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  • 1.
    Johansson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Generating SkePU Code from Automatically Detected Algorithmic Patterns in C Source Programs2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern heterogeneous multi-core architectures containing one or multiple GPU de- vices require expert knowledge in order to be fully utilized through parallelization by the programmer. Software written for one hardware setup might not easily be portable to work as efficiently on a differing architecture. Automatic parallelization of sequential C code to make efficient use of such architecture in an extensible man- ner would facilitate the porting of legacy code and provide a non-expert programmer with a tool granting access to modern hardware architectures.

    We present an early prototype of such an extensible tool-chain and attempt to apply it on domain-specific C source code. It is based on a generic tool for hierarchical pattern matching in C source codes, where the user can define own patterns and recognition rules, and a code generation back-end. We show how it, combined with existing libraries, can be used to automatically port sequential legacy code to different multicore architectures, such as multicore CPUs and GPUs. Our tool is an attempt to do this and yields valid parallelized code, but fails to reach speedup for most implemented patterns. The tool is applied on one test case, a legacy ODE implementation in C, with similar results. A reason for slowdown is discussed in the concluding section.

  • 2.
    Alexandersson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Möbelsnickeri.
    Parkettläggning: med massivträ som utgångspunkt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about furniture parquetry and various techniques. Parquetry can be describe as wooden, 2-dimensional patterns used to garnish furniture and other products. It is manufactured in thin veneer layer and applied to the surface. By using thin veneer we are able to minimize stresses in the material, which results in tight joints. In Europe, furniture parquetry is traditionally created by wood veneer pieces that has been formed and joined into a pattern. There are also other proven techniques developed during different stages in history and in different places in the world.

    In my thesis I describe some of those established techniques and some of my experiments in the subject. The report is based on literature studies, observations of movie clips, interviews and empirical practical studies. I have compared different techniques to see in what ways it is possible to rationalize the production of furniture parquetry. At the same time I wanted to try and develop a method that makes it possible to create parquetry patterns containing round shapes. In this way I hope to contribute to the development and modernization in the area. 

  • 3.
    Poelstra, J. W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Vijay, N.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hoeppner, M. P.
    Linköping University. Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wolf, J. B. W.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Science Life Lab, Sweden.
    Transcriptomics of colour patterning and coloration shifts in crows2015In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 24, no 18, 4617-4628 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal coloration is one of the most conspicuous phenotypic traits in natural populations and has important implications for adaptation and speciation. Changes in coloration can occur over surprisingly short evolutionary timescales, while recurrence of similar colour patterns across large phylogenetic distances is also common. Even though the genetic basis of pigment production is well understood, little is known about the mechanisms regulating colour patterning. In this study, we shed light on the molecular elements regulating regional pigment production in two genetically near-identical crow taxa with striking differences in a eumelanin-based phenotype: black carrion and grey-coated hooded crows. We produced a high-quality genome annotation and analysed transcriptome data from a 2 3 2 design of active melanogenic feather follicles from head (black in both taxa) and torso (black in carrion and grey in hooded crow). Extensive, parallel expression differences between body regions in both taxa, enriched for melanogenesis genes (e.g. ASIP, CORIN, and ALDH6), indicated the presence of cryptic prepatterning also in all-black carrion crows. Meanwhile, colour-specific expression (grey vs. black) was limited to a small number of melanogenesis genes in close association with the central transcription factor MITF (most notably HPGDS, NDP and RASGRF1). We conclude that colour pattern differences between the taxa likely result from an interaction between divergence in upstream elements of the melanogenesis pathway and genes that provide an underlying prepattern across the body through positional information. A model of evolutionary stable prepatterns that can be exposed and masked through simple regulatory changes may explain the phylogenetically independent recurrence of colour patterns that is observed across corvids and many other vertebrate groups.

  • 4.
    Lindblad, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Routing of traffic in an IP-network using combined routing patterns2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In IP networks using the OPSF-principle together with the ECMP-principle, thetraffic is routed in all shortest paths. Weights on links are set by an administrator,not knowing how the resulting routing pattern will become. In this final thesis, I givea heuristic solution to the problem of changing a set of desired routing patterns inan ordered way to make them compatible with each other. An implementation of thealgorithm has been made and some testing with provided data for performance is alsopresented.

  • 5.
    Fridolfsson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Machine Learning: for Barcode Detection and OCR2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning can be utilized in many different ways in the field of automatic manufacturing and logistics. In this thesis supervised machine learning have been utilized to train a classifiers for detection and recognition of objects in images. The techniques AdaBoost and Random forest have been examined, both are based on decision trees.

    The thesis has considered two applications: barcode detection and optical character recognition (OCR). Supervised machine learning methods are highly appropriate in both applications since both barcodes and printed characters generally are rather distinguishable.

    The first part of this thesis examines the use of machine learning for barcode detection in images, both traditional 1D-barcodes and the more recent Maxi-codes, which is a type of two-dimensional barcode. In this part the focus has been to train classifiers with the technique AdaBoost. The Maxi-code detection is mainly done with Local binary pattern features. For detection of 1D-codes, features are calculated from the structure tensor. The classifiers have been evaluated with around 200 real test images, containing barcodes, and shows promising results.

    The second part of the thesis involves optical character recognition. The focus in this part has been to train a Random forest classifier by using the technique point pair features. The performance has also been compared with the more proven and widely used Haar-features. Although, the result shows that Haar-features are superior in terms of accuracy. Nevertheless the conclusion is that point pairs can be utilized as features for Random forest in OCR.

  • 6.
    Schnell, Felizia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Performance on pattern recogniton declins with age while performance on pattern separation does not2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to explore if pattern recognition and pattern separation tasks performance degenerate with age. This as there are studies by Brickman et al. (2014) that suggest that these tasks are being performed by the hippocampus in particular, the dentate gyrus part. The tasks used in this report were replicated from a study in which it was assumed that they tested this parts. As both the hippocampus and the dentate gyrus supposedly degenerate with age, the tasks tested this degeneration by looking if the participant’s performance on the tasks changed with age. The performance on the pattern separation task did not change with age while the pattern recognition task did. This preservation of pattern separation might mean that the pattern separation tasks does not measure the dentate gyrus. It might also mean that the hippocampus might not degenerate as previously assumed or that the pattern separation task really test the hippocampus.

  • 7.
    Kinnunen, Isabelle
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An in depth analysis of the Preferential Bidding System for SAS Crew Planning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Crew planning is a complex optimization problem that usually is divided into two separate parts, pairing and rostering. In the rostering process crewmembers are assigned a personal roster, a schedule, for the next coming time period. In order for the crew to have an influence on their roster, SAS have implemented a Preferential Bidding System (PBS) where the crew has the ability to express their wishes regarding their roster, formulated as bids. Generally there is an outspoken dissatisfaction among the crew about PBS and how it works and therefore the questions were raised of how the system could be more transparent and how the bid fulfillment could be communicated both internally and externally. The performed analysis was made with regard to bidding pattern and bid fulfillment and was both quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative part consisted of a thorough review of historic data (delimited to only four months) and a questionnaire, targeting the whole crew collective, was set up as a complementary qualitative analysis. In this thesis the work and result is presented. The result of the analysis shows that satisfaction felt by the crew cannot be directly compared to bid fulfillment as it is measured today. The major aspects of improving the PBS should include a simplification regarding mainly bid types, but also actions in order to increase the transparency of the system and awareness. The recommendation to SAS is to present statistics to crew for each bid type regarding number of placed bids, number of possible fulfillments and how much that is fulfilled thus visualizing the possibility to get a bid fulfilled. A revised range of bid types have also been recommended along with a few minor changes.

