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  • 1.
    Gustafsson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology.
    Biophysical characterization of the *5 protein variant of human thiopurine methyltransferase by NMR spectroscopy2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of thiopurine drugs, which are widely used in leukemia and inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn´s disease. Due to genetic polymorphisms, approximately 30 protein variants are present in the population, some of which have significantly lowered activity. TPMT *5 (Leu49Ser) is one of the protein variants with almost no activity. The mutation is positioned in the hydrophobic core of the protein, close to the active site.

    Hydrogen exchange rates measured with NMR spectroscopy for N-terminally truncated constructs of TPMT *5 and TPMT *1 (wild type) show that local stability and hydrogen bonding patterns are changed by the mutation Leu49Ser. Most residues exhibit faster exchange rates and a lower local stability in TPMT *5 in comparison with TPMT *1. Changes occur close to the active site but also throughout the entire protein. Calculated overall stability is similar for the two constructs, so the measured changes are due to local stability.

    Protein dynamics measured with NMR relaxation experiments show that both TPMT *5 and TPMT *1 are monomeric in solution. Millisecond dynamics exist in TPMT *1 but not in TPMT *5, even though a few residues exhibit a faster dynamic. Dynamics on nanosecond to picosecond time scale have changed but no clear trends are observable.

  • 2.
    Åman, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Joakim, Behrendtz
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Anestesipersonalens peri-operativa omvårdnad av överviktiga och obesa barn2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children are a group of patients that require special knowledge from the anesthesia staff, both general and specific. Theoretical knowledge and practical experience is necessary to adequately care for the child as it anatomically, physiologically and mentally may differ from adult patients.

    A growing problem in the pediatric population is overweight and obesity. From a stagnation in the early 2000s the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in the world are again increasing.The purpose of this study was to examine peri-operative care of overweight and obese children.

    Systematic searches were done in PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus. After the quality audit according to SBU, twelve articles were included for analysis.

    Results suggest that overweight and obese children have a higher risk of respiratory peri-operative complications. The risk of hospital admission after outpatient surgery was also greater in this group as well as higher costs for health care.

    Overweight and obese children are complex subjects with more frequent peri-operative risk factors than normal-weight children. This group requires special knowledge of the anesthesia staff. More studies are required to secure evidence in anesthetic care for overweight and obese children.

  • 3.
    Ravanbakhsh, Samyar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elastic travel demand analysis - An application to the West link railway in Gothenburg2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the regional railway system lacks the capacity at the central station in order to meet the demand for both the public and freight transportation. The West link is a railway infrastructure project that is expected to both increase train commuting and also increase the train capacity at the central station in Gothenburg. The purpose of this thesis work is to do an elastic demand analysis between car traffic and the West Link in modal shift to determine how many travelers will change mode. Also traffic simulations will be made to investigate the traffic conditions around the stations when the West link has been implemeted. The simulation results showed that nowadays there are congestions on the major highways and some of the smaller low capacity roads. In the future, congestions will become more significant if no countermeasures are implemented like the West link. In the elastic demand analysis the results were overall around 47% – 51% on a demand of between 350 000 – 400 000 trips. As a conclusion it cannot be said whether the West link will ease the pressure on car traffic or not. The reasons are that the population will increase about 100 000 inhabitants until 2030 and the West link is assumed by the region to have this amount of travelers each day. This would result in the same traffic pressure as today with congestions in certain parts. If the number of West link users will be around 200 000, as the results of this thesis shows, then the West link will ease the pressure on car traffic.

  • 4.
    Harnesk, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Hellström, John
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Effekter av e-tjänster inom den offentliga vården: En kvalitativ fallstudie om hur e-tjänster kan påverka en offentlig vårdorganisations verksamhet och dess medarbetare2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    E-services are becoming increasingly prevalent in various contexts. Organizations in the public sector have also embraced this trend and today provide e-services with different purposes, e.g. various e-health services. Although there are advantages of e-services compared to traditional channels, they are not free of problems; a public organization must, among other things, provide an availability that private organizations may not need. This in turn means that the business needs to adapt its internal IT systems to handle incoming cases, which affects both the organization’s business and its employees. As today’s demands exceeds the resources, and that the population in Sweden is growing older, demands increase on the health care’s business. Citizens have to take greater responsibility for their own healthcare, which involves changes in working methods through effective e-services. Therefore, we examined the consequences this has within the business, as well as how the use of e-services affects the employees’ working routines and administrative work.

    The study aims to identify and analyze consequences, opportunities and obstacles with e-health and e-services within a public health care organization. In this way, we see that the study may help with possible explanations to the challenges that arise from the use of e-services in the public health care. The intention is also to identify and describe possible gaps between expected effects of strategies and the outcome in the operational business, which we see can contribute to greater understanding of the differences and how they might be handled. The study is based on a qualitative case study on Region Östergötland, where we have collected empirical data through interviews. The interviews have then been interpreted and analyzed to provide an illustration of how the organization strategically works with e-services in the public healthcare and how this is manifested in the business.

    The study results and conclusions show that there are both positive and less desirable effects of e-services within the operational level of the business. The same also applies to certain strategic decisions, particularly the decision to make patient records available through the e-service My health care contacts. We consider that an important contribution of the study is to highlight the needs from the operational health care business, as well as the importance of taking these into account in the development of e-health and e-service related strategies. We consider that another contribution of the study is the need to reflect on the business implications that may arise as a result of e-services.

  • 5.
    Asklund Andersson, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Digitala spel och dyslexi2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the modern world there is a great emphasis on the individuals ability to partake in written information; however, as there is between 5% and 8% of the Swedish population that suffers from a learning disability, this can quickly become a problem. The fact that Dyslexia is hard to detect early on adds to the burden of those affected and can even lead to low self-esteem and failing motivation to study.

     

    Therefore, there is a need for new screening tools that can detect dyslexia early, an idea centered on a game for such a tool is what this study has chosen to focus on. The viability of such a game has been tried through a series of 16 qualitative interviews and 15 benchmarking analyses. The author makes the case for the requirement specification such a game based screening tool will have, what must be considered in its development, and how kids reflect upon games.

     

    The requirement specification presented in the results serves not only as a basis for a screening tool but also gives valuable insight into the opinions of children on the topic of gaming and provides the more practical suggestions for the tool itself.

  • 6.
    Widerberg, Annie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hjalte, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En plats för livet: En jämförande fallstudie om hur två kommuner hanterar de demografiska förändringarna2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there are big differences between municipalities in Sweden. These differences leadto two dissimilar tendencies: the population is aging and the degree of urbanisation increases.The urbanisation has set several smaller municipalities in a severe economic situation and alot of municipalities are facing to either raise the local tax or reduce the public service. In thispaper the authors’ research through economic concepts how two medium sized municipalitieshave handled the demographic changes and what the municipalities should do in order toincrease their attractiveness.The findings of this study indicate that the demographic changes, to a large extent, dependson previous recessions in the municipalities which still is causing an unbalanced economy.The municipalities are facing a downward spiral that is hard to emerge from. On the otherhand some municipalities managed the recessions in a more successful way and are nowfacing a more positive economic position. Further, there is a clear correlation between a wellfunctioningintegration on the labour market and public finances. The result of the paper alsoshows that a well-functioning labour market, housing market and commercial supplydetermines municipalities’ attractiveness.

  • 7.
    Öqvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergfelt, Petra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nudge; en knuff i rätt riktning?: Ett beteendeekonomiskt experiment om svenskars attityder till nudge2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral interventions – so-called nudge – aim to get individuals to make decisions that are beneficial for the individual as well as for the society by making subtle changes in the decision context. Policymakers worldwide use nudge as an additional policy tool. However, nudging has been criticized for its questionable ethical principles and to date the debate concerning these issues has largely proceeded without much input from the general public. When should nudges be deemed as acceptable and when are they perceived as restrictive of an individual’s freedom of choice? Should all nudges be perceived as equal or do attitudes depend on specific characteristics of the nudge-intervention?The objective of this study is to elicit public views on the use of nudges with regard to i) acceptance and ii) restrictive on an individual’s freedom of choice. In particular, the study examines attitudes towards pro-self nudges (i.e. focusing on private welfare) and pro-social nudges (i.e. focusing on social welfare) as well as nudge of three degrees of intrusiveness (categorization of level of intrusiveness on the individual’s autonomy). In addition, we explore how individual differences in worldview affect attitudes towards nudge. A general population sample in Sweden (n=677) were presented with nudge-scenarios concerning three policy contexts; energy saving, smoking and retirement, in which they responded to questions regarding attitudes. To explore preferences towards pro-self and pro-social nudge, we used a contrastive vignette technique. To test for individual differences, measures on cultural cognition were included.The result show that all nudge-scenarios have majority support (for acceptance). However, a quarter of the nudge-scenarios were perceived as restrictive of an individual’s freedom of choice. Differences regarding attitudes towards pro-self and pro-social nudge cannot be ensured statistically. For degree of intrusiveness we found that a higher degree of intrusiveness reduces the level of acceptance for the nudge-scenarios. As for restrictive on an individual’s freedom of choice, we found the remarkable result that a medium degree of intrusiveness is perceived as less intrusive than a high degree of intrusiveness. Furthermore, we found that individuals with an individualistic worldview tend to be less accepting towards nudge-scenarios.In conclusion, our results indicate that there is no general accepted formula for how a nudge should be designed. Highlighting this is a fundamental aspect both for broadening the theory of nudge as a policy tool as well as to implement efficient nudges in the future.

