business situation can lead to backsourcing, a concept meaning that an organization chooses to bring back and re-implement activities within its own operations. Decisions regarding the outsourcing of IT solutions have been a central aspect in both research and practice while the decision to change supplier or backsource has received relatively little attention. Nevertheless, the drivers of backsourcing constitute an equally relevant topic to study. Hence, the aim of this study is to identify the motives underlying an organization’s decision to outsource, as well as backsource, IT related activities and functions and to examine how the conditions that applied when making the decision to outsource can change during an outsourcing process. 

    I have conducted a qualitative study where a case study design has been applied. A number of organizations that use IT and IT solutions in their day-to-day operations have been studied where the organizations previously have backsourced and/or now find themselves in the process of bringing back their IT. A literature review has been conducted and empirical data has been collected through the use of semi-structured interviews. In the analysis, the empirical data has been analyzed in relation to previous research regarding (1) outsourcing and (2) backsourcing. 

    The results of this study show that reasons and motives that can result in a firm's decision to outsource its IT include the possibility of achieving cost reductions, a greater flexibility and the possibility of gaining access to expertise. Examples of changes that can occur during an outsourcing process are within the management since the replacement of an organization’s management can bring new opinions and attitudes towards the firm’s sourcing strategy. The importance of IT to the operations can also change during an outsourcing process. Furthermore, a number of underlying factors that may affect an organization’s decision to backsource its IT have been identified. Examples of factors are that the outsourcing has resulted in no overall cost savings and that there’s a lack of compliance with the contract regarding, for example, the quality of the services being delivered.

  • 5.
    Rahmayani, Hestu Wahyu
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    EXPLORING CHILDREN’S PERSPECTIVES AND EXPERIENCES: THE INFLUENCE OF YOGA ON THEIR WELL-BEING AND EVERYDAY LIVES2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to explore children’s experiences of yoga and its influence on their well-being and everyday lives. The study uses qualitative methods and thematic analysis is chosen as it provides flexibility to combine theoretical assumptions with qualitative data. Analysis is based on two focus group interviews that ask about children’s views of yoga, experience of doing yoga, feelings about yoga, any differences with other physical activities, and their experience before and after yoga. The children involved in the study appeared to experience yoga in different ways, but the majority of them agreed that yoga is a positive influence on their lives. The results of this study propose that according to children’s perspectives the practice of yoga supports physical fitness and is a calm, peaceful and relaxing activity and supports the children’s understanding of their capacity and competence and helped them to reduce unstable or negative emotions. Overall, children’s perspective of yoga shows the meaning of their view and experience both in the studio and in everyday life that will give some insights to yoga teachers and studio owners; and yoga practice might contribute to social support for children both physically and mentally.

  • 6.
    Rundqvist, Mikael (Editor)
    Integrationsverket, Analysavdelningen, Norrköping.
    Staten som förebild?: om planer, insatser och utfall i 17 myndigheters arbete med etnisk mångfald2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The “State as a Role Model” report (Staten som förebild?) deals with the observance of the federal politicians’ regulatory instructions and ethnic diversity work in government authorities. The general idea is that the integration policy be taken seriously, both through giving concrete substance to the objective, of the state serving as a model, when it comes to ethnic diversity, and through examining adherence to this objective. The report focuses on planning, initiatives and outcomes. Working on the basis of the regulations set out by Swedish parliament and Government, the action plans of 17 federal authorities are examines with respect to ethnic diversity, the 17 authorities are asked about their work with diversity, and the outcome in their personnel numbers are mapped. The relationships between planning, initiatives and outcomes are considered, as are the regulatory instructions.

    Of the 17 authorities selected, 15 have drawn up action plans for promoting ethnic diversity. Generally speaking, most of these programs are weak from a content perspective, and the authorities’ diversity work is in need of holistic thinking. Methods for incorporating the integration policy into current day-to-day activities need to be developed.

    One overall impression gained from the interviews with the authorities is that internal work to increase and better utilize the diversity found in Swedish society is perceived as fairly new, and as yet both given relatively little reflection and rather shaky. All of the authorities interviewed need to further develop their diversity work, some more than others.

    When it comes to the outcome in personnel numbers, the percentage of foreign-born individuals working at the 17 authorities is in general considerably lower than the corresponding figure for foreign-born workers otherwise employed in the nation. The fact that foreign-born individuals are generally under-represented in federal administration is reflected in their also being under-represented in different occupations at the 17 authorities, especially with respect to management positions.

    One important observation is that, at most of the authorities surveyed in the study, there was a decline in the total number of employees between the years of 1997 and 2001, although this has not affected foreign-born employees, as is otherwise often the case. The need to hire new people at the 17 authorities during this period, as a whole, has been small. This means that any substantial changes in the composition of personnel through new recruitment have not been possible during the initial years of the integration policy.

    When focus is directed to the local and regional levels, and to the more concrete day-to-day work of the authorities, it becomes clear that an authority’s diversity work is characterized by the nature of its activities. Indepth study on the local and regional levels also shows the importance of organizing the work, as well as the importance of diversity for externally-oriented activities, and that diversity can be perceived as somewhat of a sensitive, new or unfamiliar issue. The closer analyses also show that organizations can follow independent strategies in relation to their plans for ethnic diversity.

    Even if no strong connections can be demonstrated between planning, initiatives and outcomes in the analysis in this report, the Swedish Integration Board feels it is too early to rule out the federal stipulation that authorities use special action plans in their work to promote ethnic diversity. One must remember that the integration policy is a new policy that involves long-range development processes, not all of which are subject to immediate impact. Before the policy is abandoned, the directives on diversity should be implemented in full. One way to make the policy more clear may be to write more specific demands into the directives and budget appropriations to the authorities.

  • 7.
    Gheorghiade, Mihai
    et al.
    Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, USA.
    Greene, Stephen J
    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
    Butler, Javed
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA.
    Filippatos, Gerasimos
    Athens University Hospital Attikon and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Lam, Carolyn S P
    National Health Center, Singapore and Duke, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Maggioni, Aldo P
    Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri Research Center, Florence, Italy.
    Ponikowski, Piotr
    Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Shah, Sanjiv J
    Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, USA.
    Solomon, Scott D
    Brigham and Women's Hospital Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth
    Charite University Medicine Berlin-Campus Virchow Klinikum, Berlin, Germany.
    Samano, Eliana T
    Bayer, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Müller, Katharina
    Bauer Pharma, Wuppertal, Germany.
    Roessig, Lothar
    Bauer Pharma, Wuppertal, Germany.
    Burkert, Pieske
    Charité University Medicine Berlin–Campus Virchow Klinikum and German Heart Center Berlin, Germany.
    Effect of Vericiguat, a Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator, on Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients With Worsening Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: The SOCRATES-REDUCED Randomized Trial.2015In: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), ISSN 0098-7484, E-ISSN 1538-3598, Vol. 314, no 21, 2251-2262 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE: Worsening chronic heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal dose and tolerability of vericiguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in patients with worsening chronic HF and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Dose-finding phase 2 study that randomized 456 patients across Europe, North America, and Asia between November 2013 and January 2015, with follow-up ending June 2015. Patients were clinically stable with LVEF less than 45% within 4 weeks of a worsening chronic HF event, defined as worsening signs and symptoms of congestion and elevated natriuretic peptide level requiring hospitalization or outpatient intravenous diuretic.

    INTERVENTIONS: Placebo (n = 92) or 1 of 4 daily target doses of oral vericiguat (1.25 mg [n = 91], 2.5 mg [n = 91], 5 mg [n = 91], 10 mg [n = 91]) for 12 weeks.

    MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary end point was change from baseline to week 12 in log-transformed level of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The primary analysis specified pooled comparison of the 3 highest-dose vericiguat groups with placebo, and secondary analysis evaluated a dose-response relationship with vericiguat and the primary end point.

    RESULTS: Overall, 351 patients (77.0%) completed treatment with the study drug with valid 12-week NT-proBNP levels and no major protocol deviation and were eligible for primary end point evaluation. In primary analysis, change in log-transformed NT-proBNP levels from baseline to week 12 was not significantly different between the pooled vericiguat group (log-transformed: baseline, 7.969; 12 weeks, 7.567; difference, -0.402; geometric means: baseline, 2890 pg/mL; 12 weeks, 1932 pg/mL) and placebo (log-transformed: baseline, 8.283; 12 weeks, 8.002; difference, -0.280; geometric means: baseline, 3955 pg/mL; 12 weeks, 2988 pg/mL) (difference of means, -0.122; 90% CI, -0.32 to 0.07; ratio of geometric means, 0.885, 90% CI, 0.73-1.08; P = .15). The exploratory secondary analysis suggested a dose-response relationship whereby higher vericiguat doses were associated with greater reductions in NT-proBNP level (P < .02). Rates of any adverse event were 77.2% and 71.4% among the placebo and 10-mg vericiguat groups, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among patients with worsening chronic HF and reduced LVEF, compared with placebo, vericiguat did not have a statistically significant effect on change in NT-proBNP level at 12 weeks but was well-tolerated. Further clinical trials of vericiguat based on the dose-response relationship in this study are needed to determine the potential role of this drug for patients with worsening chronic HF.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01951625.

