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  • 1.
    Kawai, Maho
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    THE APPLICATION OF POLITENESS THEORY INTO ENGLISH EDUCATION IN JAPAN2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Japan, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) revised the Course of Study in English education twice in the last decade (in 2002 and in 2011), and the drastic changes have been made especially in the section of communicative skills: introduction of English study in elementary school, teaching English in English in high school, requirement of the subject ‘Oral Communication I’ in high school, etc. The aim of the revisions is to produce international individuals, who have high English proficiency not only in input-skills but also in output-skills, especially in speaking (MEXT 2004: 90, MEXT 2011). Despite the revisions of the Course of Study, Japan is still ranked low in English proficiency not only among the developed countries but also among the Asian countries (Sakamoto 2012: 409; Sullivan and Schatz 2009: 586; Educational Testing Service 2012).

    Inputs on different cultures and languages take an important role in language learning especially in the modern society where students have high chances to encounter cross-cultural communication. The politeness strategy is one of those factors that the social actors must learn for the sound relationships with others. Each culture has its own politeness strategy; therefore, miscommunication is observed more often in intercultural conversations due to the various conceptualization of politeness in different cultures (Sifianou 1992: 216). That is, comprehending the diversity in politeness strategy seems to be a clue of smooth communication and better apprehension of different cultures in cross-culture conversations. The Course of Study for foreign languages and English language also refers to the significance of comprehending various cultures and languages (MEXT 2009); however, as previous studies represent the Japanese students studying abroad or the Japanese businessman in intercultural communications seem to lack the understanding of the western politeness strategy (cf. Fujio 2004, Nakane 2006). Besides, it is vague what ‘different cultures’ refers to in the Course of Study for English. Based on the attitudes of the Japanese students towards cross-cultural communication and ambiguous explanation on ‘cultural learning’ by the Course of the Study, I assume that one of the reasons why Japan cannot achieve the communication-focused curriculum might be attributed to the lack of politeness theory perspective in English learning. Taking differences in politeness strategies between the western societies and the Japanese ones into consideration, it seems to be unfeasible and insufficient to only increase the number of communicative lessons and compel students into speaking English. The differences in politeness strategy should be applied into English learning in order to boost the English proficiency of Japanese students and produce globalized students.

    The present paper focuses on the following two aspects of English learning in Japan in order to test the hypothesis:

    • The Course of Study in English learning in Japan does not specify what is ‘cultural learning’, which triggers the lack of politeness perspective
    • The lack of politeness learning obstruct Japanese students to successful crosscultural communication

    In the present paper, in order to observe the application of the politeness theory in English learning, firstly English textbooks used in Japan are analyzed in terms of the politeness theory by focusing on the following four aspects: silence, speech style, ambiguity, and hierarchical relationship. Previous studies have shown that extinctive differences between the western politeness and the Japanese politeness in communication are obviously revealed in those four points (cf. Fujio 2004; Kameda  2001; Nakane 2006). In addition to the analysis of the English textbooks, an interview on the correlation between English learning and politeness theory is conducted on international Japanese in order to observe how they acquire the western politeness strategy, how English learning at school functioned to learn the western politeness strategy, etc. (cf. see 3. for details). To contextualize this paper, the politeness theory and the previous studies on the relation between the Japanese politeness and crossculture communication will be presented first, and a brief overview of English education in Japan and tendencies in Japanese schooling will follow.