  • 8.
    Wallstedt, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. 630307-3354.
    Hassel (Corylus avellana) som indikator på markanvändningshistorik2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hazel (Corylus avellana L.) is a common feature of meadows and pastures where it can grow in large populations and become very old. Is it possible to use the size of hazel stools for age determination and is it possible to use the size distribution of a population to provide information about how the land has been used? Hazel populations on ground where the lake-water level had been lowered, has been studied to validate an already developed growth model of hazel clones. Different hazel populations, on wooded meadows affected by mowing or grazing or overgrown meadows, were studied to evaluate the method utilizing hazel as land use indicator. The growth model was used to compare the size distributions of hazel populations with historical periods, which has been important for changes in agriculture or demography. The results show that the current growth model needs to be refined, but the method itself with a growth model based on the circumference of hazel bushes seems feasible. Additional studies about the influence of, for example, soils of different fertility are needed. The results also show that the size distribution in a population depends on how much meadows have been affected by mowing or grazing and that areas with similar land use have similar size distribution. Finally, some examples are reported about how a growth model can be used to compare historical periods of changes in agriculture, for example reduced livestock, with variations of the size distribution in a hazel population.

  • 9.
    John, M. T.
    et al.
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Feuerstahler, L.
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Waller, N.
    University of Minnesota, MN 55455 USA.
    Baba, K.
    Showa University, Japan.
    Larsson, Pernilla
    Centre of Oral Rehabilitation, Prosthetic Dentistry,Norrköping .
    Celebic, A.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Kende, D.
    University of Pecs, Hungary.
    Rener-Sitar, K.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Reissmann, D. R.
    University of Medical Centre Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany.
    Confirmatory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile2014In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 41, no 9, 644-652 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous exploratory analyses suggest that the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) consists of four correlated dimensions and that individual differences in OHIP total scores reflect an underlying higher-order factor. The aim of this report is to corroborate these findings in the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the projects Validation Sample (n = 5022), we conducted confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 4993 subjects with sufficiently complete data. In particular, we compared the psychometric performance of three models: a unidimensional model, a four-factor model and a bifactor model that included one general factor and four group factors. Using model-fit criteria and factor interpretability as guides, the four-factor model was deemed best in terms of strong item loadings, model fit (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.99) and interpretability. These results corroborate our previous findings that four highly correlated factors - which we have named Oral Function, Orofacial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact - can be reliably extracted from the OHIP item pool. However, the good fit of the unidimensional model and the high interfactor correlations in the four-factor solution suggest that OHRQoL can also be sufficiently described with one score.

  • 10.
    John, Mike T.
    et al.
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Reissmann, Daniel R.
    University of Medical Centre Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany.
    Feuerstahler, Leah
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Waller, Niels
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Baba, Kazuyoshi
    Showa University, Japan.
    Larsson, Pernilla
    Centre of Oral Rehabilitation, Prosthetic Dentistry, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Celebic, Asja
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Szabo, Gyula
    University of Pecs, Hungary.
    Rener-Sitar, Ksenija
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Factor analyses of the Oral Health Impact Profile - Overview and studied population2014In: Journal of Prosthodontic Research, ISSN 1883-1958, Vol. 58, no 1, 26-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A desideratum of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instruments such as the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is that they accurately reflect the structure of the measured construct(s). With this goal in mind, the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project was proposed to investigate the number and nature of OHRQoL dimensions measured by OHIP. In this report, we describe our aggregate data set for the factor analyses in the project, which consists of responses to the 49-item OHIP from general population subjects and prosthodontics patients from 6 countries, including a large age range of adult subjects and both genders. Materials and methods: The DOQ Projects aggregate data set combines data from 35 individual studies conducted in Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Slovenia, and Sweden. Results: The combined data set includes 10778 OHIPs from 9348 individuals (N = 6349 general population subjects, N = 2999 prosthodontic patients). To elucidate the OHIP latent structure, the aggregated data were split into a Learning Sample (N = 5173) for exploratory analyses and a Validation Sample (N = 5022) for confirmatory analyses. Additional data (N = 583) were assigned to a third data set. Conclusion: The Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Project contains a large amount of international data and is representative of populations where OHIP is intended to be used. It is well-suited to assess the dimensionality of the questionnaire. (C) 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Department of Orofacial Pain and Jawfunction, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    John, M. T.
    Division of Epidemiology and Community Health and Department of Diagnostic and Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
    Nilner, K.
    Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    List, T.
    Division of Epidemiology and Community Health and Department of Diagnostic and Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
    Normative values for the oro-facial Esthetic Scale in Sweden2014In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 41, no 2, 148-154 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the findings and challenges of the assessment of oro-facial aesthetics in the Swedish general population and the development of normative values for the self-reporting Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES). In a Swedish national sample of 1406 adult subjects (response rate: 47%), OES decile norms were established. The influence of sociodemographics (gender, age, and education), oral health status and general health status on OES scores was analysed. Mean +/- standard deviation of OES scores was 503 +/- 156 units (0, worst score; 70, best score); less than1% of the subjects had the minimum score of 0, and 11% had the maximum score of 70 OES units. Orofacial Esthetic Scale score differences were (i) substantial (greater than5 OES units) for subjects with excellent/very good versus good to poor oral or general health status; ii) small (2 units), but statistically significant for gender (P=0.01) and two age groups (P=0.02), and (iii) absent for subjects with college versus no college education (P=0.31) or with and without dentures (P=0.90). To estimate normative values for a self-reporting health status, instrument is considered an important step in standardisation, and the developed norms provide a frame of reference in the general population to interpret the Orofacial Esthetic Scale scores.

  • 12.
    Larsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Department for Orofacial Pain and Jawfunction, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    John, M. T.
    Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, Department of Diagnostic and Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
    Hakeberg, M.
    Department of Behavioral and Community Dentistry, Institute of Odontology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg,.
    Nilner, K.
    Department of Oral Prosthetics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    List, T.
    Department for Orofacial Pain and Jawfunction, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    General population norms of the Swedish short forms of Oral Health Impact Profile2014In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 41, no 4, 275-281 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We reported the development and psychometric evaluation of a Swedish 14-item and a five-item short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile. The 14-item version was derived from the English-language short form developed by Slade in1997. The five-item version was derived from the German-language short form developed by John etal. in 2006. Validity, reliability and normative values for the two short form summary scores were determined in a random sample of the adult Swedish population (response rate: 46%, N=1366 subjects). Subjects with sufficient OHRQoL information to calculate a summary score (N=1309) were on average 50 center dot 1 +/- 17 center dot 4years old, and 54% were women. Short form summary scores correlated highly with the 49-item OHIP-S (r greater than= 0 center dot 97 for OHIP-S14, r greater than= 0 center dot 92 for OHIP-S5) and with self-report of oral health (r greater than= 0 center dot 41). Reliability, measured with Cronbachs alpha (0 center dot 91 for OHIP-S14, 0 center dot 77 for OHIP-S5), was sufficient. In the general population, 50% of the subjects had greater than= 2 OHIP-S14 score points and 10% had greater than= 11 points, respectively. Among subjects with their own teeth only and/or fixed dental prostheses and with partial removable dental prostheses, 50% of the population had greater than= 2 OHIP-S14 score points, and 10% had greater than= 11 points. For subjects with complete dentures, the corresponding figures were 3 and 24 points. OHIP-S5 medians for subjects in the three population groups were 1, 1 and 2 points. Swedish 14-item and 5-item short forms of the OHIP have sufficient psychometric properties and provide a detailed overview about impaired OHRQoL in Sweden. The norms will serve as reference values for future studies.

  • 13.
    Drugge, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Svensson, Elizabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Biståndets framgång i Ghana: En jämförande fallstudie av Hungerprojektet och ActionAids biståndsarbete i Ghana2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the world today there are 842 million people hungry, which corresponds to the population of the US, Japan and Europe combined. The reason for their hunger is not lack of food, according to the UN, there are enough resources in the world for everyone to be satisfied. The majority of the hungry live in developing countries; in rural or slum areas and its mainly women and children.1 In order to among other things, to correct this untenable situation the Millennium Development Goals were created. Foreign aid would solve the victim's problems, but few issues are so controversial as foreign aid. Where does the money go? Do they make any difference to the individuals? What distinguishes a functioning foreign aid?

    The aim is to try to locate the factors leading to a successful assistance. This has been developed through a qualitative comparative case study. The selected organizations has been compered to the established theories in the field, these are mostly based on William Easterly and Jeffrey Sachs. The work focuses on ActionAid and The Hunger Project's work in Ghana with emphasis on implementation.

    One of the conclusions we have made in this paper is that there need to be good communication between the organizations and the local population. If those who live in the community do not recognize the problems or if the solution is not designed to fit the local conditions, then it will not be a long-term change. It is also important that all groups in the society are involved in the work process and especially the marginalized groups that usually consist of women and children. This work can be seen as a first step to locating aid organizations' success factors, but also illustrates common problems with foreign aid. 

  • 14.
    Eriksson Maggi, Emma
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Restrictions of Movement in Palestine. Intersectional Impacts and Strategies of Resistance.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study I use semi-structured interviews and participant observation, in an intersectional and post-colonial theoretical framework, to look at one specific aspect of the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territory: the restrictions of movement that are a result of the occupation, and how these influence different groups of the population in different ways, more specifically by analysing intersections of gender and age.  I consider not only restrictions caused by physical barriers, but also barriers caused by fear of violence or detainments and arrests. In the second part of the study I analyse strategies of resistance against the issues caused by the restrictions of movement and their gendered aspects. I show how the effects of the Wall, barriers and restrictions of movement are gendered and age-related, identifying multiple vulnerable locations at different intersections of gender and age. I also demonstrate how both individual strategies of resistance and the possibilities to participate in organised forms of resistance are gendered. 

