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  • 1.
    Karelid, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Image Enhancement over a Sequence of Images2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master Thesis has been conducted at the National Laboratory of Forensic Science (SKL) in Linköping. When images that are to be analyzed at SKL, presenting an interesting object, are of bad quality there may be a need to enhance them. If several images with the object are available, the total amount of information can be used in order to estimate one single enhanced image. A program to do this has been developed by studying methods for image registration and high resolution image estimation. Tests of important parts of the procedure have been conducted. The final results are satisfying and the key to a good high resolution image seems to be the precision of the image registration. Improvements of this part may lead to even better results. More suggestions for further improvementshave been proposed.

  • 2.
    Månsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Implementering av TPU: En fallstudie om implementeringen av TPU på ABB Cewe-Control i Nyköping2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    If Swedish companies are to compete with companies in low-cost countries they have to achieve a more efficient production. The purpose of Total Productivity Maintenance (TPM) is to increase the company's profitability by increasing the productivity. TPM is a method that involves all employees and aims to prevent failures in order to increase the availability of existing equipment.

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the implementation process of TPM and give recommendations for the further implementation process. The conclusion and the analysis are based on a case study done at a production department at ABB Cewe-Controls facilities in Nyköping. The case study consists mainly of qualitative data from participation observations, surveys and interviews.

    Commitment of the management is a key factor in the implementation process of TPM. The management of ABB Cewe-Control need to demonstrate their commitment in order for a change to happen. The case study shows that the commitment of both employee and management must be raised if the implementation process is to be successful. To avoid unnecessary conflicts or irritation in the further implementation process it is important to clarify responsibilities and roles in the implementation of TPU.

    The case study has also shown that the training during the implementation process has not been sufficient. Proper training is needed to be able to conduct the implementation process of TPM in an effective manner. Proper training is also needed to raise the motivation of the staff.

    Business Development is ABB’s methodology for the improvement work in the company. Business Development is a well-known concept in the organisation and has a well-defined connection with the company's strategic objectives. Because of this there is no reason why the improvement work and how it has been done should change. Business Development is a good foundation for the implementation of TPM and the improvement work in the future.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kvalitetsprocesser för Lagring och Distribution av Livsmedel på Schenker Coldsped2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to make plans for how Schenker Coldsped should act to meet customer demands, in this case from Burger King, for the use of EFSIS standards (European Food Safety Inspection Service).

    EFSIS offers independent third party inspection services specially designed for food, beverage and related industries. The standard Schenker Coldsped aims to certify to is the

    EFSIS technical standard for the storage and distribution of foodstuffs. Coldsped is a part of Schenker Sverige AB. The company offers total solutions for transportation and storage of refrigerated and frozen products all over Europe. Coldsped has a total of 800 refrigerated vehicles and also offer storage of refrigerated and frozen products as well as product refinement such as preparation, thawing, sawing, packaging and labelling.

    To be allowed to handle foodstuffs, companies in Sweden are obligated to enact selfregulation applicable to their line of business. This supervision shall include a HACCPplan, which is a system for identifying, assessing and controlling risks of importance to food safety.

    By introducing the EFSIS technical standard for the storage and distribution of foodstuffs at Coldsped establishments, routines and knowledge will be documented. Consequently staff knowledge will be incorporated in the company’s ISO9001:2000 system, Isopeq, as well as being available in files in the corresponding department. A first step towards the implementation of EFSIS is the decision to incorporate the HACCP-plan into Isopeq, the company’s quality system.

    Advantages of working to the EFSIS technical standards are:

    •A safer handling of foodstuffs

    •More documented systems

    •A more effective organisation

    •A more effective and clear communication with new customers

    •Increased competitiveness My recommendation is to implement changes in line with my plan. This calls for:

    • Investment in existing plants

    •Personnel resources for the process

    •Planning the implementation in detail by coordinating resources

    •Join the CIES (an independent network for companies handling food) for benchmarking

  • 4.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kliniskt datainsamlingssystem med beslutsstöd - Användarutredning och gränssnitt för Sahlgrenskas akutintag2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Extra high requirements are made on all systems in health care that they are functional and usable,´something, however, that is not always the case. At Emergency Admissions at Sahlgrenska University´Hospital many systems are in use at the same time and it happens that much overhead is caused by having to fill in the same information in different places. In addition, data that is gathered is to a large extent saved in free text format, which means that it cannot be used in a larger context such as research, quality control or for decision support. Data is saved in the patient file only for the treatment process of the individual patient.