  • 8.
    Adlercreutz, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Ahlstedt, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Bengtsson, Linnéa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Månsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Romell, Gustaf
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Stigson, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Sund, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Wedlund, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    En praktisk studie kring utvecklingen av webbapplikationen Studentlunchen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report declares the experiences and results arrived from the development process around the e-shop Studentlunchen. Studentlunchen is a web application to be used by students to order lunch during weekdays. In order to make Studentlunchen as user friendly and intuitive as possible the e-shop has been developed with focus on functionality and an attractive design. In the report there is a technical description regarding the web application together with a discussion concerning the developed solutions. Furthermore the report discusses and evaluates the working process Scrum and how it has been used. As a result of complying with the Scrum methodology to deliver working functionality after every sprint, focus has been directed towards achieving this instead of implementing many features that isn’t fully completed. With thorough development of the initial prototype, the basic idea of the design and functionality surrounding Studentlunchen could be kept throughout the development process. This was one of the great contributors to the projects overall success and helped the team achieve the goal to make a user-friendly web application.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    I skenet av vänskap: Internationella studenters syn på karaktären av hierarki och auktoritet inom den svenska universitetskulturen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to present international students' perspectives and interpretations of how the hierarchy and authority will be expressed in the Swedish university. To make the structures visible will the Swedish context be compared to the informants' previous experiences abroad, to visualise the contrasters. Factors that the informants thinks may will affect the social structures within the university can be found in areas of educational background, financing, responsibility and the society approach to higher education. Some differences that are contrasted by the informants can also be found in the areas of time, organisation, evaluation, accountability and competitive mentality. Other social differences that arose is greetings, academic roles and the differences between personal and professional interaction. In summary the informants overall describes the Swedish context as more equal, less authoritarian and the social relations between the student and the lecturer can be interpreted as amicable.

  • 10.
    Steen Lagerstam, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship.
    Expansion av e-handelsverksamhet i detaljhandeln: En studie om utmaningar och framgångsfaktorer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has become a central part of the modern society and has change our everyday life in many ways. An area that’s been strongly affected by this development is the Swedish retail e-commerce market. E-commerce sales have increased six-fold over the course of the past decade and forecasts indicate that this expansive trend will continue. This trend places significant challenges on Swedish retail companies who have a legacy of exclusively carrying out their sales in the traditional brick and mortar format. The subject of this study was originally proposed by the Swedish retail company Företag X[1], who have decided to embark on their e-commerce initiative in early 2016. Företag X asked the author of this report to help with finding out what it takes to develop a small e-commerce store, in such a way that it becomes a successful part of the company, contributing to the company’s overall profitability. The purpose of this study is therefore to identify practices and methods that enable successful expansion of e-commerce for medium-sized, Swedish retail companies.

    In order to achieve the purpose, a qualitative multi-case study design was chosen for the study. Information for the theoretical framework was collected from articles in scientific journals and books, and supplemented with secondary empirical data in the form of reports from companies. Qualitative primary data were then collected from interviews with three chosen companies, which were found with through a small cross-sectional study of 20 competitors to Företag X where their EBITDA margins over the past five years were studied.

    The study results showed an expansive trend on the Swedish retail e-commerce market, and it seems that this trend is set to continue over the next decade. As a consequence, market climate is changing and shifting towards becoming more digitalized, which requires companies to review their sales organizations. The main trend in the market is called “omni-channel retailing" and means that a company is integrating its brick and mortar and e-commerce sales to enable a seamless shopping experience for the customer. This trend has emerged as a response to a new buying patterns observed among customers, who move between their digital and physical sales channels during the purchase.

    The study indicates that the e-commerce-related issues that are most important to address and work with are in the following areas:

    • Customer Focus
      • IT
      • Customer relations
      • Responsiveness to customers
    • Cost effectiveness
      • Supply chain and logistics
      • Strategy and governance
    • Resistance Management
      • Education
      • Synchronization between brick and mortar stores and e-commerce store

    This study represents the author’s master’s thesis in the Industrial Engineering and Management program at Linköping University, Sweden.

    [1] Företag X are known by a different name, but have asked to remain anonymous in this study

  • 11. Klompstra, Leonie
    et al.
    Jaarsma, TinyStrömberg, Anna
    Gender differences in participation motives for exercise and exergaming in heart failure patients.2014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Regular daily exercise is recognized as important in patients with heart failure (HF). The use of exergames (games to improve physical exercise) might be an encouragement for HF patients, especially for people who may be reluctant to engage in more traditional forms of exercise. It is known that participation motives are important factors in able to become more physical active. Therefore the purpose of this study is to examine gender differences in participation motives before access to an exergame computer and the exercise motives after access to an exergame computer at home.

    Methods: The Wii was installed in the home of HF patients for a period of 12 weeks and patients were instructed to exergame 20 minutes a day (e.g. virtual bowling or tennis). Patients completed a questionnaire on baseline and 12 weeks which included the exercise motivation index (EMI), which measured participation motives. The EMI consists of 15 statements; each statement is followed by a five-point verbal rating from 0 (not important) to 4 (extremely important). Chi-square test was performed to look in gender in participation motives of the EMI and the ESE. P-values<.05 was considered significant.

    Results:  Thirty-two HF patients (age 64 ± 14, 10 female) were included. The exercise motives which scored important or extremely important on baseline were: ‘I want to be in better shape so that my clothes sit better’, ‘I want the ageing process to slow down and feel younger’, ‘Exercise increases my overall well-being’ and ‘I want to be healthier and live longer’. After 12 weeks access to the Nintendo Wii only the participation motive: ‘I want to be healthier and perhaps life longer’ scored important or extremely inportant. Gender differences were found in participation motives at baseline. Female patients significant agreed more on 6 participation motives compared to men: I want to be in better shape so my clothes fit better (3 vs 1), I am proud of myself when I exercise regularly (3 vs 1), I want to look good (2 vs. 1), I want to be as active as my family and my friends (2 vs 1), I feel successful when I am on better shape (3 vs 1) and I want to feel less physical vulnerable (3 vs 1). At 12 weeks there were fewer differences in participation motives. Difference were found where women agreed more on 2 participation motives than men: I want to be as active as my family and my friends (2 vs 1) and People who are in good shape will be admired, I want to be admired too (2 vs 1).

    Conclusion: This study shows gender differences in the participation motives in becoming physical active and exergaming. Women have more participation motives than men. After 12 weeks access to the Nintendo Wii we found less difference in the participation motives between men and women. Gender differences in participation motives in exergaming were due to social facilitation and I want to be admired, where women agreed more than men. 

  • 12.
    Andersson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modelling of Cranking Behaviour in Heavy Duty Truck Engines2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In modern heavy duty trucks the battery is a central component. Its traditional role as an energy source for engine cranking has been extended to include powering a number of elec- trical components on the truck, both during driving and during standstill. As a consequence of this it is important to know how much a battery in use has aged and lost in terms of ca- pacity and power output. The difficulty in measuring these factors on a battery in use causes problem, since heavy duty truck batteries are often replaced too early or too late, leading to unnecessary high replacement costs or truck standstill respectively.

    The overall goal of the effort, of which this thesis is a part, is to use a model of the cranking behaviour of a heavy duty truck engine, which depends on the battery condition, to estimate the ageing and wear of a heavy duty truck battery. This thesis proposes a modelling approach to model the components involved in engine cranking.

    In the thesis work, system identification is made of the systems forming part of the cranking of a heavy duty truck engine. These components are the starter battery, the starter motor and its electrical circuit and the internal combustion engine. Measurement data has been provided by Scania AB for the evaluation of the models. The data has been collected from crankings of a heavy duty diesel engine at different temperatures and battery charge levels. For every cranking lapse the battery voltage and current have been measured as well as the engine rotational speed.

    A starter battery model is developed and evaluated. The resulting battery model is then incorporated into two different engine cranking models, Model 1 and Model 2, including a starter motor model and an internal combustion engine model apart form the battery model. The two cranking models differ in several aspects and their differences and resulting evalu- ations are discussed.

    The battery model is concluded to be sufficiently accurate during model verification, however the two cranking models are not. Model 2 is verified as more correct in in its output than Model 1, but neither is sufficiently accurate for their purpose. The conclusion is drawn that the modelling approach is sound but development of Model 2 is needed before the model can be used in model-based condition estimation. 