  • 15.
    Hassan, Mao
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pastoralist Way of Life Under Threat:: Assessing the vulnerability risks faced by pastoralist communities as well as their potential to adapt to climate change in the Horn of Africa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis was to examine the main causes of pastoral  vulnerability to climate change as well as assess their adaptive capacity to withstand future climate disturbances in the Horn of Africa. By studying two of the most iconic pastoralists’ communities in Africa – the Somali and the Massai’s in Kenya, the study intended to use the communities as representative to the overall pastoralist’s situation in the Horn of Africa. The study used the 2007 IPCC Vulnerability Assessment framework that entails exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity to climate change as a guiding instrument to comprehend the complexities of the pastoral livelihood. The participants of the study included pastoralists, officials from the government, NGO’s and research Institutions. Major findings of this study were, in addition to climate manifesting in destructive forms, pastoralism faces political marginalization, shrinking pastureland, sprawling urbanization, exponential growth of population and conflicts. Despite the challenges, the study also finds strong adaptive capacity by the pastoralists. Adaptation strategies include traditional methods of rangeland management and migration. The study also shows new modern methods adaptation to climate mainly instigated by the pastoralists with assistance from external actors, these methods include; Ecological Based Adaptation and technology driven approaches as well as a mixture of agriculture and pastoralism – agro-pastoralism. It was also found that the two communities studied face different climate challenges and adaptation approaches.

  • 16.
    Romanos, J.
    et al.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, PO Box 30001, Groningen 9700 RB, Netherlands; School of Medicine, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Rosen, A.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kumar, V.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Trynka, G.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, PO Box 30001, Groningen 9700 RB, Netherlands; Division of Genetics and Division of Rheumatology, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.
    Franke, L.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Szperl, A.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Gutierrez-Achury, J.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Van, Diemen C.C.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Kanninga, R.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Jankipersadsing, S.A.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Steck, A.
    Barbara Davis Centre for Childhood Diabetes, University of of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States.
    Eisenbarth, G.
    Barbara Davis Centre for Childhood Diabetes, University of of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States.
    Van, Heel D.A.
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom.
    Cukrowska, B.
    Department of Pathology, Childrens Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland.
    Bruno, V.
    European Laboratory for Food-Induced Disease, University of of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
    Mazzilli, M.C.
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Nunez, C.
    Clinical Immunology Department, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria San Carlos IdISSC, Madrid, Spain.
    Bilbao, J.R.
    Immunogenetics Research Laboratory, Hospital de Cruces, Bizkaia, Spain.
    Mearin, M.L.
    Department of Paediatrics, Leiden University of Medical Centre, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Barisani, D.
    Department of Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of of Milano- Bicocca, Monza, Italy.
    Rewers, M.
    Barbara Davis Centre for Childhood Diabetes, University of of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States.
    Norris, J.M.
    Epidemiology Department, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, United States.
    Ivarsson, A.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Boezen, H.M.
    Department of Epidemiology, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Liu, E.
    Barbara Davis Centre for Childhood Diabetes, University of of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States.
    Wijmenga, C.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, PO Box 30001, Groningen 9700 RB, Netherlands.
    Improving coeliac disease risk prediction by testing non-HLA variants additional to HLA variants2014In: Gut, ISSN 0017-5749, E-ISSN 1468-3288, Vol. 63, no 3, 415-422 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The majority of coeliac disease (CD) patients are not being properly diagnosed and therefore remain untreated, leading to a greater risk of developing CD-associated complications. The major genetic risk heterodimer, HLA-DQ2 and DQ8, is already used clinically to help exclude disease. However, approximately 40% of the population carry these alleles and the majority never develop CD. Objective We explored whether CD risk prediction can be improved by adding non-HLA-susceptible variants to common HLA testing. Design We developed an average weighted genetic risk score with 10, 26 and 57 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2675 cases and 2815 controls and assessed the improvement in risk prediction provided by the non-HLA SNP. Moreover, we assessed the transferability of the genetic risk model with 26 non-HLA variants to a nested case-control population (n=1709) and a prospective cohort (n=1245) and then tested how well this model predicted CD outcome for 985 independent individuals. Results Adding 57 non-HLA variants to HLA testing showed a statistically significant improvement compared to scores from models based on HLA only, HLA plus 10 SNP and HLA plus 26 SNP. With 57 non-HLA variants, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve reached 0.854 compared to 0.823 for HLA only, and 11.1% of individuals were reclassified to a more accurate risk group. We show that the risk model with HLA plus 26 SNP is useful in independent populations. Conclusions Predicting risk with 57 additional non-HLA variants improved the identification of potential CD patients. This demonstrates a possible role for combined HLA and non-HLA genetic testing in diagnostic work for CD.

  • 17.
    Ahmed, Uday
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ayo, Priscilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Developing Common Questions about Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE), Ecodesign and Engineering Education2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, more and more manufacturing firms recognize the benefit of providing products together with related services with an aim to gain higher profits as compared to supplying products without additional services. On the other hand, the competition in the global markets has been increased dramatically through increased sales of services in order to gain additional value for their products. In addition, several environmental challenges such as climate change, pollution, global warming impact, greenhouse gases emissions have played a vital role by influencing on the production protocols and trend of the companies. These challenges forced manufacturing countries to take into consideration environmentally conscious approach to their design thinking and industrial production processes. As a result, it became an important drive for manufacturing industries to shift from traditional product-oriented to service-oriented business models that has been witnessed during the last few years.

     

    The objective of this study research is to develop common questions that capture fundamental and common issues about Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE), Design for Environment (DFE) and Engineering education are effectives for industries to check and develop their knowledge, because the Engineering education plays a necessary role in associating socio-ethical knowledge with scientific and technological advances. The strategy taken to conduct this thesis task was first to study and understand the concept of Product Service System (PSS), IPSE, and Ecodesign as well as Engineering Education. Informative knowledge on these concepts were collected by reviewing several related journal articles, CIRP IPS2 conference proceedings.

     

    In this thesis the concepts of PSS, IPSE, DFE and Engineering Education discussed to develop the key common questions and issues to address the environmental, economic and social problems. Since PSS aims to reduce consumption through alternative schemes of product use as well as to increase overall resource productivity and dematerialization, but IPSE does not focus on a single factor but incorporates a wide range of factors such as environmental, social and economic issues. Whilst one of the main problems in this research focused on how to develop and strengthen the relationship between the academia and industry, and how this relation can be used to improve the academic performance and scientific research at universities and transfer them to industry.

     

    Sustainability and the life cycle concept have become a main solution for various problems such as a growing world population and a change in the industrial culture to come. As results Ecodesign and environmental considerations, financial aspects, product improvement as well as the commercial aspects were discussed in this project by understanding the previous concepts. The university considered as an important base of cultivating the talents, basic of inputs business organizations which help them to develop and improve their level of performance and quality of their products and services, and enhance its competitive position in the market. Changes in organized science further encouraged university interests in expanding technology transfer, because the scientific disciplines play an important role in influencing the type of interactions with industry as well as the University and Industry collaboration became the basic method of solving the problems to achieve (environmental, economic and social) sustainability.

  • 18.
    Ronnberg, A. K.
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ostlund, I.
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Fadl, H.
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Gottvall, Tomas
    Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, K.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Intervention during pregnancy to reduce excessive gestational weight gain-a randomised controlled trial2015In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 122, no 4, 537-544 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveTo evaluate if a feasible, low-cost intervention could decrease the percentage of women gaining weight above the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations on gestational weight gain (GWG) compared with standard maternity care. DesignA randomised controlled interventional design. SettingAntenatal clinics (n=14) in orebro county, Sweden, participated. PopulationHealthy women with a body mass index (BMI) 19kg/m(2), age 18years and adequate knowledge of Swedish language who signed in for maternity care at 16weeks of gestation. MethodsStandard care was compared with a composite intervention consisting of education on recommended GWG according to IOM, application of personalised weight graph, formalised prescription of exercise and regular monitoring of GWG at every antenatal visit. OutcomeThe proportion of women gaining weight above IOM guidelines (1990) and mean GWG (kg) was compared between groups. ResultsIn all, 445 women were randomised and 374 women remained for analysis after delivery. A majority of the women analysed were normal weight (72%). The intervention reduced the proportion of women who exceeded the IOM guidelines (41.1% versus 50.0%). The reduction was, however, not statistically significant (P=0.086). Mean GWG was significantly lower among women receiving the intervention, 14.2kg (SD 4.4) versus 15.3kg (SD 5.4) in the standard care group (P=0.029). ConclusionsThe low-cost intervention programme tested did significantly reduce the mean GWG but the proportion of women who exceeded the IOM recommendations for GWG was not significantly lower. ClinicalTrials.gov Id NCT00451425

  • 19.
    Torres Bahamonde, Berenice
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Topic, Boris
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kommuners val av pensionsförvaltning: En studie av den kommunala pensionsredovisningen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Swedish municipalities’ operations are described as being distinctive. This means that the municipalities differ from the private sector in terms of goal settings and performance. One of the characteristics found in the municipalities is their reporting of pensions that is to be accounted for according to the mixed model. Several studies have brought forward concerns that the accounting according to the mixed model may give rise to discretionary interpretations that assumedly are going to be exploited by the politicians in order to affect the financial reporting. A part of the discretion that is used in the earnings management is assumed to occur in the pension management of the defined benefit pension plans.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to explain the municipalities’ choice of management of the defined benefit pension plans.

    Method: A deductive approach has been used in the study to identify different theoretical relationships between the pension management and pension accounting. The study's design was based on providing a new insight into accounting research. To achieve this, twelve hypotheses were formulated and later tested using the statistical analysis.

    Conclusions: The study has shown that the variable profitability has been significant in the overall analyzes. This has led to the hypothesis that income smoothing could be used as to explain the municipalities’ choice of pension management. The variables population size and population change have also been shown to affect the choice of pension management. Doing the logistical regression with all the variables was however problematic. Therefore, the hypotheses on population size and population change have been rejected for the time being. The hypotheses that were designed have been interchangeable at different points between positive accounting theory and institutional theory, which has led to a more detailed explanation. They are therefore considered to have contributed each in its own way to explain the choice of pension management.