  • 8.
    Calais, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poor welfare or future investment? Different growth pattern of broiler breeders2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The parental stock of meat type chickens (broiler breeders) are commonly feed restricted to decrease their rapid growth and the issues associated with it. Among these birds, chronic hunger and stress are the most prominent welfare concerns and mass heterogeneity within flocks a major management challenge. The present study compared small and large broiler breeders of the same age within a flock, with the hypothesis that small birds would show signs of poorer welfare indicated by higher corticosterone concentration and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio as a consequence of higher experienced feed restriction due to competition. It also aimed to characterize morphometric differences between small and large birds within flocks as well as between birds on different feeding regimens; skip-a-day vs. every-day-fed. Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio at 4 weeks was significantly higher in large birds compared to small birds, but corticosterone concentration did not differ. Relative mass of the upper gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and liver of small birds at 4 weeks of age were significantly larger, while relative muscle and gizzard fat mass were significantly lower compared to large birds. 12 weeks old skip-a-day fed birds largely followed the pattern of 4 weeks old small birds. In the present study, no clear signs of poorer welfare in small broiler breeders could be seen and the morphometric differences might suggest different ways to cope with feed competition. A larger gastrointestinal tract might indicate long-term investments and maybe that smaller broiler breeders, and skip-a-day fed birds, are better habituated to feed restriction.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Culture, Society and Media Production - KSM. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Journalistic Constructions in the Kärrtorp Demonstrations: How are Racists, Antiracists and Immigrants Portrayed and Constructed in the Kärrtorp-Demonstrations in Dagens Nyheter and Aftonbladet?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates journalistic constructions regarding the antiracism demonstration in Kärrtorp in 2013. How do the newspapers Dagens Nyheter and Aftonbladet construct the racist, antiracist and immigrant during and after the demonstration? Through the use of Critical Discourse Analysis, Media Theory, Nationalism Theory and Whiteness Theory this study examines how these groups (racist, antiracist, immigrant) are constructed to be excluded as part of the “others” as well as included as part of “us” in addition to who actually expresses opinions about these groups in the articles.       In the construction of the Kärrtorp demonstration a threat was presented (in form of Nazi organizations) that threatened the contemporary Swedish democracy and the solution offered here was to stand up for anti-racism and integration in the demonstration. The journalistic technique of coding and decoding is what occurs in many instances when comparing the perpetrator and their cause to history. The small minority, perpetrator and racist is within the articles constructed as men belonging to organized racist networks that do not believe that all human beings are equal and is constructed as one of the country of Sweden’s major problems that needs to be fixed. What has been argued then is that instead of only constructing and discussing racist propaganda and the extremes within the news it would more important to evaluate institutionalized routines and pattern behaviors within the Swedish society.       Noticeable in the study is also the journalists’ attempt to resent, reject and disapprove Racism, Nazism and violence on all levels and how they in general construct articles with antiracists as spokespersons. Moreover, immigration is mentioned in very few instances in the construction and usually through the racist or Nazi negative perspective with which the journalist does not agree.

  • 10.
    Escolano Andrés, Inés
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Knowledge-Based Flight Control System Integration in RAPID2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work presents a parametrized integration of the flight control system within RAPID by means of the automation in CATIA V5, using Knowledge Pattern.

    Nowadays aircraft’s design and development processes are not only time-consuming but also incur high economic cost. In addition, system integration is highly a multi-disciplinary design process which often involves a large number of different discipline teams working at the same time and space. The main objective of this thesis is to investigate how CAD (Computer Aided Design) software can be used in the early design stages to define the flight control system integration. The purpose of this work to improve the functionality of an in house produced aircraft conceptual design tool carried out at the Division of Fluid and Mechatronic Systems, Linköping University.

    The work consists of preliminary integration of the RAPID flight control system and the hydraulics associated to it. By defining several reusable templates, the automatic definition of a flight control system within the RAPID aircraft has been achieved.

    Moreover it is a parametrical model which allows the user to modify a high number of features as desired to enhance the design process. For this, a user interface in Microsoft Excel connected to CATIA has also been attained.

  • 11.
    Eklund Rimsten, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    "Det ger sig självt om man är en bra terapeut". En intervjustudie av hemuppgifter i familjeterapi.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The homework is an important part of both Functional Family Therapy (FFT) and Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). The goal of this essay has been to determine if, and in what way, homework is used in the context of family therapy, that is the frame of FFT. One hypothesis at the beginning of this work was that the interactional home assignments have started to be replaced by the behavior oriented ones that are a part of DBT.

    The individuals participating in the study are all working in a psychiatric outpatient clinic (BUP) in Uppsala. They are all using either Functional Family Therapy (n=3) or Dialectical Behavior Therapy (n=2) as treatment methods.

    The purpose of the study has been to try to understand more of the homework as a therapeutic instrument, especially the relational homework that family therapists are expected to work out on the basis of a manual that is provided within FFT. Two methods have been used to examine this: a survey and focus group interview.

    The results show a relatively large width when it comes to the therapists view on and practice of homework, though the general pattern indicates that they work out both relational as well as behavior oriented assignments in their practical work. However, there is a need and a wish of the family therapists to gain more clarity on how to determine and give a family a relational oriented homework. The conclusion of this essay is that a clarification like that is not possible, unless you go to the bottom with and define what the relational function is and how to use it in what within Functional Family Therapy is called the Relational Assessment Phase.

  • 12.
    Seki, Satomi
    et al.
    University of Tokyo.
    Kato, Naoko
    University of Tokyo.
    Ito, Naomi
    University of Tokyo.
    Kinugawa, Koichiro
    University of Tokyo.
    Ono, Minoru
    University of Tokyo.
    Motomura, Noboru
    University of Tokyo.
    Yao, Atsushi
    University of Tokyo.
    Watanabe, Masafumi
    University of Tokyo.
    Imai, Yasushi
    University of Tokyo.
    Takeda, Norihiko
    University of Tokyo.
    Inoue, Masashi
    University of Tokyo.
    Hatano, Masaru
    University of Tokyo.
    Kazuma, Kazuma
    University of Tokyo.
    Validity and reliability of Seattle angina questionnaire Japanese version in patients with coronary artery disease2010In: Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci), Vol. 4, no 2, 57-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Seattle Angina Questionnaire, Japanese version (SAQ-J) as a disease-specific health outcome scale in patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: Patients with coronary artery disease were recruited from a university hospital in Tokyo. The patients completed self-administered questionnaires, and medical information was obtained from the subjects' medical records. Face validity, concurrent validity evaluated using Short Form 36 (SF-36), known group differences, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 354 patients gave informed consent, and 331 of them responded (93.5%). The concurrent validity was mostly supported by the pattern of association between SAQ-J and SF-36. The patients without chest symptoms showed significantly higher SAQ-J scores than did the patients with chest symptoms in 4 domains. Cronbach's alpha ranged from .51 to .96, meaning that internal consistency was confirmed to a certain extent. The intraclass correlation coefficient of most domains was higher than the recommended value of 0.70. The weighted kappa ranged from .24 to .57, and it was greater than .4 for 14 of the 19 items. CONCLUSIONS: The SAQ-J could be a valid and reliable disease-specific scale in some part for measuring health outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease, and requires cautious use.

  • 13.
    Strengbom, Kristoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematical Statistics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mobile Services Based Traffic Modeling2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, communication systems have been dominated by voice applications. Today with the emergence of smartphones, focus has shifted towards packet switched networks. The Internet provides a wide variety of services such as video streaming, web browsing, e-mail etc, and IP trac models are needed in all stages of product development, from early research to system tests. In this thesis, we propose a multi-level model of IP traffic where the user behavior and the actual IP traffic generated from different services are considered as being two independent random processes. The model is based on observations of IP packet header logs from live networks. In this way models can be updated to reflect the ever changing service and end user equipment usage.

    Thus, the work can be divided into two parts. The first part is concerned with modeling the traffic from different services. A subscriber is interested in enjoying the services provided on the Internet and traffic modeling should reflect the characteristics of these services. An underlying assumption is that different services generate their own characteristic pattern of data. The FFT is used to analyze the packet traces. We show that the traces contains strong periodicities and that some services are more or less deterministic. For some services this strong frequency content is due to the characteristics of cellular network and for other it is actually a programmed behavior of the service. The periodicities indicate that there are strong correlations between individual packets or bursts of packets.

