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  • 1.
    Larsson, John-Olov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Evaluation of Flux and Timing Calibration of the XMM-Newton EPIC-MOS Cameras in Timing Mode2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    XMM-Newton is a X-ray telescope launched december 1999, by the European Space Agency, ESA. On board XMM-Newton are two EPIC-MOS X-ray detectors. The detectors are build by Charged Coupled Devices (CCDs), of Metal Oxide Semi-conductor type. The EPIC-MOS cameras have four science operating modes. This project aims to evaluate the calibration for one of these four modes, the timing mode.

    The evaluation is divided into two parts. The first part is the evaluation of the flux calibration, performed by analysing various observation made in timing mode. The second part is the evaluation of timing properties by performing timing analysis of XMM-Newton observations of the Crab nebula compared to observations made in the radio wavelengths.

  • 2.
    Falk, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Blomkvist, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Flexibla fixturer i bearbetande maskiner2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was conducted at Linköping University and Saab Aerostructures DPS, Linköping, and focuses on the possibilities of flexible fixturing in machining applications. The thesis is part of the research project "Koofix", which is collaboration between Linköping University and a number of companies.

    The thesis is aimed towards small batch production which, for Saab Aerostructures DPS, means diverse part geometry and that parts are manufactured in very small numbers, sometimes just one piece. The result of this is that expensive dedicated fixtures are made for most parts. By introducing more flexible fixturing methods to this kind of production the cost of fixtures and tooling will be reduced, and make the production more efficient.

    New flexible fixturing methods has been presented and evaluated through the thesis, which has resulted in three different concepts. These concepts have been the result of literature screening and study of current manufacturing process at Saab Aerostructures DPS. The concepts has been evaluated according to there ability to meet Saab Aerostructures DPS needs and a final concept has been chosen. The concept that is considered being the best solution employs an adjustable frame to encompass several different part geometries. This concept allows the workpiece to be machined in a single step and the fixture can be adjusted to fit workpieces with different geometries. On other concept considered in the thesis employs electromagnet with adjustable elements and is capable of fixing more complex geometries. The concept also allows the fixture to be adjusted between different products to be machine by the CNC-machine itself. Also a concept that’s not a fixture itself but a method that allows a simpler fixture to be used has been developed. This concept uses adhesives to combine extra material to the part, which allows for less complex fixtures to be used in the machining process.

    The concepts with the adjustable frame and the electromagnet and adjustable elements are both using the machines control system to locate the detail by probing before the machining process starts. Probing is done by equipping the spindle with a touch trigger probe which measures pre-programmed contact points and calculates exact part position.

  • 3.
    Svensson, Marlene
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    A CFD Investigation of a Generic Bump and its Application to a Diverterless Supersonic Inlet2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a Master Thesis done at the Swedish Defence Research Agency with the purpose to design and investigate how different geometries of a compression surface integrated with an intake affects the performance such as distortion, boundary layer diversion, pressure recovery and deceleration of speed.

    The work was divided in two parts. In the first part, CFD calculations using the FOI developed Edge 4.1 code were made for the compression surfaces alone. In the second part the most promising design was integrated with an intake. Two more bumps with the intake were modelled and the three geometries were compared to the intake without bump. Surface flow, deceleration of Mach number, pressure recovery, mass flow, boundary layer diversion, lift and drag were the factors chosen to be examined, boundary layer diversion and pressure recovery being the two most vital.

  • 4.
    Karelid, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Image Enhancement over a Sequence of Images2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master Thesis has been conducted at the National Laboratory of Forensic Science (SKL) in Linköping. When images that are to be analyzed at SKL, presenting an interesting object, are of bad quality there may be a need to enhance them. If several images with the object are available, the total amount of information can be used in order to estimate one single enhanced image. A program to do this has been developed by studying methods for image registration and high resolution image estimation. Tests of important parts of the procedure have been conducted. The final results are satisfying and the key to a good high resolution image seems to be the precision of the image registration. Improvements of this part may lead to even better results. More suggestions for further improvementshave been proposed.

  • 5.
    Hanson, Calle
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Adaptive level-of-detail representations for real-time simulation of natural environments2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is written to explore the possibility of generating planet shaped virtual worlds. Today’s computer games present more and more complex worlds but have yet to show us a complete spherical world in large scale. The thesis goes in to describing a data structure sufficient for the task as well as describing how to use the structure.

    We evaluate previously done work for planar worlds and use this as a base when defining our new structure. Since a lot of work has been done in this area for planar worlds there exist several well defined concepts that can either be used as is or with a few minor changes. But certain parts needs to be replaced by new concepts since what we want to describe differs much from traditional virtual worlds. The result is a structure that enables a user to interact in real-time with a planet shaped terrain surface.

  • 6.
    Grundström, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design and Implementation of an Appraisal Module for Virtual Characters2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of artificial intelligence the production of believable emotions are vital to be able to produce believable behavior of virtual agents. This is done with a process called affective appraisal, which means that events and situations are appraised and emotions are produced accordingly. The Artificial Intelligence and Computer Graphics (AICG) lab at Linköpings University has been devel- oping an AI architecture for virtual agents. This architecture had an appraisal module in need of improvement. This M.Sc. thesis had the purpose of doing this.

    Several approaches to affective appraisal are discussed and compared and finally one approach, called the OCC model, is chosen for implementation. This model is suitable for a real-time AI architecture as it is simple, easy to implement and can produce a wide range of emotions. The implementation of the OCC model is described in terms of how its different parts are incorporated into the previously existing AI architecture. Three extensions to the OCC model are also implemented to improve the results: emotional memories, the appraisal of unexpected events and interaction between the produced emotions.

    Finally the implementation is tested and the results of the tests are discussed. It is found that the implementation produces sufficient results for the scope of the thesis and for the requirements of the AI architecture into which it is incorporated. 

  • 7.
    Ravanbakhsh, Samyar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elastic travel demand analysis - An application to the West link railway in Gothenburg2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the regional railway system lacks the capacity at the central station in order to meet the demand for both the public and freight transportation. The West link is a railway infrastructure project that is expected to both increase train commuting and also increase the train capacity at the central station in Gothenburg. The purpose of this thesis work is to do an elastic demand analysis between car traffic and the West Link in modal shift to determine how many travelers will change mode. Also traffic simulations will be made to investigate the traffic conditions around the stations when the West link has been implemeted. The simulation results showed that nowadays there are congestions on the major highways and some of the smaller low capacity roads. In the future, congestions will become more significant if no countermeasures are implemented like the West link. In the elastic demand analysis the results were overall around 47% – 51% on a demand of between 350 000 – 400 000 trips. As a conclusion it cannot be said whether the West link will ease the pressure on car traffic or not. The reasons are that the population will increase about 100 000 inhabitants until 2030 and the West link is assumed by the region to have this amount of travelers each day. This would result in the same traffic pressure as today with congestions in certain parts. If the number of West link users will be around 200 000, as the results of this thesis shows, then the West link will ease the pressure on car traffic.

  • 8.
    Nilsson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reactor disposal evaluation at Sol Voltaics2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to map the current method for decommissioning / disposing of the Nano-wire reactor at Sol Voltaics. Additionally, alternatives should be suggested based on the findings during the mapping processes and the subsequent analysis. The aim of the presented alternatives was to improve the current workflow for reactor decommissioning based on five identified areas; Rules and Regulations; Environmental aspects; Safety aspects; Economical aspects and Logistical aspects. The existing disposal procedure was divided into six steps. The first step involves a purging procedure to make sure no hazardous gases remain in the reactor. The second step is to dismantle and seal the reactor. The third step is to move the reactor to a loading dock. The fourth step is the transport between Active Biotech in Lund and Sydblästring AB in Malmö. The fifth step is the disassembly and cleaning process of the reactor parts, including waste management. The sixth and final step is to move the cleaned parts to SYSAV in Malmö for final disposal. Finally, Rules and Regulations as well as Safety aspects were identified as having partial improvement potential. Ideas for possible alternatives in these areas was devised and analyzed according to all five areas to make sure that the improvements in one area would not bring undesirable shortcomings in another.

  • 9.
    Berner, Ellen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Björkrot, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Grip, Didrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Jonsson, Alma
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Kozma, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Wikblad, Ludwig
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Wikström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Österlund, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Festiketten: Developement of an E-commerce Web Application for custom designed bottle labels2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report examines how an online store for custom designed bottle labels can be developed as a web application, and aims to contribute to the existing research on web design. The development is based on the vision” to provide custom labels through an online store which puts the icing on the cake for your special occasion”, with persons in the age 25-40 who are planning a wedding or another large event as target group. The technical methods which can be used are presented in the report and what impact they had on the competitive aspects of the online store. Design strategies for building user trust are discussed among others, as essential parts of e-commerce according to the presented theory. Furthermore, the report presents more concrete technical methods for increasing the competitiveness such as faster loading times and search engine optimization. Especially loading times plays a central role for the success of a web application according to the related theory. The methods which has been used and why, considering the collected theory, are presented in the report. The conclusions of the report states that an online store successfully can be developed using an agile methodology such as Scrum and that it can take benefits from being implemented as a single page application. Developing a design tool for custom bottle labels proved to be a difficult balancing act between customization and simplicity. 