  • 13.
    Holgerson, Line
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Exploring the role of multi-functional solutions when planning for climate change: A case study of stormwater management in a Swedish city2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Managing stormwater sustainably in the face of extreme weather events has increasingly been recognized as a strategy for climate adaptation in the urban planning context. Sustainable stormwater management intends to reduce urban vulnerability while ensuring the overall sustainability and robustness of future cities. To add to the emerging research field of green infrastructure, the objective of the study is to explore the role of multi-functional solutions as a climate change response in urban planning and development. This study has been driven by an inductive research process and draws on empirical data collection through workshops and interviews with City Hall officials in Motala City. The study concludes that despite the lack of preventative planning to anticipate climate change, city renewal and urban development of Motala City presented a window of opportunity to implement potential multi-functional stormwater solutions in the urban environment through urban planning. Further, increased focus on internal and external collaboration through the process of envisioning the future of the city have enabled new forms of governance and facilitated arenas for public acceptance and an integrative planning-approach. Lastly, discourses on attractiveness enabled greenery to be viewed from a social, economic and environmental perspective, supporting multi-functional stormwater solutions as a strategy for climate adaptation and urban sustainability.

  • 14.
    Bergström, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson-Sundén, Hampus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cost effective optimization of system safety and reliability2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A method able to analyze and optimize subsystems could be useful to reduce project cost, increase subsystem reliability, improve overall aircraft safety and reduce subsystem weight. The earlier the optimization of development of an aircraft in the design phase can be performed, the better the yield of the optimization becomes. This master thesis was formed in order to construct an automatic analysis method, implementing a Matlab script, evaluating devices forming aircraft subsystems using a Genetic Algorithm. In addition to aircraft subsystems, the method constructed in the work is compatible with systems of various industries with minor modifications of the script.

  • 15.
    Sukhova, Maria
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Russification of Soft Power: Reconceptualization of soft power in contemporary Russia2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the limits of the concept of soft power by critically examining the reconceptualization of soft power in contemporary Russia. It seeks to highlight the peculiarities of the Russian interpretation of soft power compared to the original Western approach. To this end, it argues that Russia has a dualistic perception of soft power. On the one hand, soft power is understood as an external threat to the country’s sovereignty and national security. On the other hand, soft power is seen as a great opportunity to increase the country’s efficiency in attaining its foreign policy goals, improve its international image and overall performance in the global arena.

  • 16.
    Grozelier, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Labrador and German shepherd breed differences in dog-human communication2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As our long-term companions, dogs’ communication with us is perhaps the most developed of all human- animal ones. This study was aimed to investigate breed differences of German Shepherds and Labradors in dog-human communication. This was obtained through two tests: a problem-solving task and a pointing test. These two tests target both directions of communication: how much dogs understand and respond to the pointing and how they communicate with humans when facing a problem. Additionally, hair cortisol was measured in the dogs and dog owners filled a behavioural questionnaire (C-BARQ). The main breed difference I found was that Labradors performed better in both tests. I also found that the latency of the dogs’ choices in the pointing test correlated with many factors, e.g. they chose quicker when: choosing correctly, when they had many physical contacts with the experimenter in the problem-solving task, when they were more intense, energetic dogs, when they had higher hair cortisol levels and when they had a confident body posture. This indicates that the latency of choice could depend on the confidence of the dog and on the trust in the experimenter as well as on energy level and focus ability. Overall, this study revealed a limited amount of breed differences, compared to a parallel study on Labrador types (hunting and show dogs), showing that intra-breed differences can be more important than inter-breed ones on a behavioural level. 

  • 17.
    Michailidou, Kyriaki
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    “How useful and applicable is the program The Underwear Rule for Greek parents? Parents' perspectives on the advantages and problems with the program: an interview study”2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Child sexual abuse is a burning issue raising concern because of the statistics which indicate that one in five children are victims of some kind of abuse. The protective program, the “Underwear Rule” was launched by the European Council in order to inform and equip parents, caregivers and children towards this sensitive issue. The program is addressed to all European countries in the exact same form and content, with only differentiation the language. This study tries to examine theoretically and empirically the applicability of the “Underwear Rule” to Greek parents, in the sense that each country has its own cultural background and cast of mind, which differentiate the acceptance and the applicability of the Rule. This relates mainly to prior research of Kirana exploring Greek parents’ perspective towards sexual education, as well to Babatsiko’s research about developing national protective programs corresponding to local and cultural demands. An interview study has been carried out, focusing on parents’ point of view about the Underwear Rule. The analysis is based on the subjective experiences and thoughts of seven parents whose children are in the age-target group covered by the Underwear Rule. The parents’ interviews have been analyzed thematically. Overall this study argues that The Underwear Rule is a good protective program, but parents would like improvements and enrichment in order the burning topic of child sexual abuse to be covered more effectively

  • 18.
    Hallqvist, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Faster Locking Differential Through Active Brake-Control2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When a vehicle with wheels aligned in pairs turn, the wheel traveling around the outside of the curve has to roll farther than the wheel on the inside. This means that some sort of device must must be used to allow the drive wheels to rotate at different speeds to prevent wear on the tires. This is usually a mechanical device where the input rotation controls the sum of the two output rotations, this is known as a differential. This solution however has some shortcomings, the biggest one is that the total amount of force that can be transferred between the tires and the road surface is limited by the tire with the least traction. In slippery conditions this can be a big problem since it only takes one wheel to lose traction in order to prevent the vehicle from accelerating. In this thesis a locking differential is used to overcome this shortcoming, this gives the driver the option to lock the shafts of the driving wheels together. This is done by pushing two cogwheels, one attached to each shaft, together. The aim of this thesis is to shorten the lock- and unlock-time of the locking differential by aligning the cogwheels using the service brakes and available sensors. The results were evaluated by implementing the software in a truck and doing test runs on Scanias test track. These tests showed that the system greatly improved both lock- and unlock-times but at cost of lower driver comfort. With additional work with some fine tuning of the system, the overall performance could probably be increased even more.

  • 19.
    Bergström, Emelie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bilismen ur ett genusperspektiv: En kvantitativ studie i Norrköping om mänsoch kvinnors förhållande till fordonet bil ochexisterande normer kring kvinnor och män2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims is to look at car traffic, which contributes to a significant environmental impact, from a gender perspective. The purpose of the study is also to compare with previous studies and to analyze how this is corresponds with frame and situation of people living in Norrköping. In order to approach this suitably, a quantitative study in the form of surveys have been conducted - with a sample of 100 respondents to represent Norrkoping. This method assisted in the raised questions. To best get a perspective of correlation between the sexes and between different questions in the questionnaire, a chi-square test was applied.

    The results of the study showed that different expectations about men’s and women’s behavior and relationship to the usage of vehicles in society exists, in Norrköping, yet also that the habits around the usage reflects additional differences. Men and women have similar approaches to the usage of vehicles, with an environmental consciousness, with regards to the given car or such, in a comparable degree independent of their gender. This study has found that both men and women, to a notable degree, regard men to be more interested in cars and that they are more prone to drive one. It also shows that several of the respondents, regard women to be over-all more environmentally aware than men. This would align with the contemporary norms of society based on previous research. However, in contrast, the results also highlight that both genders, in Norrköping, spend the comparable amount of time driving a car and have similar awareness of environmental factors. The differences in the expectations around the given behavior of men and women are there but their reported behavior does not necessarily follow those predictions.

  • 20.
    Magnusson, Karolina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mechanical heart rate detection using cardiogenic impedance - a morphology approach2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to examine the possibility to determine the mechanical heart rate using intracardiac impedance in the time domain. Deducing the mechanical heartrate from the impedance could help improve the performance of implanted devices that today depend on the measurement of the heart’s electrical activity. Cardiogenic – also known as intracardiac – impedance is based on the difference in conductivity between heart muscle tissue and blood, making the impedance vary as the heart is filled and emptied. The data used in this thesis was acquired from three previous studies performed by St Jude Medical, two clinical and one preclinical. Two impedance measurement configurations were chosen from these studies, one bipolar and one quadropolar. To deduce the heart rate from the intracardiac impedance six algorithms were evaluated. Three using continuous peak detection and three evaluating small frames of the impedance signal.The peak detection algorithms were peak detection on the impedance signal itself, on its derivative  and on its integral. The three others were an Auto Correlation Function (ACF), an Average Magnutide Difference Function (AMDF) and an Average Wave Comparison Function (AWCF). In order to assess the heart rates deduced from the intracardiac impedance by the algorithms, these rates were compared to both the IEGM or the ECG (depending on which study was at hand) and the blood pressure.