  • 20.
    Nord, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Example Based Procedural Distribution Tool2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report will deal with the process of creating an example based procedural distribution tool. This is accomplished within the Frostbite game engine editor, FrostEd. By using actual placements of objects in the editor as in-data, the tool provides the artist with an unmatched visual feel for calibrating its properties and settings. Note that this is a unique technique and was invented during the creation of this tool. The tool is based on a machine learning approach. It creates a feature vector from the example placements for each type of object. These vectors are then used to create statistical models which in turn are used to generate new object placements. The process of determining the position and rotation when generating an object is divided into two parts. A new concept called Feature Function (FF) is utilized to provide each element in the population with a probability to obtain a certain position and rotation.

  • 21.
    Karalekas, Panagiotis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Is S100A1 involved in the programming effects of fetal hypoxia on cardiac function in chickens?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged prenatal hypoxia has shown to cause fetal growth restriction inchickens due to restricted oxygen to the somatic tissue. The body goes through a critical periodof development. Insults during this critical period may have lifelong effects on the individual.Currently heart failure is treated either with symptomatic therapy using diuretics or by targetingthe renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Developing new successful treatments is importantwith the aging population and the increased rate of heart failure. Previous studies have shownsystolic contractile dysfunction in 5 week old broiler chicken hearts when the eggs have beenincubated in hypoxia until hatching. S100A1 in cardiomyocytes regulates the calcium-controllednetwork which plays a big role in cardiac contractility and in this study, using qPCR on S100A1(GOI), GADPH and β-actin to try and determine if the changes made to the heart while the fetusis developing is due to a lack of S100A1 expression resulting in a decreased handling of Ca2+uptake which causes contractile dysfunction A Roche Lightcycler 480 was used together with theRoche template running triplets of each sample at 15-15-15 seconds for 45 cycles No statisticalsignificance was observed between the control group and the experimental group. However inthis study only S100A1 gene is being considered but a better understanding of the whole S100family might give a better understanding of mechanisms causing the progressive deterioration ofcardiac function

  • 22.
    Wirell, Viktoria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Påverkan av förnybar energi på Singapores energisäkerhet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Singapore is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. At the same time the country has an electricity consumption that is among the highest in the world in relation to the population. They have no indigenous energy resources and are therefore dependent on import of fossil fuels to handle their high electricity consumption. Most of their electricity is generated from natural gas which has been imported in pipelines from Malaysia and Indonesia.

    A consequence of Singapore’s heavy dependence on imported fossil fuels is that they have low energy security. Energy security means that the energy supply should be affordable, reliable and adequate. With its heavy dependence on imported fossil fuels, Singapore is exposed to several energy security risks. These energy security risks could result in detrimental consequences for Singapore.

    The environmental benefits of renewable energy are well known, but how renewable energy can contribute to a better energy security is less known. There are several energy security risks related to the use of fossil fuels and renewable energy can therefore, in the countries that have the right conditions, decrease these risks.

    The purpose of this thesis has been to examine if renewable energy can contribute to a more secure electricity supply in Singapore. To do this, theory regarding Singapore, energy security and different renewable energy sources has been collected. The renewable energy sources that have been examined are wind power, hydropower, geothermal energy, solar power and bioenergy. The theoretical background has then been used to analyze the possibility of using renewable energy sources to improve the energy security in Singapore.   

    The conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that some of the renewable energy sources can contribute to a more secure electricity supply in Singapore. Singapore’s geographical conditions are unfavorable for the use of wind power, hydropower and geothermal energy and these energy sources can therefore not be used to improve the energy security in Singapore. The situation regarding solar power and bioenergy is however different and an increase of the electricity production from these sources can contribute to a more secure electricity supply. 

  • 23.
    Göransson, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wiklund, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Milk Packaging in Sweden: Local Consumers' effect on the Visual Communication2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Just like there are different accents in a language, symbols and colors may be interpreted differently in different parts of a country. These visual accents are part of the ideology present at a certain place and affects how the population perceives words and images. It is therefore important for the person designing the visual communication to consider the ideology of the consumers. This is also true for packaging design, because the packaging works as an attention grabber in the store.

    Traditionally, the dairy market in Sweden has been geographically segmented. New technologies in packaging, production, and logistics have led to a decrease in the number of dairy companies in Sweden; the 1960’s 420 dairy companies are today only 50. The dairy companies of Sweden still have a geographically segmented market. This is also true for three of the largest dairy companies: Norrmejerier, Gefleortens, and Skånemejerier. The largest dairy company, Arla, is present in the whole country.

    This study aims to research the visual communication on milk packaging from the dairy companies listed above. The study examines the consumers’ effect on the design of the visual communication. Previous studies show how different visual elements on the packaging attract the customers’ attention in the store. However, no previous studies examine milk packaging and the variations of the visual communication within a country.

    Different theories that have been used to analyse the collected data are about packaging design, culture, and visual communication. Typography, color and design principles such as hierarchy are part of the visual communication’s toolbox. Theories about semiotics have been used to interpret the meaning of visual signs. Parts of the data of this qualitative case study have been collected through interviews with representatives from the dairy companies Norrmejerier, Gefleortens, Skånemejerier, and Arla. This data shows the brand owners thoughts about the packaging and brand communication. The authors of this study have analyzed the visual communication of milk packages for milk containing 1,5% fat from each dairy company listed above.

    The study concludes that the milk packages of Norrmejerier, Gefleortens, and Skånemejerier contain visual elements that stand for local and personal values. The illustrations and photographs also picture situations where milk is or has been used. Arla does not have the same local market as the others, which can be seen in the more abstract design of their packaging. The dairy companies create a design and then asks for feedback from the consumers. The companies later use this information to adjust the packaging after the consumers’ opinions. The visual elements are adapted to the local market and used to communicate the brand identity. The changes in the visual communication are done evolutionary, to keep the packaging recognizable for the consumers. Arla has, for example, changed the appearance of the stripes they have used on the packages since 90’s several times. The latest version of the design softened the corners of the stripes to convey a more natural look - in line with their brand identity.

    What the study shows is that the local consumers have an impact on the visual communication of the milk packages in Sweden, but fundamentally it is all about the brand communication of the dairy company. This can be seen in the fact that the dairy companies do not choose their design elements after the consumers’ opinions. Instead, they create a design based on the brand identity and adjust it based on the feedback they get from the local consumers to make it more attractive for the consumers.

  • 24.
    Akhter Feroz, Raisin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Sustainable Urban Development: A Study on Slum Population of Kota, India2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The urban centres are becoming more vulnerable to climate change because of the rapid urbanization and the inequality of urban development. This study assesses the urban vulnerability in an integrated approach focusing the slum people as the targeted group. The slum people are severely exposed to climate risks in terms of city‟s overall development. The negative indications of the indicators of person‟s vulnerability represent their high sensitivity to the adverse impact of climate change. The determinants of adaptive capacity also confirm that the slum people are more vulnerable to climate change with having lower adaptive capacity; though, the city is possessing high development indexes. In this context, an institutional structure is developed to build multi-level urban climate governance with the involvement of all relevant stakeholders based on the case study and literature review to integrate the vulnerable group in development planning for climate change adaptation.

  • 25.
    Bäcklund, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danesten, Mathias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Östersjölaxen, ett förslag och enrad aktörer - vad kan gå fel?: En innehållsanalytis k studie kring olikaaktörers ståndpunkt gällande Europarlamentens och Europarådets förslag till en långsiktig förvaltningsplan förlaxbestånden i Östersjön och dess älvar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the Atlantic salmon in the Baltic Sea is threatened by substantial anthropogenic activities, and in practice, an action plan hasbeen missing for almost a decade. A proposal for a multi annual action for the Baltic salmon stock was presented by the EU-commission 2011,this plan aimed to aid attempts of reaching a sustainable exploitation of the salmon stock, and to sustain the genetic integrity and diversity of thespecies. The main purpose of this thesis is to examine selected statements of opinion in regards of mentioned proposal, these statements areofficial recommendations carried out by concerned authorities and NGO’s, and have been delivered to the Swedish government. Content analysiswill be used on the statements of opinion and the two interviews. The analysis shows that various actors are generally positive towards theproposal of a multiannual action plan, but disagreements and critique of proposed approaches tend to be dominant in several statements. This isvery clear in terms of the phasing out of the salmon releases and the smolt production goals, which the proposal deals with. A large number ofproposed measures and associated processes are very time consuming, and thus, changes in matters like these happen over extended periods oftime. It is therefore of great importance that actions are put in motion long before the risks of reaching irreversible damages becomes evident.

  • 26.
    Wiberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundblad, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Man skola spela!: En enkätstudie om hur gymnasieelevers onlinespelsvanor samvarierar med skolprestation och socialt umgänge2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I det moderna samhället har internet och spelande av olika slag som sker genom internet blivit alltmer populära aktiviteter. I takt med den explosionsartade utvecklingen har även problematiskt beteende följt i form av onlinespelsmissbruk, som blivit ett så pass omfattande problem att det idag omnämns som diagnosen ”Internet Gaming Disorder”, IGD. Företeelsen har dock inte enbart blivit mer framträdande vad gäller aktiviteten i sig utan också gällande mängden forskning som görs inom området. Den population som studeras flitigast och där onlinespelandet är som mest framträdande är bland yngre människor och främst bland pojkar och män. Mycket av den forskning som genomförts har behandlat onlinespelandets påverkan på individen samt dess inverkan på skola och utbildning. Syftet med denna studie är därför att undersöka huruvida onlinespelandet hos tredjeårselever på gymnasiet samvarierar med dennes självupplevda sociala umgänge samt skolprestation.