  • 10.
    Lundgren, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control.
    Using Homographies for Vehicle Motion Estimation2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis describes a way to represent vehicles when tracking them through an image sequence. Vehicles are described with a state containing their position, velocity, size, etc.. The thesis highlights the properties of homographies due to their suitability for estimation of projective transformations. The idea is to approximatively represent vehicles with planes based on feature points found on the vehicles. The purpose with this approach is to estimate the displacement of a vehicle by estimating the transformation of these planes. Thus, when avehicle is observed from behind, one plane approximates features found on the back and one plane approximates features found on the side, if the side of the vehicle is visible. The projective transformations of the planes are obtained by measuring the displacement of feature points.

    The approach presented in this thesis builds on the prerequisites that a camera placed on a vehicle provides an image of its field of view. It does not cover how to find vehicles in an image and thus it requires that the patch which contains the vehicle is provided.

    Even though this thesis covers large parts of image processing functionalities, the focus is on how to represent vehicles and how to design an appropriate filter for improving estimates of vehicle displacement. Due to noisy features points, approximation of planes, and estimated homographies, the obtained measurements are likely to be noisy. This requires a filter that can handle corrupt measurements and still use those that are not.

    An unscented Kalman filter, UKF, is utilized in this implementation. The UKF is an approximate solution to nonlinear filtering problems and is here used to update the vehicle’s states by using measurements obtained from homographies. The choice of the unscented Kalman filter was made because of its ease of implementation and its potentially good performance.

    The result is not a finished implementation for tracking of vehicles, but rather a first attempt for this approach. The result is not better than the existing approach, which might depend on one or several factors such as poorly estimated homographies, unreliable feature points and bad performance of the UKF.

  • 11.
    Henriksson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Face detection for selective polygon reduction of humanoid meshes2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automatic mesh optimization algorithms suffer from the problem that humans are not uniformly sensitive to changes on different parts of the body. This is a problem because when a mesh optimization algorithm typically measures errors caused by triangle reductions, the errors are strictly geometrical, and an error of a certain magnitude on the thigh of a 3D model will be perceived by a human as less of an error than one of equal geometrical significance introduced on the face. The partial solution to this problem proposed in this paper consists of detecting the faces of the 3D assets to be optimized using conventional, existing 2D face detection algorithms, and then using this information to selectively and automatically preserve the faces of 3D assets that are to be optimized, leading to a smaller perceived error in the optimized model, albeit not necessarily a smaller geometrical error. This is done by generating a set of per-vertex weights that are used to scale the errors measured by the reduction algorithm, hence preserving areas with higher weights. The final optimized meshes produced by using this method is found to be subjectively closer to the original 3D asset than their non-weighed counterparts, and if the input meshes conform to certain criteria this method is well suited for inclusion in a fully automatic mesh decimation pipeline

  • 12.
    Börjesson, Veronica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Karolin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluating the user experience in mobile games using session recording tools2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work examines how the user experience of mobile games can be evaluated with the use of session recording tools. The thesis project was carried out at the mobile games development company MAG Interactive, and the aim was to produce a workflow for the company with guidelines for how to conduct user testing with session recording tools for mobile devices. In order to evaluate the tools and services, and to develop the workflow, several user tests have been conducted. When using mobile session recording tools, it is possible to record the screen of the device, the microphone input and in some tools also the front camera input while the user is playing the game. Recording the test session makes it easier to understand and evaluate the player experience of the game and also to identify usability issues. The thesis also covers other parts necessary when conducting user testing besides the actual session recording tool. These are test set up (instructions, tasks etc.), integration, distribution of the test and the application and also analysis of the recorded test session.

  • 13.
    Valter, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dynamic real-time scene voxelization and an application for large scale scenes2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a basic implementation of scene voxelization within the Frostbite engine created by EA Frostbite. The algorithm supports dynamic scenes by voxelizing in real-time using the Graphical Programming Unit. The voxel grid is stored inside a buffer with a binary representation using clip mapping and multiple levels of detail. An ambient occlusion algorithm is implemented to show the benefits of the structure. Results from running the application within the engine is presented, both with figures showing the resulting image and timings for diifferent parts of the algorithm. Several future improvements to make the algorithm more competitive is presented as well.

  • 14.
    Asp, Filip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krispinsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Distributed certificates in ad hoc networks2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report an ad hoc system is defined with the capabilities to validate the integrity ofevery node in the network without a third party, as long as every node has possession of acertificate. The system is developed to function in an ad hoc network with many externalthreats. The main target group would be the military and first responders. There are manydifferent problems with such a network, and many parts have been researched, but few fullsystems have been developed. This report defines a hierarchical system where nodes cancommunicate in an encrypted way, with the help of certificates. In a military situation therisk for compromised nodes must be considered. Therefore, the system can both detectand handle compromised nodes by revocation certificates. The proposed system is alsodetecting and handling partitions. The system has been put together by first making aliterature study to find existing solutions to different problems, then making a synthesisof those solutions. We also came up with new solutions where the three cornerstones ofsecurity: availability, confidentiality and integrity were in focus. To make the solutionmore trustworthy a risk analysis on the resulting system was made, which defined theweak points of the system.

  • 15.
    Karlsson, Therése
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lawrence, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    English as a Second Language for Kenyan Children in Primary School: A Trial of the Spoken Language Assessment Profile – Revised Edition2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sub-Saharan Africa is a multilingual environment and there is a lack of materials available for speech and language assessment in this area (Hartley & Krämer, 2013). The norms for assessment material cannot be used for both monolinguals and bilinguals, since bilinguals may have different levels of knowledge in their languages (Kohnert, 2010). The Spoken Language Assessment Profile – Revised edition (SLAP-R) is an assessment that can be used to evaluate English as a second language (ESL) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this instrument is an attempt to fill the gap of suitable speech and language assessment tools that can be used for all those involved in setting up clinics, schools or speech and language assessment tools (Hartley & Krämer, 2013). The aim of the present study was to assess English as a second language for Kenyan children in primary school based on their result on the SLAP-R. The present study consisted of 68 participants with reported typically developed language and hearing that attended first or second grade in a public school in western Kenya. All participants were between six and nine years old, had a Bantu language as their first language and had been exposed to English for less than one year up to eight years. They had also attended preschool at their current school. The independent variables in the present study were grade, age and exposure to English. SLAP-R consists of six subtests that test expressive and receptive phonology, semantics and grammar. These parts constituted the dependent variables. In addition there is a part called ultimate expressive language skill (UELS) that consists of picture sequences where the participant should tell a story of what is happening in the pictures. The result indicated that grade had the largest effect on the participant’s performance in English as a second language. Grade two had significantly higher results regarding receptive phonology as well as expressive and receptive semantics and grammar than the participants in grade one. Most of the incorrect answers were made in the subtest expressive grammar. These answers were mainly incorrect due to other reasons than an answer in Kiswahili.

  • 16.
    Mahrs Träff, Annsfie
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Perceptions of the concept of physical activity among older people and staff in residential homes2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation aims to present parts of my doctoral work focusing on the ability and desire to be physically active when you live in a residential home for the elderly. The aim for this part of the study was to identify and describe variations in perceptions of the concept for “physical activity”.Physical activity is described as positive and important for all people. My thesis is to investigate how people are interested in, and able to, maintaining physical activities even though they often have significant disabilities. And also to investigate how older people in residential homes are experiencing opportunities for physical activity and how their physical environment affects these opportunities.The part of my studies that will be presented have a phenomenografic approach was used to analyze semistructurated interviews with elderly people living on residential homes and with staff. This took place in four residential homes in two municipalities in Sweden.The interviews show that the older people often describes physical activity in one way when asked about what the concept of physical activity means to them and sometimes also states that physical activity is something that they do not perform. Later in the interview the very same person can describe the activities of a physical nature which they do in everyday life, for example to walk. A number of staff do describe that physically activity is one thing when it comes to themselves, but something else when it comes to the older people.To have different perceptions of a central concept can affect both hopes and expectations.