    Several issues affected the performance of the algorithms. Impedance morphology can vary between patients. Some display so called “double peaks”, making it hard to decide whether a patient has for example a pulse of 80 bpm or of 160 bpm. The impedance morphology was also affected by amplitude modulation with the respiration frequency which in some patients cause difficulties to analyze the impedance signal. The results show that the two impedance measurement configurations perform equally well and that the ACF method was the overall best performing algorithm. They also show that individual patient impedance morphology has a large influence on the results and for future studies it should therefore be interesting to calibrate the algorithms for each patient, as this should improve performance.

  • 21.
    Hongxing, Li
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Dentistry – Prosthodontics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    List, Thomas
    Orofacial pain and Jaw Function, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ing-Marie
    Specialist Center for Oral Rehabilitation, Norrköping, Sweden .
    Johansson, Anders
    Department of Clinical Dentistry – Prosthodontics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Nordrehaug Astrom, Anne
    Department of Clinical Dentistry – Community Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Validity and reliability of OIDP and OHIP-14: a survey of Chinese high school students2014In: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 14, no 158, 1-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To determine the impact of oral diseases on everyday life, measures of oral quality of life are needed. In complementing traditional disease-based measures, they assess the need for oral care to evaluate oral health care programs and management of treatment. To assess the reliability and validity of the Oral Impact of Daily Performance (OIDP) and the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) among high school students in Xian, the capital of Shanxi province, China. Methods: Cross-sectional one-stage stratified random cluster sample using high schools as the primary sampling unit. Students completed self-administered questionnaires at school. The survey included the OHIP-14 and OIDP inventories, translated and culturally adapted for China, and global oral health and socio-behavioral measures. Results: A total of 5,608 students participated in the study, with a 93% response rate (mean age 17.2, SD 0.8, 52% females, 45.3% urban residents). The proportion experiencing at least one impact (at any frequency) during the previous six months was 62.9% for the OHIP-14 and 45.8% for the OIDP. Cronbachs alpha measured internal consistency at 0.85 for OHIP-14 and 0.75 for OIDP while Cohens kappa varied between 0.27 and 0.58 for OHIP-14 items and between 0.23 and 0.65 for OIDP items. Kappa scores for the OHIP-14 and OIDP additive scores were 0.52 and 0.66, respectively. Both measures varied systematically and in the expected direction, with global oral health measures showing criterion validity. The correlation between OIDP and OHIP-14 was r(s) + 0.65. That both measures varied systematically with socio-behavioral factors indicates construct validity. Conclusion: Both the OIDP and OHIP-14 inventories had reasonable reliability and construct validity in relation to subjective global oral health indicators among adolescents attending high schools in China and thus appear to be useful oral health -related quality of life measures in this context. Overall, the OHIP-14 and OIDP performed equally well, although OHIP-14 had superior content validity due to its sensitivity towards less severe impacts.

  • 22.
    Karlsson, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Parameter Estimation for a Vehicle Longitudinal Model2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    System modelling has an important role in vehicle development cycles. Hardware field tests are often replaced by simulations, especially during the preliminary design stages. Although system modelling is a time consuming task, significant amount of the overall development time and resources can be reduced if an accurate model is available.

    In order to develop a good simulation model, a sound method for parameterising the model is desired. A favourable parameter identification not only provides an accurate model, but also requires less resources both time-wise and monetarily.

    In this thesis, a model for the longitudinal dynamics of a passenger vehicle is presented. Unknown parameters in the model are estimated and the model is validated with measurements obtained experimentally. It is anticipated that the model will be used in a dynamometer, where the longitudinal forces on the vehicle are simulated and the corresponding torques are exerted on the driving wheels.

  • 23.
    Hassan, Mao
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pastoralist Way of Life Under Threat:: Assessing the vulnerability risks faced by pastoralist communities as well as their potential to adapt to climate change in the Horn of Africa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis was to examine the main causes of pastoral  vulnerability to climate change as well as assess their adaptive capacity to withstand future climate disturbances in the Horn of Africa. By studying two of the most iconic pastoralists’ communities in Africa – the Somali and the Massai’s in Kenya, the study intended to use the communities as representative to the overall pastoralist’s situation in the Horn of Africa. The study used the 2007 IPCC Vulnerability Assessment framework that entails exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity to climate change as a guiding instrument to comprehend the complexities of the pastoral livelihood. The participants of the study included pastoralists, officials from the government, NGO’s and research Institutions. Major findings of this study were, in addition to climate manifesting in destructive forms, pastoralism faces political marginalization, shrinking pastureland, sprawling urbanization, exponential growth of population and conflicts. Despite the challenges, the study also finds strong adaptive capacity by the pastoralists. Adaptation strategies include traditional methods of rangeland management and migration. The study also shows new modern methods adaptation to climate mainly instigated by the pastoralists with assistance from external actors, these methods include; Ecological Based Adaptation and technology driven approaches as well as a mixture of agriculture and pastoralism – agro-pastoralism. It was also found that the two communities studied face different climate challenges and adaptation approaches.

  • 24.
    Johansson, Whilma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sköld, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Behavioral Finance: Svenska fondbolags hantering av psykologiska fallgropar i praktiken2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research has shown that people always are influenced by biases. Empirical studies have previously been conducted in order to find ways to reduce the biases. In the literature review for this thesis was however no qualitative study found which concerned the handling in practice, why it was of interest to study. Since the empirical studies, to some extent, have been based on practice when creating their hypotheses regarding the problem of biases, it was also relevant for this paper to survey the knowledge that Swedish fund companies currently have regarding behavioral finance as a research field.

    Aim: This paper aims to survey and analyse Swedish fund companies’ knowledge regarding behavioral finance as a research field. The paper also intends to analyse if and to what extent ways of handling biases, by previous research presented, in practice are used by Swedish fund companies when making investment decisions.

    Completion: To achieve the purpose of this paper, a qualitative approach has been used based on eight interviews conducted with representatives from Swedish fund companies. All representatives have an overall insight into how the fund management is done in respective fund companies. The collected empirical data has been analyzed partly on the basis of one, for this paper developed, analytical model with the aim to survey were Swedish fund companies are in terms of knowledge regarding behavioral finance, and partly on previous empirical research in the field of this research area.

    Conclusion: This paper table a new hypothesis which means that the industry lacks theoretical knowledge in behavioral finance and that the methods used by Swedish fund companies generally do not reduce biases. It is explained by the fact that a majority of the methods used by Swedish fund companies are not supported in precious research.

  • 25.
    Eriksson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of catchment processes in sediments from Bolgoda Lake, Sri Lanka2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom sediment is an archive of the historical changes in a lake and its catchment. This thesis is apalaeoenvironmental reconstruction of catchment processes in Bolgoda Lake situated in western SriLanka. We studied a sediment core retrieved from this lake. In our study, we focus on multiplephysical and chemical proxies: grain-size, loss-on-ignition, total organic carbon content, C:N ratio,and δ13C stored in the organic matter. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understandingof the palaeoenvironmental conditions in the region and allow a comparison between this site andothers.In the deepest part of the core, we see an overall high sand content, which indicates a period ofhigher discharge into the lake compared to what the other core parts indicate. This is probably aresult of higher precipitation. This is followed by a decline in C:N and a rise in TOC in the second partwhich indicates an increase of primary production in the lake. In the third part we again see a shift inthe C:N indicating a source change back to more terrestrial runoff. The increase in TOC and LOIvalues together with decrease in C:N ratio and a steady increase in δ13C indicate an increase inlacustrine productivity in the upper part of the core.By reconstructing the palaeoenvironmental history in Bolgoda Lake we can conclude that it isprobable that some other factor than diagenetic change affects the lake. Our results indicate thatthese changes most likely are due to more wet periods and anthropogenic activity, mainly throughland use changes.