    Studien är genomförd utifrån en kvantitativ metod där en enkätundersökning utfördes inom åtta olika program på fyra av Norrköpings gymnasieskolor. Totalt besvarade 99 gymnasieelever enkäten. Studien analyseras med ett socialkonstruktivistiskt perspektiv för att söka förstå bakomliggande aspekter av onlinespelandet genom att diskutera sociala grupperingar och kategoriseringar som sker genom social interaktion. Studiens resultat stämmer ur flera avseenden överens med tidigare forskning där det tydligt går att se att killar spelar mer än tjejer. Studien visar även ett samband mellan onlinespelande och skola på så sätt att individer engagerade i spel bland annat visar en tendens till minskat intresse för studier.

  • 27.
    Westergren, Samuel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nivåer av det lysosomala systemets proteiner i hjärnvävnad från Alzheimerpatienter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, and when the population becomes larger and older also the number of patients increase. A cerebral atrophy and microscopic findings of extracellular plaques of β-amyloid, intracellular neurofibrillary of phosphorylated tau and loss of nerve cell protrusions, axons, synapses and dendrites are seen during the disease. One of the early pathological changes is the disruption of the neuronal lysosomal network that plays an important role in the degradation of macromolecules. In a previous study elevated levels of proteins of the lysosomal network in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer’s disease patients was demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to measure levels of the lysosomal network system in the brain. The six proteins EEA1, PICALM, LAMP-1, LAMP -2, LC3 and TFEB were analyzed in human brain tissue from five Alzheimer's disease cases and five control cases by Western blot. The results show a significant increase in the temporal cortex of LAMP-1 and LAMP -2 and a significant decrease of LC3 and EEA1 in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In order to draw proper conclusions about how the increased levels in cerebrospinal fluid reflect the different disease mechanisms in the brain it requires further analysis of more patient samples and from other areas of the brain.

  • 28.
    Wendin, Jonas
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Den ojämna urbaniseringen: En analys av orsaker bakom och konsekvenser av befolkningstillväxten i Latinamerikanska storstäders socioekonomiska periferi2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att genom en forskningsanalys identifiera orsaker bakom och konsekvenser av den snabba befolkningstillväxten i Latinamerikanska storstäders socioekonomiska periferi. Arbetet utgör en geografisk studie och fokus i analysen ligger därför på rumsliga aspekter. Studien tar avstamp i en orsaksanalys för att förklara den kraftiga urbanisering som tog fart i Latinamerika under 1900-talets andra hälft. Sedan analyseras de socioekonomiska och rumsliga konsekvenserna av denna urbanisering. I studien identifieras fyra huvudsakliga orsaker och sex huvudsaliga konsekvenser. Orsakerna som identifieras och analyseras är;

    • Internationella makroekonomiska strukturers påverkan på landsbygdsbefolkningen i Latinamerika. Forskningen visar att strukturanpassningsprogrammen utarmat bönder i Latinamerika, varpå de tvingats flytta in till städerna, där de hamnat i slummen.
    • Flykten från våld och förtryck på den Latinamerikanska landsbygden. Forskningen visar att inslag av våld och förtryck av Latinamerikanska bönder under 1900-talets andra hälft lett till kraftig inflyttning till storstäderna.
    • Drömmen om ett liv i storstaden. Forskningen visar att modernisering av Latinamerikanska städer och ekonomisk tillväxt har lockat många människor från landsbygden, som inte lyckats sysselsättas och därför fastnat i slummen.
    • Avskärmning och utrensning. Forskningen visar att segregationen i flera Latinamerikanska storstäder upprätthålls av lokala politiker för att upprätthålla en vacker fasad och därmed stadens anseende.

    Konsekvenserna som identifieras och analyseras är följande;

    • Slumgeologiska konsekvenser. Forskningen visar att risken för exempelvis jordskred ökar när informella bosättningar hamnar på geologiska riskområden och att kåkstäder är extra känsliga för naturkatastrofer.
    • Hygieniska konsekvenser. Forskningen visar att slumområden i Latinamerika ofta finns vid öppna avlopp och dräneringar och att detta får förödande konsekvenser för sluminvånarnas personliga hygien och hälsa.
    • Industriers påverkan på närliggande områden. Forskningen visar att slumområden i Latinamerika ofta växer fram kring industrier som genererar giftiga utsläpp, som i sin tur påverkar hälsan hos nära boende.
    • Vattenbrist. Forskningen visar att det generellt sett råder svår vattenbrist i Latinamerikanska städers socioekonomiska periferi och att detta kan få förödande konsekvenser för invånarnas hälsa.
    • Trångboddhet och överbefolkning. Forskningen visar att detta är vanligt i den socioekonomiska periferin i Latinamerikanska storstäder och att detta ger upphov till bl.a. rapid bakteriespridning.
    • Ett ökat bilanvändande i slumområden och ökad trafikolycksrisk. Forskningen visar att många Latinamerikanska storstäders infrastruktur inte är anpassad till den kraftiga befolkningstillväxten i den socioekonomiska periferin, vilket leder till många trafikolyckor.    
  • 29.
    Elmdahl, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics.
    Tärnemark, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics.
    En webbundersökning med panel: Vilka variabler påverkar om, hur tidigt och vad panelmedlemmar svarar?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report gives a background description of the data collection company Norstat and how they implement a tracking survey with a panel via the internet. Furthermore connections between variables describing persons in the survey and the way these persons answer the survey will be investigated. The report also intends to find out how long a survey needs to be running and if there are differences between received answers depending on when a person has answered. A detailed description of the processing and variables included in the data material being used will also be given. Earlier research concerning panels and web surveys are covered to give the reader a nuanced picture of the pros and cons with opinion surveys.

    Logistic regression methods have been used to examine which variables influence whether a person will answer the survey or not, and the variables that make a person answer the survey early or late. Other methods used are descriptive statistics and a χ2-test.

    The results show that factors influencing how much spare time a person has give the greatest impact on whether and how early the survey gets completed. It can be noted that it is often enough with a field period up to 6 days after the invitation to the survey has been sent out until all categories of persons are relatively equally represented. The optimal field period differs depending on whether a study is aimed at providing a picture of the entire country's population or only specific categories of this. For a special category of the persons, it can sometimes be enough to let the field period run until the day after the invitation to the survey had been sent out for enough answers to be submitted.

  • 30.
    Granberg, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital / Örebro University, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Jennie
    Örebro University Hospital / Örebro University, Sweden.
    Möller, Claes
    Örebro University Hospital / Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kähäri, Kim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Danermark, Berth
    Örebro University Hospital / Örebro University, Sweden.
    The ICF Core Sets for hearing loss - researcher perspective. Part I: Systematic review of outcome measures identified in audiological research2014In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, Vol. 53, no 2, 65-76 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To review the literature in order to identify outcome measures used in research on adults with hearing loss (HL) as part of the ICF Core Sets development project, and to describe study and population characteristics of the reviewed studies. Design: A systematic review methodology was applied using multiple databases. A comprehensive search was conducted and two search pools were created, pool I and pool II. Study sample: The study population included adults (greater than= 18 years of age) with HL and oral language as the primary mode of communication. Results: 122 studies were included. Outcome measures were distinguished by instrument type, and 10 types were identified. In total, 246 (pool I) and 122 (pool II) different measures were identified, and only approximately 20% were extracted twice or more. Most measures were related to speech recognition. Fifty-one different questionnaires were identified. Many studies used small sample sizes, and the sex of participants was not revealed in several studies. Conclusion: The low prevalence of identified measures reflects a lack of consensus regarding the optimal outcome measures to use in audiology. Reflections and discussions are made in relation to small sample sizes and the lack of sex differentiation/descriptions within the included articles.

  • 31.
    Larsson, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vestlund, Emilie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekonomistyrning?: En studie om formella styrmedel i mindre bemanningsföretag2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM

    The most of the companies in Sweden are small, this group include companies with less

    than 49 employees and over 99 percent of the companies in Sweden belongs to this group.

    The fact result in that the most of the companies differ from the large enterprise often

    described in accessible literature for students within the economic control area. This

    depends on that large-scale enterprises are overrepresented in student literature, which

    is the first problem that the study covers. Many researchers also consider that there is a

    gap between the theory in student literature and practice, which is seen as the second

    problem that’s the study covers.

    The focus of this study is to examine how small staffing agencies in the region

    Östergötland, which include the cities Linköping and Norrköping, are using formal

    instruments as a part of their economic control. The question is which formal instruments

    are used and why, as well as what role filling the formal instrument?

    PURPOSE

    The purpose with the study is to become absorbed in how small enterprises applying

    economic control in their organization, what type of formal instruments they use and why.

    DELIMITATION

    The study only covers formal instruments that are used by small enterprises active in the

    business of staffing agencies within Sweden. The collection of empirical data is limited by

    one sample, the method of selection is described in the methodology section.

    METHOD

    The data collection was conducted using interviews with four companies. The selection

    process was carried out using the selection criteria and a business directory, resulting in

    a population of eight companies in the staffing industry with 4-49 employees represented

    in Linköping. From these eight companies, four were selected to be included in the sample

    of the study.

    RESULT

    The study results show that all companies use budgets and estimates, some companies

    use forecasts and also of non-financial indicators. One company uses a balanced

    scorecard. The result also shows how companies choose which economic instruments

    should be included in the company's economic control, key aspects here are needs,

    circumstances, knowledge and beliefs, as well as individual preferences. The result also

    describes what type of role the formal instrument should fill in the organization, which

    the results shows differs between different economic instruments and depending on

    which organization the instrument is used.