  • 17.
    Ebintra, Emma
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Intersectional Stigmatization of the Piranha in Prostitution: A case study of young women in prostitution  in central Lima2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is constructed upon narratives of fourteen young women, who have been working in prostitution since they were street children in central Lima, and acknowledges their stigmatization in the Peruvian society, and how they challenge their socially constructed position. By combining narrative method with an intersectional analysis I have, through a multi-layered loupe, interpreted the young women’s interpretation of themselves and their social world. I will bring forward how these young women view their subordinate and stigmatized position through their narratives surrounding their bodies as shameful, culpable, sexual and fixed. This stigmatization is intersectional as it surrounds all parts of their lives and situatedness within the Peruvian society. This situatedness is complex, involving hierarchical structures that have been present in Peru since colonization and imperialism (cf. Wade 2009). In addition, I will bring forward how the young women engage in strategies to challenge this stigmatization by applying measures to increase their respectability (cf. Skeggs).

  • 18.
    Pettersson, Alice
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Can stress-related behavior in dogs be due to pain? A pilot study.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dogs and other pets can have back pain for years that no one notices. As a result they become stressed and can e.g. develop aggressiveness or decrease their feeding. There are indications that chiropractic treatments can treat these animals but this is not commonly known by veterinarians. This study investigated stress related behaviors and average heart rate in ten dogs before and after chiropractic treatment. A control group of eight dogs was also tested but did not receive the treatment. The test consisted of three parts: 1) one part without owner interaction, 2) one part where a human approached and 3) one part were the owner commanded the dog to sit and lie down. Eight out of ten owners experienced a positive change in their dogs’ behavior one week after the treatment though the test results did rather point at more stressful behaviors. The test group showed an increase in yawning and panting from the first to the second test (after the treatment) and showed a higher heart rate after the treatment compared to the control group during part 1. Probably due to that the treatment and the tests were in the same local and the dogs became stressed by being there again. Part 3 did show a possible increase in movability and contact with the owner but more studies are needed to confirm the change that the owners experienced. Though, this study is a step in the right direction; more animals could be treated and saved from euthanizing if chiropractic and the diagnosis of this back injury are taught to veterinarians.

  • 19.
    Ljungqvist, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Motion Planning and Stabilization for a Reversing Truck and Trailer System2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work contains a stabilization and a motion planning strategy for a truck and trailer system. A dynamical model for a general 2-trailer with two rigid free joints and a kingpin hitching has been derived based on previous work. The model holds under the assumption of rolling without slipping of the wheels and has been used for control design and as a steering function in a probabilistic motion planning algorithm.

    A gain scheduled Linear Quadratic (LQ) controller with a Pure pursuit path following algorithm has been designed to stabilize the system around a given reference path. The LQ controller is only used in backward motion and the Pure pursuit controller is split into two parts which are chosen depending on the direction of motion.

    A motion planning algorithm called Closed-Loop Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (CL-RRT) has then been used to plan suitable reference paths for the system from an initial state configuration to a desired goal configuration with obstacle-imposed constraints. The motion planning algorithm solves a non-convex optimal control problem by randomly exploring the input space to the closed-loop system by performing forward simulations of the closed-loop system.

    Evaluations of performance is partly done in simulations and partly on a Lego platform consisting of a small-scale system. The controllers have been used on the Lego platform with successful results. When the reference path is chosen as a smooth function the closed-loop system is able to follow the desired path in forward and backward motion with a small control error.

    In the work, it is shown how the CL-RRT algorithm is able to plan non-trivial maneuvers in simulations by combining forward and backward motion. Beyond simulations, the algorithm has also been used for planning in open-loop for the Lego platform.

  • 20.
    Schnell, Felizia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Performance on pattern recogniton declins with age while performance on pattern separation does not2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to explore if pattern recognition and pattern separation tasks performance degenerate with age. This as there are studies by Brickman et al. (2014) that suggest that these tasks are being performed by the hippocampus in particular, the dentate gyrus part. The tasks used in this report were replicated from a study in which it was assumed that they tested this parts. As both the hippocampus and the dentate gyrus supposedly degenerate with age, the tasks tested this degeneration by looking if the participant’s performance on the tasks changed with age. The performance on the pattern separation task did not change with age while the pattern recognition task did. This preservation of pattern separation might mean that the pattern separation tasks does not measure the dentate gyrus. It might also mean that the hippocampus might not degenerate as previously assumed or that the pattern separation task really test the hippocampus.

  • 21.
    Michailovskyte, Giedre
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Diversification of Contemporary Diplomacy - the Rise of Dance Diplomacy2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the diversification of contemporary diplomacy in a deeper manner by choosing the concept of dance, which has never been chosen before. Theoretical andhistorical analysis of dance diplomacy helps us to answer the main research question of thestudy how does dance diplomacy contribute to the diversification of contemporary diplomacy. This research paper utilizes a qualitative methodology with the interpretative, historical, descriptive and cultural approaches and uses qualitative methods of literature review, content analysis, comparative analysis and theory triangulation. In this study we seethat dancers and choreographers complement today's diplomats, we find that the implications of cultural diversity expand an understanding of contemporary diplomacy, and that new emerging practices of dance diplomacy contribute to “new diplomacy” findings. Furthermore, practices of dance diplomacy could be described as parts of cultural diplomacy, public diplomacy, instruments of soft power or forms of nonverbal communication. This illustrates that contemporary diplomacy is somehow shaped by culture, public, power and communication, and therefore it could be understood from all these perspectives. Besides this, a chosen historical perspective and a background of the dance diplomacy help us to see that dance diplomacy is a natural consequence of the evolution of diplomacy. At last, it is relevant for the academic society to ground it on a scientific theoretical basis, which could expand our understanding of contemporary diplomacy.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of catchment processes in sediments from Bolgoda Lake, Sri Lanka2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom sediment is an archive of the historical changes in a lake and its catchment. This thesis is apalaeoenvironmental reconstruction of catchment processes in Bolgoda Lake situated in western SriLanka. We studied a sediment core retrieved from this lake. In our study, we focus on multiplephysical and chemical proxies: grain-size, loss-on-ignition, total organic carbon content, C:N ratio,and δ13C stored in the organic matter. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understandingof the palaeoenvironmental conditions in the region and allow a comparison between this site andothers.In the deepest part of the core, we see an overall high sand content, which indicates a period ofhigher discharge into the lake compared to what the other core parts indicate. This is probably aresult of higher precipitation. This is followed by a decline in C:N and a rise in TOC in the second partwhich indicates an increase of primary production in the lake. In the third part we again see a shift inthe C:N indicating a source change back to more terrestrial runoff. The increase in TOC and LOIvalues together with decrease in C:N ratio and a steady increase in δ13C indicate an increase inlacustrine productivity in the upper part of the core.By reconstructing the palaeoenvironmental history in Bolgoda Lake we can conclude that it isprobable that some other factor than diagenetic change affects the lake. Our results indicate thatthese changes most likely are due to more wet periods and anthropogenic activity, mainly throughland use changes.

  • 23.
    Kinnunen, Isabelle
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An in depth analysis of the Preferential Bidding System for SAS Crew Planning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Crew planning is a complex optimization problem that usually is divided into two separate parts, pairing and rostering. In the rostering process crewmembers are assigned a personal roster, a schedule, for the next coming time period. In order for the crew to have an influence on their roster, SAS have implemented a Preferential Bidding System (PBS) where the crew has the ability to express their wishes regarding their roster, formulated as bids. Generally there is an outspoken dissatisfaction among the crew about PBS and how it works and therefore the questions were raised of how the system could be more transparent and how the bid fulfillment could be communicated both internally and externally. The performed analysis was made with regard to bidding pattern and bid fulfillment and was both quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative part consisted of a thorough review of historic data (delimited to only four months) and a questionnaire, targeting the whole crew collective, was set up as a complementary qualitative analysis. In this thesis the work and result is presented. The result of the analysis shows that satisfaction felt by the crew cannot be directly compared to bid fulfillment as it is measured today. The major aspects of improving the PBS should include a simplification regarding mainly bid types, but also actions in order to increase the transparency of the system and awareness. The recommendation to SAS is to present statistics to crew for each bid type regarding number of placed bids, number of possible fulfillments and how much that is fulfilled thus visualizing the possibility to get a bid fulfilled. A revised range of bid types have also been recommended along with a few minor changes.

  • 24.
    Randell, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Numerical Simulation of Temperature and Velocity Profiles in a Horizontal CVD-reactor2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) has the potential to significantly improve electronics. As a material, it can conduct heat better, carry larger currents and can give faster responses compared to today’s technologies. One way to produce SiC for use in electronics is by growing a thin layer in a CVD-reactor (chemical vapour deposition). A CVD-reactor leads a carrier gas with small parts of active gas into a heated chamber (susceptor). The gas is then rapidly heated to high temperatures and chemical reactions occur. These new chemical substances can then deposit on the substrate surface and grow a SiC layer. This thesis investigates the effect of different opening angles on a susceptor inlet in a SiC horizontal hot-walled CVD-reactor at Linköping University. The susceptor inlet affects both the flow and heat transfer and therefore has an impact on the conditions over the substrate. A fast temperature rise in the gas as close to the substrate as possible is desired. Even temperaturegradients vertically over the substrate and laminar flow is desired. The CVD-reactor is modeled with conjugate heat transfer using CFD simulations for three different angles of the inlet. The results show that the opening angle mainly affects the temperature gradient over the substrate and that a wider opening angle will cause a greater gradient. The opening angle will have little effect on the temperature of the satellite and substrate.

