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  • 1.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics.
    24th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors – Biosensors 20142014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Welcome to Biosensors 2014 and welcome to Melbourne, ranked as the world's most liveable city!

    This is the 24th anniversary edition of the World Congress on Biosensors and we continue to evolve, adapt and grow into new roles to serve the analytical needs of a rapidly changing society. Advances in telecommunications, expert systems and distributed diagnostics are prompting us to question the conventional ways we deliver healthcare, while robust industrial sensors are facilitating new paradigms in R&D and production. Personalisation of everything from medicine to environmental control, is giving new impetus to consumer choice and ownership of information, and will inevitably generate new payment structures and business models. Moreover, a deeper understanding of the bio/electronic interface leads us towards new horizons in areas such as bionics, power generation and computing.  Wearable, mobile and integrated sensors are becoming common place, but most current products have taken the easy path of incorporating physical sensors for parameters such as temperature, pressure, orientation or position. There is still a glaring absence of suitably robust and convenient commercial biosensors for body chemistries and ecosystems, and therein lies the real opportunities for progress.  We are a still-emerging technology that is fuelling scientific discovery and underpinning new products to enhance the length and quality of life.

    Always in a new country and always with fresh plenary speakers, we aim to reflect the latest and the best in Biosensors. This three-day event, organised by Elsevier in association with Biosensors & Bioelectronics, consists of two daily plenary presentations from leading figures in the field, followed by four parallel sessions, comprising a rigorously refereed selection of submitted papers. This year, we received 1,156 submissions of which 124 with be presented as regular Oral papers, with an additional 20 singled out as Invited talks and a further 12 selected for extended Keynote talks. The Keynote speakers have also been invited to submit full papers for consideration for the Biosensors and Bioelectronics Prize for the most original contribution to the Congress and the winners will be announced at the conference banquet on Thursday night. There will also be poster awards and you will find voting slips for each of the three days in your delegate bags. The winners of these awards and a prize draw, sponsored by Linköping University and Acreo Swedish ICT, will be announced at the closing ceremony on Friday. In order to enhance the valued medium of poster presentation, this year we have introduced a new Poster in my Pocket Ap.  Poster presenters have been able to upload a PDF of their poster prior to the conference to help increase the exposure of their work. This compliments the other new Ap introduced this year to place the full programme at your fingertips. Selected oral presentations will also have the opportunity to upload their talks online for future viewing.

    The academic programme, as usual, is enhanced by a fine collection of commercial exhibits and in addition to browsing their stands; you will be able to hear short elevator pitches during the breaks. We must thank our main commercial sponsor, Ercon for their generous and continued support of our congress. Thanks also to New Tools for Health for sponsoring the pre-congress Networking Event.  Now a regular feature for Biosensors, we have a pre-congress school, this year on Optical Biosensors, which is brought to you by Profs Fran Ligler and Tanya Monro. Last, but not least I must thank our marvellous Local Organising Committee chaired by Prof Justin Gooding, our hard working main Organising Committee, all the speakers and delegates, and the Elsevier team for all their support.

    Our delegates come from the four corners of the globe to hear the science, to grasp the opportunities and to meet the people; it’s going to be the best meeting yet. Enjoy and don’t forget to join us again in Gothenburg, Sweden, 24-27 May for Biosensor 2016!

  • 2.
    Markström, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D Position Estimation of a Person of Interest in Multiple Video Sequences: People Detection2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In most cases today when a specific person's whereabouts is monitored through video surveillance it is done manually and his or her location when not seen is based on assumptions on how fast he or she can move. Since humans are good at recognizing people this can be done accurately, given good video data, but the time needed to go through all data is extensive and therefore expensive. Because of the rapid technical development computers are getting cheaper to use and therefore more interesting to use for tedious work.

    This thesis is a part of a larger project that aims to see to what extent it is possible to estimate a person of interest's time dependent 3D position, when seen in surveillance videos. The surveillance videos are recorded with non overlapping monocular cameras. Furthermore the project aims to see if the person of interest's movement, when position data is unavailable, could be predicted. The outcome of the project is a software capable of following a person of interest's movement with an error estimate visualized as an area indicating where the person of interest might be at a specific time.

    This thesis main focus is to implement and evaluate a people detector meant to be used in the project, reduce noise in position measurement, predict the position when the person of interest's location is unknown, and to evaluate the complete project.

    The project combines known methods in computer vision and signal processing and the outcome is a software that can be used on a normal PC running on a Windows operating system. The software implemented in the thesis use a Hough transform based people detector and a Kalman filter for one step ahead prediction. The detector is evaluated with known methods such as Miss-rate vs. False Positives per Window or Image (FPPW and FPPI respectively) and Recall vs. 1-Precision.

    The results indicate that it is possible to estimate a person of interest's 3D position with single monocular cameras. It is also possible to follow the movement, to some extent, were position data are unavailable. However the software needs more work in order to be robust enough to handle the diversity that may appear in different environments and to handle large scale sensor networks.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D Position Estimation of a Person of Interest in Multiple Video Sequences: Person of Interest Recognition2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Because of the increase in the number of security cameras, there is more video footage available than a human could efficiently process. In combination with the fact that computers are getting more efficient, it is getting more and more interesting to solve the problem of detecting and recognizing people automatically.

    Therefore a method is proposed for estimating a 3D-path of a person of interest in multiple, non overlapping, monocular cameras. This project is a collaboration between two master theses. This thesis will focus on recognizing a person of interest from several possible candidates, as well as estimating the 3D-position of a person and providing a graphical user interface for the system. The recognition of the person of interest includes keeping track of said person frame by frame, and identifying said person in video sequences where the person of interest has not been seen before.

    The final product is able to both detect and recognize people in video, as well as estimating their 3D-position relative to the camera. The product is modular and any part can be improved or changed completely, without changing the rest of the product. This results in a highly versatile product which can be tailored for any given situation.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lind, Kristoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D-visualization of residential buildings in Manstorp2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In real estate ads in both newspapers and on the Internet, there are more and more computer modeled houses for sale. We believe that this is one of the biggest markets for visualization today. When time and technology are ready, we expect that visualization will be used a lot more to create projects where people can “trust” in what is being visualized. For our final thesis we wanted to work with

    Visualization, our concentration within the Construction Engineering program at Linköping University. We managed to do this with the construction company Peab in Linköping, who wanted to make their marketing of their project Manstorp in Linghem more efficient. The pictures that the hired architect firm used to visualize the property with were not sufficient enough, according to Peab, in giving the true picture of the area. The goal for our thesis was to create more realistic and living images, and thereby help Peab sell all of the real estates before completing the constructions.

    We were continuously given material from Peab and the architect firm White in order to visualize a realistic set of pictures for potential clients. One of computer visualizations biggest advantages is that it is easy to modify the models according to changes in the material given. Compared to classic design methods such as hand-drawn sketches, physical models and computer manipulated pictures it was easy for us to change features such as color, displacement and size. We wanted to show how the cooperation between people who visualizes, construction companies and architects could work, where problems could evolve and which solutions and methods are to be preferred.

    The goal was to create a model of the exterior and interior of the individual buildings in their final environment and display this with pictures on Peab’s and the real estate agent’s website. We achieved this goal and the result can be seen at:

    http://www.peab.se/Bostader_lokaler/Bostader/ostergotland/Linkoping/Manstorp

  • 5.
    Kjellman, Görel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A 12-year follow-up of subjects initially sicklisted with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses2001In: Physiotherapy Research International, ISSN 1358-2267, E-ISSN 1471-2865, Vol. 6, no 1, 52-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose Neck/shoulder and low back pain are common in the Western world and can cause great personal and economic consequences, but so far there are few long term follow-up studies of the consequences of back pain, especially studies that separate the location of back pain. More knowledge is needed about different patterns of risk factors and prognoses for neck/shoulder and low back pain, respectively, and they should not be treated as similar conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible long-term differences in neck/shoulder and low back symptoms, experienced over a 12-year period, with regard to work status, present health, discomfort and influence on daily activities.

    Method A retrospective cohort study of individuals sicklisted with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses 12 years ago was undertaken. Included were all 213 people who, in 1985, lived in the municipality of Linköping, Sweden, were aged 25–34 years and who had taken at least one new period of sickleave lasting >28 days with a neck/shoulder or low back diagnosis. In 1996, a questionnaire was mailed to the 204 people who were still resident in Sweden (response rate 73%).

    Results Those initially absent with neck/shoulder diagnoses rated their present state of discomfort as worse than those sicklisted with low back diagnoses. Only 4% of the neck/shoulder group reported no present discomfort compared with 25% of the low back group. Notably, both groups reported the same duration of low back discomfort during the last year, which may indicate a higher risk for symptoms in more than one location for subjects with neck/shoulder problems.

    Conclusions Individuals with sickness absence of more than 28 days with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses appear to be at high risk of developing long-standing symptoms, significantly more so for those initially having neck/shoulder diagnoses.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hummerdal, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Psychology , Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A 3.5-year follow-up of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for major depression2013In: Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0963-8237, E-ISSN 1360-0567, Vol. 22, no 2, 155-164 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundInternet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for major depression has been tested in several trials, but only with follow-ups up to 1.5 years.