  • 32.
    Reim, Erich
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis and visualization of historical traffic data collected on the Stockholm highway system2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The congestion due to traffic is a worldwide occurrence in major cities, where also the biggest part of the human population lives. To be able to control and oversee the ongoing traffic development in cities, traffic operators use different methods to observe the current trend. This is done by collecting data from stationary sensors to mobile sensors like floating car data. The data collected from stationary sensors is stored in a central database. This historical traffic data is used for analysis of traffic behavior along the main roadway network in Stockholm. Areas which are highly congested can be located as well as areas where traffic flows without problems. This thesis deals with methods to analyze and visualize the traffic behavior based on historical traffic data, measured in the city of Stockholm. Therefore a toolbox is implemented which is used to figure out bottlenecks and typical speed and flow patterns along the Stockholm highway system. Based on the typical speed and flow patterns, it is possible to calculate areas that are affected of congestion and also to determine whether congestion appears due to an incident or a bottleneck.

  • 33.
    John, M.T.
    et al.
    Department of Diagnostic and Biological Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.
    Larsson, Pernilla
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Maxillofacial Unit.
    Nilner, K.
    Department of Oral Prosthetics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Bandyopadhyay, D.
    Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.
    List, T.
    Department of Stomatognathic Physiology, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Validation of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale in the general population2012In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 10, no 1, 1-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES) is an eight-item instrument to assess how patients perceive their dental and facial esthetics. In this cross-sectional study we investigated dimensionality, reliability, and validity of OES scores in the adult general population in Sweden.Methods: In a random sample of the adult Swedish population (response rate: 39%, N=1159 subjects, 58% female, mean age (standard deviation): 49.2 (17.4) years), dimensionality of OES was investigated using factor analytic methods to determine how many scores are needed to characterize the construct. Reliability of scores was calculated using Cronbachs alpha. Score validity was determined by correlating the OES summary score with a global indicator of orofacial esthetics (OE).Results: Factor analyses provided support that a single score can sufficiently characterize OE. A Cronbachs alpha of 0.93 indicated excellent reliability. A validity coefficient of r=0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.87-0.90) indicated that OES summary scores correlated highly with a global OE assessment.Conclusions: The OES is a promising instrument to measure the construct OE. Factor analyses supported that this construct can be assessed with one score, offering a feasible and acceptable standardized assessment of OE. The present study extends the OES use to the general population, an important target population for assessment of orofacial esthetics. © 2012 John et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 34.
    Radpour, Houtan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Diel and monthly observations of plant mediated fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide from lake Följesjön in Sweden using static chamber method2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic plants or macrophytes are known as conduits of Methane (CH4), Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Nitrous oxide (N2O) which contribute to the total fluxes of the Greenhouse gases emissions from lakes. Recent studies emphasized that the knowledge on plant mediated emissions calls for more systematic and comparative data especially in the areas of spatial and temporal variability. In this study I measured diel (24 hour) and diurnal(  daily hours only) plant mediated fluxes during four sampling sessions using chamber method from a  Swedish lake in summer 2012. The measurements were conducted on two macrophyte population patterns of mixed plant communities and Equisetum fluviatile (specie-specific) community. CH4 emissions were higher in darker hours and there were no diel correlation between CH4 fluxes and average diel temperature. CH4 fluxes varied between 0.42 mmol m-2d-1 and 2.3 mmol m-2d-1. The CO2 fluxes had negative fluxes in day and positive during the day which was logical due to macrophyte respiration and photosynthesis mechanisms. Occasional daily positive fluxes were seen (only) during the rainy hours and there were no correlation between temperature and diel CO2 fluxes. The total net CO2 exchange was 2.8mmol m-2d-1 indicating that there was more CO2 release in the littoral zone of that lake. N2O fluxes did not show any clear diel or monthly pattern and the fluxes ranged between positive and negative numbers. The N2O fluxes did not exceed 2µmol m-2 d-1 with the total average flux of 0.8µmol m-2 d-1.

  • 35.
    Sultan, Zahid
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Agenda 21 As A Tool For Implementing An Improved Traffic Environment And Safety For Developing Countries, A Case Study of Faisalabad, Pakistan2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agenda 21 deals with the sustainability and sustainable transportation strategies are those that can meet the basic mobility needs of all and be sustained into the foreseeable future without destruction of our resource base. In the developing countries transportation is one of the main growing crisis. This crisis is the product of multiple forces, including the rapid pace of urbanisation and a mismatch between the supply of transportation infrastructure, services, and technologies and the mobility needs of the majority of the people, whose incomes are very low. Transportation development policies and investments in most developing countries are focused on encouraging motorization and are indifferent or hostile to low-cost, informal, nonmotorised transportation modes, despite the vital role they play in mobility for lower-income groups.

    My main focus in this study is Asian developing countries, one country – Pakistan – is selected as an example and 3rd largest city in Pakistan named Faisalabad is selected for detailed study. Transportation scenario and problems in this city are closely observed and studied which lead to interesting findings and facts. These include congestion index, loss in working hours, average speed, expenses and commuter satisfaction. Sustainable transportation and environmental problems are also studied for the City of Faisalabad, and recommendations made to improve them. It is finally inferred that there is an urgent need for comprehensive transportation planning, managing Kachi Abadies population, curbing private vehicle use and effectively facilitating the public transportation in the City of Faisalabad.

    Keywords: Sustainable Transportation; Agenda 21; Traffic Safety; Environmental Problem; Developing Countries; Transportation Problems in Faisalabad, Pakistan; Indicators of sustainability;

  • 36.
    van der Blom, Daan Wilhelmus
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aquaculture in Sweden: Sustainability of land-based recirculation aquaculture as a future alternative for Swedish fish farmers2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the world’s population expanding rapidly and estimated to reach nine billion in 2050, the demand for food will increase. Therefore the need for more sustainable ways of food production, in particular meat, poultry and fish are needed. Aquaculture can significantly contribute to this. This thesis focuses on Swedish aquaculture and in particular the increasingly used method of food fish farming in Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS).

    The aim of the thesis is to analyze and discern the possibilities and challenges of RAS in Sweden, with particular focus on Östergötland. Furthermore it examines if and how aquaculture can contribute to an economical, social and ecological more sustainable Swedish aquaculture sector. The methods used are semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and actors at different governmental levels and fish farmers, participation in stakeholder meetings and literature research. The results show that Swedish aquaculture has overtime developed a negative image among consumers, politicians, government officials and investors. Today Swedish aquaculture faces threats that need to be addressed and opportunities that should be taken. In order to succeed with RAS in Sweden solid business plans, conservative production/ profit estimates and marketing are essential. Feed sources remain a concern from an environmental and economical point of view. Lack of financing from banks, investors and insurance companies, threatens Swedish aquaculture sector at the moment. Furthermore a lack of knowledge and capacity among lower government levels negatively influences aquaculture developments and this needs attention. The Östergötland region should concentrate on RAS and mussel farming and has the potential to become an example for the rest of Sweden. Aquaculture positively contributes to regional and rural development of the Swedish-country side by job creation and stimulation of local economies which is important for Östergötland and applicable to other regions of Sweden.  

  • 37.
    Rockström, Rockström
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utveckling av ett verktyg för automatisk framtagning av konstruktionsunderlag för småskaligt vindkraftverk2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To produce design documentation for small-scale wind turbines as a common user is a time consuming process and professional help may be needed. A tool that automatically generates such documentation would result in significant time savings and since it can be used by individual persons. An internet based tool makes it possible for any user to explore the potential of building a small-scale wind turbine on the user’s own place, the only thing needed is an internet connection.

    The tool developed in this project allows the user to input the environment parameters and a desired energy output on a website and then automatically receives design documentation. The documentation contains the turbine sizing and information on how to construct the blades. The blades used in the model are cut out from a tube and earlier research at Linköping University has proved that these blades give good results. The same research also used a washing machine motor acting as generator to the turbine. Using such components do not provide the most optimal conditions, but is easy to construct. Important factors that have been kept in mind when developing the tool include: availability and ease of use. These were important since the tool will be available to a wide population of people where only basic knowledge at most should be required.

    There are many parameters that guide how a small-scale wind turbine is designed. The average wind speed and its distribution over time have the greatest importance, but also the terrain that the wind turbine will operate in. Parameters such as maximum building height and height of surrounding obstacles limit the values the design documentation can generate.

    Outputs of the tool are the required height of the wind turbine, how many blades are needed, length of blades, how the blades should be designed and whether it requires more than one wind turbine to meet the energy need. Other information supplied includes how much energy the wind turbine is able to generate (i.e. any excess) and wind speed at tower height. There is also the possibility that the tool shows an alternative design document. This alternative design is easier to construct, but requires that the user to reduce the energy need.

  • 38.
    Stenberg, Noomi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wik, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Action Naming Test (ANT) - Reanalys och normering av insamlade data i en population svenska vuxna2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have demonstrated a difference between the ability to name verbs and nouns in patients with brain injury and among control groups (Caramazza& Hills, 1991; Mätzig, Druks, Masterson &Vigliocco, 2009; Szekely et al., 2005). On the other hand,words explaining an activity are in some studies considered to be more demanding to interpret, which may be a contributing factor to the differences in the naming ability. (Liljeström et al., 2008; Mätzig et al., 2009).

    Action Naming Test (ANT) is a verb naming test designed by Obler and Albert 1979 (Barth Ramsay, Nicholas, Au, Obler & Albert, 1999), which was translated into Swedish andestablished to normative data by Lindahl and Oskarsson as part of a master’s thesis in Speech and Language Pathology (2011). In this study, some words generated severalincorrect responses and were considered as problematic;therefore, a re-analysis of the collected material was requested. The purpose of the present study was to make a new analysis of the collected data and develop new normative valuesfor ANT in a Swedish population of adults, without the problematic words.