  • 25.
    Bol, Simona
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ceric, Ajla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bitcoin - ett hållbart betalningsmedel?: En transaktionskostnadsanalys av Bitcoin som betalningsmedel jämfört med traditionella betalningsmedel2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Swedish central bank has had a currency monopoly since 1897, which has meant that they since then have had exclusive right to issue money. Technological advances and the increasing use of the Internet has led to an evolvement of virtual communities and in some cases these communities created their own currency. Bitcoin is the worlds first fully decentralized currency. In the beginning the currency was based on technological curiosity to a handful of hobbyists. In recent years demand for bitcoins has increased, which has led to a dramatic price increase.Aim: The purpose of this thesis is to identify and analyze the transaction costs that may arise when Bitcoin is used as means of payment, and to compare these costs with the transaction costs associated with the use of traditional means of payment.

    Completion: The study was conducted through a mixture of qualitative and quantitative approaches as well as a processing of the transaction cost theory in the context of new institutional theory. The empirical material consists of three parts in which the study begins with a literature review for the reader to get a glimpse of what Bitcoin is and how the currency works. The qualitative approach is in the form of semi-structured interviews and finally the study's quantitative approach is presented in the form of a questionnaire to survey the use of bitcoin.Conclusion: The study shows that Bitcoins transaction costs are higher than conventional means of payments when account is taken to the fact that the currency is dependent on the current financial structure. The user furthermore disclaims the safety net that traditional means of payments offer. For Bitcoin to become an established means of payment it requires that the basic functions of money are fulfilled which the study shows is inadequate.

  • 26.
    Backlund, Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sörensson, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valuta och internationellt bistånd: Svenska biståndsorganisationers hantering av valutaköp och valutarisk2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are active in most parts of the world and are consequently exposed to foreign exchange risk. The organizations manage aid funds in both common and uncommon types of currency when they in different ways finance local cooperation partners. The amount of previous research how aid organizations handle the management of currency trade and foreign exchange risk is limited and this study aims to examine the area further.

    Aim: The study aims to analyse the complex of problems regarding exposure to foreign exchange risk for both Swedish NGOs and their cooperation partners, to do so on the basis of foreign exchange risk theory and best practice. The aim is in such a way to discuss general strategies for currency trade and foreign exchange risk management for Swedish NGOs.

    Completion: The qualitative approach consists of nine interviews that have been designed in accordance with theory and previous research. A picture of the organizational processes and needs of Swedish NGOs regarding foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management was given by five interviews with NGOs. Information concerning how foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management is utilized in practice and how experts in the field perceive current management of NGOs was gathered from four interviews with actors within foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management. The empirical data is analysed on the basis of the theoretical framework and previous research.

    Conclusion: The study shows that the complex of problems regarding foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management are not as straightforward as at first glance. It also indicates that foreign exchange risk management differs between for-profit businesses and non-profit organizations. It appears that NGOs currently transfer all foreign exchange risk exposure to its counterpart through contracts. The investigation and implementation of foreign exchange risk management is not possible for NGOs with a large ratio of restricted funds. Finally a number of strategies have been developed for a more cost-effective currency trade. 

  • 27.
    Rasmus, Enhörning
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andreas, Herman
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Freemium-design för GoSupernova-mobilspel2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The decision of which business model to follow, when developing a game, has become one of the most important choices a company has to make. In our re- search we have compared and evaluated different kinds of freemium based busi- ness models. The objective with the research is to follow a constructed business model when developing a game. The game concept is based on an existing game called GoSupernova complemented with a litarature-based study. Which parts of the concept that has been implemented follow the client’s requests, but also discussions on which parts are most essential for the gameplay. The goal with the game concept is to have good potential to consolidate a continuous playing behaviour. To accomplish this we had to take many different factors into account that could affect the user’s opinion of the game, both in short and long term. The game should be satisfying enough to get users to play, but unsatisfying enough so users to have something to work for. This can also benefit in-app purchases, when users try to achive different goals.

  • 28.
    Bonnevier, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nyman, Lowisa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    European Market Infrastructure Regulation: En institutionell analys av implementeringsproblematiken och dess kostnader2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to the financial crisis of year 2008. European Market Infrastructure Regulation, EMIR, was introduced to increase transparency and reduce the counterparty risk on the European derivatives market. The market demonstrates that the implementation has been problematic and an indistinct designing is expressed. According to studies, increased transaction costs have occurred due to the regulation. Operators that usually not are included by oversight by the Swedish FSA, now are due to EMIR which contributes to an implementation problem essential to analyse.

    Aim: The aim with the study is to investigate and by institutional theory analyse what costs and problems that occurs at the implementation of EMIR and to discuss solutions for these.

    Completion: To accomplish the aim of the study, the writers have used institutional theory and a qualitative approach. The empirical data is treated with focus on the implementation problems that affected parts experienced due to EMIR. The empirical data will be concluded with semi – structured interviews. The affected parts, in the study, are different stakeholders on the market that has developed because of the implementation of EMIR. With the theory as background different solutions to the implementation problems will be discussed in the analysis.

    Conclusion: The regulation is considered to be unclear and complex which results in increased transaction costs. Several costs and problems have been identified in conjunction with the implementation of EMIR. The different solution provided is explained to depend on if the participant is considered a small or a big contestant on the market. The writer can ultimately se a long – term utility with EMIR.

  • 29.
    Åkerö, Karl-Emil
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Culture, Society and Media Production - KSM. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Den Homosexuelle som den Andre: En studie av konstruerande av samkönat begär och homosexualitet i tre kulturella verk.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In my thesis I research about the construction of homosexuality in three cultural works from 2008 to 2011. The research centres around the difference between same sex desire in practice and homosexuality as an identity. The research takes a queer theory take-off with a view from Judith Butler’s theories, but cross paths the masculinity research and Jasbir K. Puar’s theories about homonationalism. The central theory in the study is based on Lisa Duggan's concept about the new homonormative, which is re-contexturalized to fit the Swedish perspective. The essay concludes that homonormative and homonationalism are fundamental parts in the construction of homosexuality as an identity. In this essay I introduce the concept of The Homosexual to show how the homosexual subject is alienated in relation to the heterosexual environment.

  • 30.
    Rigaki, Anastasia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Teachers of Greek Model Experimental High: Schools and Lifelong Learning: a mixed methods approach2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lifelong Learning is a key concept in modern ‘knowledge-based’ society and it is viewed as a commodity, a personal drive or a social necessity. This thesis aims to unravel its many dimensions and the values that are ascribed to it by the teachers of Greek Model Experimental High Schools. A Model Experimental High School is a relatively new type of state school in Greece, which is highly differentiated from other schools in terms of curriculum, inter-school activities, staff and students and emerged in the Greek education system in 2011. For this reason, research on the effects of this differentiation in the aspects of Lifelong Learning is scarce. The mixed methods strategy was used in order to form a complete picture of the Lifelong Learning dimensions and the research was conducted in two parts. The first part was quantitative and aimed to categorize the elements that constitute Lifelong Learning for the teachers, the factors that encourage or discourage it and its positive and negative dimensions on a macro level as, through a questionnaire, and as a result responses were collected from the thirty-six Model Experimental High Schools in urban and semi-urban areas of Greece. The second part was qualitative and through semi-structured interviews, it explored more in-depth the issue of Lifelong Learning and the concept of vocational vitality which is related both to Lifelong Learning and a teacher’s professional life. Following the propositions of the Theory of Work Adjustment, the research revealed that through the various non-formal and informal activities that the demanding context of Model Experimental High Schools promotes, Lifelong Learning acts as a reinforcer and a means of sustaining the balance between the school and the teachers by increasing their satisfaction. Moreover, both the quantitative and the qualitative methods revealed that teachers consider Lifelong Learning firstly as a means of personal development and secondly as continuous professional development. Lifelong Learning as investment in the human capital was not found as important as the previous two. Furthermore, the vocational vitality of teachers was found to be thriving due to the importance that Lifelong Learning plays in their life a and despite the difficulties which arise from the work demands or the difficult socioeconomic context in Greece due to the economic crisis of the recent years.