  • 2.
    Aronsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    Rundström, Bengt
    Cats, dogs, and sweets in the clinical negotiation of reality. On politeness and coherence in pediatric discourse.1989In: Language in society (London. Print), ISSN 0047-4045, Vol. 18, 483-504 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Aronsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    Sätterlund-Larsson, Ullabeth
    Politeness strategies and doctor-patient communication. On the social choreography of collaborative thinking1987In: Journal of language and social psychology, ISSN 0261-927X, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Aronsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    Review of Brown, P. and Levinson, S: Politeness1989In: Current psychological research and reviews, ISSN 0737-8262, Vol. 8, 61-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Woolhead, G.
    et al.
    MRC Health Services Research Collaboration, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, Whiteladies Road, Bristol, BS8 2PR, United Kingdom.
    Tadd, W.
    Academic Department of Geriatric Medicine, Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff University, Academic Centre, Cardiff CF64 2XX, United Kingdom.
    Boix-Ferrer, J.A.
    Fundacio Hospital Asil de Granollers (FHAG), Department of Geriatric Medicine, Avenida Fransisco Ribas s/n, 08400 Granollers, Spain.
    Krajcik, S.
    Slovak Health University (SHU), Krajinska 91-101, 82556 Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Schmid-Pfahler, B.
    Aquitaine Organisation of Research, Information and Co-ordination on Older people (OAREIL), Universite Victor Segalen, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France.
    Spjuth, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society.
    Stratton, D.
    Age Action Ireland Ltd, Dublin, 2, Ireland.
    Dieppe, P.
    MRC Health Services Research Collaboration, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, Whiteladies Road, Bristol, BS8 2PR, United Kingdom.
    "Tu" or "Vous?". A European qualitative study of dignity and communication with older people in health and social care settings2006In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, Vol. 61, no 3, 363-371 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the experiences of communication between older people and health and social care providers in six European countries. Methods: Focus groups were carried out with groups of older people (91 focus groups, 391 participants), and health and social care professionals (85 focus groups, 424 participants), in order to gain insights into concepts of good communications. Data collection and analysis continued concurrently according to the method of constant comparison. Results: Different styles of communication between professionals and older people were found to be capable of enhancing or jeopardising dignity. The use of appropriate forms of address, listening, giving people choice, including them, respecting their need for privacy and politeness, and making them feel valued emerged as significant ways to maintain older peoples' sense of self-worth and dignity. Despite being aware of good communication practices, health and social care professionals often failed to implement them. Lack of time, staff, resource scarcity, regulation and bureaucracy were cited as barriers, as was a lack of awareness and effort. Conclusions and practice implications: The findings have important implications for health and social care professionals when they engage with older people. © 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Pragmatics of the Estonian heritage speakers in Sweden2011In: Finnisch-Ugrische Mitteilungen, ISSN 0341-7816, Vol. 35, 55-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Politeness in Estonia: A matter of fact style.2005In: Politeness in Europe, 2005, 203–217- p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Guendouzi, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Southeastern Louisiana University, USA.
    Meaux, A.
    Southeastern Louisiana University, USA.
    Müller, Nicole
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Avoiding interactional conflict in dementia: the influence of gender styles on interactions.2016In: Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, ISSN 2213-1272, Vol. 4, no 1, 9-35 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sociolinguistic research in the general population has established the existence of gender differences in the social use of language. In particular, it has been noted that women use more markers of politeness, small talk and structural devices (e.g. minimal responses, tag questions) to help maintain their conversations. Analysis of interactions involving people with dementia (PWD) suggests that these gender based differences were still present in the face of dementia. Furthermore, the use of these forms of language helped the women with dementia to avoid conflict and extend the length of their interactions. This study investigated whether the use of such language helped or hindered women with dementia in maintaining conversational satisfaction.

  • 9.
    Sätterlund Larsson, Ullabeth
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Being involved: Patient participation in health care1989Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem focussed on concerns interaction in health and medical settings between patients and health care professionals. The issues studied relate to patient participation and influence in face-to-face encounters with professionals, and to patient evaluation of selected aspects of their experiences of modem health care.

    In the theoretical background, it is argued that the health care setting is an example of a communicative situation characteristic of modem society in which people who vary in communicative power and expertise interact. Institutionalized communication thus typically involves encounters between the general public- often referred to as laymen - and one or more experts representing the views and traditions of an institution. At a general level, the central concern of the study is one of making visiblethe patients' reactions and of scrutinizing their possibilities of making themselves heard.

    The methodological approach utilized is multidisciplinary. In the ftrst two articles, a discourse analytic study of patient-physician interaction is reported; and in the latter three articles an epidemiological approach to the study of patient perceptions of various aspects of health care is used. The empirical material consists of two sources of data. For the analysis of patient-physician interaction a corpus of 20 medical interviews in a hospital clinic of internal medicine has been used. The second set of data - forming the material for the epidemiological study- was collected by means of questionnaires given to a sample of 666 persons undergoing surgery.