  • 26.
    Neuhaus, V.
    et al.
    Orthopaedic Hand Service, Yawkey Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114, United States.
    Bot, A.G.J.
    Orthopaedic Hand Service, Yawkey Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114, United States.
    Guitton, T.G.
    Orthopaedic Hand Service, Yawkey Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114, United States.
    Ring, D.C.
    Orthopaedic Hand Service, Yawkey Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114, United States.
    Scapula fractures: Interobserver reliability of classification and treatment2014In: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, ISSN 0890-5339, E-ISSN 1531-2291, Vol. 28, no 3, 124-129 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: There is substantial variation in the classification and management of scapula fractures. The first purpose of this study was to analyze the interobserver reliability of the OTA/AO classification and the New International Classification for Scapula Fractures. The second purpose was to assess the proportion of agreement among orthopaedic surgeons on operative or nonoperative treatment. Design: Web-based reliability study. Setting: Independent orthopaedic surgeons from several countries were invited to classify scapular fractures in an online survey. Participants: One hundred three orthopaedic surgeons evaluated 35 movies of three-dimensional computerized tomography reconstruction of selected scapular fractures, representing a full spectrum of fracture patterns. Main Outcome Measurements: Fleiss kappa (κ) was used to assess the reliability of agreement between the surgeons. Results: The overall agreement on the OTA/AO classification was moderate for the types (A, B, and C, κ = 0.54) with a 71% proportion of rater agreement (PA) and for the 9 groups (A1 to C3, κ = 0.47) with a 57% PA. For the New International Classification, the agreement about the intraarticular extension of the fracture (Fossa (F), κ = 0.79) was substantial and the agreement about a fractured body (Body (B), κ = 0.57) or process was moderate (Process (P), κ = 0.53); however, PAs were more than 81%. The agreement on the treatment recommendation was moderate (κ = 0.57) with a 73% PA. Conclusions: The New International Classification was more reliable. Body and process fractures generated more disagreement than intraarticular fractures and need further clear definitions. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

  • 27.
    Mellema, J.J.
    et al.
    Orthopaedic Hand and Upper Extremity Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBoston, MA, United States.
    Doornberg, J.N.
    University of of Amsterdam Orthopaedic Residency Program (PGY 4), Academic Medical CenterAmsterdam, Netherlands.
    Guitton, T.G.
    University of of Amsterdam Orthopaedic Residency Program (PGY 4), Academic Medical CenterAmsterdam, Netherlands.
    Ring, D.
    Orthopaedic Hand and Upper Extremity Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBoston, MA, United States.
    Biomechanical studies: Science (f)or common sense?2014In: Injury, ISSN 0020-1383, E-ISSN 1879-0267, Vol. 45, no 12, 2035-2039 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It is our impression that many biomechanical studies invest substantial resources studying the obvious: that more and larger metal is stronger. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if a subset of biomechanical studies comparing fixation constructs just document common sense. Methods: Using a web-based survey, 274 orthopaedic surgeons and 81 medical students predicted the results of 11 biomechanical studies comparing fracture fixation constructs (selected based on the authors sense that the answer was obvious prior to performing the study). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated according to standard formulas. The agreement among the observers was calculated by using a multirater kappa, described by Siegel and Castellan. Results: The accuracy of predicting outcomes was 80% or greater for 10 of 11 studies. Accuracy was not influenced by level of experience (i.e., time in practice and medical students vs. surgeons). There were substantial differences in accuracy between observers from different regions. The overall categorical rating of inter-observer reliability according to Landis and Koch was moderate (k = 0.55; standard error (SE) = 0.01). Conclusion: The results of a subset of biomechanical studies comparing fracture fixation constructs can be predicted prior to doing the study. As these studies are time and resource intensive, one criterion for proceeding with a biomechanical study should be that the answer is not simply a matter of common sense. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Ahmed, Uday
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ayo, Priscilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Developing Common Questions about Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE), Ecodesign and Engineering Education2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, more and more manufacturing firms recognize the benefit of providing products together with related services with an aim to gain higher profits as compared to supplying products without additional services. On the other hand, the competition in the global markets has been increased dramatically through increased sales of services in order to gain additional value for their products. In addition, several environmental challenges such as climate change, pollution, global warming impact, greenhouse gases emissions have played a vital role by influencing on the production protocols and trend of the companies. These challenges forced manufacturing countries to take into consideration environmentally conscious approach to their design thinking and industrial production processes. As a result, it became an important drive for manufacturing industries to shift from traditional product-oriented to service-oriented business models that has been witnessed during the last few years.

     

    The objective of this study research is to develop common questions that capture fundamental and common issues about Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE), Design for Environment (DFE) and Engineering education are effectives for industries to check and develop their knowledge, because the Engineering education plays a necessary role in associating socio-ethical knowledge with scientific and technological advances. The strategy taken to conduct this thesis task was first to study and understand the concept of Product Service System (PSS), IPSE, and Ecodesign as well as Engineering Education. Informative knowledge on these concepts were collected by reviewing several related journal articles, CIRP IPS2 conference proceedings.

     

    In this thesis the concepts of PSS, IPSE, DFE and Engineering Education discussed to develop the key common questions and issues to address the environmental, economic and social problems. Since PSS aims to reduce consumption through alternative schemes of product use as well as to increase overall resource productivity and dematerialization, but IPSE does not focus on a single factor but incorporates a wide range of factors such as environmental, social and economic issues. Whilst one of the main problems in this research focused on how to develop and strengthen the relationship between the academia and industry, and how this relation can be used to improve the academic performance and scientific research at universities and transfer them to industry.

     

    Sustainability and the life cycle concept have become a main solution for various problems such as a growing world population and a change in the industrial culture to come. As results Ecodesign and environmental considerations, financial aspects, product improvement as well as the commercial aspects were discussed in this project by understanding the previous concepts. The university considered as an important base of cultivating the talents, basic of inputs business organizations which help them to develop and improve their level of performance and quality of their products and services, and enhance its competitive position in the market. Changes in organized science further encouraged university interests in expanding technology transfer, because the scientific disciplines play an important role in influencing the type of interactions with industry as well as the University and Industry collaboration became the basic method of solving the problems to achieve (environmental, economic and social) sustainability.

  • 29.
    Hedin, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ITIL i små och medelstora företag: Utifrån ett säkerhetsperspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work addressed the problem of SMEs in relation to ITIL from a safety perspective. The work is based on two case studies in which one of these two is more profound and thus treated as principal. These two case studies are analyzed from a theoretical foundation based on literary, scientific and oral sources that are processed on the basis of the study's two overarching questions: What are the crucial factors affecting the organization during an ITIL implementation and what are the differences between large and small organizations in relation to security?

    The study's main conclusions is that it is possible that the overall factors affecting the implementation are related to how the organization handles the organizational change that occurs in the context of implementation, and how they relate to ITIL before implementation. Further, the study finds that it is possible to question whether the size of the organization is really a critical factor in relation to the work on security and that it is more about the cultural differences between large organizations and SMEs.

  • 30.
    Andreasson, Pierre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Siverskog, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cross-market linkages and the role of speculation in agricultural futures markets2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyse the role of speculation in forging cross-market linkages between agriculture, equity and crude oil over the period 1992-2014. The market interdependence of ten U.S. traded agricultural commodities futures is measured through the spillover index of Diebold and Yilmaz (2009, 2012) and the dynamic conditional correlation framework of Engle (2002). Utilising data from the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission, ve dierent measures of speculation are constructed, which are used to examine the long-run and short-run dynamics between market integration and speculation. To explore time-varying characteristics in this relationship, and as a test for robustness, we perform a sub-sampling analysis for the periods 1992-2006 and 2006-2014.

    We show that cross-market linkages grew stronger post-2005, particularly in the aftermath of the 2008 global financial crisis. The results of our econometric analysis indicate that any conclusions regarding the role of speculation in this process are highly sensitive both to the choice of market integration measure, as well as to how the extent of speculation is captured. Overall, though, there is little to indicate that speculation has played an important role in creating cross-market linkages. We do provide some evidence of market integration increasing with market size, but other factors, such as inflation and exchange rates, seem to provide better explanations of agriculture-equity-energy price dynamics. In line with previous research, we also find market interdependence to increase with stock market uncertainty, which suggests that the diversification benefits of commodity futures investments are actually reduced when needed the most. Considered together with our findings on the sizes of markets, which are increasingly made up of speculators, it appears at least possible that financialisation has made food markets more vulnerable to disturbances in financial markets.

  • 31.
    Thangamani, Manivannan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prabaharan, Allen Arun
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The design of an all-digital VCO-based ADC in a 65nm CMOS technology2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the study and design of an all-digital VCO-based ADC in a 65 nm CMOS technology. As the CMOS process enters the deep submicron region, the voltage-domain-based ADCs begins to suffer in improving their performance due to the use of complex analog components. A promising solution to improve the performance of an ADC is to employ as many as possible digital components in a time-domain-based ADC, where it uses the time resolution of an analog signal rather than the voltage resolution. In comparison, as the CMOS process scales down, the time resolution of an analog signal has found superior than the voltage resolution of an analog signal. In recent years, such time-domain-based ADCs have been taken an immense interest due to its inherent features and their design reasons.

    In this thesis work, the VCO-based ADC design, falls under the category of time-based ADCs which consists of a VCO and an appropriate digital processing circuitry. The employed VCO is used to convert a voltage-based signal into a time signal and thereby it also acts as a time-based quantizer. Then the resulting quantized-time signal is converted into a digital signal by an appropriate digital technique. After different architecture exploration, a conventional VCO-based ADC architecture is implemented in a high-level model to understand the characteristic behaviour of this time-based ADC and then a comprehensive functional schematic-level is designed in reference with the implemented behavioural model using cadence design environment. The performance has been verified using the mixed-levels, of transistor and behavioural-levels due to the greater simulation time of the implemented design.