    AimThe aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of ICBT 3.5 years after treatment completion.Methods

    A total of 88 people with major depression were randomized to either guided self-help or e-mail therapy in the original trial. One-third was initially on a waiting-list. Treatment was provided for eight weeks and in this report long-term follow-up data were collected. Also included were data from post-treatment and six-month follow-up. A total of 58% (51/88) completed the 3.5-year follow-up. Analyses were performed using a random effects repeated measures piecewise growth model to estimate trajectory shape over time and account for missing data.

    ResultsResults showed continued lowered scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). No differences were found between the treatment conditions. A large proportion of participants (55%) had sought and received additional treatments in the follow-up period. A majority (56.9%) of participants had a BDI score lower than 10 at the 3.5-year follow-up.

    ConclusionsPeople with mild to moderate major depression may benefit from ICBT 3.5-years after treatment completion.

  • 7.
    Braian, Clara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Mattias
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Brighenti, Susanna
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lerm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Parasa, Venkata R.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    A 3D Human Lung Tissue Model for Functional Studies on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection2015In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 104, 1-9 p., e53084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tuberculosis (TB) still holds a major threat to the health of people worldwide, and there is a need for cost-efficient but reliable models to help us understand the disease mechanisms and advance the discoveries of new treatment options. In vitro cell cultures of monolayers or co-cultures lack the three-dimensional (3D) environment and tissue responses. Herein, we describe an innovative in vitro model of a human lung tissue, which holds promise to be an effective tool for studying the complex events that occur during infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). The 3D tissue model consists of tissue-specific epithelial cells and fibroblasts, which are cultured in a matrix of collagen on top of a porous membrane. Upon air exposure, the epithelial cells stratify and secrete mucus at the apical side. By introducing human primary macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis to the tissue model, we have shown that immune cells migrate into the infected-tissue and form early stages of TB granuloma. These structures recapitulate the distinct feature of human TB, the granuloma, which is fundamentally different or not commonly observed in widely used experimental animal models. This organotypic culture method enables the 3D visualization and robust quantitative analysis that provides pivotal information on spatial and temporal features of host cell-pathogen interactions. Taken together, the lung tissue model provides a physiologically relevant tissue micro-environment for studies on TB. Thus, the lung tissue model has potential implications for both basic mechanistic and applied studies. Importantly, the model allows addition or manipulation of individual cell types, which thereby widens its use for modelling a variety of infectious diseases that affect the lungs.

  • 8.
    van der Zijpp, Teatske Johanna
    et al.
    Fontys University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Nursing, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Niessen, Theo
    Fontys University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Nursing, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hawkes, Claire
    Warwick Clinical Trials Unit, Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
    McMullan, Christel
    Institute of Applied Health Research, Murray Learning Centre, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Mockford, Carole
    Royal College of Nursing Research Institute, Department of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
    Wallin, Lars
    Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    McCormack, Brendan
    School of Health Sciences, Queen Margaret University, East Lothian,UK.
    Rycroft-Malone, Jo
    Bangor University, UK, and School of Healthcare Sciences, Bangor, UK.
    Seers, Kate
    Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
    A Bridge Over Turbulent Waters: Illustrating the Interaction Between Managerial Leaders and Facilitators When Implementing Research Evidence.2016In: Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, ISSN 1545-102X, E-ISSN 1741-6787, Vol. 13, no 1, 25-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence focuses on the importance of the role of leadership in successfully transferring research evidence into practice. However, little is known about the interaction between managerial leaders and clinical leaders acting as facilitators (internal facilitators [IFs]) in this implementation process.

    AIMS: To describe the interaction between managerial leaders and IFs and how this enabled or hindered the facilitation process of implementing urinary incontinence guideline recommendations in a local context in settings that provide long-term care to older people.

    METHODS: Semistructured interviews with 105 managers and 22 IFs, collected for a realist process evaluation across four European countries informed this study. An interpretive data analysis unpacks interactions between managerial leaders and IFs.

    RESULTS: This study identified three themes that were important in the interactions between managerial leaders and IFs that could hinder or support the implementation process: "realising commitment"; "negotiating conditions"; and "encouragement to keep momentum going." The findings revealed that the continuous reciprocal relationships between IFs and managerial leaders influenced the progress of implementation, and could slow the process down or disrupt it. A metaphor of crossing a turbulent river by the "building of a bridge" emerged as one way of understanding the findings.

    LINKING EVIDENCE TO ACTION: Our findings illuminate a neglected area, the effects of relationships between key staff on implementing evidence into practice. Relational aspects of managerial and clinical leadership roles need greater consideration when planning guideline implementation and practice change. In order to support implementation, staff assigned as IFs as well as stakeholders like managers at all levels of an organisation should be engaged in realising commitment, negotiating conditions, and keeping momentum going. Thus, communication is crucial between all involved.

  • 9.
    Jonsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Brief History of the Masses: Three Revolutions2008Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stefan Jonsson uses three monumental works of art to build a provocative history of popular revolt: Jacques-Louis David's The Tennis Court Oath (1791), James Ensor's Christ's Entry into Brussels in 1889 (1888), and Alfredo Jaar's They Loved It So Much, the Revolution (1989). Addressing, respectively, the French Revolution of 1789, Belgium's proletarian messianism in the 1880s, and the worldwide rebellions and revolutions of 1968, these canonical images not only depict an alternative view of history but offer a new understanding of the relationship between art and politics and the revolutionary nature of true democracy.

    Drawing on examples from literature, politics, philosophy, and other works of art, Jonsson carefully constructs his portrait, revealing surprising parallels between the political representation of "the people" in government and their aesthetic representation in painting. Both essentially "frame" the people, Jonsson argues, defining them as elites or masses, responsible citizens or angry mobs. Yet in the aesthetic fantasies of David, Ensor, and Jaar, Jonsson finds a different understanding of democracy-one in which human collectives break the frame and enter the picture.

    Connecting the achievements and failures of past revolutions to current political issues, Jonsson then situates our present moment in a long historical drama of popular unrest, making his book both a cultural history and a contemporary discussion about the fate of democracy in our globalized world.

  • 10. Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A case study of how user interface sketches, scenarios and computer prototypes structure stakeholder meetings2007In: The 21st British HCI Group Annual Conference on People and Computers: HCI...but not as we know it / [ed] Ball, L. J., Sasse, M. A., Sas, C., Ormerod, T. C., Dix, A., Bagnall, P., McEwan, T., Swinton: The British Computer Society , 2007, 177-184 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In stakeholder meetings during an interaction design project, prototypes are commonly used for creating shared representations of design ideas. It can, however, be difficult for designers and meeting facilitators to know which prototyping technique to use. In this case study we compare user interface sketches, scenarios, and computer prototypes, and analyse video material from six stakeholder meetings. The scenario did not facilitate a focus on aesthetic or ethical perspectives, nor did it facilitate operational or perceptual issues. The prototype did not facilitate discussions on the overarching concept of the design, to the same extent as the sketches did, but it did facilitate operational issues. The sketches gave the broadest discussion. The groups also approached the design differently; for example, the system developers constantly returned to a constructional perspective. This means that the choice of prototyping technique should be made based on the composition of the group and the desired focus of the meeting.

  • 11.
    Bengts, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies.
    A case study of post-earthquake consequences for women within marginalized groups in Nepal: A qualitative case study with the aim to explore the consequences for women within marginalized groups in a post-earthquake society2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the outcome of a case study conducted in Kathmandu, Nepal in April 2016. The purpose of the study is to investigate in the consequences of the 2015 earthquake in Nepal, from the perspective of women within socioeconomically vulnerable groups. The caste system is still practiced nearly all over Nepal and women are still facing multiple forms of discrimination. A woman belonging to the Dalits, which is the group considered to be at the bottom of the hierarchy and below the castes, have no right to control land, housing or money and are exposed to violence and forced sexual labour. The aim of the study is to shed light over how already existing discrimination leads to further examples of discrimination in the aftermath of a natural disaster and the “class-consciousness” of natural disasters. People within a society are living under different conditions and these conditions lead to different consequences when facing a natural disaster. The components of these conditions are often intertwined with each other and should therefore not be examined separately, which is why an intersectional perspective is used for this study. Furthermore, standpoint theory is used as well, to look at these issues from the viewpoint of the marginalized people of the society. Interviews were made with 6 different respondents, who are working for NGOs in and outside of Kathmandu and who through their work are coming on contact with the issues mentioned. My findings show several examples of post-earthquake consequences for women which can be linked to the strong patriarchy, the use of caste system and mistreatment from the government.

  • 12.
    Malm, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saab Group, Business Area Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Henric
    Saab Group, Business Area Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    A change process: transition from 2D to 3D by Model Based Definition2014In: Proceedings of the 6th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS), Gothenburg, Sweden. September 2014, 2014, 1-10 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate factors that are important for the transition from 2D to 3D by Model Based Definition (MBD). Within MBD, 3D models are used as sources of information for design, production, distribution, technical documentation, services and the overall product lifecycle. The introduction and development of MBD at Aeronautics can be described in five transitions that illustrate how knowledge enhancement from project to project and between the projects and the linear organization has evolved. The largest challenges have been in the start-up of the transitions, people are gathered with different prerequisites, seeing solutions or problems from different perspectives.