  • 31.
    Khan, Muhammad Awais
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Study on the Aliasing-image Problem in I/Q Modulators Employing RF-DACs2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s world of high-speed communication, data-converters are playing a vital role. The purpose of this project is to analyze the aliasing image problem that occurs in quadrature I/Q modulators utilizing radio frequency digital-to-analog converters (RF-DACs). The RF-DAC is considered to be high-speed DAC that operates in higher GHz region. These high performance DACs are becoming the most essential part of the upcoming future communication devices like next generation radars and telecommunication systems. Some I/Q modulators are implemented in this thesis. The aim is to identify the unwanted signal that is trying to distort the desired output.

    In this thesis, the work is divided into two main parts. First is the aliasing image verification and second is the implementation of the I/Q modulators. Begin with the assessment of the aliasing image through sketching the spectrum using Matlab tools. Also mathematically the calculation is derived to support the flow. In the next part, four different architectures are implemented focusing on image rejection ratio (IRR) calculation while the maximum achievable rejection ratio is 119 dB using the RF-DAC. Lastly the effect of discrete local oscillation (LO) is shown. A comparison plot is drawn, comparing the effect of a discrete-LO at different bit levels vs. IRR variation. It shows a nice picture of IRR dependence on the perfect matching and not on the signal shaping. 

  • 32.
    Anskär, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors och sjuksköterskors upplevelse av arbetsmiljö i primärvård och en kartläggning av arbetstidens innehåll2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:

    A good work environment and good resources among district nurses’ and general nurses’ are important in the provision of good nursing care. For patient security it is also very important that resources and time are used in an appropriate way. A lot of time is spent on non-core activity, for example administration takes more and more time, which can result in feelings of stress.

    Aim:

    The aim was to describe how district nurses’ and nurses’ in primary care perceived their work environment, how their worktime content was distributed and if there was some connection between perceived work environment and the distribution of work time.

    Methods:

    A mapping of the content of the work was made in two parts. The first part was a survey where the respondents were asked about their perceived work environment, their work tasks and if they perceived stress. The second part was a time reporting, by self-reporting on a preprinted form.

    Results:

    Almost half of the district nurses’ and general nurses’ said that they seldom had to perform tasks which they wondered if were really necessary. More than 40 percent perceived that they sometimes had work tasks which placed demands beyond what could be expected of them. About 40 percent perceived that they often had enough time to do their work tasks and 30 percent perceived it sometimes. Stress was perceived some of the time by almost 40 percent. Most of the nurses’ thought the quality of care was good. The proportion of direct patient care was approximately 45 percent and indirect patient work approximately 24 percent. The proportion of other work varied with the proportion of quantitative requirements: there was enough time.

    Conclusion:

    Nearly half of the district nurses’ and the general nurses’ perceived that they seldom had work tasks they felt doubtful about and that they sometimes had work tasks which required more than could be expected of them. About two thirds said that they often or sometimes had enough time to do their work tasks. Nearly half perceived stress a part of the working time. The proportion of direct patient care was barely half of the working time.

  • 33.
    Ericson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Richter, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rationell småskalig tillverkning av trämöbler: -vad har det lilla snickeriet att vinna på samarbete med möbelkomponentindustrin?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we have expanded our experiences of handcrafting furniture into larger scale furniture making. With us we’ve had thoughts of our own future occupation and the possibilities to combine small and large scale cabinet making. In getting to know parts of the Swedish industrial manufacturing offurniture components, we’ve wanted to extend our network of contacts as well as increase our knowledge of their equipment and work methods.We have chosen to use a product that we designed for the task, thus limiting our area. Our idea has been to compare the manufacturing of parts for this product in a small workshop and small scale industry. We have divided the production into various techniques and for each of these we’ve sought out specialized manufacturers, to be listed and for us to visit and learn from.We believe our study shows that there are good opportunities for the small wood workshop to add to its success by both learning from and cooperating with the small scale wood industries. The modus operandi and the machines we have seen during our visits to industries, would in many cases be possible to use in the small workshop. Techniques that have been especially exciting for us to highlight include efficient turning of straight components, turning of irregular shapes in copy milling machines as well asthe development of steam bending through compression. What we firstly believe to be most profitable for the small woodworking shop to purchase from small industries are different types of turned or copy-milled components alongside the advanced processing that can be easily done in a CNC machine. In the process we also learned that there are many factors, in some cases difficult to clearly acknowledge, that affect which path is feasible and appropriate to take.

  • 34.
    Hildebrand, Cisilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hörtin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparative study between Emme and Visum with respect to public transport assignment2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Macroscopic traffic simulations are widely used in the world in order to provide assistance in the traffic infrastructure development as well as for the strategic traffic planning. When studying a large traffic network macroscopic traffic simulation can be used to model current and future traffic situations. The two most common software used for traffic simulation in Sweden today are Emme and Visum, developed by INRO respective PTV.

    The aim of the thesis is to perform a comparison between the software Emme and Visum with respect to the assignment of public transport, in other words how passengers choose their routes on the existing public transport lines. However, in order to make a complete software comparison the run-time, analysis capabilities, multi-modality, capacity to model various behavioural phenomena like crowding, fares etc. this will not be done in this comparison. It is of interest to study the differences between the two software algorithms and why they might occur because the Swedish Transport Administration uses Emme and the Traffic Administration in Stockholm uses Visum when planning public transport. The comparison will include the resulting volumes on transit lines, travel times, flow through specific nodes, number of boarding, auxiliary volumes and number of transits. The goal of this work is to answer the following objective: What are the differences with modelling a public transport network in Emme and in Visum, based on that the passengers only have information about the travel times and the line frequency, and why does the differences occur?

    In order to evaluate how the algorithms work in a larger network, Nacka municipality (in Stockholm) and the new metro route between Nacka Forum and Kungsträdgården have been used. The motivation for choosing this area and case is due to that it is interesting to see what differences could occur between the programs when there is a major change in the traffic network.

    The network of Nacka, and parts of Stockholm City, has been developed from an existing road network of Sweden and then restricted by "cutting out" the area of interest and then removing all public transportation lines outside the selected area. The OD-matrix was also limited and in order not to loose the correct flow of travellers portal zones was used to collect and retain volumes.

    To find out why the differences occur the headway-based algorithms in each software were studied carefully. An example of a small and simple network (consisting of only a start and end node) has been used to demonstrate and show how the algorithms work and why volumes split differently on the existing transit lines in Emme and Visum. The limited network of Nacka shows how the different software may produce different results in a larger public transport network.

    The results show that there are differences between the program algorithms but the significance varies depending on which output is being studied and the size of the network. The Visum algorithm results in more total boardings, i.e. more passengers have an optimal strategy including a transit. The algorithms are very similar in both software programs, since they include more or less parts of the optimal strategy. The parameters used are taken more or less into consideration in Emme and Visum. For example Visum will first of all focus on the shortest total travel time and then consider the other lines with respect to the maximum waiting time. Emme however, first focuses on the shortest travel time and then considers the total travel time for other lines with half the waiting time instead of the maximum wait time. This results in that less transit lines will be attractive in Emme compared to Visum. The thesis concludes that varying the parameters for public transport in each software algorithm one can obtain similar results, which implies that it is most important to choose the best parameter values and not to choose the "best" software when simulating a traffic network.

  • 35.
    Lindgren, Lina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Including Additional Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry-activities under the Clean Development Mechanism: Discussions in the United Nations Climate Negotiations2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Land use, land use change and forestry activities (LULUCF) can help mitigate climate change by creating a terrestrial carbon sink, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, while at the same time help increasing adaptive capacity and reduce poverty. Still, carbon stored in biomass or soils are only stored temporary since natural or human induced disturbances can cause a total or partial loss of stored carbon.

    LULUCF-activities under the clean development mechanism (CDM),  one of the flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto protocol, have been limited to afforestation and reforestation (A/R) projects under the first commitment period. Joint implementation projects and national accounting  of  greenhouse  gas  reduction  can  in  addition  to  A/R-project  also  include deforestation,  revegetation,  forest  management,  cropland  management  and  grazing  land management. The exclusion of these types of activities from CDM has been questioned and debated recently.

    This briefing tracks the United Nations (UN) climate negotiations in regards to the possibility of including additional LULUCF-activities under CDM, mainly the negotiations occurring after the adoption of the Bali Road map.

    LULUCF under CDM has been discussed mainly in the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP). There are diverging ideas on whether a more holistic approach should be applied to the treatment of LULUCF under CDM or whether current structure should be kept. Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, El Salvador, New Zealand, Norway, Canada, Australia and several of the Least Developed Countries have been positive towards including additional LULUCF-activities. Some of the arguments brought up are that the LULUCF-sector holds a large potential to mitigate climate change that is lost with the current structure and that a broader inclusion of LULUCF-activities would lead to an inclusion of all parts of the world in the benefits from CDM. China, Brazil and  Alliance of Small  Island States  have, on the other hand, been sceptical towards including additional activities arguing that there are too large uncertainties and that it creates an offset allowing developed nations to delay emission reduction in other sectors. The EU supports the current structure and rules but is open to discuss alternatives.