    The results in the first two articles focus on salient features of the interaction patterns of patient-physician dialogues. It is shown how social distance is negotiated through the use of specific forms of adress, and how requests and feedback are introduced so as to avoidface-threatening situations. It is also shown how such politeness moves can cause ambiguity in the dialogue. In the second article, the role of lifestyle habits (smoking and drinking) in clinical decision-making is studied. It is shown that the information elicited on such health hazards is vague and that the decision as to when and how to go into such issues seems to follow certain patterns representing physicians' implicit assmnptions as to the tendency of different groups to smoke and drink. In the epidemiological studies, the results reveal that ofl the whole the patients seem satisfied with their involvement in the decision to have an operation and report having the influence they expected. These results are discussed in terms of patient and health care professionals' prevailing expectancies with respect to patient influence. The results also show that the more satisfied the patients were with the outcome of the operation and the post-operative care process, the more inclined they were to state that they had been actively involved in the decision to have surgery. It is also shown that there is considerable discrepancy between patient reports and health care professionals' registration of complications after surgery.

    The results are discussed in tenns of the concept of 'voice' and the differences between the 'voice of medicine' and the 'voice of the lifeworld'. It is argued that the problem of people's involvement in health encounters and decision-making cannot be reduced to an issue of merely increasing the information provided. Attending to the problems and definitions perceived as significant in the 'voice of the lifeworld' is essential if modem health care is to deal with its traditional task of curing disease as well as its new challenge of preventing poor health.

  • 10.
    Lundgren, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Swedish Studies and Comparative Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Testing the waters: Raising problematic issues in an interprofessional pain rehabilitation team2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Måseide (2007) indicates that politeness and carefulness are important aspects of successful intraprofessional negotiations in health care. In this presentation, I will argue that face work (Goffman 1959) is vital to the success also of interprofessional collaboration. Based on analyses of discursive practices in a pain rehabilitation team (see also Lundgren 2009), the presentation focuses on a pragmatic strategy used by the team members, which appears to be one of the keys to the successful collaboration in this particular team.

    The strategy, which I call “testing the waters”, is based on a specific five part construction: 1) announcement, 2) response, 3) elaboration, 4) initiation of discussion and 5) conclusion. It may be initiated in three different ways: by a) indicating a lack of certainty, b) making a reflection or c) sending out a feeler. The first three parts of the construction is similar both to Maynard’s description of the beginning of news delivery sequences in physician-patient interaction (Maynard 2003) as well as to the questioning sequences in workplace meetings described by Ford (Ford 2008). However, there are also important differences which will be addressed in the presentation.

    By “testing the waters”, any team member can raise a potentially problematic issue at virtually any point of the team conference. Simultaneously, “testing the waters” enables discussions that may be sensitive, without threatening the face of the colleagues (or of the team member raising the issue). The discussions often lead to a review of previously made decisions, or a decision about a previously undiscussed point. According to the team members, these discussions can be understood as the team’s raison d’être, since they allow them to make the most of the variety of professional perspectives represented in the team and thereby to reach a genuinely shared understanding of the patient’s problems.

    The results are based on discourse analyses of 15 video recordings of team conferences in the pain rehabilitation team.

    References:- Ford, C. E. 2008. Women Speaking up. Getting and using turns in workplace meetings. New York: Palgrave. - Goffman, E. 1959. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Doubleday. - Lundgren, C. 2009. Samarbete genom samtal. En samtalsanalytisk studie av multiprofessionella teamkonferenser inom smärtrehabilitering. [Team Talk: Collaboration through Communication in Meetings of a Multiprofessional Pain Rehabilitation Care Team] Linköping Studies in Arts and Science 483. Linköping: Linköping University. - Maynard, D. W. 2003. Bad News, Good News: Conversational order in everyday talk and clinical settings. Chicago: Chicago University Press. - Måseide, P. 2007. Discourses of collaborative medical work. Text and Talk, 27 (5/6): 611-632.

  • 11.
    Miller, Christopher
    et al.
    SIFT Inc.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Culture, politeness and directive compliance: Does saying "please" make a difference?2008In: NATO HFM-142 Symposium on Adaptability in Coalition Teamwork,2008, Bruxelles: NATO , 2008, 31-47 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Röcklinsberg, Christoph
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Languages for Specific Purposes. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Is there something like Cultural Styles? Some comparing examples of German and Swedish lunch-talks2015Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 12 of 12
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