  • 13.
    Hansen, Peo
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Common Market, a Common ‘Problem’: Migration andEuropean Integration Before and After the Launching of the Single Market2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Since the ratification of the Amsterdam Treaty in 1999 the European Union is emerging as a key actor within migration policy. But in order to understand the current development it is important to have a clear picture of the EU’s historical trajectory in the field of migration. In this paper the discussion thus focus esexclusively on the pre-Amsterdam era. It sets out with a brief historical overview of the early decades of European integration and accounts for labour migration’s crucial function in the founding logic of the EEC. While supranational competence over migration policy was very limited during this period, the discussion shows that the way in which competence was allocated between supranational and national levels would be highly consequential for the future development. Following this, the major part of the paper is devoted to an examination of the Community’s transformation during the second half of 1980s and the first half of the 1990s. The measures introduced under the banner of the Single Market, particularly those pertaining to the free movement of persons, instigated a development whereby immigration and asylum would be progressively treated as ‘common’ Community matters. Equally important, the paper shows that Community activity in the area of migration also addressed a range of other matters, many of which went beyond the issue of people moving across external and internal borders. From then on, Brussels began to address the situation of ethnic minorities of migrant background, thus bringing the growing problems of ethnic exclusion and racism on to the EU agenda. On the whole, it was the question of how to better ‘integrate’ ‘legal immigrants’ and ethnic minorities into Community societies that received the most attention. In this fashion, the present paper examines the EU’s interventions in the area of immigration and asylum together with its efforts in the realm of migrant ‘integration’. Although very few accounts have undertaken to analyze jointly the EU’s approaches to immigration and migrant ‘integration’, this paper demonstrates that in order to provide a comprehensive analysis of the issues in question, these policy areas need to be approached as inextricably intertwined and as mutually conditioning.

  • 14.
    Götherström, Ulla-Christel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Dick
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparative study of text telephone and videophone relay services2004In: Technology and Disability, ISSN 1055-4181, Vol. 16, no 2, 101-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to compare text telephone relay service and videophone relay service. The target group was people borne deaf. The following aspects were investigated: (1) socioeconomic costs, (2) costs of different actors, (3) qualitative aspects of the services, (4) outcomes (intermediate effects and quality of life). The study was longitudinal and measurements were made at three occasions. Data collection was made by post-mailed questionnaires. Of the 41 respondents, 16 persons had access to the text telephone relay service only and 25 persons had access to text telephone relay service supplemented with videophone relay service. The ratings of the quality of the services and the outcomes were significantly higher for videophone relay service than for text telephone relay service (at a 95%-level). The incremental cost was approximately SEK 40 000, or EUR 4 510 (1 EUR = 8.87 SEK, as of 31 December 2000) higher per person and year for the group with access to both text telephone relay service and videophone relay service compared with the group with access to text telephone relay service only.

  • 15.
    Nord, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Comparison of Animal Assisted Therapy and Animal Assisted Activities with Dogs in Swedish Residential Care.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Poster Aims at Comparing Goal-Oriented Rehabilitation Work with Dogs to Activities with Dogs Performed without Explicit Therapeutic Goals. It is a Qualitative Research Project Based on Interviews with and Observations of Staff as well as Older People. The Results Presented Comes from an Evaluation of Two Assisted Living Facilities in which Animal Assisted Therapy had been used for Three Years. This Programme (AAT) was Carried out with Trained Dogs on the Basis of Referrals Made by Occupational Therapists, Nurses, Medical Doctors and Physiotherapists. This Rehabilitative Work was Compared to Assisted Living Facilities where Dogs were Used for Socialising Purposes primarily (AAA). Preliminary Results Show that the two Ways of Using Dogs were very Different in Certain Respects, primarily as to their Therapeutic Ambitions, while they also somehow Overlapped. The Variety of AAA was Great. Ownership and Keeping of the Dog Varied. The Presence of Goals also Varied. The Use of the Dog often had a more or less Explicit Aim to Increase Well-being and Social Skills among the Residents. Older people who Encountered the Trained Dog in the AAT Programme never Realized that they were actually Participating in a Rehabilitation Programme. They thought that the Purpose was Amusement alone. This was one of the Main Kernels of the Programme. The Idea was that the Older Person would Participate more Voluntarily because they Enjoyed it. Preliminary Conclusions are that the Range of Exercises with Dogs Has Great Potential and that AAT and AAA can be Mixed in new Fruitfull Combinations.

  • 16.
    Peng, Huatao
    et al.
    Wuhan University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Hubei University of Technology, Peoples R China; University of Vaasa, Finland.
    A comprehensive analysis of cleaner production policies in China2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 135, 1138-1149 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of cleaner production have often focused on two domains: the applications and the effects. An ever-increasing importance of cleaner production is pushing researchers to pay more attention to the formulation and principles of cleaner production policies. However, there is nearly none of the previous research that systematically and comprehensively analyses the development processes of cleaner production policies and exploring their characteristics deeply. The missing study is important in not only contributing to the perfection of cleaner production policies but also influencing the strategic planning of firms. This paper bridges this gap by first presenting a comprehensive study of the development process of cleaner production policies and then exploring their characteristics. We choose China, the biggest developing country and one of the most challenging countries to implement cleaner production, as the main research target and in addition a number of other developed and developing countries for comparisons. To investigate deeper into the characteristics of cleaner production in China, all the major policies and regulations issued by central ministries from 1997 to 2013 have been studied, ensuring the accuracy and reliability of the research. By employing T-LAB software with linguistic and statistical content analysis method, this paper derives following conclusions. (1) "audit", "implementation" and "environmental" have the highest correlation coefficients with cleaner production; (2) cleaner production policies focus on four themes: "pilot", "indicator", "people" and "list"; (3) the formulation and implementation of cleaner production policies are endowed with typical characteristics of collaboration; (4) the characteristics of cleaner production policies are typically constraining types that evidently guide and regulate the behaviours of firms. This paper contributes as a general important reference of cleaner production policies for governments and firms especially in developing countries. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-07-01 11:04
  • 17.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comprehensive investigation of a low-energy building in Sweden2007In: Renewable Energy, ISSN 0960-1481, Vol. 32, no 11, 1830-1841 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the building sector alone accounts for almost 40% of the total energy demand and people spend more than 80% of their time indoors. Reducing energy demand in the buildings is essential to the achievement of a sustainable built environment. At the same time, it is important to not deteriorate people's health, well-being and comfort in buildings. Thus, designing healthy and energy efficient buildings are one of the most challenging tasks for building scientists. A low-energy building that uses less than half of the purchased energy of a comparable typical Swedish building has been investigated from different viewpoints in an attempt to represent the building at different system levels. First, the ventilation performance in different rooms using the tracer gas method is reported. Second, results from simulations and in situ measurements are used to analyse the building's power demand and energy performance. The household's behaviour and their impact on energy usage as well as acceptance are reported. Finally, the CO2 emissions with regard to the energy usage are analysed on the basis of different supply energy forms from surrounding energy systems, for example a Swedish and European electricity mix, or district heating as a substitute for electrical heating.

  • 18.
    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A comprehensive picture of ethical values in caring encounters, based on experiences of those involved: Analysis of concepts developed from empirical studies2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Older people should have a life with a sense of value and should feel confident. These ethical values, which are expressed in normative ethics, are expected to prevail in empirical ethics. Central components of nursing are the ethical issues of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and the principles of justice. The general aim of this thesis is to identify and describe the ethical values that are apparent in the caring encounter and their influence on the people involved. This is done from the perspective of the older person in study (I), next of kin in study (II) and nurses in study (III). In study (IV) the aim was to synthesize the concepts from empirical studies (I- III) and analyze, compare and interrelate them with normative ethics. Studies (I, III) were empirical observational studies including follow-up interviews. Twenty-two older people participated voluntarily in study (I), and in study (III) 20 nurses participated voluntarily. In study (II) fourteen next of kin were interviewed. In studies (I- III) constant comparative analysis, the core foundation of grounded theory, was used. Five concepts were used in the analysis in study (IV); three from the grounded theory studies (I- III) and two from the theoretical framework on normative ethics i.e. the ICN code and SFS law. Five categories; being addressed, receiving respect, desiring to participate, increasing self-determination and gaining self-confidence formed the basis for the core category ‚Approaching‛ in study (I). ‘Approaching’ indicates the ethical values that guide nurses in their caring encounters with older people. These ethical values are noted by the older people and are greatly appreciated by them, and also lead to improved quality of care. Four categories were identified in study (II): Receiving, showing respect, facilitating participation and showing professionalism. These categories formed the basis of the core category ‚Being amenable‛, a concept identified in the next of kin’s description of the ethical values that they and the older patients perceive in the caring encounter. In study (III), three categories were identified: showing consideration, connecting, and caring for. These categories formed the basis of the core category ‚Corroborating‛. Corroborating deals with support and interaction. Empirical ethics and normative ethics are intertwined, according to the findings of this study (IV). Normative ethics influence the nurse’s practical performance and could have a greater influence in supporting nurses as professionals. Criteria of good ethical care according to this thesis are: showing respect, invitation to participation, allowing self-determination, and providing safe and secure care. These criteria are elements of the concept of being professional. Professionalism of nurses is shown by: the approach nurses adapt to the performance of their duties, and their competence and knowledge, but also how they apply laws and professional codes

    List of papers
    1. The importance of ‘approaching’ older people: a grounded theory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of ‘approaching’ older people: a grounded theory
    2012 (English)In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, Vol. 7, no 1, 29-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the ethical values in caring encounters as experienced by older patients in their daily interaction with nurses in wards for older people.

    Background. Ethical values and morals are important aspects that influence the quality of care.