    The second part is concerned with the user behavior, i.e. how the users access the different services in time. We propose a model based on a Markov renewal process and estimate the model parameters. In order to evaluate the model we compare it to two simpler models. We use model selection, using the model's ability to predict future observations as selection criterion. We show that the proposed Markov renewal model is the best of the three models in this sense. The model selection framework can be used to evaluate future models.

  • 14.
    Prabahar, Jasila
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Localization of Stroke Using Microwave Technology and Inner product Subspace Classifier2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke or “brain attack” occurs when a blood clot carried by the blood vessels from other part of the body blocks the cerebral artery in the brain or when a blood vessel breaks and interrupts the blood flow to parts of the brain. Depending on which part of the brain is being damaged functional abilities controlled by that region of the brain is lost. By interpreting the patient’s symptoms it is possible to make a coarse estimate of the location of the stroke, e.g. if it is on the left or right hemisphere of the brain. The aim of this study was to evaluate if microwave technology can be used to estimate the location of haemorrhagic stroke.

    In the first part of the thesis, CT images of the patients for whom the microwave measurement are taken is analysed and are used as a reference to know the location of bleeding in the brain. The X, Y and Z coordinates are calculated from the target slice (where the bleeding is more prominent). Based on the bleeding coordinated the datasets are divided into classes. Under supervised learning method the ISC algorithm is trained to classify stroke in the left and right hemispheres; stroke in the anterior and posterior part of the brain and the stroke in the inferior and superior region of the brain. The second part of the thesis is to analyse the classification result in order to identify the patients that were being misclassified.

    The classification results to classify the location of bleeding were promising with a high sensitivity and specificity that are indicated by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). AUC of 0.86 was obtained for bleedings in the left and right brain and an AUC of 0.94 was obtained for bleeding in the inferior and superior brain. The main constraint was the small size of the dataset and few availability of dataset with bleeding in the front brain that leads to imbalance between classes. After analysis it was found that bleedings that were close to the skull and few small bleedings that are deep inside the brain are being misclassified. Many factors can be responsible for misclassification like the antenna position, head size, amount of hair etc.

    The overall results indicate that SDD using ISC algorithm has high potential to distinguish bleedings in different locations. It is expected that the results will be more stable with increased patient dataset for training.

  • 15.
    Bygdén, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Värdeflödesanalys i processindustri med kontinuerlig tillverkning: Fallstudie på Billerud Korsnäs AB Skärblacka2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lean production is a philosophy which purpose can be simplified as: Produce more products with the usage of fewer resources by eliminating waste in the system. At the beginning it was part manufacturing companys who started using the different techniques within lean but in recent years lean has been widespread and applied in service organizations like health care for example. The development of lean against the process industries has however been slower which implies that the companys within that industry still have a lot to learn when it comes to lean. Some critics argue that the possibilities of applying lean techniques in the process industries are limited. Others claim that you just need a different approach and that the lean methods might need to be adjusted so that the conditions of the industry are considered.

    When the main purpose of lean is to eliminate waste from the system there is a generally accepted method called value stream mapping (VSM). The method is used in order to map the material- and information flow and hence identify the waste existing in the system. There is a limited amount of literature considering the applicability of this method in the process industry, whereupon this study comes in handy. This master thesis was carried out as a case study at BillerudKorsnäs Skärblacka’s craft paper production and the purpose is to investigate how VSM can be applied at this type of production in order to eliminate waste. The study resulted in a description of the conditions necessary for the method to be used successfully, how the distinctive characteristics of the process industry affect the implementation of the method and which modifications that needed to be done.

    When the material- and information flow was mapped a number of problem areas were identified where the waste in the system was revealed. It was then detected that the biggest focus should be on the material flow and the production equipment. The identified problem areas lead to a number of improvement suggestions whose purpose is to decrease the amount of waste in the system. Recommendations were also proposed, discussing how the company henceforth can work iteratively with value stream mapping as a part of a process with continuous improvements.

    After the method was carried out conclusions could be drawn. The applicability of the method was considered as good due to problem areas and waste was identified and presented in a lucid way. Though, the data collection and calculation of the included parameters were very time-consuming. The reasons for that were that this was the first time the method was used at the company and the fact that all the data was stored in different systems. With continued mappings of the value stream the data collection and calculation will be less time-consuming parts due to all the formulas are already specified and lessons can be learned from the performance of this study. Due to the fact that radical changes of layout or flow pattern are hard or even impossible to carry out in this kind of industry the main focus of the VSM should be the mapping where the purpose is to identify existing problems and wastes. Hence the output from this method could be foundation for future investments and improvements.

  • 16.
    Skarped, Linnéa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vertical stratification and species composition of Nymphalidae butterfly assemblages in tree-fall gaps and understory in Madidi National Park, Bolivia2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rainforest is a dynamic ecosystem where species are affected by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. One important abiotic factor for many species is the availability of sunlight. The understory habitat under the closed undisturbed canopy is comparably constant with regard to sunlight and therefore also humidity and temperature. The canopy regulates the amount of sunlight that will reach the ground, which means that changes in canopy cover will change the understory environment. The main natural disturbances that affect the structure of rainforest are tree falls, that resulting in tree-fall gaps. The aim of this study was to compare the vertical stratification and species composition of fruit-feeding Nymphalidae butterflies between tree-fall gaps of different sizes and undisturbed understory in a primary rainforest in Madidi National Park, Bolivia. Fruit-baited traps were suspended at ground level (2 m) and in canopy (10-15 m) in 5 tree-fall gaps and adjacent undisturbed understory, a total of 40 traps. There were more species rich assemblages in gaps both at ground level and in canopy, compared to understory. The data show that there are different species assemblages in tree-fall gaps, undisturbed understory, canopy and at ground level. The vegetation structure affected by the amount of sun light was an important factor affecting butterfly assemblages. There was a tendency that differences among gap assemblages increased with gap size. These results indicate the importance of the mosaic pattern caused by natural tree-fall gaps, they contain specific resources that favor different butterfly assemblages.

  • 17.
    Jia, Ruoyu
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    CDM Leakage Quantification Methods: A content analysis of CDM methodologies linked to 15 sectoral scope2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper sheds light upon a specific issue: carbon leakage. Leakage can be understood as an unanticipated net carbon loss or gain, attributable to a climate policy, or reduction activities. Benign leakage effects are harmless. Unsettling are the ones that pose a threat to project’s environmental integrity. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is no exception to such risk. In order to investigate leakage and the corresponding leakage calculation methods addressed in the CDM projects, a qualitative content analysis is conducted on 203 methodologies. Methodology documents serve as ideal textual data for examining CDM related leakage because the development of any new project must be based on methodologies.

    In relation to the research question, the content analysis synthesizes 11 types of leakage sources. Excluding the case where no leakage is considered, 10 type of leakage sources are then broadly classified as Activity Shift, Market Effects and Life Cycle Leakage. Their corresponding leakage calculation methods are described and reviewed in terms of their geographic reach, and leakage characteristics. A percentage pattern is presented in relation to each sector. The findings are that the vast majority of the CDM leakage calculation methods address primary leakage specific to each individual project at a localized scale, among which, methods addressing Life Cycle Leakage are in the predominant majority. Market Effects as secondary sources are acknowledged as a potential threat to the overall benefit, but the CDM methodologies offer no quantitative method.

  • 18.
    Candell, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Varumärkesbyggande genom storytelling: En möjlighet för mönsterformgivare att särskilja sig på den svenska marknaden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pattern designers on the Swedish market operate in a growing industry that makes it difficult for them to succeed and distinguish themselves amongst others. A lot of them are self-employed, which means that the pattern designers personality have a large affect on how the brand is perceived. An opportunity to enhance or promote their brand is through storytelling, which through true stories that reflect the company's culture and values, can contribute to an unique position on the market. Research showing how storytelling can be used to build a brand or as a marketing strategy exist, although no studies have been found about storytelling on the Swedish market or with the target of self-employees or pattern designers. Therefore this study intends to examine how self-employment pattern designer on the Swedish market can use storytelling to build their brand. 