    The  AWG-KP  has  been  negotiating  a  new  LULUCF-decision,  which  has  not  yet  been adopted. In the draft LULUCF-decision from the Conference of Parties in Copenhagen 2009, the possibility of expanding LULUCF under CDM was however opened. In the draft decision the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) is requested to initiate a work programme on additional LULUCF-activities. Since the LULUCF-decision is not yet adopted, SBSTA cannot initiate this work programme and whether they will be able to do so is dependent upon the outcome of the negotiations on the LULUCF-decision. LULUCF- activities under CDM have so far received little negotiation time.

    LULUCF and CDM have also been discussed outside the formal UN climate negotiations. Several  side events,  for  example,  have treated these questions,  both  for and  against  the inclusion of additional activities.

  • 36.
    Nord, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Example Based Procedural Distribution Tool2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report will deal with the process of creating an example based procedural distribution tool. This is accomplished within the Frostbite game engine editor, FrostEd. By using actual placements of objects in the editor as in-data, the tool provides the artist with an unmatched visual feel for calibrating its properties and settings. Note that this is a unique technique and was invented during the creation of this tool. The tool is based on a machine learning approach. It creates a feature vector from the example placements for each type of object. These vectors are then used to create statistical models which in turn are used to generate new object placements. The process of determining the position and rotation when generating an object is divided into two parts. A new concept called Feature Function (FF) is utilized to provide each element in the population with a probability to obtain a certain position and rotation.

  • 37.
    Strengbom, Kristoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematical Statistics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mobile Services Based Traffic Modeling2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, communication systems have been dominated by voice applications. Today with the emergence of smartphones, focus has shifted towards packet switched networks. The Internet provides a wide variety of services such as video streaming, web browsing, e-mail etc, and IP trac models are needed in all stages of product development, from early research to system tests. In this thesis, we propose a multi-level model of IP traffic where the user behavior and the actual IP traffic generated from different services are considered as being two independent random processes. The model is based on observations of IP packet header logs from live networks. In this way models can be updated to reflect the ever changing service and end user equipment usage.

    Thus, the work can be divided into two parts. The first part is concerned with modeling the traffic from different services. A subscriber is interested in enjoying the services provided on the Internet and traffic modeling should reflect the characteristics of these services. An underlying assumption is that different services generate their own characteristic pattern of data. The FFT is used to analyze the packet traces. We show that the traces contains strong periodicities and that some services are more or less deterministic. For some services this strong frequency content is due to the characteristics of cellular network and for other it is actually a programmed behavior of the service. The periodicities indicate that there are strong correlations between individual packets or bursts of packets.

    The second part is concerned with the user behavior, i.e. how the users access the different services in time. We propose a model based on a Markov renewal process and estimate the model parameters. In order to evaluate the model we compare it to two simpler models. We use model selection, using the model's ability to predict future observations as selection criterion. We show that the proposed Markov renewal model is the best of the three models in this sense. The model selection framework can be used to evaluate future models.

  • 38.
    Enberg, David
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Performance Evaluation of Short Time Dead Reckoning for Navigation of an Autonomous Vehicle2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Utilizing a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) together with an Inertial Navigation System (INS) is today a common integration method to obtain a positioning solution for autonomous systems. Both GNSS and INS have benefits and weaknesses where the best parts from both systems can be combined with a Kalman filter. Because of this complementary nature, it is of interest to look at the robustness of the positioning solution when the Global Navigation Satellite System is temporarily not available. The aim of the thesis has been to investigate different vehicle models and to evaluate their short-time performance using a Dead Reckoning approach. The goal has been to develop a system for a Heavy Duty Vehicle (HDV) and to find out for which time interval a specific model can stay within a certain range when the GNSS is lost. A GNSS outage could for example happen when driving on a highway and passing signs, bridges and especially when driving inside tunnels. Also, for a solution to become commercially interesting, it must be cheap. Therefore, is it common to use so called Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) sensors which are of low-cost but suffer from biases, scale factors and temperature dependencies which must be compensated for. The results from the tests show that some models are able to estimate the position with good precision during short time GNSS outages whereas other models do not deliver the required accuracy. The main conclusion is that care should be taken when choosing the vehicle model so that it fits its usage area and the complexity needed to describe its motion. There are also lots of parameters to look at when investigating the best solution, where modeling of the low-cost sensors is one of them.

  • 39.
    Prabahar, Jasila
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Localization of Stroke Using Microwave Technology and Inner product Subspace Classifier2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke or “brain attack” occurs when a blood clot carried by the blood vessels from other part of the body blocks the cerebral artery in the brain or when a blood vessel breaks and interrupts the blood flow to parts of the brain. Depending on which part of the brain is being damaged functional abilities controlled by that region of the brain is lost. By interpreting the patient’s symptoms it is possible to make a coarse estimate of the location of the stroke, e.g. if it is on the left or right hemisphere of the brain. The aim of this study was to evaluate if microwave technology can be used to estimate the location of haemorrhagic stroke.

    In the first part of the thesis, CT images of the patients for whom the microwave measurement are taken is analysed and are used as a reference to know the location of bleeding in the brain. The X, Y and Z coordinates are calculated from the target slice (where the bleeding is more prominent). Based on the bleeding coordinated the datasets are divided into classes. Under supervised learning method the ISC algorithm is trained to classify stroke in the left and right hemispheres; stroke in the anterior and posterior part of the brain and the stroke in the inferior and superior region of the brain. The second part of the thesis is to analyse the classification result in order to identify the patients that were being misclassified.

    The classification results to classify the location of bleeding were promising with a high sensitivity and specificity that are indicated by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). AUC of 0.86 was obtained for bleedings in the left and right brain and an AUC of 0.94 was obtained for bleeding in the inferior and superior brain. The main constraint was the small size of the dataset and few availability of dataset with bleeding in the front brain that leads to imbalance between classes. After analysis it was found that bleedings that were close to the skull and few small bleedings that are deep inside the brain are being misclassified. Many factors can be responsible for misclassification like the antenna position, head size, amount of hair etc.

    The overall results indicate that SDD using ISC algorithm has high potential to distinguish bleedings in different locations. It is expected that the results will be more stable with increased patient dataset for training.

  • 40.
    Ernvik, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Anknytningsbeteenden i familjer tillhörande ett ursprungsfolk.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By observations in seven families belonging to the Karen people, I have been able to study the attachmentpatterns in families of an indigenous group living in villages in the mountains of Northern Thailand. The purpose of the study is to observe and describe how attachment and bonding is built up in families where the children live very close to their parents, and where several generations live together. The question I brought in to the study was: ”How do family members in a Karen family bond with each other?” I studied the interaction in between children and parents, in between the parents, and sometimes in between grandparents and other family members. Interviews were added to the observations.

    In the study it becomes clear that culture, physiological conditions as how the families live, as well as socio-economical factors as how the family gets there income, are all affecting the attachment patterns in the family. All families in the study are self-sufficient farmers, which makes it possible for the children to be together with their parents throughout the day. Different generations live close to each other, and the children often have several attachment figures. The children use their attachment figures as safe bases throughout their childhood, also having a lot of freedom to explore the world in and around the village. The parents are well aware about that children need a lot of time and proximity with their parents. As everyone is doing their work sitting on the floor, the children have easily access to the adults. Conversations, smiles and laughters are important parts of the bonding process in between the family members. The physical closeness in between children and parents is constantly there, while the strongest bonding factor in between the parents is the fact that they need each other.

  • 41.
    Cervin, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reporting in digital pathology:increasing efficiency and accuracy using structured reporting2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The healthcare today is experiening a greater burden since diseases suchas cancer are more common. The diagnostic parts of the healthcare, suchas radiology and pathology, are aected with increased workload. Duringthe past several decades, systems for structured reporting in radiology havebecome available in a try to facilitate their work ow. The introduction ofdigital pathology has enabled the possibility to introduce structured reportingin pathology as well. The question is whether it can facilitate their work ow.Today's aids for structured reporting in radiology are more or less perceivedas distracting, and the challenge in this thesis is to create an aid for structuredreporting that is not distracting the pathologist's diagnostic work ow.To achieve this, a prototype with a template for invasive breast cancer andprostate cancer was implemented in Sectra's viewer for pathology images. Thetemplate for invasive breast cancer was tested by two pathologists in a userstudy with the main objective to determine the dierences in the diagnosticwork ow using the prototype and using only paper and pen. The pathologistcould see a use of the prototype both for breast assessment and assessmentsin other areas of pathology. Both pathologists also think that the prototypewill save time in their overall work ow, help them organize the informationretrieved during the assessment, and create an overall better diagnostic work- ow.