    Methods. Empirical observational study including follow-up interviews. Twenty-two older patients participated voluntarily in this study. Constant comparative analysis, the core foundation of grounded theory was used.

    Results. Five categories: being addressed, receiving respect, desiring to participate, increasing self-determination and gaining self-confidence formed the bases for the core category.

    Approaching. Approaching concerns how people become closer to each other in a physical space. It also includes how people become closer to each other in a dialogue, involving verbal or bodily communication.

    Conclusions and relevance to clinical practice. Approaching indicates the ethical values that guide nurses in their caring encounters with older patients. These values are noted by the patient and have an individual value as well as leading to improved quality of their care. The older patient will be confident and satisfied with the caring encounter if the desired components in the nurse's approaching are exhibited.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley, 2012
    Keyword
    Ethics, nursing care, older people, qualitative methods
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67874 (URN)10.1111/j.1748-3743.2010.00248.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2013-09-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Ethical values in caring encounters on a geriatric ward from the next of kin´s perspective: An interview study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethical values in caring encounters on a geriatric ward from the next of kin´s perspective: An interview study
    2010 (English)In: International Journal of Nursing Practice, ISSN 1322-7114, E-ISSN 1440-172X, Vol. 16, no 1, 20-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the governing ethical values that next of kin experience in interaction with nurses who care for elderly patients at a geriatric clinic. Interviews with fourteen next of kin were conducted and data were analysed by Constant comparative analysis. Four categories were identified: Receiving, showing respect, facilitating participation and showing professionalism. These categories formed the basis of the core category: “Being amenable”, a concept identified in the next of kin’s description of the ethical values that they and the elderly patients perceive in the caring encounter. Being amenable means that the nurses are guided by ethical values; taking into account the elderly patient and the next of kin. Nurses’ focusing on elderly patients’ well-being as a final criterion affects the next of kin and their experience of this fundamental condition for high quality care seems to be fulfilled.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley, 2010
    Keyword
    Ethical values, geriatric wards, grounded theory, nursing ethics, next of kin
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51737 (URN)10.1111/j.1440-172X.2009.01805.x (DOI)000274177000004 ()
    Note

    On the day of the defence day the status of this article was: Manuscript. This is the author’s version of the following article: Lise-Lotte Jonasson, Per-Erik Liss, Björn Westerlind and Carina Berterö, Ethical values in caring encounters on a geriatric ward from the next of kin´s perspective: An interview study, 2010, International Journal of Nursing Practice, (16), 1, 20-26. which has been published in final form at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-172X.2009.01805.x Copyright: Blackwell Publishing Ltd http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/Brand/id-35.html

    Available from: 2009-11-16 Created: 2009-11-16 Last updated: 2014-01-16Bibliographically approved
    3. Corroborating indicates nurses’ ethical values in a geriatric ward
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corroborating indicates nurses’ ethical values in a geriatric ward
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of the study was to identify nurses’ ethical values, which become apparent through their behavior in the interactions with older patients in caring encounters at a geriatric clinic.

    Background. Descriptions of ethics in caring practice are a problem since they are vague compared with the four principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice.

    Methods. A Grounded Theory methodology was used. In total, 65 observations and follow-up interviews with 20 nurses were conducted, and data were analysed by constant comparative analysis.

    Findings. Three categories were identified: showing consideration, connecting, and caring for. These categories formed the basis of the core category: ―Corroborating‖. In corroborating the focus is on the person in need of integrity and self-determination, that is, the autonomy principle. A similar concept was earlier described in regard to confirming. Corroborating deals more with support and interaction. It is not enough to be kind and show consideration, i.e. to benefit someone; nurses must also connect and care for the older person, i.e. demonstrate nonmaleficence, in order to corroborate that person.

    Conclusion. The findings of this study can improve the ethics of nursing care. There is a need for research on development of a high standard of nursing care to corroborate the older patients in order to maintain their autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence. The principal of justice was not specifically identified as a visible nursing action. However, all older patients received treatment, care and reception in an equivalent manner.

    Keyword
    Ethical values, geriatric wards, grounded theory, nursing ethics, nurses’ behaviour, nursing
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67875 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2013-09-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Empirical and normative ethics: a synthesis relating to the care of older patients
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empirical and normative ethics: a synthesis relating to the care of older patients
    2011 (English)In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 18, no 6, 814-824 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to synthesize the concepts from empirical studies and analyze, compare and interrelate them with normative ethics. International Council of nurses (ICN) and the Health and Medical Service Act are normative ethics. Five concepts were used in the analysis; three from the grounded theory studies and two from the theoretical framework on normative ethics. A simultaneous concept analysis resulted in five outcomes; interconnectedness, interdependence, corroboratedness, completeness and good care are all related to the empirical perspective of the nurse’s interaction with the older patient, and the normative perspective, i.e. that found in ICN code and SFS law. Empirical ethics and normative ethics are intertwined according to the findings of this study. Normative ethics are supporting documents for nurses as professionals and by extension also beneficial for older patients.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2011
    Keyword
    Empirical ethics, Normative ethics, ICN code, Health and Medical Service Act, Beneficence, Nurse
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Nursing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67876 (URN)10.1177/0969733011405875 (DOI)000297476000007 ()
    Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2013-09-12Bibliographically approved
  • 19.
    Appelin, G
    et al.
    omvårdnad Hälsohögskolan, Jönköping.
    Brobäck, G
    omvårdnad Hälsohögskolan, Jönköping.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    A comprehensive picture of palliative care at home from the people involved2005In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, Vol. 9, no 4, 315-324 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to identify the comprehensive picture of palliative care in the home, as experienced by the people involved. The study is a secondary analysis of three phenomenological studies including six cancer patients, six next of kin and six district nurses. Data were collected in qualitative interviews using an interview guide. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. In this secondary analysis, data were analysed by hermeneutic analysis guided by Gadamer. The guiding questions during the reading were: Is there an advantage receiving palliative care at home? Is there a disadvantage receiving palliative care at home? The findings indicate that the advantages of palliative care at home is, striving for normal life, including the care in the home composed of physical care and emotional/mental care. Striving for normal life also includes emotional feelings, safety and resources and policies which regulates this activity. Disadvantages of palliative care at home are commitment, composed of adaptation and extra work, and demands, composed of frustration and uncertainty. If the people involved are to be able to manage the situation and optimize living while dying, there must be support and resources facilitating the situation. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Ahlstrom, G.
    et al.
    Ahlström, G., Department of Health Sciences, University of Örebro, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Lindvall, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Wenneberg, S.
    Department of Health Sciences, University of Örebro, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, L.G.
    Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    A comprehensive rehabilitation programme tailored to the needs of adults with muscular dystrophy2006In: Clinical Rehabilitation, ISSN 0269-2155, Vol. 20, no 2, 132-141 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess if activities of daily living (ADL), coping and quality of life could be improved in adults with muscular dystrophy through a comprehensive rehabilitation programme. Design: Quasi-experimental, controlled clinical study comparing patients with similar age and disease aspects. Setting: Two different counties in Sweden, being either study or control setting. Subjects: The study group comprised 37 adults (21 women, 16 men, mean age 50 years), while the control group comprised 39 people (25 women, 14 men, mean age 46 years). Interventions: Four rehabilitation sessions tailored to different medical, physical and psychosocial needs of the patients, comprising a total of 10 days over a period of 18 months. Main measures: ADL, the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale measuring coping strategies, the Sickness Impact Profile measuring health-related quality of life, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Psychosocial Well-being Questionnaire. Results: No significant differences were found between groups with regard to the outcome measures. There was increased dependence on others in ADL after 18 months in both groups, but it was more pronounced in the control group. Furthermore, a clear trend was observed in the data with regard to coping patterns, the control group using more coping strategies such as 'Helplessness/hopelessness' (P = 0.057), 'Anxious preoccupation' (P = 0.085) and 'Fatalistic' (P = 0.073) when being compared to the study group. Conclusions: No apparent effects on ADL were found from the rehabilitation programme, although there was a tendency of reduction of maladaptive coping patterns in the study group. This initial study may provide the rationale and basis for a randomized controlled trial. © 2006 Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd.

  • 21.
    Fejes, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Nicoll, Katherine
    University of Stirling.
    A confessing 'science' in education and lifelong learning2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we identify resources drawn on from Foucault that are distinctive and pertinent for specific forms of analyses of what is happening in the turn to confessional practices in education and lifelong learning. We identify that confessional practices have come to shape and govern the Western world; they have emerged across the practices of the human sciences and are now intrinsic to our everyday lives and understandings of ourselves. Education and learning have a key position in promulgating confessional practices as a new social norm. They are key as perpetrators of this new kind fashioning of ourselves as human kinds in a particular way.

     

    We describe a regime and apparatus of power of education and lifelong learning which has confession intrinsic to its maintenance and productive force. Confession is described as technology, conduit of power, operating one person in relation to another, and dominating today in the production of specific forms of confessing people.  We call this ‘strategy’. Within this regime, in education and policy circles and more widely, we identify a shift in the talk accompanying and surrounding the emergence of these techniques: whereas before educators and policy makers talked about education, they now talk of learning. Lifelong learning and the learning society, the knowledge economy, society and Knowledge Age are themes that have come to dominate the texts emanating from the cloistered grounds of governmental offices and intra-national agencies. The question remains therefore of where this strategy takes us in terms of its wider social and political effects in western societies.