    In the case study data has been collected from interviews with three successful and established designers on the Swedish market with focus on how they build their brands. The study explains how storytelling can be used to build a brand and theories concerning three main areas: finding the stories (brand identity), adapting the stories (positioning and the brand meaning) and using the stories (marketing and communication). Based on these theories and the collected data the material was analysed in order to answer the study's purpose.

    The results show that self-employed pattern designer’s personality, background and values ​​are the main elements that define the brand identity, since a great deal of the pattern designer’s private life is linked with the brand. Stories can also be found in these parts and used as storytelling. The stories are unintended communicated through the pattern designer’s style. Their unique style is also what distinguishes them from others. Based on the style, patterns should be created and through them storytelling can be used, either from the brand’s identity or from intuition. The stories are communicated by marketing or through the patterns where the stories can speak for themselves. The marketing primarily communicates through ethos and pathos on Instagram, Facebook, websites and public relations and has different meaning based on the brand identity depending on the selected media platform.

  • 19.
    Knutsson, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Blueprint for Women’s Fulfilment: A Reading of Three Novels in the Early Fiction of Margaret Drabble2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will argue that Margaret Drabble has developed a pattern, that there is a blueprint for fulfilment in the life of the modern independent woman to be found inher early work. Three of Drabble's novels will be examined, moving from The Millstone(1965) and The Waterfall (1967), with their descriptions of two young heroines'pregnancies and lives with infant children, on to the more mature main character of TheRealms of Gold (1975). These three books form a chronology, both in regard to whenthey were written and, more importantly, to the different stages of a woman’s life thatthey represent. This will make it possible to see how Drabble perceives the demands ofsociety and different relationships influencing a woman's actions, her search foridentity, and the direction and fulfilment of her life. The pattern will be traced throughthree themes which are made visible in the novels in varying degrees. These are singlemotherhood and the role of the family, missing husbands and sexual fulfilment, andcareer and social interaction.The method is an analysis of the texts where the selected novels form the basis andstructure of the essay.

  • 20.
    Liljeström Ohlin, Lone
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utforskande av olika uttryck med grund i parkettläggningsteknik2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work revolves around my experiments with parquetry and my attempts to build a piece of furniture that appears to have been taken over by a pattern or structure. A transition into something more sculptural. I use pieces of wood left over from other projects to create these decorations. My basis is traditional parquetry techniques, but I also work with a type of more three dimensional parquetry, with thicker, angled pieces, to create depth and an impression of growing.

  • 21.
    Khajavizadeh, Lida
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth and structural characterization of ScN/CrN periodic and quasi-periodic superlattices for thermoelectric application2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this diploma work is the deposition and characterization of ScN/CrN superlattices with both periodic and quasi-periodic structures. ScN as semiconductor material with (2eV) band gap energy was selected due to its thermal and mechanical stability and its hardness. High resistivity against oxidation and high wear resistance were the reasons for choosing CrN as another candidate for the superlattices. The Rudin Shapiro structure was selected as quasi-periodic structure because of its more random structure.

    In this research both periodic and Rudin Shapiro as quasi-periodic structures have been deposited and investigated. The best optimized temperature for the deposition was 835°C and the selected periodic thickness was 6 nm for periodic structure with each ScN and CrN layers having each a thickness of 3 nm. The material ratio of Rudin Shapiro superlattices was kept the same as periodic samples. Evaluation of quasi-periodic and periodic superlattices was performed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Five peaks were recorded for superlattices measurement of periodic structure by diffraction. The envelope of the diffraction pattern represents two separated peaks in investigation of Rudin Shapiro investigation.

    The results of the X-ay measurements showed low quality of the superlattices for both deposited structures which suggest the need for further optimization of the deposition process or the use of other materials of superlattices.

  • 22.
    Malvisi, Filippo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of a Framework for AIML Chatbots inHTML5 and Javascript2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chatbots are software agents that interact with the user in a conversation. The main goal of their creation was to resemble a human being in the way they perform said interaction, trying to make the user think he/she is writing to another human being. This has been implemented with varying degrees of success. One of the most popular languages for the definition of a chatbot knowledge base is AIML.This thesis focuses on the implementation of an AIML interpreter written in Javascript to allow for a web-based client-side specific usage of AIML chatbots. The interpreter must guarantee the compliance of properly formed AIML documents, perform all the necessary pre-processing duties for the correct usage of the chatbot and ensure the correctness of both pattern matching of user input and chatbot response.The interpreter fully exploits the DOM tree manipulation functions of the jQuery library to achieve said goals, treating AIML files as if they were normal XML files. The result is a well performing, fully functional AIML interpreter tailored around AIML 1.0 specification.

  • 23.
    Pettersson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westgren, Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Staff scheduling in ACC at ATCC Stockholm2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we examine the creation of staffing plans at ESOS (ATCC Stockholm). The staffing plan is the cornerstone in making the working schedule for the employees and is created with regard to the traffic flow in the Swedish airspace. In the thesis we have come up with a model in order to create and examine staffing plans at ESOS where ATCOs (Air Traffic Controllers) will handle air traffic 55 per cent of their scheduled working hours. This would be an increase from the current staffing plan where they handle traffic approximately 50 per cent of their time at work. In order to create a staffing plan with the model, data on sector opening hours was received from ESOS. This data showed how many ATCOs that were handling traffic at any point in time during September 2013. By analysing the data, we obtained information about the number of hours that needed to be scheduled and also when it was appropriate to place the hours. The result is one staffing plan which was created manually with a heuristic approach for competence group X. The staffing plan is created so that the ATCOs handle traffic 55 per cent of their working hours in a month with the traffic pattern as the one from the data. It is important to properly investigate the effects that might occur if a staffing plan with 55 per cent time in position would be implemented. The created staffing plan is good to use as evaluation when deciding if 55 per cent time in position is something to use or not.

  • 24.
    Sadjadee, Sahand
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Meteor framework, a new approach to webdevelopment: an experimental analysis2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional definition of a dynamic web application is about a collection of programs executed at server-side to provide content for clients. These types of web applications produce content at server-side and deliver it to their clients via multiple pages. In result, the client-side has the responsibility to render the content and perform a limited amount of calculations to increase the performance and user experience.

       Meteor is a web framework designed for developing Single Page Applications and compared with traditional web frameworks, it takes a new approach in which most of the computations are done at the client-side. This leads to having the server-side primarily used for data storage and secondarily performing a limited amount of computations based on the Model View View-Model pattern.

       This thesis tries to examine how web development is affected by Meteor framework from different angles by performing an experimental analysis on Meteor framework. It will investigate different attributes of Meteor framework used for developing a real-world application and finally concludes by presenting the advantages and disadvantages of using it.

  • 25.
    Skeppstedt, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Construction of Composite Models from Large Data-Sets1989Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on input-output measurements and measurements of the operating-point vector a composite model is constructed. The dynamics of the different linear models are determined from the data, as well as the boundaries in the operating-point space which determine the dependence of the dynamics on the operating point. The basic idea is to utilize a method for recursive identification that is able to track slow as well as rapid dynamic changes. A classification procedure is applied to the models produced by this identification procedure, and borders are created between the different classified models. Techniques for supervised pattern recognition are used for the latter step. The whole construction procedure is illustrated by an example.