    In order to investigate which wordsresulted in many incorrect responses and the reasons behind, a new review based on the model developed by Barth Ramsay and colleagues (1999)was madeof the 120 collected test protocols, as well as an analysis of the incorrect responses.Afterthisreview and analysis of the incorrect responses and the word’s frequency in Swedishwere made, twelve words were excluded. Comparison of results between three age groups (20-30 years, 31-65 years and 66-83 years), two levels of education (≤ 12 years and ≥ 13 years) and genders were made both before and after the removal of the twelve words. In both cases, significant differences were foundbetween the oldest age group and the two younger groups. Likewise,a significant difference between the two levels of educationremained. No significantgender differenceswere found.

    Throughthe analysis of incorrect responses,it appeared that many of them were due either to misinterpretation of the image, or to the very low frequency of use of the translated words. Words that were translated into verb phrases instead of independent verbs also resulted in difficulties. Several studies have shown that using a video instead of picture as stimuli simplifies verb naming (den Ouden, Fix, Parrish & Thompson, 2009; d’Honincthun & Pillon, 2005) because, then, the aspects of time and movement will not be lost. Since translating testsfrom other languages is complicated, designing a whole new Swedish verb naming test, where choice of stimuli is considered, is preferable.

  • 39.
    Moden Treichl, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    E-KOLL - Methods and tools to engage residents in energy saving2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth’s population is increasing at the same time as our resources are decreasing. More and more people are therefore realising the importance of a sustainable society. There are two main reasons. Firstly, energy as a scarce commodity is becoming more expensive every day. Secondly, we need to think long-term in order not to endanger life for future generations.

    The public landlord Hyresbostäder in Norrköping has set a target to decrease their energy consumption with 30 percent by 2030. This investment, in collaboration with Hyresgästföreningen, is called E-KOLL (E stands for energy and KOLL for awareness) and includes both internal and external work within the areas of Organisation, Economy and Behaviour. The last mentioned category deals with the importance of including and engaging the tenants to reach the energy goals of E-KOLL. To make this happen, Hyresbostäder has chosen to engage volunteer tenants, so called energyambassadors. Together with the district supervisor and representatives of Hyresgästföreningen they are going to work on a local level to include and engage the tenants.

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how this collaboration could function as well as the needs for creating a concept to inspire tenants to save energy. This was done with the help of field studies such as observations and focus group interviews. The result, which is based on a thematic analysis of the collected data, is a set of key factors that can be used in the creation of a concept to include the tenants in EKOLL.

    An essential key factor for the work of changing people’s behaviour in E-KOLL is to pinpoint who is in charge and define clear guidelines for the task. Co-operation of residents is also a key factor to make the communication and flow of information to work on a higher level. Therefore this should be a priority with the help of participatory workshops and more feedback in general.

    It should also be taken to consideration that the target group of E-KOLL, the tenants, is not just one target group but several. One important target group that’s not in the same position to absorb information is immigrants that don’t fully understand the Swedish language. Another important target group is children that have the power to influence other people in their surroundings.

  • 40.
    Tran, Vuong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhgren, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analys av kvalitet i en webbpanel: Studie av webbpanelsmedlemmarna och deras svarsmönster2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During 2012, the employer of this essay carried out a telephone survey with 18000 participants and a web panel survey with 708 participants. Those who partook in the telephone survey were given a choice to join the web panel. The purpose of this work is to study the participants of the telephone survey and see if they reflect the Swedish population with regards to several socio-demographic factors. Also, we intend to investigate if the propensity to join the web panel differs for participants of the telephone survey with regards to various socio-demographic affiliations. It is also of interest to study if the response pattern is different for participants of the telephone survey that would like to join the web panel and those who reject. A comparison of response pattern between the telephone survey and web panel survey has also been done, to see if there exist any differences for these two groups of surveys. The statistical methods used in this essay are descriptive statistics, multiple logistic regression and decision trees. Conclusions to be drawn with result from these methods are that the participants from the telephone survey do reflect the Swedish population regarding certain socio-demographic factors and that there is a slight difference in propensity to join the web panel for people which have dissimilar socio-demographic affiliation. It has also been found that there is a slight difference in response pattern for participants who would or would not like to join the web panel, as well as differences in response pattern also exist between the telephone survey and the web panel survey.

  • 41.
    Jansson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lokala skillnader i konsumtion av påväxtalger och terrestra löv hos en differentierad population av Asellus aquaticus2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    That ecological and evolutionary processes can take place on the same time scale is a recent insight. Today we also know that they are directly linked to each other. In the lake Tåkern, in year 2000, there was a structural change when phytoplankton declined and submerged vegetation, mainly stoneworts began to spread. This led to evolutionary changes in the aquatic sowbug, Asellus aquaticus which had previously been limited to the reed, most likely feeding on detritus. But then, sowbugs could exploit the new habitat in stoneworts and a new food resource in terms of periphyton. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the differentiation of the populations has led to specialization in the ecological roles of sowbugs as shredder of coarse detritus and grazer of periphyton. The study was a laboratory experiment in which groups of sowbugs were feeding on decomposing alder (Alnus glutinosa) leaves or periphyton growing on tiles. The results showed that there was no specialization in the habitat-specific food. However, reed animals had a greater (31 %) grazing effect than the stonewort animal on periphyton. There was also a non-significant tendency for reed animals to consume more leaves than the stonewort animals. The conclusion is that the different populations are not different in their functional roles, but the reed animals consume approximate 25 % more food than the stonewort animals, possibly because of higher activity.

  • 42.
    Alriksson, Felicia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Individuell tillväxt och substratval hos en lokalt differentierad population av Asellus aquaticus2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Local differentiation may occur during a short period of time and is part of the formation of new species. The isopod Asellus aquaticus is an example of a species in which local adaptation has occurred during a short period of time. An establishment of stonewort (Chara spp.) vegetation in Lake Tåkern (in the 2000) resulted in two different Asellus ecotypes; a lighter pigmented, smaller one that lives among stoneworts grazing periphytic algae, and a darker, larger ecotype that feeds on decaying leaves in reed (Phragmites australis vegetation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are differences in growth between ecotypes, depending on whether the food was periphytic algae or leaves, and to study the choice of substrates between the two food types. For the study, animals from both habitats were brought in from Lake Tåkern to the laboratory. I found that both the reed and the stonewort animals grew better when feeding on periphytic algae than on leaves, but that there was no difference in weight gain between the two ecotypes. There was no indication that the animals preferred any of the substrates. Results suggest that despite earlier noted differences in behavior, size and pigmentation (which differentiation had brought), there is no evidence that Asellus aquaticus has adapted to feed on plant matter prevailing in their original habitat. The animals grew better when the food was algae maybe due to that the algae, as previous studies show, are easier assimilated, whereas Asellus has to eat a larger amount of leaves to reach the same energy intake.

  • 43.
    Agbesola, Yetunde
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sustainability of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Nigeria: A Case Study of Lagos2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Waste generation is an unavoidable product of man’s activities, however, sustainable management of such waste is a challenge faced in many countries today. Nigeria, a developing country in Africa, has been in a quandary of how to efficiently manage the municipal solid waste its population generates. Many states in the country lack adequate plans and infrastructure required for efficient and sustainable management of municipal solid waste. For Lagos, the most populous and popular state in Nigeria, the problem is further compounded by its rather large and still increasing population. In this research, Lagos is taken as a case study; the extant trend for solid waste handling in households, trends in the formal and informal sector as regards solid waste management from household collection to final disposal are focused upon. Many countries, particularly the developed ones, have employed options in the waste management hierarchy for sustainable management of their municipal solid waste and the blend of options employed is usually highly dependent on local factors. Following the waste management hierarchy, possible options for sustainable municipal solid waste management in Lagos are discussed. It is concluded that waste reduction, reuse, recycling and composting are potential management options for the state. Landfilling will remain an important option for final disposal but reliance on this method could be significantly reduced if management options are exploited to the maximum in a sustainable solid waste management structure.

     

  • 44.
    Kristiansson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tavakoli, Peyman
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    GIS-based analysis of transit accessibility. Case study: Extension of the tramway in Norrköpings municipality.2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this Master Thesis is to analyse the consequences of accessibility for the public transportation for the inhabitants in Norrköpings municipality when a new tramway to Ringdansen is built. The purpose of this Master Thesis is also to evaluate the software addition, Network Analyst, from a public transportation planner’s point of view.

    Three network models have been created and studied. The network models were created in a program that handles Geographical information systems.

    • Network model 1 represents the net of the public transportation as it looks today, and is mainly created for comparison with the other models that have been created.

    • Network model 2 represents the net of the public transportation as it looks today with the difference that bus line 113 has been removed, and the tramway to Ringdansen has been added.

    • In network model 3 the bus line 113 has been removed and the tramway to Ringdansen has been added. Kungsgatan that normally is operated by bus line 113 is in these network model replaced by bus line 117. In this network model bus line 118 has a better trip interval; the trip interval is set to 10 minutes. Three separate studies have been conducted:

    The first study was an accessibility analysis based on buffer zones and polygons. Buffer zones were created around all stops with a radius of 400 meter. The radius of 400 meters represents the maximum distance that a traveller should have to the nearest stop so that the accessibility to the stop is good. The result of this analyse shows how much of Norrköping´s population are either inside or outside the 400 meter zones.

    The problems with buffer zones are that they are not based on real distances. With the function New Service Area, polygons were created around the stops instead. These polygons are based on real distances. The second study was an accessibility analysis based on travel times. This study was also created with New Service Area in Network Analyst. From the points Ringdansen and Hageby travel time polygons was created with the time intervals 5, 10, 15, 30 and 45 minutes.