    The paper identifies and explores other previous educational and lifelong learning research that has considered confessional practices to consider whether or not these find answers to the question of what is happening today'

  • 22.
    Huq, Rizwan-ul
    Linköping University.
    A Conversation Analytic Look at Understanding and Meaning Making During Group Work Interaction2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims at the understanding of the meaning-building process during a group work interaction of tertiary-level students. The article highly emphasizes on the fact that meaning evolves through the interaction of the people, whether verbal or non-verbal, and the group work interaction substantiates the meaning-building process quite emphatically as the interaction is quite intensive and peer-centered. In the way to understand the meaning-making, the study has focused its concentration on turn-taking procedures of the participants as well as the materialization of their competence.

  • 23.
    Gagnesjö, Sara
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Countryside Perspective of Queer: - queering the city/countryside divide2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes with a countryside perspective to queer research by highlighting the countryside as a context where queer lives are lived. In the thesis I problematize the city/countryside divide with a view of the concept of queer as dependent on space and time.  The empirical materials are generated through a workshop on queerness, gathering people living within a countryside context; the materials consist of a discussion and written responses to questions on queerness and the city/countryside binary. Theoretically and methodologically, the thesis is inspired by the notion of agential realism (Barad 2007) and situated knowledge, (Haraway 1988); the use of creative writing, inspired by Richardson (1994 and 2000), has also been central to the development of the thesis. The analysis is carried out within themes focusing on conditions for queerness within city/countryside experienced by people situated in the countryside. The analysis shows how space, time, contexts and intersections are entangled and queering the city/countryside divide.

  • 24.
    Annerbäck, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Centre for Clinical Research in Sörmland, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Sahlqvist, Lota
    Centre for Clinical Research in Sörmland, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A cross-sectional study of victimisation of bullying among schoolchildren in Sweden: Background factors and self-reported health complaints2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 3, 270-277 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    To examine background factors for bullying and associations between bullying victimisation and health problems.

    METHODS:

    A cross-sectional study on all pupils in grades 7 and 9 in a Swedish county was conducted in 2011 (n=5248). Data have been analysed with bi- and multivariate models.

    RESULTS:

    14% of the children reported that they had been bullied during the past 2 months. Background factors for bullying were: gender (girls more often); age (younger students more often); disability/disease; high body mass index, and having parents born abroad. There were strong associations between being bullied and poor health and self-harm. Associations with poor general health for boys and girls and mental health problems for girls showed stronger associations with higher frequency of bullying than with lower. For boys, physical bullying had stronger correlations with poor general health than written-verbal bullying.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Bullying is a serious public health problem among young people and healthcare professionals have an important task in identifying exposed children. Children who are "different" are more exposed to bullying, which implies that school personnel, parents, and other adults in these children's social networks can play an important role in paying attention to and preventing the risk of bullying.

    .

  • 25.
    Nord, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A day to be lived. Elderly peoples' possessions for everyday life in assisted living2013In: Journal of Aging Studies, ISSN 0890-4065, E-ISSN 0890-4056, Vol. 27, no 2, 135-142 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a qualitative interview study about the household possessions that elderly women and men brought with them when moving into assisted living. The move implied a substantial reduction of their possessions since, in all cases, they had left a larger dwelling than the one they moved to. The study gives a glimpse into the everyday life of the oldest old in assisted living. The things the elderly participants brought were of three types; cherished objects, representations of who they were, and mundane objects. The most important objects indicated by the elderly often belonged to the third type, and were preferred for the significance they had for the everyday life of the individual. These objects revealed a circumscribed but dignified life in their private bed-sitting room, often in solitude, where the elderly individuals pursued various interests and small-scale activities. However, this life was organized and preferred by the individuals themselves, in accordance with the principles of resident autonomy and individual choice that are promoted in assisted living. The author suggests that these self-engaged pursuits can contribute to bridging the gap between disengagement and activity theories. The study results also contribute to making visible the private life of the oldest old in assisted living.

  • 26.
    Osterlind, Jane
    et al.
    Ersta Skondal University College.
    Hansebo, Gorel
    Ersta Skondal University College.
    Andersson, Janicke
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Society, Diversity, Identity . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ternestedt, Britt-Marie
    Ersta Skondal University College.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care.
    A discourse of silence: professional carers reasoning about death and dying in nursing homes2011In: AGEING and SOCIETY, ISSN 0144-686X, Vol. 31, 529-544 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing homes are a setting in which death and dying is common. How death and dying is articulated and the actions that take place in a nursing home constitute a discourse that guides the staff in their work. The aim of this study was to explore the discourse of death and dying in nursing homes from the perspective and understanding of the staff. The study draws on Foucaults discourse analysis. Data are from five focus-group discussions held with 28 staff of four different nursing homes in Sweden. The findings show that the discourse had three characteristics : (a) dying was silent and silenced, (b) emotions were pushed into the background, and (c) attentiveness to death arose after the moment of the elderly persons death. The structure of the discourse was characterised by a movement between two positions, avoiding and confronting death, the main focus being on avoidance. The articulation and practices of silence highlight a need to regard dying as a process that requires attention. One way to ensure appropriate attention could be to instil the philosophy of palliative care in nursing homes, including training and support for the staff in their work. The study demonstrates that nursing-home staff need more knowledge and support to enable them to feel that they do a good job.

  • 27.
    Levén, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mohn, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Diversity Perspective on Knowledge Transfer at Nordic Trading Floors: Does wearing suits and playing golf help the employees to learn?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This thesis is about knowledge transfer and diversity at Nordic trading floors. The research is focusing on knowledge transfer and how it is influenced by diversity and the ties between homogenous people.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand how the knowledge transfer could be more efficient at Nordic trading floors and whether employees prefer to share knowledge with employees to whom they either have a weak or strong social tie to. We also want to see how homogenous people impact the flow of knowledge transfer.

    Methodology: This research is conducted through a case study of respondents working at trading floors at two different banks in the Nordic countries. The data is mainly collected through quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews.

    Conclusions: Knowledge transfer at Nordic trading floors is implemented through different types of training and mentoring and by keeping up with strong social ties which is feeding the sociocultural arena. Homogenous people are contributing to knowledge transfer by spreading tacit knowledge while networking and socializing with each other. Wearing suits and playing golf might therefore help employees at Nordic trading floors to learn more.

  • 28.
    Hinkel, Jochen
    et al.
    Global Climate Forum (GCF), Germany .
    Nicholls, Robert J.
    University of Southampton, England .
    Tol, Richard S. J.
    University of Sussex, England Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Wang, Zheng B.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands Deltares, Netherlands .
    Hamilton, Jacqueline M.
    University of Hamburg, Germany .
    Boot, Gerben
    Deltares, Netherlands .
    Vafeidis, Athanasios T.
    University of Kiel, Germany .
    McFadden, Loraine
    Middlesex University, England .
    Ganopolski, Andrey
    Potsdam Institute Climate Impact Research PIK, Germany .
    Klein, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A global analysis of erosion of sandy beaches and sea-level rise: An application of DIVA2013In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 111, 150-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a first assessment of the global effects of climate-induced sea-level rise on the erosion of sandy beaches, and its consequent impacts in the form of land loss and forced migration of people. We consider direct erosion on open sandy coasts and indirect erosion near selected tidal inlets and estuaries, using six global mean sea-level scenarios (in the range of 0.2-0.8 m) and six SRES socio-economic development scenarios for the 21st century. Impacts are assessed both without and with adaptation in the form of shore and beach nourishment, based on cost-benefit analysis that includes the benefits of maintaining sandy beaches for tourism. Without nourishment, global land loss would amount to about 6000-17,000 km(2) during the 21st century, leading to 1.6-5.3 million people being forced to migrate and migration costs of US$ 300-1000 billion (not discounted). Optimal beach and shore nourishment would cost about US$ 65-220 billion (not discounted) during the 21st century and would reduce land loss by 8-14%, forced migration by 56-68% and the cost of forced migration by 77-84% (not discounted). The global share of erodible coast that is nourished increases from about 4% in 2000 to 18-33% in 2100, with beach nourishment being 3-4 times more frequent than shore nourishment, reflecting the importance of tourism benefits. In absolute terms, with or without nourishment, large counties with long shorelines appear to have the largest costs, but in relative terms, small island states appear most impacted by erosion. Considerable uncertainty remains due to the limited availability of basic coastal geomorphological data and models on a global scale. Future work should also further explore the effects of beach tourism, including considering sub-national distributions of beach tourists.

  • 29.
    Norin, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    A GRASP Heuristic for Scheduling De-icing trucks at Stockholm Arlanda Airport2007In: 6th Eurocontrol Innovative Research Workshop and Exhibition,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a fact that the most delays in the Air Transportation System (ATS) today occur at the airport. One reason for this is the large number of actors operating at the airport and the scarcity of communication between them and other parts of the ATS. Airport Logistics is a concept developed to survey all the flows of ehicles, people, material and information, which can be found on and around the airport. The objective is to increase efficiency, where one part is to decrease the delays. As an initial step, the turn-around process is analysed and an optimization model for the planning of de-icing trucks is implemented. The model shows that large savings can be made both by reducing the travelling distances for the trucks and reducing the delays the de-icing process is causing the ATS. However, most important is the advantage of having a plan for how the de-icing trucks should be utilized, something that is missing today.  