  • 26.
    Prokofyeva, Tatiana
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Language Use in Two Types of Suicide Texts2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide texts are the traces left by their authors for the public allowing them to understand the causes of the desire to commit suicide, regardless of whether such notes preceded successful suicide attempts or not. The types of such texts can vary dramatically in emotional expressiveness, be it a suicide note handwritten by the author or a short post typed on a web forum dedicated to suicides. While one text can be evidence of a successful suicide attempt, the other may point to a deeply depressive state which may or may not lead to a suicide attempt in future. The main questions this study aims to answer are: (1) what is the difference between the two above-named types of suicide texts (‘suicide notes’ and ‘suicide posts’) and (2) how is it expressed linguistically? Previous works on suicide texts have been of significant importance and have managed to investigate the differences between suicide notes of the attempters and those who completed suicide (Joiner 2002) as well as underline the typical features of genuine suicide notes in comparison to fabricated suicide notes. However, no studies indicating the differences between the ‘suicide notes’ of successful suicides and the ‘suicide posts’ of authors exhibiting various degrees of depressive behavior have previously been conducted. In this thesis, the comparative analysis of ‘suicide notes’ left by those successful in their attempts  and ‘suicide posts’ composed by authors with unknown fates has been carried out with the help of discourse analysis. Both types of texts have been examined from such linguistic levels as semantics, pragmatics and syntax. The results show several distinctive features peculiar to each type. While providing a clear reason for committing suicide in the one case contrasts with detailing a number of causes for depression in the other, further differences exist in regard to expressing such emotions as (1) fear of life, (2) relief, (3) lack of hope and (4) lack of doubt versus displaying such emotions as (1) fear of death, (2) preserved desire and (3) doubt. An easy to follow structure and purposeful past tense usage in suicide notes stands in contrast to the allusions to previous suicide attempts and indistinguishable pattern found in suicide posts. At the same time, specific punctuation signs were found to be peculiar mainly to the suicide post type of text.  The results of the research also demonstrate the necessity for further investigation of the characteristic features of different types of suicide text as well as their classification. Moreover, the study indicates the possibilities of tracing the probable transformation from ‘suicide posts’ to ‘suicide notes’ which may well serve for purposes of suicide prevention, especially if an additional category, i.e., notes written by survivors, is added to the analysis. 

  • 27.
    Subramanians, Sankar Saravanan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Geo-based Mobility Control for Mobile Traffic Simulators2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most mobile traffic simulators of today depend on the user to supply the mobility behavior of the simulated UEs. This becomes a problem when certain wanted mobility characteristics are to be tested, since the user have to go trough a trial-and-error procedure to come up with the proper mobility behavior. This thesis presents two approaches to mobility control, where the aim is to control UE mobility based on certain mobility characteristics supplied by the end user. The first approach introduces the concept of assigning tasks to UEs, e.g. “cross cell border” or “move to a certain cell”. Furthermore, concepts from control theory are borrowed to control the task assignment process, making it more dynamic and robust. The second approach iteratively calculate movement patterns for the UEs in an area until it finds a movement pattern that has a high probability of satisfying the user’s requested mobility characteristics.

  • 28.
    Dahlström, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Geo-based Mobility Control for Mobile Traffic Simulators2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most mobile traffic simulators of today depend on the user to supply the mobility behavior of the simulated UEs. This becomes a problem when certain wanted mobility characteristics are to be tested, since the user have to go trough a trial-and-error procedure to come up with the proper mobility behavior. This thesis presents two approaches to mobility control, where the aim is to control UE mobility based on certain mobility characteristics supplied by the end user.

    The first approach introduces the concept of assigning tasks to UEs, e.g. “cross cell border” or “move to a certain cell”. Furthermore, concepts from control theory are borrowed to control the task assignment process, making it more dynamic and robust.

    The second approach iteratively calculate movement patterns for the UEs in an area until it finds a movement pattern that has a high probability of satisfying the user’s requested mobility characteristics.

    In order to properly evaluate these two approaches a prototype simulator was developed, as well as a virtual network controller to be tested. This test environment simulate a simplified tree network topology.

    Both approaches was tested to control the total number of handovers per second in a simulated area. They both show high accuracy and acceptable precision. Additionally, the task based approach was used to control the cell utilization in a target cell. However, the cell utilization tests showed a lower accuracy and precision than the handover rate control tests.

  • 29.
    Skeppstedt, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Construction of Composite Models from Large Data-Sets1989In: Proceedings of the 28th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 1989, 653-658 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on input-output measurements and measurements of the operating-point vector a composite model is constructed. The dynamics of the different linear models are determined from the data, as well as the boundaries in the operating-point space which determine the dependence of the dynamics on the operating point. The basic idea is to utilize a method for recursive identification that is able to track slow as well as rapid dynamic changes. A classification procedure is applied to the models produced by this identification procedure, and borders are created between the different classified models. Techniques for supervised pattern recognition are used for the latter step. The whole construction procedure is illustrated by an example.

  • 30.
    Sandberg, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biochemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interaction studies of luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes with aggregated Amyloid β2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia and was responsible for over 2% of all deaths in Sweden 2012. One of the pathological hallmarks is amyloid plaques built by fibrillated Amyloid β. Luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes are known to stain and give characteristic fluorescence spectra when staining amyloid fibrils. Little is however known about the interactions between LCOs and fibrils. Studies have been performed on molecules more traditionally known to stain amyloid fibrils. Studies have also been performed on fibrils using limited proteolysis. So far no studies have been performed using LCOs combined with limited proteolysis in order to study the interaction pattern between LCOs and fibrils.

    Amyloid β is expressed and purified using a simple few step purification protocol. The amyloid β peptide was then fibrillated in several generations in order to select for a homogenous fibril structure. This purification protocol also has the ability to purify different oligomers of Amyloid β that are interesting from a toxicity point of view. In this thesis optical characteristics and limited proteolysis with mass spectrometry are being used to studies the interactions between LCOs and fibrillated amyloid β. The proteolytic pattern was suggestive of an accessible N-terminal and a hidden C-terminal of Amyloid β M1-42 in the fibril. It was also shown that the proteolysis cleavage pattern of Chymotrypsin is not disrupted when the LCO pKTAA was used to stain fibrils. The emission spectra from the two LCOs pATAA and pKTAA changes differently when subjected to continuous excitation indicative of conformational changes or chemical modification.

  • 31.
    Momeninasab, Leila
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design and Implementation of a Name Matching Algorithm for Persian Language2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Name matching plays a vital and crucial role in many applications. They are for example used in information retrieval or deduplication systems to do comparisons among names to match them together or to find the names that refer to identical objects, persons, or companies. Since names in each application are subject to variations and errors that are unavoidable in any system and because of the importance of name matching, so far many algorithms have been developed to handle matching of names. These algorithms consider the name variations that may happen because of spelling, pattern or phonetic modifications. However most existing methods were developed for use with the English language and so cover the characteristics of this language. Up to now no specific one has been designed and implemented for the Persian language. The purpose of this thesis is to present a name matching algorithm for Persian. In this project, after consideration of all major algorithms in this area, we selected one of the basic methods for name matching that we then expanded to make it work particularly well for Persian names. This proposed algorithm, called Persian Edit Distance Algorithm or shortly PEDA, was built based on the characteristics of the Persian language and it compares Persian names with each other on three levels: phonetic similarity, character form similarity and keyboard distance, in order to give more accurate results for Persian names. The algorithm gets Persian names as its input and determines their similarity as a percentage in the output. In this thesis three series of experiments have been accomplished in order to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The f-measure average shows a value of 0.86 for the first series and a value of 0.80 for the second series results. The first series of experiments have been repeated with Levenshtein as well, and have 33.9% false negatives on average while PEDA has a false negative average of 6.4%. The third series of experiments shows that PEDA works well for one edit, two edits and three edits with true positive average values of 99%, 81%, and 69% respectively. 