    The third study is also based on travel times. This study was created with the function New Route in Network Analyst. Travel times from Hageby and Ringdansen to a couple of points was calculated.

    The total travel time that was calculated from each starting point has been summarized and divided with the total amount of end points. This calculation results in an accessibility index. This index represents a mean travel time from every starting points to all the ending points. Further is this index compared between all the network models to se if the travel times have increased or decreased. The result of these three studies in all network models were compared with each other. The conclusion of the fist study shows that a bigger part of the population that lives in the area from Söder Tull to Ringdansen have 400 meter or smaller distance to the nearest stop in the two network models when the tramway to Ringdansen was included.

    The result of the second and the third study shows that the total travel times in network model 2 and 3 have increased. The study also shows that the travel times have increased more in network model 2 than in network model 3.

    All the studies also showed that the differences in accessibility of the public transportation for the inhabitants in Norrköpings municipality between the three models were wery small.

    The analysis tools that are available in Network Analyst are indeed helpful in the work area of a public transport planner. The main reason is the new multi module traffic network, which allows the user to manage different means of transportation. This improvement is only available in the new version of Network Analyst.

  • 45.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Audiovisual presentation supports cognitive processing of information heard in modulated noise2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cognitive spare capacity test (CSCT) assesses the ability to process heard information stored in working memory. This is important because listening that is effortful, due to noise or hearing impairment, consumes cognitive resources leaving less capacity available for further processing. The CSCT pinpoints the effects of modality of presentation (Audiovisual, Audio-only); memory load (High, Low) and different kinds of executive processing demands (Updating, Inhibition). In the present study, 24 participants with mild to moderate hearing loss performed CSCT with amplification in quiet, in steady-state noise at an individually adapted signal to noise ratio (SNR) rendering intelligibility of ~95% and in modulated noise (International Speech Test Signal; ISTS) at the same SNR. An independent battery of cognitive tests was also administered. Analysis of variance showed main effects of all factors, including better performance with Audiovisual than Audio-only modality. However, a significant interaction revealed that the Audiovisual benefit was most prominent in ISTS. The benefit of Audiovisual presentation over Audio-only presentation correlated with the independent measure of working memory capacity. The pattern of results suggests that for the hearing impaired population, Audiovisual presentation supports cognitive processing of information heard in modulated noise and that the magnitude of this benefit is related to working memory capacity.

  • 46.
    Carlsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Skillnader i mulmvolymer mellan fem trädslag i Östergötlands eklandskap2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Old hollow trees of oak contain a large amount of wood mould. Unfortunately, these trees have in the last century been greatly reduced in numbers. It has resulted in that species that depend on these habitats, saproxylic species, have become at risk to decrease in numbers or die out regionally. Previous studies have shown that the volume of wood mould is an important factor for occurrence and population size of saproxylic organisms. The aim of the present study was to examine how the volume of wood mould varies among ash (Fraxinus excelsior), lime (Tilia sp.), maple (Acer platanoides), aspen (Populus tremula) and oak (Quercus robur). The measurements were wood mould depth, internal cavity diameter, internal cavity height, circumference, and if white or brown rot was the dominating mould fungus. In total 23 ashes, 20 limes, 24 maples, 24 aspens and 21 oaks in the vicinity of Motala (Östergötland) were measured. The results show that there were significant differences between tree species concerning the volumes of wood mould. The oak accommodated larger volumes than the other species. The ash, however, had a larger volume than oak at the same circumference. The study shows ash could be a complement to the oak in conservation plans. Since the ash generally holds a larger volume then the oak at the same circumference, this implies the possibility that the ash can be suitable for saproxylic organisms at an earlier stage. In the isolated fragments of the landscape the possibility for survival may then increase for species that are dependent of these habitats.

  • 47.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Förändringen av tall- och granbestånden i eklandskapet söder om Linköping, 1927 jämfört med 20132013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to compare how the population of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) have changed between 1927 and 2013 in the oak landscape south of Linköping. A field study was carried out in 22 two kilometre lines which also had been studied in 1927. In these lines, which where ten meters broad and had a direction from west to east, the pines and spruces were counted, measured and classified by steam diameter. The obtained result was that the basal steam area (m²/ha) had increased for pine (44%) and spruce (57%) between 1927 and 2013. The amount of trees had increased in all diameter classes except thinner pine and spruce with a diameter of 5-10cm. The increase for pine in the three largest diameters (35-40cm, 40-45cm and >45cm) was 34%, 96% and 297%, respectively, and for spruce 221%, 508% och 400%. The reason why young pine had decreased since 1927 can be increased browsing by moose (Alces alces), a decline in natural rejuvenation, or the large-scale change in forest management since 1927.

  • 48.
    Dodd, Jocelyn
    et al.
    School of Museum Studies, University of Leicester, UK.
    Jones, Ceri
    School of Museum Studies, University of Leicester, UK.
    Sawyer, Andy
    School of Museum Studies, University of Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Tseliou, Marie-Anna
    School of Museum Studies, University of Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Voices from the Museum: Qualitative Research Conducted in Europe's National Museums2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the findings from interviews and focus groups carried out at six European national museums with visitors and minority groups. It looks at the connections that can be made between national, European and minority identities and how these frame very different experiences of the national museum. Whilst visitors were, on the whole, convinced that national museums represented a shared, collective identity, the inclusion of minority groups in the research revealed a discernible dissonance between the majority of visitor’s views and the views of minority groups. Despite collectively forming a substantial section of the European population, minority experiences were largely absent from national museums, a situation that is rarely recognised by museum visitors. Personal and national identity was especially complex and important to minorities because they were constantly negotiating their relationship with the dominant culture, but the silence in national museums and lack of recognition of their contribution to national society only confirmed their status as “Other” when they wanted to belong.

    In response, this study calls on national museums to be more conscious of unheard voices and experiences, and be more actively aware that national and European identity is continually evolving, fluid and dynamic. The challenge for national museums is to embrace these elements and to become places of dialogue not didacticism, of exploration not certainty, and of inclusion not silence. National museums are valued as important and authoritative institutions by their visitors but they need to harness this authority more responsibly and proactively if they are to enhance national and European understanding.

    The report is produced within the three-year research programme, EuNaMus – European National Museums: Identity Politics, the Uses of the Past and the European Citizen, coordinated at Tema Q at Linköping University (www.eunamus.eu). EuNaMus explores the creation and power of the heritage created and presented at European national museums to the world, Europe and its states, as an unsurpassable institution in contemporary society. National museums are defined and explored as processes of institutionalized negotiations where material collections and displays make claims and are recognized as articulating and representing national values and realities. Questions asked in the project are why, by whom, when, with what material, with what result and future possibilities are these museums shaped.

  • 49.
    Christoffersson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Distribution of Sca-1+ cardiac progenitor cells in the healthy and the post-MI heart2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death in the world today. Accumulated atherosclerotic plaque occluding cardiac blood vessels results in a lack of oxygen supply to parts of the heart, and consequentially the death cardiomyocytes. The damaged area is replaced by scar tissue because of the heart’s insufficient regenerative capability, and the contraction property of the post-MI heart is therefore compromised. The recent findings of an endogenous cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) population gives hope for the establishment of new methods for medical treatments of the post-MI heart. Compared to other stem/progenitor cell sources, the CPCs are committed to a cardiac fate which places them in the forefront of interesting cell sources for regenerative treatments. In this thesis, the distribution of stem cell antigen 1 (Sca-1) positive CPCs in the healthy mouse myocardium, as well as the healthy and post-MI rat left ventricle was determined and compared to the total amount of nuclei. An immunohistochemistry protocol for the detection of Sca-1+ cells was established, and the number of Sca-1+ cells and the total number of nuclei in the different mouse and rat tissue samples were counted using laser scanning cytometry (LSC). The results could conclude a significantly higher distribution of Sca-1+ cells in the mouse atrium compared to the mouse ventricle, and a significantly higher distribution of Sca-1+ cells in the 8 days post-MI rat left ventricle compared to the healthy rat left ventricle. Furthermore, a heterogeneous distribution within the 8 days post-MI rat left ventricle was observed.

  • 50.
    Graflund, Marianne
    et al.
    Department of Gynecological Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro.
    Sorbe, B.
    Department of Gynecological Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro.
    Bryne, M.
    Department of Pathology, Institute of Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Karlsson, M.
    Department of Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro.
    The prognostic value of a histologic grading system, DNA profile, and MIB-1 expression in early stages of cervical squamous cell carcinomas2002In: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, ISSN 1048-891X, E-ISSN 1525-1438, Vol. 12, no 2, 149-157 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the prognostic importance of a new grading system focusing on the invasive tumor front, DNA profile, and the proliferation marker MIB-1. A complete geographic series of 172 women treated with radical hysterectomy (Wertheim–Meigs) for FIGO stage I–II cervical carcinomas was the target population. The analyses were performed on 141 (82%) squamous cell carcinomas of the complete series. During the period of observation (mean 222 months), 17 recurrences (12.1%) were encountered. Prognostic factors for disease-free survival were lymph node status (P < 0.000001), radical surgical margins (P = 0.00004), and tumor size (P = 0.002). The complete score of the invasive front grading system (IFG), and the individual scores of two variables—pattern of invasion and host response—were all significantly (P = 0.002, P = 0.007, P = 0.0001) associated with pelvic lymph node metastases. Host response was the single most important factor in the IFG system, and it was superior to the complete score in predicting lymph node metastases. The total IFG score was also a significant (P = 0.003) prognostic factor for disease-free survival. DNA ploidy, S-phase fraction, and MIB-1 expression were nonsignificant factors in predicting pelvic lymph node metastases and disease-free survival of the patient. The IFG in the original or modified versions could predict low- and high-risk groups of tumors and therefore be of value in treatment planning for these patients.

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