  • 30.
    Sabe, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    A Haptic Guidance System for Stroke Rehabilitation2007Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke is the third largest cause of death in Sweden. In 2005, 30.000 people in Sweden suffered from a stroke. The consequences of a stroke varies, but the most common disability among stroke survivors is abnormal reaching movements, which is the primer reason for limitations in activities of everyday living. Rehabilitation is essential in order to get back to everyday life.

    Physical assistance (or guidance) is used in rehabilitation by physiotherapists and occupational therapists to help a patient through a dicult movement for example. Today, this guidance is limited to be performed by medical personnel. With the technology of virtual environments (VE) and haptics – force feedback from a computer – there is a possibility to create guidance which does not need medical personnel. This should be used as a complement to the traditional therapy.

    The intention of this work is to create an invisible guidance eld, which should guide a patient's hand to a desired movement pattern, i.e. aid the patient to perform a task in a virtual environment with haptics. This guidance is added to an already existing assessment tool, which is a part of the Curictus AB rehabilitation system. The guiding system is implemented using SenseGraphics AB's H3D API.

    To create the feeling of guidance and a guidance eld, the Volume Haptics Toolkit, developed by Dr. Karljohan Lundin Palmerius at Linköping University, was used. The basic idea of the algorithm is to calculate an orientation vector, for every position, in which direction the guidance should guide the patient. The guidance, which is generated via a haptic device, is adaptive to the patient's movements and always guides the patient towards the target in a smooth trajectory.

  • 31.
    Samuelsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Steineck, Isabelle
    Herning Hospital, Denmark .
    Gubbjornsdottir, Soffia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    A high mean-HbA1c value 3-15 months after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in childhood is related to metabolic control, macroalbuminuria, and retinopathy in early adulthood - a pilot study using two nation-wide population based quality registries2014In: Pediatric Diabetes, ISSN 1399-543X, E-ISSN 1399-5448, Vol. 15, no 3, 229-235 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundIntensive treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes delays the onset of long-term complications. ObjectivesOn the basis of the information from two nation-wide quality registers, we investigated to which extent HbA1c values 3-15months after diagnosis in childhood are related to metabolic control, albuminuria, and retinopathy in early adulthood. MethodsIn Sweden, physicians register all children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Swedish Pediatric Quality Registry. After 18yr of age, people with diabetes are followed by the Swedish National Diabetes Register. We identified 1543 children and adolescents with a mean age of 13.9yr at diagnosis and a mean duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus of 7.1yr. ResultsChildren and adolescents with poor metabolic control (mean HbA1c 70mmol/mol (8.6 %)) adjacent to diagnosis had a significantly higher mean HbA1c value years later as adults than did patients with a good metabolic control [less than50mmol/mol (6.7%) (pless than0.001)]. The patients in the high group were also less physically active and smoked more as adults. The proportion of females was higher in the poor metabolic group. Patients with a high mean HbA1c 3-15months after diagnosis had significantly more often macroalbuminuria and retinopathy in early adulthood. ConclusionsMetabolic control adjacent to the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in childhood or adolescence can predict metabolic control in early adulthood. It is therefore very important that pediatric diabetes teams identify key factors for successful early metabolic control. Actively using quality registries may be one such factor.

  • 32.
    Jeppsson-Grassman, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holme, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Taghizadeh Larsson, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Whitaker, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A long life with a particular signature: life course and ageing for people with disabilities2012In: Journal of gerontological social work, ISSN 0163-4372, Vol. 55, no 2, 95-111 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What does it mean to live a long life and grow old with disabilities? Or to be an aging parent and still be a caregiver to a disabled adult child? These are questions discussed in this article, the aim of which is to show how a life course perspective adds insight to the lived experience of disability and ageing of adults with disabilities. It is argued that the time concept is fundamental to the understanding of the lives of disabled people. Results are presented which challenge established knowledge regarding disability policies, autonomy, body, biographical disruption and prerequisites of active aging.

  • 33.
    Danelljan, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Fahad Shahbaz
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Felsberg, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Granström, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Heintz, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Intergrated Computer systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rudol, Piotr
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Intergrated Computer systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wzorek, Mariusz
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Intergrated Computer systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kvarnström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Intergrated Computer systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Doherty, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Intergrated Computer systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Low-Level Active Vision Framework for Collaborative Unmanned Aircraft Systems2015In: COMPUTER VISION - ECCV 2014 WORKSHOPS, PT I / [ed] Lourdes Agapito, Michael M. Bronstein and Carsten Rother, Springer Publishing Company, 2015, Vol. 8925, 223-237 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro unmanned aerial vehicles are becoming increasingly interesting for aiding and collaborating with human agents in myriads of applications, but in particular they are useful for monitoring inaccessible or dangerous areas. In order to interact with and monitor humans, these systems need robust and real-time computer vision subsystems that allow to detect and follow persons.

    In this work, we propose a low-level active vision framework to accomplish these challenging tasks. Based on the LinkQuad platform, we present a system study that implements the detection and tracking of people under fully autonomous flight conditions, keeping the vehicle within a certain distance of a person. The framework integrates state-of-the-art methods from visual detection and tracking, Bayesian filtering, and AI-based control. The results from our experiments clearly suggest that the proposed framework performs real-time detection and tracking of persons in complex scenarios

  • 34.
    Widmalm, Sven
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    A Machine to Work in: The Ultracentrifuge and the Modernist Laboratory Ideal2006In: Taking place: the spatial contexts of science, technology, and business / [ed] Enrico Baraldi, Hjalmar Fors and Anders Houltz, editors, Sagamore Beach, MA: Science History Publications /USA , 2006, 59-80 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking Place deals with places shaped by interactions of science, technology, and industry. It treats place as an essential factor for understanding municipalities, companies, scientists, and scientific institutions. It discusses, by means of historical and contemporary examples, the embodiment of ideas and power relationships in architectural structures, and how the creation of organized places can create or reverse the flow of people, ideas, wealth and commodities.

  • 35.
    Siemers, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fritzson, Dag
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, PELAB - Programming Environment Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Meta-Modeling Environment for Mechanical System Co-Simulations2007In: Proceedings of the 48th Scandinavian Conference on Simulation and Modeling (SIMS 2007) / [ed] Peter Bunus, Dag Fritzson and Claus Führer, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2007, 109-116 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A general approach for modelling of mechanical system co-simulations is presented that is built upon the previously defined general framework for TLM co-simulations and co-simulation meta-modelling.

    Co-simulation is one technique for coupling different simulators into one coherent simulation. Existing co-simulation applications are often capable of interconnecting two specific simulators where a unique interface between these tools is defined. However, a more general solution is needed to make co-simulation modelling applicable for a wider range of tools. Any such solution must also be numerically stable and easy to use to be applicable by a larger group of people.

    In this work the concept of meta-modelling is applied to mechanical co-simulation. Several tool-specific simulation models can be integrated and connected by means of a meta-model, where the meta-model  defines the physical interconnections of these models.

    A general meta-modelling process is described that represents the basis for this work. A meta-modelling language (MML) has been defined to support the modelling process and store the meta-model structure. Besides elements for physical interconnections, etc., the language also defines graphical elements that can be used for meta-model  visualisation. All proposed solutions are general and simulation tool independent.

    A fully functional modelling environment has been created to make meta-modelling applicable. The modelling environment supports easy encapsulation and integration of simulation tool-specific models. Each simulation tool implements a single, well defined co-simulation interface. All interfaces implement a numerically stable method for force/moment interaction. The presented environment features a graphical user  interface for co-simulation modelling with support for three dimensional  visual representation of the co-simulation model including all its components.

  • 36.
    Munisamy Kolandai, Ammu Prabha
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Method for Evaluating the Persuasive Potential of Software Programs2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, web, Internet, mobile and other ambient technologies engage in persuasive interaction with people. The technology designed to reinforce and change user’s attitude or behaviors or both through persuasion and social influence are persuasive technologies. Recently, persuasive systems and services are becoming increasingly abundant and ubiquitous. Evaluation of these systems is a challenging endeavor and typically requires a simple and efficient method. Nielsen suggests heuristic evaluation as a method for intuitive, inexpensive and easy evaluation of a user interface design.

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine heuristic evaluation as a method to evaluate the persuasive potential of software programs. The Heuristics used were operationalized version of Fogg’s persuasive design principles. Software programs MS Word, MS PowerPoint, Counter-Strike, The Sims, Stone and Plan Eat Smile were chosen with the goal of measuring their ability to change behavior or attitude of users. The Evaluation was performed on the software programs using three evaluators and the test results indicated that they possess significant persuasive potential. It was concluded that the set of heuristics which were developed can be used to perform summative heuristic evaluation and the method used was helpful in evaluating the persuasive potential of software programs.

  • 37.
    Lorefält, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wilhelmsson, Susan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A multifaceted intervention model can give a lasting improvement of older peoples nutritional status2012In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 16, no 4, 378-382 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was with a multifaceted intervention model improve the nutritional status of elderly people living in residential homes to increase their energy intake and to maintain improvements over time. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThree different municipal residential homes in the south-east of Sweden. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe study population consisted of 67 elderly people. A within-subjects design was used which means that the participants were their own controls. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanA multifaceted intervention model was chosen, which included education on both theoretical and practical issues, training and support for staff, and individualized snacks to the residents. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanNutritional status was measured by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), the consumption of food was recorded by the staff using a food record method for 3 consecutive days. The length of night-time fasting has been calculated from the food records. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanNutritional status improved after 3 months of intervention and was maintained after 9 months. Weight increased during the whole study period. Night-time fasting decreased but not to the recommended level. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThis study shows that it is possible by a multifaceted intervention model to increase energy intake including expanding snacks and thereby improve and maintain nutritional status over a longer period in the elderly living in residential homes. This result was possible to achieve because staff received education and training in nutritional issues and by provision of support during a period when new routines were introduced.