  • 32.
    Radpour, Houtan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Diel and monthly observations of plant mediated fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide from lake Följesjön in Sweden using static chamber method2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic plants or macrophytes are known as conduits of Methane (CH4), Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Nitrous oxide (N2O) which contribute to the total fluxes of the Greenhouse gases emissions from lakes. Recent studies emphasized that the knowledge on plant mediated emissions calls for more systematic and comparative data especially in the areas of spatial and temporal variability. In this study I measured diel (24 hour) and diurnal(  daily hours only) plant mediated fluxes during four sampling sessions using chamber method from a  Swedish lake in summer 2012. The measurements were conducted on two macrophyte population patterns of mixed plant communities and Equisetum fluviatile (specie-specific) community. CH4 emissions were higher in darker hours and there were no diel correlation between CH4 fluxes and average diel temperature. CH4 fluxes varied between 0.42 mmol m-2d-1 and 2.3 mmol m-2d-1. The CO2 fluxes had negative fluxes in day and positive during the day which was logical due to macrophyte respiration and photosynthesis mechanisms. Occasional daily positive fluxes were seen (only) during the rainy hours and there were no correlation between temperature and diel CO2 fluxes. The total net CO2 exchange was 2.8mmol m-2d-1 indicating that there was more CO2 release in the littoral zone of that lake. N2O fluxes did not show any clear diel or monthly pattern and the fluxes ranged between positive and negative numbers. The N2O fluxes did not exceed 2µmol m-2 d-1 with the total average flux of 0.8µmol m-2 d-1.

  • 33.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hallvig, David
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Observer Rated Sleepiness and Real Road Driving: An Explorative Study2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 5, 64782- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore if observer rated sleepiness (ORS) is a feasible method for quantification of driver sleepiness in field studies. Two measures of ORS were used: (1) one for behavioural signs based on facial expression, body gestures and body movements labelled B-ORS, and (2) one based on driving performance e.g. if swerving and other indicators of impaired driving occurs, labelled D-ORS. A limited number of observers sitting in the back of an experimental vehicle on a motorway about 2 hours repeatedly 3 times per day (before lunch, after lunch, at night) observed 24 participant’s sleepiness level with help of the two observer scales. At the same time the participant reported subjective sleepiness (KSS), EOG was recorded (for calculation of blink duration) and several driving measure were taken and synchronized with the reporting. Based on mixed model Anova and correlation analysis the result showed that observer ratings of sleepiness based on drivers’ impaired performance and behavioural signs are sensitive to extend the general pattern of time awake, circadian phase and time of driving. The detailed analysis of the subjective sleepiness and ORS showed weak correspondence on an individual level. Only 16% of the changes in KSS were predicted by the observer. The correlation between the observer ratings based on performance (D-ORS) and behavioural signs (B-ORS) are high (r = .588), and the B-ORS shows a moderately strong association (r = .360) with blink duration. Both ORS measures show an association (r>0.45) with KSS, whereas the association with driving performance is weak. The results show that the ORS-method detects the expected general variations in sleepy driving in field studies, however, sudden changes in driver sleepiness on a detailed level as 5 minutes is usually not detected; this holds true both when taking into account driving behaviour or driver behavioural signs.

  • 34.
    Israelsson, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simulating crowd behaviour in an emergency situation2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we have tried to simulate a crowd of humans in emergency situations. Based on previous research we have implemented a system that simulate human crowds in emergency situations. In this system each crowd member (called agents) is affected by forces from the surrounding environment which direct the movement of each agent. The forces can be either real physical forces or they can be psychological forces that represents humans tendency to stay a certain distance from inanimate obstacles and other crowd members.

    In our system the crowd can consist of different populations separated by average values of the properties each agent in the crowd has. The properties are easy to modify and are used as a way of modeling individuality for each agent. Changing properties changes the outcome of a simulation. The results are saved in a file that can be used for further analysis.

    Our most important result is that we have been able to use our system to make conclusions about real life crowd behaviour and also seen crowd effects in our simulations that are apparent in real life. Some of the results shows that in crowds where people try to help each other escape more people will survive. A crowd effect observed is arch like formations around doors. These formations breaks which let some people escape then the arch reforms and the pattern is repeated. This is particularly visible when the average speed of the crowd members is high.

    Our system still lacks some functionality which would allow easier use of the system and more accurate simulations.

  • 35.
    Granberg, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hellberg, Ingela
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inleveranser till SAS Bijouterier AB2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sven-Axel Svenssons Bijouterier in Söderköping is a company that imports, stores and sell accessories. They have a chain of stores called Glitter but they are also a wholesaler for retailers. They have expanded by opening new shops throughout a period of years. This expansion has caused a delay in the development of the Supply chain. In 1999 there was 14 shops in Sweden and today it is 123 shops in Norden Europe, 2004.

    The goal with this degree thesis has been to find out how the store delivery works today. If the company continues to expand the workflow to the warehouse and the shops will be affected. With simulation the store delivery can be explained and how it affects the work done in the warehouse.

    By creating a model of the real system, we have simulated how the system works today. The model is not an exact copy of the real system, it is a rough simplified image of the reality. The creation of this model makes it possible together with interviews and literature studies to make assumptions about how the delivery pattern could changes for expansions in the future.

    We start with a theoretical background about supply chains and simulation throughout a literature study. We continue with a description of the conditions for this degree thesis. The simulations have been done with a simulation tool called Arena.

    Pretty soon we could se that the pattern of the deliveries can be an obstacle for the company, in their future expansion. The warehouse deliveries works today but not satisfactory, which the company is well aware of. With help of simulation, theory and the knowledge we have got from our education, we have made some assumptions that some changes are necessary to do. In our work there are several proposals on continuing studies that can be done.

  • 36.
    Hökerberg, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Intarsia i läder: Intarsiateknikens tillämpbarhet inom tapetserarens arbetsfält2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the conditions for the intarsia technology’s applicability in the upholsterer’s field. I have by studying the different crafts and techniques in Intarsia gained a greater understanding of these and able to reflect on their use for upholstery tasks. After trying and comparing different techniques, materials and approaches and traded my experiments in a chair outfit I have come to the following: When comparing and evaluating the results it is evident that among the varying leather materials and adhesives I´ve tried there is no one more preferable, nor unpreferable, than the other. All materials included in my study works well on both arched and flat surfaces, on hard as well as on soft surfaces - under the circumstances for which I give a detailed account in my work. My experiments so far have also shown that both the approach I have chosen, cutting out the pattern by hand and laser cutting, are associated with problems that make the technology difficult in the current situation incompatible with the requirement of labor economics and precision. Punching is probably the most interesting technology, but the technology was not included in the study.

  • 37.
    Hübinette, Matilda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonas, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olive Oil Market Trends -The Importance of An Appealing Packaging Design2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this bachelor thesis the question regarding which design solutions, concerning the packaging to an up-market olive oil, contribute to the target group purchasing the product. To find out, observations on the up-market olive oil packaging of today was made in three selected stores. Based on the observations a trend analysis was made. With this analysis as a base, a design task, where four different olive oil packages were produced. These packages were based on elements frequently used on the present olive oil packaging. The packages are 3D-models made in 3D Studio Max and the labels were made in Illustrator and Photoshop. The labels were then merged with the packages using Photoshop. Using portable eye-tracking equipment, four participants were shown the four different olive oil packages, and got to answer questions concerning these packages, by using their eyes. The packages were shown through a projector, on a plain wall, in natural size and lined up on a simulated store shelf. Afterwards the participants answered qualitative questions regarding their opinions concerning olive oil packaging. The results show that the formation of the brand name is of importance and that a packaging for an up-market olive oil should be made out of glass, have a streamlined shape and a label that contains a pattern. The most memorable elements seem to be shape and pattern and in order to attract the target group, it is important to use a packaging design that stands out on the store shelf. An overly innovative shape is not to be recommended, but an innovative label can be beneficial. Prior experiences are of importance when choosing a packaging and brand name, product descriptor and product name should clearly be expressed. It is also beneficial if the design solution makes the consumer want to use the packaging as a part of the interior design in the kitchen. Colors unusual for this type of product can be used to create a positive ‘shelf impact’ and colors associated with positivity, warmth, sun and energy can especially tempt the consumers of the target group. Symmetry in the layout of the labels for up-market olive oil is beneficial as well as the use of a light color tone on the label in contrast to a darker text element and/or graphic element.