    A data collecting system with decision support functionality could be a first step towards reducing Emergency Admissions’ costs and patients’ waiting times by providing a structured method of data collection. It is also possible that it could contribute to safer care for patients as the system could warn the staff on occasions where there may be a risk of a patient suffering from a serious, acute illness that might be difficult to diagnose.

    An analysis has been performed at Emergency Admissions at Sahlgrenska to distinguish possible users of a new system for collecting data with decision support. The results showed that the nurses in reception were the most suitable target group.

    A prototype of a user interface for gathering initial patient data at reception has been made at Emergency Admissions at Sahlgrenska. This prototype has decision support functionality for ranking the most probable diagnoses as well as providing advice on suitable tests and examinations to perform. The focus has been on usability and on adapting the system to the needs of the users.

    It is highly important that future users, the staff at Emergency Admissions, continue to participate in the future further development of the data gathering system so that their needs and requirements are not overshadowed by the new technology.

  • 5.
    Jaque, Cassandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kromatografi av polära läkemedel och metaboliter med HILIC-teknik2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to investigate if retention of polar compounds that are given to treat tuberculosis, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and childhood leukemia could be obtained with HILIC separation. By varying different parameters for different types of columns the compounds were analyzed with the aim of finding guidelines for future method optimizations. To perform these analyzes three different columns were tested – ZIC-HILIC (silica-based with zwitterions), ZIC-pHILIC (polymer-based with zwitterions) and XBridge Amide (amide functions). The results were evaluated with selected quality measures. The parameters being varied were pH, temperature, flow rate, type of buffer and ionic strength. In addition, comparisons between isocratic and gradient separations were performed.

     

    Over 1 000 analyzes were conducted in which retention of 16 of total 18 substances were successfully obtained with HILIC. The columns that generated the best results in terms of greatest number of identified compounds were ZIC-HILIC and XBridge Amide. ZIC-pHILIC offered a wide pH range but generally gave inferior chromatography. The influence of the different parameters on the results has not been investigated in sufficient scope. This means that no specific methods for the different drug groups can be reported.

  • 6.
    Colakovic, Aida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att mäta kvalitet vid offentliga tjänsteupphandlingar: Hur kompetens och erfarenhet kan utvärderas samt vilka faktorer som ska beaktas vid utformning av proportionerliga och transparenta tilldelningskriterier2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tjänstekvalitet är ett omdiskuterat begrepp inom den offentliga upphandlingssektorn. Även om många upphandlande myndigheter understryker vikten av god kvalitet vid en tjänsteupphandling upplever de ändå svårigheter med att definiera kvalitet samt utforma och ställa krav i tydliga, relevanta och mätbara kriterier. Uppsatsen behandlar hur kvalitet kan mätas vid offentliga tjänsteupphandlingar. Det utreds hur kompetens och erfarenhet kan utvärderas samt vilka faktorer som ska beaktas för att utforma proportionerliga och transparenta utvärderingskriterier. Inledningsvis sker en redogörelse för faser i upphandlingsprocessen som är av vikt för upphandling av kvalitet och därefter utreds begreppet tjänstekvalitet. Kvalitet som upphandlingskriterium, dess problem, praxis vid referenstagning samt olika tillvägagångssätt för att mäta kvalitet redogörs även.Slutsatsen som kan dras av uppsatsens analys är att kvalitet kan mätas på ett flertal olika sätt men att det finns ett antal aspekter som den upphandlande myndigheten bör beakta. Praxis kring referenstagning i utvärderingsfasen visar på att det finns en tydlig distinktion bland landets kammarrätter avseende tolkningen av Lianakis-domen. När referenstagning används som ett utvärderingskriterium ska en grundlig genomgång göras över vilka kriterier som kan leda till ett mervärde för tjänsten. Beställaren ska utforma genomtänkta kriterier som tydligt påvisar hur väl leverantören kan utföra uppdraget. Beställaren bör alltid behålla kontrollen över referenstagning. Dessutom ska beställaren aldrig formulera flera kriterier i en och samma referensfråga. Erfarenhet bör även alltid sättas i tjänstens kontext, och det är där bör-kraven kan ha avgörande roll. Den upphandlande myndigheten ska även vara tydlig i sin poäng/betygssättning av referenstagning och bör-krav. Varje poängnivå ska ha en beteckning, och en beskrivning över vilka kriterier som genererar en viss poängsats ska även finnas med i förfrågningsunderlaget. Intervjuer är ett utvärderingskriterium som kan ge svar på frågor som beställaren aldrig kan få genom referenstagning. Turordningslistor som har förespråkats för att minska antalet intervjuobjekt är dock inte alltid fullt så tillämpbara. Incitament/bonus och viten kopplade till kundnöjdhet och tvåkuvertsystem är modeller som kan underlätta för myndigheter att prioritera och beakta kvalitet i högre mån. Kvalitetsuppföljning bör markeras tidigt i upphandlingsprocessen och utgöra ett ska-krav. Den upphandlande myndigheten ska inte heller begränsa antalet utvärderingskriterier i tron om att fler kriterier kan leda till en osäkrare bedömning. Det är beställarens kunskaper kring utvärderingsprocessen som är avgörande. Fler och avgränsade kriterier kan i många fall gynna en upphandling.