  • 38.
    Hagger, Martin S.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Tinghög, Gustav (Contributor)
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A multilab preregistered replication of the ego-depletion effect2016In: Perspectives on Psychological Science, ISSN 1745-6916, E-ISSN 1745-6924, Vol. 11, no 4, 546-573 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Good self-control has been linked to adaptive outcomes such as better health, cohesive personal relationships, success in the workplace and at school, and less susceptibility to crime and addictions. In contrast, self-control failure is linked to maladaptive outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms by which self-control predicts behavior may assist in promoting better regulation and outcomes. A popular approach to understanding self-control is the strength or resource depletion model. Self-control is conceptualized as a limited resource that becomes depleted after a period of exertion resulting in self-control failure. The model has typically been tested using a sequential-task experimental paradigm, in which people completing an initial self-control task have reduced self-control capacity and poorer performance on a subsequent task, a state known as ego depletion. Although a meta-analysis of ego-depletion experiments found a medium-sized effect, subsequent meta-analyses have questioned the size and existence of the effect and identified instances of possible bias. The analyses served as a catalyst for the current Registered Replication Report of the ego-depletion effect. Multiple laboratories (k = 23, total N = 2,141) conducted replications of a standardized ego-depletion protocol based on a sequential-task paradigm by Sripada et al. Meta-analysis of the studies revealed that the size of the ego-depletion effect was small with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that encompassed zero (d = 0.04, 95% CI [−0.07, 0.15]. We discuss implications of the findings for the ego-depletion effect and the resource depletion model of self-control. 

  • 39.
    Forslund, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    A Neural Network Based Brain-Computer Interface for Classification of Movement Related EEG2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A brain-computer interface, BCI, is a technical system that allows a person to control the external world without relying on muscle activity. This thesis presents an EEG based BCI designed for automatic classification of two dimensional hand movements. The long-term goal of the project is to build an intuitive communication system for operation by people with severe motor impairments. If successful, such system could for example be used by a paralyzed patient to control a word processor or a wheelchair.

    The developed BCI was tested in an offine pilot study. In response to an external cue, a test subject moved a joystick in one of four directions. During the movement, EEG was recorded from seven electrodes mounted on the subject's scalp. An autoregressive model was fitted to the data, and the extracted coefficients were used as input features to a neural network based classifier. The classifier was trained to recognize the direction of the movements. During the first half of the experiment, real physical movements were performed. In the second half, subjects were instructed just to imagine the hand moving the joystick, but to avoid any muscle activity.

    The results of the experiment indicate that the EEG signals do in fact contain extractable and classifiable information about the performed movements, during both physical and imagined movements.

  • 40.
    Bleser, Gabriele
    et al.
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Steffen, Daniel
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Weber, Markus
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Hendeby, Gustaf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control.
    Stricker, Didier
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Fradet, Laetitia
    Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France.
    Marin, Frédéric
    Université de Technologie de Compiègne, France.
    Ville, Nathalie
    CIC-IT Inserm 804, Rennes, France.
    Carré, Francois
    CIC-IT Inserm 804, Rennes, France.
    A personalized exercise trainer for the elderly2013In: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments, ISSN 1876-1364, Vol. 5, no 6, 547-562 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regular and moderate physical activity practice provides many physiological benefits. It reduces the risk of disease outcomes and is the basis for proper rehabilitation after a severe disease. Aerobic activity and strength exercises are strongly recommended in order to maintain autonomy with ageing. Balanced activity of both types is important, especially to the elderly population. Several methods have been proposed to monitor aerobic activities. However, no appropriate method is available for controlling more complex parameters of strength exercises. Within this context, the present article introduces a personalized, home-based strength exercise trainer designed for the elderly. The system guides a user at home through a personalized exercise program. Using a network of wearable sensors the user's motions are captured. These are evaluated by comparing them to prescribed exercises, taking both exercise load and technique into account. Moreover, the evaluation results are immediately translated into appropriate feedback to the user in order to assist the correct exercise execution. Besides the direct feedback, a major novelty of the system is its generic personalization by means of a supervised teach-in phase, where the program is performed once under supervision of a physical activity specialist. This teach-in phase allows the system to record and learn the correct execution of exercises for the individual user and to provide personalized monitoring. The user-driven design process, the system development and its underlying activity monitoring methodology are described. Moreover, technical evaluation results as well as results concerning the usability of the system for ageing people are presented. The latter has been assessed in a clinical study with thirty participants of 60 years or older, some of them showing usual diseases or functional limitations observed in elderly population.

  • 41.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kristiansson (Forsblad), Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A perspective on all cognition? A study of everyday environments from the perspective of distributed cognition2016In: Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society / [ed] Papafragou, A., Grodner, D., Mirman, D., & Trueswell, J.C. (Eds.), Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2016, 734-739 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed cognition is a perspective that primarily has been applied to complex socio-technical systems such as flight decks of commercial airliners, or operating rooms where professionals perform cognitive tasks in environments specifically designed for this. For some scholars distributed cognition is exactly this kind of specialized cognitive system. On the other hand it has been claimed by some workers in the field that distributed cognition is not a kind of cognition but a perspective on all cognition. We have therefore studied an environment very different from the systems previously studied, namely single people’s homes. We find that there are many similarities between the home and the specialized socio-technical environments. To us this suggests that the specially designed complex environments can be seen as specialized cases of the general principles of distributed cognition which are not reflections of “particular work practices” but of general features of human cognition.

  • 42.
    Stenfors-Hayes, Terese
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A phenomenographic approach to research in medical education2013In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 47, no 3, 261-270 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context  Phenomenography is a qualitative approach to research which has revolutionised the way that researchers and teachers think about the processes and outcomes of learning in higher education. Phenomenography has also been used successfully in medical and health care research for the last 20 years. Phenomenography provides a lens through which to view certain types of research question. It also provides direction for how to empirically carry out the research.

    Methods  This paper introduces phenomenography as a viable qualitative approach for use in medical education research.

    Results  A phenomenographic study maps the qualitatively different ways in which people experience a phenomenon. This type of study can have an important impact on, for example, patient communication, clinical practice and health care education.

    Conclusion  We suggest that a phenomenographic approach can be used to explore many medical education research issues, and can facilitate more solid links between research and educational development and change.

  • 43.
    Rehnsfeldt, Arne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Hälsa - utbildning - välfärdsinstitutioner (HUV) .
    Arman, M.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Huddinge, Sweden.
    A pilgrimage on the road to understanding of life in experiences of cancer and burnout syndrome2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, Vol. 22, no 2, 275-283 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preunderstanding for this study is that progression of a person's suffering can be seen as movement from unbearable to the bearable. This study aims to examine the development of understanding of life in people with cancer and burnout syndrome in relation to nursing care. Our method entailed clinical application research in the design and collection of data, which consisted of qualitative interviews with 16 former patients in conventional and anthroposophic health care, nine with cancer diagnoses and seven with burnout syndrome. The main theme of our findings is 'a pilgrimage on the road to understanding of life'. The pilgrimage is the person's own inner decision to reach new insights and meaning. When suffering from cancer, the struggle is related to threat of death, while persons with burnout syndrome struggle with a threatening nothingness. Walking alone on the pilgrimage without being met in an understanding of life creates increased suffering, while having a companion on the pilgrimage was seen as adding dignity to the suffering human being. The implications for nursing care are that even patients with burnout syndrome need a caring hermeneutic dialogue, where time and space is shared with a caregiver during the pilgrimage. © 2008 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  • 44.
    Müssener, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persson, A.
    Alexandersson, A.
    A population-based questionnaire study of how people on sick leave perceive contacts with professionals in healthcare, occupational health services, and social insurance2007In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Öberg, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Bohn, Therese
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Larsson, Ulrika
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Hickson, Louise
    University of Queensland, Australia .
    A Preliminary Evaluation of the Active Communication Education Program in a Sample of 87-Year-Old Hearing Impaired Individuals2014In: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, ISSN 1050-0545, Vol. 25, no 2, 219-228 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research suggests that audiological rehabilitation for older adults could include group communication programs in addition to hearing aid fitting or as an alternative to hearing aid fitting for those people who do not wish to proceed with hearing aids. This pilot study was a first attempt to evaluate a Swedish version of such a program, Active Communication Education (ACE), which had been developed and previously evaluated in Australia (Hickson et.al, 2007a). Purpose: The aim of the study was to explore the use of the ACE program in an older-old population of people aged 87 yr in Sweden. Research Design: A within-subject intervention study. Study Sample: The participants were recruited from the Elderly in Linkoping Screening Assessment (ELSA), a population-based study of the functional abilities of all inhabitants of the city of Linkoping aged 85 yr in 2007. Participants who responded to the hearing related items in the ELSA study were approached for this study; 29 people agreed to undertake ACE, and 23 (79%) completed three or more sessions. Intervention: The ACE program consists of five weekly 2 hr group sessions with six to ten participants per group. Data Collection and Analysis: Self-report measures of communication strategy use, activity and participation, health-related quality of life, and depression were obtained preprogram, 3 wk postprogram, and 6 mo postprogram. Within-group changes and effect sizes were calculated. In addition, outcomes were measured postprogram using the International Outcome Inventory Alternative Interventions (IOI-AI; Noble, 2002) and a modified version of the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement (COSI; Dillon et al, 1997; Hickson et al, 2007b), and qualitative feedback was obtained. Results: The effect size of ACE was small (0.03-0.27), and, in the sample of 23 included in this pilot study, differences in pre- and postprogram assessments were not statistically significant. Results from the IOI-Al and the modified COSI indicated that these elderly participants found the program to be beneficial, and 90% stated that the course had increased their ability to deal with hearing loss and the problems it creates. Conclusions: This preliminary investigation indicates the potential benefits of ACE for older adults, and further research is needed with larger numbers of participants in different age groups to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the ACE program for a general Swedish population.