  • 38.
    Nworah, Nnamdi Felix
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fabrication and Characterization of Individually Addressable Polypyrrole Trilayer Microactuators2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers are organic polymers that can conduct electricity. They undergo a volume change upon redox reaction and can be used as an active material in some micro- actuator system. Micro-actuators are useful in biomedical and electronic application. We have fabricated a patterned Polypyrrole (PPy) trilayer microactuator device that has individually addressable microactuators (a micro walker) which can operate in air. Furthermore, the PPy trilayer microactuator device is fabricated using standard microfabrication method called photolithography to pattern PPy on PVDF membrane material. An etching process was used to achieve the patterning process. We presented the result of characterization of speed as a function of voltage and thickness of PPy film. Secondly, distance as a function of applied voltage and thirdly, the work density as a function of applied voltage. The procedures for fabrication of PPy microactuator device, using clean room facility is detailed in this thesis.

  • 39.
    Lööf, Maja
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Erika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Uttalsträning i svenska för tre personer med thai som förstaspråk: En single subject design-studie2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Three native Thai speakers with Swedish as their second language have received special training in Swedish pronunciation in the current single-subject design study. The aim of the current study was therefore to devise and implement a set of pronunciation training exercises, divided into suprasegmental and segmental modules. The aim was also to examine how suprasegmental and segmental changes in pronunciation affected the intelligibility of the pronunciation. The pronunciation training consisted of 14 training sessions during a five-week period. The exercises were divided into two modules, one with focus on suprasegmental aspects (B1) and one with focus on segmental aspects (B2). The suprasegmental module included acquainting subjects with the syllabic structure of the Swedish language as well as training of the Swedish language stress pattern. The segmental module contained training of consonant clusters, the Swedish speech sound [ɧ] and /r/. At the end of each session the participants were asked to repeat 50 words chosen before the start of the study. These words constituted the measuring points of the study and were analyzed according to the participants' ability to produce suprasegmental and segmental aspects correctly. The suprasegmental aspects were assessed according to fixed criteria and the segmental aspects were rated by means of Percentage Phonemes Correct (PPC). After completion of the final training session, three independent listeners estimated intelligibility to determine if relationship existed between these and the chosen assessment tools. Single words were selected in order to compare their criteria-based and PPC-ratings with acoustic correlates. The results of the present study indicate that a relationship can be observed between specific pronunciation training with focus on segmental aspects and improved pronunciation in terms of segmental and suprasegmental aspects. The pronunciation training with suprasegmental focus indicated the same conclusion. Further, a relationship can be seen between the judgment of the segmental aspects based on the measuring points' PPC-rating and the ratings of intelligibility. The intelligibility improved when the PPC increased. The focus of pronunciation training should be to achieve good intelligibility (Pennington, 1996; Levis, 2005); therefore it is suggested that segmental aspects should be included in pronunciation training for native Thai speakers when learning Swedish as a second language. No similar relations have been discovered between the suprasegmental aspects and intelligibility, which, however, may be due to limitations in the design of the study. Therefore suprasegmental aspects should not be neglected in pronunciation training.

  • 40.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    How to cook a caddie - To develop a design pattern for a participation manual2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to develop a design pattern for a manual that corresponds to the conditions of the international EU-funded Caddies project. The Caddies-project is working with issues regarding communication among inhabitants and their housing company, local cooperation and involvement of and between the inhabitants. This work is a qualitative case study. The design process is described step by step. In order to create a user-centric design, the starting point was to

    get to know the target group and develop a pattern based on their needs.

    Therefore, a fictional audience representative (a persona) is used, and a

    fictitious scenario about how the persona would use the manual was

    created.

    A design workshop was held early in the designers work to get an idea of

    what the audience is attracted to. Based on the results from the workshop,

    three concepts were designed and subsequently tested on the target

    group through interviews. The design was then developed from the interview results. The description of the design pattern is divided using the headings style and feel, layout, format, colors and fonts. It is supplemented with a sample solution that is presented visually and with text.

  • 41.
    Hassan, Nannur
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Multivariate exploration using extended scatter plot2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The information age has resulted in masses of data in many domains(e.g.,demographic analysis, physical simulations, biochemical data or environmental data analysis) which has multivariate properties. How can this type of data be explored to enable analysis and reveal pattern and features? One way is to visualize data correlations through a scatter plot. The project aims to develop an extended scatter plot in the GAV framework a component-based class library developed in Microsoft’s C# .NET platform using low-level DirectX graphics library. GAV uses an atomic component approach to increase customization and scalability of the scatter plot and depicts a layer where a specific idea or task is implemented. The scatter plot consists of several such layers.

    Some of the implemented tasks to improve a basic scatter plot is adding support for four numerical dimensions, to fit a linear least square regression line showing bivariate relationship explicitly, to allow the user to control focus and context view, to reveal internal characteristics and distribution of data based on percentile calculation, to incorporate multivariate interpolation, a process of assigning values to unknown points by using values from usually scattered set of known points. Intuitive interaction is also one of the goals of the thesis. Relevant snapshots with implementation details are provided as results and several ideas are mentioned for mproving and developing further.

  • 42.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Personal TV Channels2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Personal TV Channel concept, still in an early stage of research, will record all TV programmes of interest in separate virtual channels (news channel, TV-series channels, movie channels) based on your preferences. The concept has been well received and this report investigates the technical issues and possibilities of creating Personal TV Channels. The development was done mostly as stand alone applications but also by extending to the open-source Linux PVR software MythTV. The experimental results using video ngerprint techniques shows a high accuracy for nding the starting points for TV-series and news broadcasts. The developed visualisation tool provides a clear output of the broadcast segmentation. The segmentation and matching of commercials outputs extensive commercial statistics and makes it possible to track the broadcast of specic commercials. Finally conclusions and future work are presented.

    Keywords : Video Scene Boundary Detection, Commercial Detection, Video Fingerprinting, Video Indexing, Content Analysis, Pattern Recognition

  • 43.
    Karlsson, Albin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of stochastic pattern generation for fast halftoning2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete skapades efter att Björn Kruse framställt en ny rastreringsmetod. Han skapade en rastreringsmetod efter att ha framställt en digital variant av den analoga Jemsebymetoden. Han ville göra en metod som ger ett bra resultat och som är väldigt snabb. Testerna som har gjorts i denna rapport är gjorda så att Björn på bästa sätt kan vidareutveckla metoden. Metoden utvecklades vid sidan av detta examensarbete till att fungera vid flerfärgstryck, vilket inte var testat vid uppstarten av examensarbetet. Detta jobbade Erik Persbo med och parallellt hjälptes vi åt med parameterval och testbilder.

  • 44.
    Tran, Vuong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhgren, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analys av kvalitet i en webbpanel: Studie av webbpanelsmedlemmarna och deras svarsmönster2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During 2012, the employer of this essay carried out a telephone survey with 18000 participants and a web panel survey with 708 participants. Those who partook in the telephone survey were given a choice to join the web panel. The purpose of this work is to study the participants of the telephone survey and see if they reflect the Swedish population with regards to several socio-demographic factors. Also, we intend to investigate if the propensity to join the web panel differs for participants of the telephone survey with regards to various socio-demographic affiliations. It is also of interest to study if the response pattern is different for participants of the telephone survey that would like to join the web panel and those who reject. A comparison of response pattern between the telephone survey and web panel survey has also been done, to see if there exist any differences for these two groups of surveys. The statistical methods used in this essay are descriptive statistics, multiple logistic regression and decision trees. Conclusions to be drawn with result from these methods are that the participants from the telephone survey do reflect the Swedish population regarding certain socio-demographic factors and that there is a slight difference in propensity to join the web panel for people which have dissimilar socio-demographic affiliation. It has also been found that there is a slight difference in response pattern for participants who would or would not like to join the web panel, as well as differences in response pattern also exist between the telephone survey and the web panel survey.