    ADC’s dynamic performance has been evaluated using various experiments and simulations. Overall, the simulation experiments showed that the design was found to reach an ENOB of 4.9-bit at 572 MHz speed of sample per second, when a 120 MHz analog signal is applied. The achieved peak performance of the design was a SNR of 40 dB, SFDR of 34 dB and an SNDR of 31 dB over a 120 MHz BW at a 1 V supply voltage. Without any complex building blocks, this VCO-based all-digital ADC design provided a key feature of inherent noise shaping property and also found to be well compatible at the deep submicron region.

  • 32.
    Ruschkowski, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Didaktik för reflektion: Folkhögskollärares beskrivningar av hur de iscensätter deltagares reflektion2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In several theories within the field of Adult learning, as well as in specific documents in Swedish Adult education, reflection is given a front position in relation to students’ learning. However, the concept of reflection is problematic in that it has various meanings that do not necessarily harmonize. Furthermore, school forms in the educational system lack guidelines for the design of teaching. A conflict can be discerned here. A conflict between, on the one hand, explicit demands on reflection in documents relevant to specific school forms, and, on the other hand, a lack of clarity concerning the theory and design of reflection in teaching.

    The aim of this paper is to identify Folk High School teachers’ descriptions of how they design teaching to facilitate their students’ reflection. The qualitative method is thematic analysis and the empirical material consists of interviews with six Folk High School teachers.

    The results of the analysis are illustrated in five overall themes of descriptions; discussion is designed as broadening of perspectives and feedback in the virtual, as well as physical class room; writing is designed as online chat or by hand, with poetry and letter writing or as texts of various genres. In addition/moreover, as expressions in point- or verb form, as “writing relay” or as reflection based on given questions or assignments; questions are partly designed open-ended, beginning with What, How, Why, Who, and Where, and partly as yes-no questions; interaction is designed plenary, in small groups, or individually with the teacher; impressions are designed with text-based and visually-based materials, auditory and audiovisual materials, fragrances, and shared experiences.

  • 33.
    Chien, Wei-Yao
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessment of the continuous improvement capability within Sectra Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous improvement is a concept which is used already in many manufacturing companies. But in recent years, service industries as well started to recognize the importance of it. The benefits can be cost reduction, overall higher efficiency and customer satisfaction. So it is one of the key competences for a company to possess in order to be successful in the future.

    Sectra AB was chosen as the object of this case study in this thesis, because they are operating in a highly competitive environment, but have less resources compared to their competitors. Since continuous improvement is also seen as important in their eyes, an assessment of their continuous improvement capability in the deployment department is needed. The result of this thesis can be the basis for future strategies or implementations which will improve their continuous improvement situation.

    Through observations, interviews and surveys, the assessment was made for the deployment department that it is a middle experienced company regarding continuous improvement. The organization already started to incorporate continuous improvement activities in their working ways, but a systematic and strategic process is missing. The high willingness and interest to engage in continuous improvement were identified as strengths in the deployment department. Their weaknesses are found in the practical implementation and systematic monitoring of those continuous improvement elements.

    The concept of knowledge management was introduced as an alternative which could support the continuous improvement process in the company. It guarantees that the knowledge is captured in the whole department on the way to a learning organization.

  • 34.
    Sydling, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Omsorg som spelar roll.: En kvalitativ intervjustudie av hur förskollärare uppfattar omsorgens roll i det dagliga arbetet med de yngsta förskolebarnen.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim is to generate insights into preschool teachers' perceptions of the care role in the daily work with the youngest children in preschool. Based on a phenomenographic research approach has seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with preschool teachers operate in a toddler department. In the study described earlier research on the phenomenon of care and its role in nursery and various researchers' perceptions of its importance for the youngest children . The informants' statements are compiled based on a phenomenographic analysis where six descriptive categories emerged , in the categories contained a wide variety of perceptions of care significance. These six categories of description leads to the study sample space , in the study's results . This result emerges preschool teachers ' conceptions of care as both an important factor for the youngest children's well-being , but also as a basis for their learning in early childhood context.

  • 35.
    Dahlgren, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westin, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mapping of environmental KPIs2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aviation industry is facing many challenges concerning environmental effects associated to an overall increase in air travel. In order to analyse these environmental effects, the possibility for measurement in the areas connected to the aviation industry is essential. Metrics measuring progress towards meeting goals, called key performance indicators, are used in order to meet this requirement. The purpose of the thesis is to map and evaluate the various environmental key performance indicators that are utilised within European Air Traffic Management today, and the development underway for the future. Suggestions to LFV regarding suitable e-KPIs, and how they can be used within their organisation are also provided. Several organisations and initiatives, including the European Union, EUROCONTROL, Single European Sky, the International Civil Aviation Organisation and the Civil Air Navigation Service Organisation, as well as the British and French air navigation service providers, in addition to other stakeholders within the industry, have been investigated in terms of their work in the environmental area and which indicators they utilise. The investigation is based on a literature study and interviews conducted with stakeholders within previously mentioned organisations. Out of 39 indicators found during the mapping, seven remain after an initial selection and an analysis based on the utilisation of the SMART-model. In addition to the use of the SMART-model, the choice of suitable indicators is also based on the fact that the whole spectrum of a flight, meaning all phases, including planning, taxi-out, departure, en route, descent and arrival as well as taxi-in, should be taken into consideration.

  • 36.
    ASLAM, UMAIR
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    H.264 CODEC Blocks Implementation on FPGA2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    H.264/AVC (Advance Video Coding) standard developed by ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group(VCEG) and ISO/IEC JTC1 Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG), is one of the most powerful andcommonly used format for video compression. It is mostly used in internet streaming sources i.e.from media servers to end users.

    This Master thesis aims at designing a CODEC targeting the Baseline profile on FPGA.Uncompressed raw data is fed into the encoder in units of macroblocks of 16×16 pixels. At thedecoder side the compressed bit stream is taken and the original frame is restored. Emphasis isput on the implementation of CODEC at RTL level and investigate the effect of certain parameterssuch as Quantisation Parameter (QP) on overall compression of the frame rather than investigatingmultiple solutions of a specified block of CODEC.

  • 37.
    Torres Bahamonde, Berenice
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Topic, Boris
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kommuners val av pensionsförvaltning: En studie av den kommunala pensionsredovisningen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Swedish municipalities’ operations are described as being distinctive. This means that the municipalities differ from the private sector in terms of goal settings and performance. One of the characteristics found in the municipalities is their reporting of pensions that is to be accounted for according to the mixed model. Several studies have brought forward concerns that the accounting according to the mixed model may give rise to discretionary interpretations that assumedly are going to be exploited by the politicians in order to affect the financial reporting. A part of the discretion that is used in the earnings management is assumed to occur in the pension management of the defined benefit pension plans.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to explain the municipalities’ choice of management of the defined benefit pension plans.

    Method: A deductive approach has been used in the study to identify different theoretical relationships between the pension management and pension accounting. The study's design was based on providing a new insight into accounting research. To achieve this, twelve hypotheses were formulated and later tested using the statistical analysis.

    Conclusions: The study has shown that the variable profitability has been significant in the overall analyzes. This has led to the hypothesis that income smoothing could be used as to explain the municipalities’ choice of pension management. The variables population size and population change have also been shown to affect the choice of pension management. Doing the logistical regression with all the variables was however problematic. Therefore, the hypotheses on population size and population change have been rejected for the time being. The hypotheses that were designed have been interchangeable at different points between positive accounting theory and institutional theory, which has led to a more detailed explanation. They are therefore considered to have contributed each in its own way to explain the choice of pension management.

  • 38.
    Strojwas, Iwona
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Har behandlarens etnicitet/kultur betydelse? På spaning efter transkulturellt familjearbete2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to contribute to the description and development of cross-cultural family work. Six family therapists in social services outpatient were interviewed with a focus on the importance of their own ethnicity/culture in the meeting with the families and the similarities/differences in working approach with the Swedish and immigrant families. Interviews were analyzed using qualitative method

    The results shows that the therapist’s ethnicity/culture are important but socio-economic classis important too.

    My stud shows that there are both differences and similarities in working approach with immigrant families and Swedish families.

    The clearest differences that emerge in working approach with immigrants are described in the categories: to inform, to meet, different values and not knowing. Similarities are described in the categories: to see the universally human, to create relationships and to ensure resources,

    The result also describes what is important for a new employee to think about in an areawhere many immigrants live and what cross-culture work means to family therapists.

  • 39.
    Prabahar, Jasila
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Localization of Stroke Using Microwave Technology and Inner product Subspace Classifier2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke or “brain attack” occurs when a blood clot carried by the blood vessels from other part of the body blocks the cerebral artery in the brain or when a blood vessel breaks and interrupts the blood flow to parts of the brain. Depending on which part of the brain is being damaged functional abilities controlled by that region of the brain is lost. By interpreting the patient’s symptoms it is possible to make a coarse estimate of the location of the stroke, e.g. if it is on the left or right hemisphere of the brain. The aim of this study was to evaluate if microwave technology can be used to estimate the location of haemorrhagic stroke.