  • 46.
    Grönwall, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. FOI.
    Hendeby, Gustaf
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kristian, Sinivaara
    Cybercom Sweden AB (Sweden).
    A proposal for combining mapping, localization and target recognition2015In: ELECTRO-OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING, PHOTONIC TECHNOLOGIES, AND APPLICATIONS IX / [ed] Gary Kamerman; Ove Steinvall; Keith L. Lewis; John D. Gonglewski, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9649Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is a well-known positioning approach in GPS-denied environments such as urban canyons and inside buildings. Autonomous/aided target detection and recognition (ATR) is commonly used in military application to detect threats and targets in outdoor environments. This papers present approaches to combine SLAM with ATR in ways that compensate for the drawbacks in each method. The methods use physical objects that are recognizable by ATR as unambiguous features in SLAM, while SLAM provides the ATR with better position estimates. Landmarks in the form of 3D point features based on normal aligned radial features (NARF) are used in conjunction with identified objects and 3D object models that replace landmarks when possible. This leads to a more compact map representation with fewer landmarks, which partly compensates for the introduced cost of the ATR. We analyze three approaches to combine SLAM and 3D-data; point-point matching ignoring NARF features, point-point matching using the set of points that are selected by NARF feature analysis, and matching of NARF features using nearest neighbor analysis. The first two approaches are is similar to the common iterative closest point (ICP). We propose an algorithm that combines EKF-SLAM and ATR based on rectangle estimation. The intended application is to improve the positioning of a first responder moving through an indoor environment, where the map offers localization and simultaneously helps locate people, furniture and potentially dangerous objects such as gas canisters.

  • 47.
    Lindell, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A qualitative view of physical child abuse intervention: Five Swedish mothers’ stories2004Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been an increase in the number of child abuse cases reported to the police since mid 1980s. This has put increased pressure on institutions dealing with the abused children. In this paper, we describe how 5 biological mothers of physically abused children perceive interventions. The interviews concerned interventions from the police department, social services, and mental health services. The mothers narrated similar stories where their statements focused on a process dealing with restrictions, significant others, and living conditions. As previous studies have indicated and as the mothers of the physically abused children also narrated, there is a general acceptance of the police department and mental health services, while many are highly critical towards social services. The common conclusion in the mothers’ narratives is that representatives from the investigated authorities should be encouraged to cooperate and to be clear when explaining the process that awaits each family. In addition to listen and recognize cries for help and learn how to handle people in a crisis situation.

  • 48.
    Bagger-Sjoback, Dan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Stromback, Karin
    Academic Hospital, Sweden.
    Hakizimana, Pierre
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Christina
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Hultcrantz, Malou
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Papatziamos, Georgios
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Smeds, Henrik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Danckwardt-Lilliestrom, Niklas
    Academic Hospital, Sweden.
    Hellstrom, Sten
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ann
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Tideholm, Bo
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Fridberger, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    A Randomised, Double Blind Trial of N-Acetylcysteine for Hearing Protection during Stapes Surgery2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 3, e0115657- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Otosclerosis is a disorder that impairs middle ear function, leading to conductive hearing loss. Surgical treatment results in large improvement of hearing at low sound frequencies, but high-frequency hearing often suffers. A likely reason for this is that inner ear sensory cells are damaged by surgical trauma and loud sounds generated during the operation. Animal studies have shown that antioxidants such as N-Acetylcysteine can protect the inner ear from noise, surgical trauma, and some ototoxic substances, but it is not known if this works in humans. This trial was performed to determine whether antioxidants improve surgical results at high frequencies. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled parallel group clinical trial at three Swedish university clinics. Using block-stratified randomization, 156 adult patients undergoing stapedotomy were assigned to intravenous N-Acetylcysteine (150 mg/kg body weight) or matching placebo (1:1 ratio), starting one hour before surgery. The primary outcome was the hearing threshold at 6 and 8 kHz; secondary outcomes included the severity of tinnitus and vertigo. Findings One year after surgery, high-frequency hearing had improved 2.7 +/- 3.8 dB in the placebo group (67 patients analysed) and 2.4 +/- 3.7 dB in the treated group (72 patients; means +/- 95% confidence interval, p = 0.54; linear mixed model). Surgery improved tinnitus, but there was no significant intergroup difference. Post-operative balance disturbance was common but improved during the first year, without significant difference between groups. Four patients receiving N-Acetylcysteine experienced mild side effects such as nausea and vomiting. Conclusions N-Acetylcysteine has no effect on hearing thresholds, tinnitus, or balance disturbance after stapedotomy.

  • 49.
    Lundberg, Milijana
    et al.
    Hearing Clinic, Hearing and Deafness Organization, Borås Hospital, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A randomized controlled trial of the short-term effects of a book- and telephone-based educational program for hearing aid users2011In: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, ISSN 1050-0545, Vol. 22, no 10, 654-662 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Audiologic rehabilitation aims to improve communication for people with hearing impairment. Education is widely regarded as an integral part of rehabilitation, but the effect of the delivery method of an educational program on the experience of hearing problems has rarely been investigated in controlled trials.

    PURPOSE:

    The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term effects of complementing an educational program for hearing aid users with telephone consultations, delivered through weekly discussions with the subjects about information obtained from a book on hearing and hearing aids.

    RESEARCH DESIGN:

    This study used a randomized, controlled design.

    STUDY SAMPLE:

    In total, 69 hearing aid users were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 33) or a control group (n = 36).

    INTERVENTION:

    The intervention group had access to a book and received weekly topic-based reading instructions related to the different chapters of the book. Five telephone calls were made to the members of the intervention group. During the calls, an audiologist discussed new information with the participant as needed. The control participants also read the book, but they did not discuss the contents of the book with a professional.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

    The Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) were used to measure the outcomes of this study.

    RESULTS:

    Participants in the intervention group had a reduction in self-reported hearing handicap, while there were no significant changes in the control group. In the intervention group, 45% of the participants showed an improvement of ≥36% on the HHIE, while only 17% of the control group showed an improvement of ≥36%. There were also improvements on the HADS total and the depression subscale for the intervention group. No changes occurred on the IOI-HA.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Reading about hearing and hearing aids can reduce the hearing handicap and reported anxiety in hearing aid users. In this study, discussing the content of the book that was provided with a professional during weekly telephone consultations and having weekly home assignments further improved emotional well-being, as demonstrated by the HHIE (emotional scale) and HADS (depression scale), but these activities had no effect on hearing aid outcomes as measured by the IOI-HA.

  • 50.
    Lundberg, Milijana
    et al.
    Borås Hospital.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Randomized, Controlled Trial of the Short-Term Effects of Complementing an Educational Program for Hearing Aid Users with Telephone Consultations2011In: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF AUDIOLOGY, ISSN 1050-0545, Vol. 22, no 10, 654-662 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Audiologic rehabilitation aims to improve communication for people with hearing impairment. Education is widely regarded as an integral part of rehabilitation, but the effect of the delivery method of an educational program on the experience of hearing problems has rarely been investigated in controlled trials.

    PURPOSE:

    The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term effects of complementing an educational program for hearing aid users with telephone consultations, delivered through weekly discussions with the subjects about information obtained from a book on hearing and hearing aids.

    RESEARCH DESIGN:

    This study used a randomized, controlled design.

    STUDY SAMPLE:

    In total, 69 hearing aid users were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 33) or a control group (n = 36).

    INTERVENTION:

    The intervention group had access to a book and received weekly topic-based reading instructions related to the different chapters of the book. Five telephone calls were made to the members of the intervention group. During the calls, an audiologist discussed new information with the participant as needed. The control participants also read the book, but they did not discuss the contents of the book with a professional.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

    The Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) were used to measure the outcomes of this study.

    RESULTS:

    Participants in the intervention group had a reduction in self-reported hearing handicap, while there were no significant changes in the control group. In the intervention group, 45% of the participants showed an improvement of ≥36% on the HHIE, while only 17% of the control group showed an improvement of ≥36%. There were also improvements on the HADS total and the depression subscale for the intervention group. No changes occurred on the IOI-HA.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Reading about hearing and hearing aids can reduce the hearing handicap and reported anxiety in hearing aid users. In this study, discussing the content of the book that was provided with a professional during weekly telephone consultations and having weekly home assignments further improved emotional well-being, as demonstrated by the HHIE (emotional scale) and HADS (depression scale), but these activities had no effect on hearing aid outcomes as measured by the IOI-HA.

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