  • 45.
    Calais, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Is personality dependent of growth rate in red junglefowl (Gallus gallus)?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Personality has been reported in a large variety of animal species, but it is not obvious why animals have personality. Variation in physiological traits, such as growth rate, should theoretically affect variation in behaviours and thus can explain why we observe variation in personalities. Growth rate is, theoretically, positively correlated with active personality types. Empirical studies have reported this pattern in different fish species, but there are not yet many studies on endothermic animals. I have therefore scored behaviours of 100 red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) chicks in four personality assays; novel arena, novel object, tonic immobility, and a proactive-reactive test, together with recording variation in growth rate of these individuals. The chicks individual growth rate (% day-1) were calculated and the relationship between personality and growth rate investigated. There was significant difference in growth rate between the sexes, where males grew faster than females, detected already at one week of age. However, no significant correlations between behavioural traits and growth rate were observed, indicating that personality seem to be independent of growth rate. Further studies should therefore investigate the generality of this finding, and alternative underlying mechanisms for variation in personality should be explored.

  • 46.
    Lindholm, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Large fused GPU volume rendering2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis describes the underlying theory and implementation of a fused GPU volume rendering pipeline. The open source framework of XIP, largely developed at Siemens Corporate Research, is extended with fusion capabilities through a Binary Space Partitioning approach. Regions in the intersection pattern of multiple volumes are identified and subsequently rendered using either Texture Slicing or Raycasting in a cell based fashion. Results demonstrate interactive frame rates for reasonable scenes and are encouraging as the implementation can be extended by several key acceleration methods.

  • 47.
    Lind, Liza
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Non-coding RNA in T cell activation and function2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time research has focused on the protein-coding mRNA, but there is a complex world of non-coding RNAs regulating the human body that we yet know very little about. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in modulation of different cell processes including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In the current study the role of ncRNAs in T cell activation and function was investigated. T cells are important mediators of immune responses, for example upon viral infections. The T helper cells (TH or CD4+ cells) are involved in orchestrating immune processes like aiding the activation of macrophages and enhancement of B cell function. The TH1 cell subtype is generally pro-inflammatory and IFNγ-secreting. There are regulatory T (Treg) cells that are involved in downregulation of TH1 cells, to decrease or terminate the immune response. It has been shown that upon repeated stimulation TH1 cells can switch into a Treg-like IL10-secreting anti-inflammatory phenotype.

    In the IL10-secreting Treg-like cells the microRNA 150 (miR-150) was found upregulated compared to IFNγ-secreting TH1 cells. Thus, miR-150 was believed to be a candidate in key regulation of the switch between the two phenotypes. Predicted target genes of miR-150 were identified using mRNA arrays investigating down-regulated genes in the IL10-secreting Treg-like subpopulation. In this thesis predicted targets of miR-150 were investigated using luciferase assays. Unfortunately no targets were identified.

    Upon isolation of IFNγ-secreting TH1 cells and Treg-like IL10-secreting cells, it was found that the ncRNA 886 (nc886) was upregulated in these activated cells, compared to resting TH cells. This indicates that nc886 has an important role in T cell activation. Nc886 has been shown to inhibit PKR activation in other cell types. The effect of nc886 on protein kinase R (PKR) was therefore investigated. PKR shuts down translation upon activation in response to viral double-stranded RNA or cellular stress. We showed that in an activated T cell phenotype nc886 is affecting PKR upon activation by dsRNA from HIV or synthetic origin. The PKR activation pattern is reversed in a resting T cell phenotype.

  • 48.
    Hussien Khairi, Mutaz Hamed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of multi-band and ultra-wide band antennas (6-8.5 GHz)2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the United Sate Federal Communication Commission (FCC) released the first Ultra Wide-band (UWB) report on February 14, 2002, the interest in UWB technology has increased substantially in both academia and industry. Interest is to simulate by the expectation that UWB can solve the shortage of the available frequency recourses. The European Electronics Communications Committee (ECC) has approved the use of UWB devices in the range from 6-8.5 GHz, subjected to the technical limits embossed by FCC in the US. Therefore one of the main goals is to find an optimal planar-antenna working in the European (UWB) spectrum 6-8.5 GHz, with a bandwidth of 2.5 GHz. The different ntypes of antennas investigated are the dipole antenna, the square antenna (basic square antenna, square antenna with bevel, square with off set) and the circular disc antenna, designed and simulated in Advance Design System (ADS). Planar antennas implemented in this project have a multi layer PCB structure which includes a flexible foil. The design process is mainly carried out in two steps. In the first step dimensions of antennas were calculated, then in the second step dimensions were tuned until the simulation result fulfilled the demands of the design specification. The characteristic input impedance, bandwidth, gain, directivity and electromagnetic radiation pattern are compared among different types of planar antennas investigated. In this report the bandwidth the focus because it the major concern of the project. The Balun is used to adapt the signal between the antenna and the device (transmitter and receiver). When the Balun simulated together with a planar antenna small change in the bandwidth is observed. It found that there are four types of planar antennas (basic square antennas, square antenna with bevel, square antenna with offset and circular disc antenna) can be used in the Ultra Wideband spectrum 6-8.5 GHz

    .

  • 49.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Audiovisual presentation supports cognitive processing of information heard in modulated noise2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cognitive spare capacity test (CSCT) assesses the ability to process heard information stored in working memory. This is important because listening that is effortful, due to noise or hearing impairment, consumes cognitive resources leaving less capacity available for further processing. The CSCT pinpoints the effects of modality of presentation (Audiovisual, Audio-only); memory load (High, Low) and different kinds of executive processing demands (Updating, Inhibition). In the present study, 24 participants with mild to moderate hearing loss performed CSCT with amplification in quiet, in steady-state noise at an individually adapted signal to noise ratio (SNR) rendering intelligibility of ~95% and in modulated noise (International Speech Test Signal; ISTS) at the same SNR. An independent battery of cognitive tests was also administered. Analysis of variance showed main effects of all factors, including better performance with Audiovisual than Audio-only modality. However, a significant interaction revealed that the Audiovisual benefit was most prominent in ISTS. The benefit of Audiovisual presentation over Audio-only presentation correlated with the independent measure of working memory capacity. The pattern of results suggests that for the hearing impaired population, Audiovisual presentation supports cognitive processing of information heard in modulated noise and that the magnitude of this benefit is related to working memory capacity.

  • 50.
    Thoresson, Sven
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westlund, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of Turnaround Times for Increased Capacity at the Port of Bahía Blanca2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Port of Bahía Blanca has for many years been an important center of transportation of agricultural products in Argentina. The increasing traffic to the port has resulted in an escalating need for higher efficiency, since the current facilities have problems with fatal accidents, long turnaround times and overall congestion.

    This project is focused on inbound truck traffic for four of the terminals in the port handling grain and cereals. All the trucks are compulsorily required to go through a facility called the Triangle where trucks are checked in and queued until they are allowed to proceed to the unloading facilities at the terminal. The Triangle is the case study for this project and the objective has been to analyze the turnaround time and how it could be reduced. The second part of this project examines the Triangle as an actor of its supply chain and how it is possible to develop the Triangle with respect to its supply chain.

    A simulation model of the Triangle was constructed and several scenarios were analyzed. It was then possible to determine the principal reason for congestion and long turnaround times; the reason being poor synchronization between the arrival of the trucks and the capacity at the terminals. The arrival pattern was changed in the model and this made it possible to reduce the turnaround time significantly. By creating six appointment intervals per day it was possible to reduce turnaround times by around 50 per cent for three of four terminals. Other affecting factors such as check-in, quality control and batch sizes were also analyzed; however, these factors showed much less influence on the total turnaround time.

    The structure of the supply chain was investigated, as well as the power bases of the different actors. The current structure is somewhat complex and does not encourage the changes necessary to constitute an efficient supply chain.

    This project has resulted in recommendations at both operative and strategic levels. The operative recommendations are to use the current appointment system but in a stricter manner. Each day should be divided into at least six time -slots in which trucks are expected to arrive. A differential price strategy for arriving trucks should be used in order to encourage punctuality. Penalty fees should be implemented when the terminals do not follow the stated schedule.

    In order to implement the changes and ensure the quality of the services it is necessary to instate a channel captain for this supply chain. The Consortium, the manager of the port, should take a more active role to become the channel captain to support overall optimization of the supply chain, rather than of local segments.

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