    In the first part of the thesis, CT images of the patients for whom the microwave measurement are taken is analysed and are used as a reference to know the location of bleeding in the brain. The X, Y and Z coordinates are calculated from the target slice (where the bleeding is more prominent). Based on the bleeding coordinated the datasets are divided into classes. Under supervised learning method the ISC algorithm is trained to classify stroke in the left and right hemispheres; stroke in the anterior and posterior part of the brain and the stroke in the inferior and superior region of the brain. The second part of the thesis is to analyse the classification result in order to identify the patients that were being misclassified.

    The classification results to classify the location of bleeding were promising with a high sensitivity and specificity that are indicated by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). AUC of 0.86 was obtained for bleedings in the left and right brain and an AUC of 0.94 was obtained for bleeding in the inferior and superior brain. The main constraint was the small size of the dataset and few availability of dataset with bleeding in the front brain that leads to imbalance between classes. After analysis it was found that bleedings that were close to the skull and few small bleedings that are deep inside the brain are being misclassified. Many factors can be responsible for misclassification like the antenna position, head size, amount of hair etc.

    The overall results indicate that SDD using ISC algorithm has high potential to distinguish bleedings in different locations. It is expected that the results will be more stable with increased patient dataset for training.

  • 40.
    Cervin, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reporting in digital pathology:increasing efficiency and accuracy using structured reporting2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The healthcare today is experiening a greater burden since diseases suchas cancer are more common. The diagnostic parts of the healthcare, suchas radiology and pathology, are aected with increased workload. Duringthe past several decades, systems for structured reporting in radiology havebecome available in a try to facilitate their work ow. The introduction ofdigital pathology has enabled the possibility to introduce structured reportingin pathology as well. The question is whether it can facilitate their work ow.Today's aids for structured reporting in radiology are more or less perceivedas distracting, and the challenge in this thesis is to create an aid for structuredreporting that is not distracting the pathologist's diagnostic work ow.To achieve this, a prototype with a template for invasive breast cancer andprostate cancer was implemented in Sectra's viewer for pathology images. Thetemplate for invasive breast cancer was tested by two pathologists in a userstudy with the main objective to determine the dierences in the diagnosticwork ow using the prototype and using only paper and pen. The pathologistcould see a use of the prototype both for breast assessment and assessmentsin other areas of pathology. Both pathologists also think that the prototypewill save time in their overall work ow, help them organize the informationretrieved during the assessment, and create an overall better diagnostic work- ow.

  • 41.
    Cuello, Rosandra
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Providing Support for the Movidius Myriad1 Platform in the SkePU Skeleton Programming Framework2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Movidius Myriad1 Platform is a multicore embedded platform primed to offer high performance and power efficiency for computer vision applications in mobile devices. The challenges of programming multicore environments are well known and skeleton programming offers a high-level programming alternative for parallel computing, intended to hide the complexities of the system from the programmer. The SkePU Skeleton Programming Framework includes backend implementations for CPU and GPU systems and it has the capacity to support more platforms by extending its backend implementations. With this master thesis project we aim to extend the SkePU Skeleton Programming Framework to provide support for execution in the Movidius Myriad1 embedded platform. Our SkePU backend for Myriad1 consists on a set of macros and functions to compose the different elements of a Myriad1 application, data communication structures to exchange data between the host systems and Myriad1, and a helper script and auxiliary files to generate a Myriad1 application.Evaluation and testing demonstrate that our backend is usable, however further optimizations are needed to obtain good performance that would make it practical to use in real life applications, particularly when it comes to data communication. As part of this project, we have outlined some improvements that could be applied to obtain better performance overall in the future, addressing the issues found with the methods of data communication.

  • 42.
    Karlsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Martinsson, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Intäktsdiversifiering i europeiska bankverksamheter: En studie om provisionsintäkternas effekt på aktiemarknadens värdering och variationen i aktiepriserna2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how revenue diversification in European banks affects the market valuation and the total, systematic and idiosyncratic risk. Since the mid-1980s, European banks have expanded towards non-interest income generating activities. The historical perception has been that revenue diversification can reduce overall earnings volatility, potentially contributing to an increased market valuation.

    The effects of revenue diversification are examined by using OLS regressions on panel data containing 103 banks from 24 European countries over the period of 2005 to 2012. Stock market data and the data from banks’ financial statements are used to calculate market valuations and total, systematic and idiosyncratic risk. Additionally, this study examines the economic significance of the results in order to evaluate the implications of revenue diversification.

    The study finds a positive effect of revenue diversification on a bank’s market value. Specifically, the findings suggest that the stock market anticipates that ‘fee income’ can improve future profits. However, a higher degree of revenue diversification increases all types of risks. The economic significance reveals that revenue diversification has a considerable effect on the market valuation and the systematic risk. At last, the effects of revenue diversification appear to have varied over time and were greater during the recent financial crisis.

  • 43.
    Skeppstedt, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Uppenberg, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Productivity measurement and improvements - A case study at Gnutti in Kungsör2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Examensarbetets syfte är att genomföra en utvärdering av produktivitetspotentialen på Gnutti i Kungsör och dessutom komma med förslag på lämpliga åtgärder som kan resultera i en förbättrad produktivitet. Effektivitet i maskinutrustning mäts i OEE, Overall Equipment Efficiency, vilket på svenska står för den totala utrustningseffektivteten. OEE-talet baseras på faktorerna tillgänglighet, effektivitet och kvalitet. Det primära målet för vinstdrivande industriföretag är att skapa lönsamhet genom att förädla sina produkter effektivt och då måste fokus på att mäta produktionseffektiviteten på rätt sätt finnas. För att mäta hur väl ett produktionssystem använder sina resurser kan OEE-mätningar utföras. För att kunna mäta den verkliga produktiviteten och dessutom kunna komma med förslag på lämpliga åtgärder för att höja OEE-talet anser författarna att en lättarbetad och konkret metod för produktivitetsutvärdering är lämplig att utgå från. Teori om produktivitets- potentialanalysmetoden förkortat PPA-metoden samt Rapid Plant Assessment process, RPA- processen har studerats och författarna har efter noggrant avvägande valt att använda PPA- metoden. En förbättring av OEE-talet kan verka som ett verktyg för att öka produktiviteten. Men för att höja OEE krävs det att inblandade parter förstår varför mätningen genomförs, hur mätetalet fungerar och kännedom om vad framtaget mätetalet ska användas till. Författarna har genomfört mätningar av OEE-faktorerna såsom de beskrivs i teorin. De, av författarna, uppmätta resultaten visar på att om en samverkan sker på ett optimalt sätt så kan mycket höga OEE-tal nås. För att nå det optimala tillståndet krävs det dock att processen är i ett stabilt tillstånd med minimal mängd oplanerade stopp. Uppmätt ”Best of the best-OEE” visar på att det finns potential att höja produktiviteten vilket sedermera kommer att visa sig i ett höjt OEE. De mätningar som genomförts för OEE på Gnutti har visat på att det främst är faktorn ”Effektivitet” som är den kritiska faktorn för att nå ett högt OEE-tal. I denna faktor innefattas kroniska störningar där stopp kan härledas till hastighetsförluster. Produktivitetspotentialen i produktionslinan anses vara mycket stor och genom enkla, i rapporten föreslagna medel, kan OEE-talet höjas vilket i sin tur kommer att påverka dess utfall i samma riktning.

  • 44.
    Appelgren, Linn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlsson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Paradox mellan Lean och motivation?: En medarbetarfokuserad undersökning om den upplevda motivationen i en kontext med Lean2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background In modern research, it is essential that companies consider employees’ motivation so that they benefit from the applied practices. A working method that has become increasingly common is the concept Lean, which has its origin in the Japanese automotive industry. Today, Lean has evolved into a universal concept that is applied in many industries worldwide. Although the concept involves numerous positive aspects it has endured strong criticism when it comes to the human aspects and researchers have raised the question if Lean is "Mean". Criticism is derived primarily to employees’ working conditions in terms of stress and lack, variation, autonomy, health and wellbeing. However, few empirical studies have been carried out that examines the impact that Lean has on employees’ experienced motivation.

    Aim The aim is to increase the understanding of employees’ experienced motivation in companies that practice Lean. Further on the study has the intention to investigate if there is a paradox between Lean and what motivates employees on work.

    Methodology The study has been conducted through a qualitative method by interviews and to be able to do a deeper examination and analyze how our phenomenon, motivation, is experienced in a Lean context we applied small-N-studies. Our strategy has been iterative, combining both a deductive and inductive approach, where the study has varied between theories and empirical observations until the final result.