  • 42.
    Sundin, Fia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Occurrence of insects in relation to short term forest fire history2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several boreal insect species are pyrophilic and are more or less dependent on recently burned forest. Many pyrophilic species are attracted to potential substratum-rich recently burned forest by smoke and heat. Modern forestry has dramatically reduced the amount and size of forest fires in northern Europe during the last century and as a result several of the pyrophilic species are now threatened. The aim of this study was to analyse how the occurrence of insects such as Diptera of the pyrophilic genus Microsania, pyrophilic Coleoptera, obligate saproxylic Coleoptera and Coleoptera with unknown fire-dependency were affected by the forest fire history during the last 14 years. The aim was also to analyse what effect the spatial and temporal scales of the forest fire history has on the occurrence of these insects. This was done using smoke attraction traps, a unique method for catching pyrophilic insects without an actual forest fire, and analysing the results with a unique regional short term forest fire history dataset, containing all fires between the years of 1998-2011 in Östergötland county in Sweden. The forest fires were clustered and more abundant in the eastern parts of the county. Seven out of eleven pyrophilic beetles were positively correlated with recent forest fires, mostly for the smaller spatial scales, 100 m – 5000 m. The abundance of many beetles with unknown fire-dependency were associated with recent forest fires. The general ecology for many of these species is not well known but some of these beetles might be favoured by different substrates that are created by fires. Strategically placed conservation burns can help to increase the spatial and temporal connectivity of forest fires to conserve both fire dependent and generally associated insects in the future.

  • 43.
    Bergqvist, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lärares bedömning av bildämnet vid en lärarutbildning i Sydafrika: En minor Field study2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of the Arts has been challenged regarding its quality, fairness, function and how it affects the subject and the individual .  The study examines assessment of Visual Arts in teaching education in South Africa, presented from a teacher’s view. The research questions have been based on a didactics theory .The Method is a two-month field work with participant observations, collection of documents and interviews at the teaching education where the daily work of three teachers, have been followed.

    The empirical material is analyzed from the three didactic questions what, how and why. The result shows that the teacher’s assessments are based on a normative approach in regards to high and low quality. The teachers performed collegial assessments of student work. A relative rating system were works were compared was used during the assessment. No explicit grading criteria were used. Students were repeatedly summative assessed on attendance, work pace, how they followed instructions and results of the projects. The projects were judged in parts where artistic technical skills dominated the grading process.

    Criteria were communicated to students during the lesson and presentation as brief comments, such as nice, good, bad composition and pieces student work was often used as an example. Feedback was recurrent describing the product but was rarely formative in interaction with the student. During lessons teachers improved some parts of students work by painting /drawing directly on their products, which might make questionable a fair assessment. The teacher regarded assessment as relatively easy task, referring to personal experience rather than to criteria/aims in course syllabus. Students' intentions of their work were not assessed.

    The study provides a basis for discussing how cultural context affects the way to assess and raises issues in relation to sustainable quality education of fair assessment. The ethnographic method increases understanding and helps reflections of higher education from a global perspective.

  • 44.
    Selvarajah, Sharmini
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    En jämförelse mellan att utföra en värdeflödesanalys av produktion respektive planering: Fallstudie på ABB ROBOTICS Västerås2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Value stream mapping is a tool that is frequently used by many different companies. It is a great tool used to achieve the work that follows the theories of lean production. The tool is used, however, only frequent on the factory floor and the method is also designed based on this type of use.

    An interest of applying the method on administrative parts of the company has occurred lately. Administrative parts of the company refers to the part that does all the planning such as purchasing, receiving orders, customer contact, contact with factory floor and other work that is made around the actual manufacturing. But the knowledge about applying value stream mapping on the planning part of the company is lacking because the method is relatively new.

    In this work, a comparison is made between the introduction of value stream analysis on production and planning. This has been done through a case study at ABB Robotics. On this case study a value stream analysis has been made on the planning part of ABB Robotics and the part of the factory floor manufacturing the control cabinets of the robots. The purpose of the performance was to create an understanding of the similarities and differences that exist in the application of value stream analysis on production and planning. The case study has been made based on the current literature available on the subject. The literature has then been reviewed critically, based on the differences and similarities shown by the performed case study.

    Based on an analysis of the results from the case study, several conclusions were drawn and reflected over taking into account the existing literature. Conclusions drawn from the study, questions the existing literature's critical attitude to the method. Critical review is important at this situation because it is a new method and much proof, that it is properly functioning, does not yet exist.

    The study mentions that value stream analysis of planning is not always relevant. The interest of the method depends on the type of business and its customers' needs. For a company where the lead time of the planning part of the company is not of great importance to the customer’s value stream mapping is not interesting to apply. The application of value stream analysis is much more complex and time-consuming according to the study and therefore it is not always worthwhile to use the method.

  • 45.
    Bygdén, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Värdeflödesanalys i processindustri med kontinuerlig tillverkning: Fallstudie på Billerud Korsnäs AB Skärblacka2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lean production is a philosophy which purpose can be simplified as: Produce more products with the usage of fewer resources by eliminating waste in the system. At the beginning it was part manufacturing companys who started using the different techniques within lean but in recent years lean has been widespread and applied in service organizations like health care for example. The development of lean against the process industries has however been slower which implies that the companys within that industry still have a lot to learn when it comes to lean. Some critics argue that the possibilities of applying lean techniques in the process industries are limited. Others claim that you just need a different approach and that the lean methods might need to be adjusted so that the conditions of the industry are considered.

    When the main purpose of lean is to eliminate waste from the system there is a generally accepted method called value stream mapping (VSM). The method is used in order to map the material- and information flow and hence identify the waste existing in the system. There is a limited amount of literature considering the applicability of this method in the process industry, whereupon this study comes in handy. This master thesis was carried out as a case study at BillerudKorsnäs Skärblacka’s craft paper production and the purpose is to investigate how VSM can be applied at this type of production in order to eliminate waste. The study resulted in a description of the conditions necessary for the method to be used successfully, how the distinctive characteristics of the process industry affect the implementation of the method and which modifications that needed to be done.

    When the material- and information flow was mapped a number of problem areas were identified where the waste in the system was revealed. It was then detected that the biggest focus should be on the material flow and the production equipment. The identified problem areas lead to a number of improvement suggestions whose purpose is to decrease the amount of waste in the system. Recommendations were also proposed, discussing how the company henceforth can work iteratively with value stream mapping as a part of a process with continuous improvements.

    After the method was carried out conclusions could be drawn. The applicability of the method was considered as good due to problem areas and waste was identified and presented in a lucid way. Though, the data collection and calculation of the included parameters were very time-consuming. The reasons for that were that this was the first time the method was used at the company and the fact that all the data was stored in different systems. With continued mappings of the value stream the data collection and calculation will be less time-consuming parts due to all the formulas are already specified and lessons can be learned from the performance of this study. Due to the fact that radical changes of layout or flow pattern are hard or even impossible to carry out in this kind of industry the main focus of the VSM should be the mapping where the purpose is to identify existing problems and wastes. Hence the output from this method could be foundation for future investments and improvements.

  • 46.
    Paneva, Ivelina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gruber, Jacqueline
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The process of knowledge transfer in mergers and acquisitions: A single-case study of a Swedish manufacturing organization2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mergers and acquisitions (hereinafter referred to as M&As) are increasing in their importance and they have become a commonly applied strategic option for organizations. A major reason for an acquisition is often the objective of gaining new knowledge from the acquired company and then transferring that knowledge among other parts within the acquiring organization. Furthermore, the explicit and tacit nature of knowledge is essential for the transfer of knowledge during M&As. Also, the process of knowledge transfer is dynamic and complex and thus, numerous challenges can arise along the way. As proved by the literature individuals are the key factors, which constrain the transfer of knowledge in M&As.

    Aim: Despite the extensive existing literature in the area of knowledge transfer, it provides a rather static view and thus, less is known about the dynamic process nature of knowledge transfer in M&As. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative research is to gain deeper understanding of how the process of knowledge transfer evolves over time and how employees constrain it within the acquiring organization during the post-acquisition phase in a merger and acquisition (hereinafter referred to as M&A). In addition, the redefined models in this thesis provide a foundation for future research.