    Conclusions We have identified that there is no paradox between Lean and motivation since the majority of employees’ experienced that they are motivated even though the company practice Lean. Nevertheless the study shows that there are both supportive and counteractive factors when it comes to the employees’ experienced working conditions. The counteractive factors consists foremost of high performance standards, goal steering and standardizations, and have in some cases a negative influence on the working conditions. Furthermore the experienced motivation is more positive overall when the companies use a softer form of Lean where all the members’ interests are taken into account.

  • 45.
    Nulle, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Common Security and Defence Policy of the EU: A Neo-Institutionalist Analysis of a Policy Field in Paralysis2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research work aims at improving the overall understanding of the Common Security and Defence Policy of the European Union and its functioning against the background of an increasingly perceived state of paralysis the policy field is said to be in more than 15 years after its formal establishment. On a diagnosing basis it closely examines and systematically identifies the responsible factors of the policy field's gridlock by setting up an analytical framework in order to study the policy field more closely. Through the application of three complementary neo-institutionalist approaches, whose explanatory power has already proofed to be illuminating for other spheres of the European integration process, it then provides explanations for the respective paralysing factors along the constituted analytical structure. The ultimate goal is thus to demonstrate that blaming the economic crisis for the prevalent stagnation in European security and defence cooperation is misleading and ignores much more fundamental problems the policy field is faced with.

  • 46.
    Krögerström, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    von Eichwald, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hälsorelaterad livskvalitet hos partner till personer med afasi: En undersökning baserad på hälsoenkäten SF-36 och semistrukturerade intervjuer2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Around 30,000 people in Sweden suffer stroke every year, out of which about 12,000 end up with language difficulties, aphasia. Behind every person with aphasia there are significant others whose lives are also affected. Studies of how aphasia affects the health of these people are few. The overall aim of the present study was to examine how significant others of people with aphasia perceive their life situation, and how their quality of life is affected by the illness of their partner. Spouses of people with aphasia were contacted through aphasia groups and the Swedish Aphasia Association. A total of eleven people participated in the study, which consisted of the health survey SF-36 and semi-structured interviews. The results indicated that men, working people, and people at retirement age are at risk of having a lower health-related quality of life, by living with a person suffering from aphasia. Other factors that seemed to contribute to a lower quality of life were; a more severe aphasia, a big work load at home, less mutual activities as a couple, and a general decrease of communication in everyday life. The conclusion is therefore, that the health-related quality of life is at risk of becoming negatively affected by living with a person who suffers from aphasia.

  • 47.
    Stupp, Roger
    et al.
    Multidisciplinary Oncology Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Mason, Warren P
    van den Bent, Martin J
    Weller, Michael
    Fisher, Barbara
    Taphoorn, Martin J B
    Belanger, Karl
    Brandes, Alba A
    Marosi, Christine
    Bogdahn, Ulrich
    Curschmann, Jürgen
    Janzer, Robert C
    Ludwin, Samuel K
    Gorlia, Thierry
    Allgeier, Anouk
    Lacombe, Denis
    Cairncross, J Gregory
    Eisenhauer, Elizabeth
    Mirimanoff, René O
    Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma2005In: The New England journal of medicine, ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 352, no 10, 987-996 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is usually rapidly fatal. The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma is surgical resection to the extent feasible, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. In this trial we compared radiotherapy alone with radiotherapy plus temozolomide, given concomitantly with and after radiotherapy, in terms of efficacy and safety.

    METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed glioblastoma were randomly assigned to receive radiotherapy alone (fractionated focal irradiation in daily fractions of 2 Gy given 5 days per week for 6 weeks, for a total of 60 Gy) or radiotherapy plus continuous daily temozolomide (75 mg per square meter of body-surface area per day, 7 days per week from the first to the last day of radiotherapy), followed by six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide (150 to 200 mg per square meter for 5 days during each 28-day cycle). The primary end point was overall survival.

    RESULTS: A total of 573 patients from 85 centers underwent randomization. The median age was 56 years, and 84 percent of patients had undergone debulking surgery. At a median follow-up of 28 months, the median survival was 14.6 months with radiotherapy plus temozolomide and 12.1 months with radiotherapy alone. The unadjusted hazard ratio for death in the radiotherapy-plus-temozolomide group was 0.63 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.75; P<0.001 by the log-rank test). The two-year survival rate was 26.5 percent with radiotherapy plus temozolomide and 10.4 percent with radiotherapy alone. Concomitant treatment with radiotherapy plus temozolomide resulted in grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxic effects in 7 percent of patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: The addition of temozolomide to radiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma resulted in a clinically meaningful and statistically significant survival benefit with minimal additional toxicity.

  • 48.
    Klingström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Appeals in Web Advertising: Exploring the influence of ethical and financial appeals on consumer attitudes2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Advertising has been a common element in the web experience for years. Advertisers can use many strategies to reach their intended consumer, and can appeal to for example rationality, emotion or ethics. Using theories on the composition of ads, their context and the web user, this paper presents a study testing two types of advertising appeals – an ethical appeal and a financial appeal. The experiment tested for the effect of these appeals on outcome measures of attitude, trust and credibility, and attributions. The results show some differences between the attitudes toward the ad between the conditions, where the financial appeal produced more positive attitudes. The results also suggest a relationship between the credibility and trust measures, and the overall positive attitude toward the brand. The results are discussed in terms of credibility and perceived veracity of claims associated with the appeal.

  • 49.
    Frankenstein, Katri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundberg, Loviisa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    LAURA: Kognitiv beteendeterapi för kvinnor med psykisk ohälsa till följd av en traumatisk förlossning: En randomiserad kontrollerad studie av internetadministrerad vägledd självhjälpsbehandling2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to investigate the effect of internet- administered guided self-help for women suffering from psychological problems following traumatic childbirth. The eight-week treatment program consisted of written chapters based on cognitive behavioral therapy. 56 participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n = 28) or a waiting list group (n = 28).The results showed that post-traumatic symptoms decreased as a result of the treatment, with large within-group effects measured by both the Traumatic Event Scale (TES) (d = 1.33) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) (d = 1.3). The difference between the groups was only significant when measured by the IES-R in which case the between-group effect was large (d = 0.97). The proportion of the participants who showed clinically significant improvement was considerably greater in the treatment group than in the waiting list group. For other measured outcomes, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), the difference between the groups were not significant,however the treatment group showed significant improvements between pre-and post measurements on all accounts.LAURA is most likely the first study to examine the treatment of psychological problems following traumatic childbirth. The results are promising and overall show that internet-administered cognitive behavioral therapy reduces post-traumatic symptoms following a traumatic childbirth, indicating a decrease in symptoms of anxiety and depression, and an improvement in quality of life.

  • 50.
    Skeppstedt, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Uppenberg, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Produktivitetsmätning och förbättringar: En fallstudie på Gnutti i Kungsör2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to conduct an evaluation of the productivity potential at Gnutti in Kungsör and additionally come up with suggestions to improve the process that may result in improved productivity. Efficiency of machinery is measured in OEE, Overall Equipment Efficiency. OEE is based on three factors - availability, efficiency and quality. The primary goal of profit making enterprises is to generate profit by refining their products efficiently. To make that possible they have to focus on measuring the production efficiency in the right way. To measure how well a production system uses its resources OEE measurements can be performed.

    In order to measure the real productivity and also be able to make suggestions to raise the OEE authors consider that an easy and practical method for productivity evaluation is appropriate. Theory of the Productivity Potential Assessment method (the PPA-method) and the Rapid Plant Assessment process (the RPA process) has been studied, and the authors have after careful consideration chosen to use the PPA-method.

    An improvement in OEE can be practiced as a tool to increase productivity. But to raise the OEE it requires the parties involved understand why measurement is performed, how the measurement number works and knowledge of what the developed measurement number will be used for. The OEE Gnutti measure today is not consistent with the theory of how an OEE is to be calculated. The authors have performed measurements of the OEE factors as described in the studied theory. The results show that if an interaction occurs in an optimal manner - at the same time, very high levels of OEE can be reached. To reach the optimum state it requires that the process is in a stable condition with a minimal amount of unplanned downtime. Measured "Best of the best - OEE" indicates that there is potential to raise the productivity, which subsequently will appear in an increased OEE.

    The measurements carried out for OEE at Gnutti has shown that it is mainly the factor "Efficiency" that is the critical factor for achieving high OEE. This factor includes chronic disorders where stops can be directly linked to speed losses. Finally, the authors refer back to the PPA-study which purpose is to measure the real productivity potential of a specific floor shop section. Productivity potential of the production line is considered to be very large, and through simple means proposed by the report the OEE may rise - which in turn will affect the outcome of the process in the same direction.

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