    Methodology: This thesis is based on a qualitative single-case study method, which builds upon empirical data of an anonymous Swedish international organization (hereinafter referred to as Globex) operating in the manufacturing sector. Theoretical constructs are applied in order to form a generalization. First-hand information is primarily used for this thesis, which was collected in the form of in-depth interviews with the employees of Globex. In order to present the analysed data in a more understandable and visible manner, tables and graphs were applied. Furthermore, our research method is based on the iterative grounded theory, which deals with organizational process research. Thus, we were able to analyse the dynamics in the knowledge transfer process despite its high level of complexity. Due to this complicated essence of the knowledge transfer process, we were unable to explore it entirely and could not acquire all necessary information. However, we still contribute with novelty to the academic society, as previous research explores the static view of knowledge transfer and our research relies on its dynamics.

    Results: The process of knowledge transfer and how it evolves is illustrated with the necessary phases for its accomplishment. The first model, which demonstrates the dynamic nature of the knowledge transfer process during M&As, is presented. In order to positively influence the transfer of knowledge, enablers should be applied. The second model highlights the importance of planning the process of knowledge transfer within the post-acquisition phase during M&As. Lastly, constraints from the employees’ side can influence the transfer of knowledge. The importance to consider enablers and constraints during the knowledge transfer is also emphasised.

    Theoretical implications: We urge that more research should accentuate on the process nature of the knowledge transfer and should further explore its dynamics and complexity especially in the context of organizational changes, such as M&As.

    Managerial implications: Managers should understand the evolving nature of the knowledge transfer process and strengthen their focus on the planning phase of knowledge transfer in order to minimize the issues during the post-acquisition phase.

  • 47.
    Göransson, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wiklund, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milk Packaging in Sweden: Local Consumers' effect on the Visual Communication2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Just like there are different accents in a language, symbols and colors may be interpreted differently in different parts of a country. These visual accents are part of the ideology present at a certain place and affects how the population perceives words and images. It is therefore important for the person designing the visual communication to consider the ideology of the consumers. This is also true for packaging design, because the packaging works as an attention grabber in the store.

    Traditionally, the dairy market in Sweden has been geographically segmented. New technologies in packaging, production, and logistics have led to a decrease in the number of dairy companies in Sweden; the 1960’s 420 dairy companies are today only 50. The dairy companies of Sweden still have a geographically segmented market. This is also true for three of the largest dairy companies: Norrmejerier, Gefleortens, and Skånemejerier. The largest dairy company, Arla, is present in the whole country.

    This study aims to research the visual communication on milk packaging from the dairy companies listed above. The study examines the consumers’ effect on the design of the visual communication. Previous studies show how different visual elements on the packaging attract the customers’ attention in the store. However, no previous studies examine milk packaging and the variations of the visual communication within a country.

    Different theories that have been used to analyse the collected data are about packaging design, culture, and visual communication. Typography, color and design principles such as hierarchy are part of the visual communication’s toolbox. Theories about semiotics have been used to interpret the meaning of visual signs. Parts of the data of this qualitative case study have been collected through interviews with representatives from the dairy companies Norrmejerier, Gefleortens, Skånemejerier, and Arla. This data shows the brand owners thoughts about the packaging and brand communication. The authors of this study have analyzed the visual communication of milk packages for milk containing 1,5% fat from each dairy company listed above.

    The study concludes that the milk packages of Norrmejerier, Gefleortens, and Skånemejerier contain visual elements that stand for local and personal values. The illustrations and photographs also picture situations where milk is or has been used. Arla does not have the same local market as the others, which can be seen in the more abstract design of their packaging. The dairy companies create a design and then asks for feedback from the consumers. The companies later use this information to adjust the packaging after the consumers’ opinions. The visual elements are adapted to the local market and used to communicate the brand identity. The changes in the visual communication are done evolutionary, to keep the packaging recognizable for the consumers. Arla has, for example, changed the appearance of the stripes they have used on the packages since 90’s several times. The latest version of the design softened the corners of the stripes to convey a more natural look - in line with their brand identity.

    What the study shows is that the local consumers have an impact on the visual communication of the milk packages in Sweden, but fundamentally it is all about the brand communication of the dairy company. This can be seen in the fact that the dairy companies do not choose their design elements after the consumers’ opinions. Instead, they create a design based on the brand identity and adjust it based on the feedback they get from the local consumers to make it more attractive for the consumers.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Victor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björs, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Internal communication of a brand - A comparative study within the municipality of Norrköping2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The municipality of Norrköping is a large organization with lots of different areas of expertise. To make sure that the values are the same throughout the organization is a heavy task but important if you want the brand to be communicated in the right way in all instances of the organization. An internal review of the employees opinions takes place every other year with the last one taking place in 2013. The results from the review made the municipality of Norrköping realise that they needed to increase their internal work with brand knowledge. The municipality of Norrköping took action and created a platform of communications called Let´s Create Norrköping. The problem they stand before now is that they're not sure if the employees have interpreted the information the correct way regarding the brand. This case study aims to investigate how the brand Norrköping is communicated throughout the plattform Let´s Create Norrköping and how the employees perceives the brand of the municipality of Norrköping.

    To answer the cause of the report a data collection has been made with interviews divided into two parts. The first part consists of an interview with Tina Vennerholm, brand developer at the communications department of the municipality of Norrköping. The main objective of this interviews was to conclude the main objectives of the platform Let´s Create Norrköping. The second part was conducted with five employees within the organization of the municipality of Norrköping. It was conducted to conclude their point of view of the platform Let´s Create Norrköping. Conclusions that can be drawn from the study include that the employees lack the presence of the representatives of the municipality of Norrköping at their working places. The employees have a positive opinion regarding the platform Let´s Create Norrköping although they have not received any internal information regarding the plattform. The reason to their positive opinions ought to be that they have been affected by external marketing regarding the plattform. This leads to the employees having a hard time with implementing the message of the platform in their work.

    Recommendations given to the municipality of Norrköping is to be visible at the various working places, to show the worker which people who are responsible for the communication at their workplace. to give the employees a personal connection to the source of the information that is given which makes it easier for the worker to accept and implement the information.

    The employees all have positive connections to the city of Norrköping. That is why the conductors of this study recommend that the municipality of Norrköping should make a connection to the city with the work that is made by the employees on all the different areas in the organization. This is to engage and motivate the employees and make them see and understand the connection between the city and the organization and the part that they play in it.

  • 49.
    Widegren, Markus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alin, Josef
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Augmented reality-markörer, deras utformning och platsbaserat berättande2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Regarding design of augmented reality markers and location­based storytelling, there are several aspects to consider in order to create a deep and engaging user experience. There are various technical and communicative factors to take into account, for example: The markers must be specifically recognizable as markers while they also must be interpretable by image recognition in an augmented reality device. In the midst of this conflict lies a design challenge in which the aesthetic expression and storytelling must fit.

    This study was conducted as a qualitative case study where scenarios and prototypes have been developed based on theories of design principles for augmented reality and storytelling in different mediums. Design methods including brainstormning and idéa logs have been used in the developement. An interview with a potential stakeholder has partly formed the basis for the design work. The produced material has been evaluated through usability testing, observation and interviews with a number of test persons.

    "The Course of Nature" – a location­based story with accompanying augmented reality markers – was developed as a part of the study. The experience consisted of image, sound, video and animation that brought the user through a suggestive story using GPS locations and markers. As a technical platform the augmented reality application Minnesmark was used.

    The evaluation showed the importance of how the technology should seamlessly integrate the different elements of the experience, that the markers are given seamfulness and importance in themselves so that they are relevant to the story and not just a technical tool, turning the technical limitations into benefits, that the aesthetic and communicative style is consistent across all parts, the markers, video, images and so on, in order to maintain the user's immersion.

  • 50.
    Gustavsson, Albin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vad gör innehåll bra i sociala medier?: En studie med framtagna rekommendationer för hemsidan Wallyfy2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wallyfy is planned to be a social webmagazine with a focus on good content, with a quality check and moderation of the published content. The author of the study provides Wallyfy with thoughts and ideas about the website content and functionality. The main problem of the study was to explore what makes good content in social media for the potential users of Wallyfy, also using this insight to provide Wallyfy with directions for making decisions regarding both functionality and content.

     

    The theory of the study is being used as a starting point for understanding the phenomenom social media and to easier grasp the problem. The method of the study is based on user- centered thinking in design, where the author seeks to understand the participant’s emotions, values and dreams. Design probes (tasks for the participants) have been used to aid the first steps of the quality data collection, enabling the 5 participants of the study to be a part of the idea generation and to familiarize them with social media. The participants then attended a workshop based on the quality data from the design probes. Further quality data were then derived from the discussion and the creative participation in the workshop.

     

    The relevant data parts were then compiled and orginanised to be presented as the data collection result in the study. The main theme from the data was that the participants valued content more if a personal connection between the user and the content could be made. From a discussion of the data and theory, recommendations and requirements regarding content and functionally for Wallyfy was produced.

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