  • 7.
    Ardi, Sonay
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Quality of Life of Elderly People in Iran: With Sevice Design Approach2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the aging world of today, more attentions are grabbed towards studies on elderly. New facilities and technologies are emerged to serve to the elderly, maketheir life easier, better and more useful. Having participated in a study on thequality of life of the elderly in Europe, it was aimed to run a similar project toresearch the quality of life of the elderly in a Non-EU country. This was donethrough the research questions “What is the quality of life for them?” and “Howa designer, focused on service design, can improve their quality of life?”The knowledge for the study was obtained from fields Quality of Life of ElderlyPeople, Service Design, Service Design Process, and Qualitative Research. As thekey country for this study, Iran was chosen. Study on the target group in thiscountry was done through Cultural Probes and in analyzing the probes, Processfor Empathy in Design was used. To visualize the results of the target group study,Affinity Diagrams and Personas were drawn.The result was designing a service for the target group, which is presented byConcept Scenario, Storyboards, System Maps and Blueprints. In this concept,called “Virtual Family”, the personas are encouraged to be members of a networkwhich is supported by an organization/community in terms of health, social life,leisure activities and educational programs. This network is forming a virtualfamily regarding the traditional values and ethics which are important for thisage group. Additionally it supports them with entertainment and educationalprograms. Later on, the service concept was evaluated by a number of people inthe same age and social group of the target group. Evaluators found the conceptan excellent complement for mentioned target group who are on the verge oflosing their family and social structure, but the organizational system of the contextcountry should be studied to know if it is planning is practical in that context.

  • 8.
    Nygårds, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Importance of habitat quality and landscape factors for a monophagous shield bug on a rare host plant2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the factors affecting species distribution and at what scale a species respond to these factors is a major challenge in conservation biology. I studied the distribution and abundance of a monophagous shield bug Canthophorus impressus at three spatial scales: host plants, patches and circular landscapes (area ca. 3 km2), to determine the relative importance of the different spatial scales and how habitat quality, amount and spatial configuration affect the distribution of C. impressus. Influence of habitat characteristics on occurrence and abundance of the bug was analysed with separate generalised linear mixed models. The data show that effects of habitat quality and amount dominate over configuration in determining the distribution of C. impressus. The bug prefers large host plants in warm conditions on a plant scale and abundant host plants in a landscape scale, whereas patch scale was not important for the distribution of the bug. Management should aim to preserve sites with abundant host plants and promote large host plants with low to moderate grazing. To secure sufficient number of host plants in the landscape, high densities of suitable habitat such as semi-natural grasslands should be preserved. This study suggests that analyses of multiple spatial scales are crucial for identifying appropriate actions for successful conservation of species living in fragmented habitats.

  • 9.
    Musimiire, Angela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Chakhnashvili, Maka
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Product Adaptation to Different Markets through Technology Innovation2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aim: Markets are getting increasingly complex, competitive and changing. A firm’s ability to respond to environmental challenges is a significant factor for its survival and success. To establish itself in the market, a company needs to adjust the product in a way that meets the expectations and required quality of the target market in other words, make relevant product adaptations. Many aspects of product adaptation have been discussed in the literature ranging from small changes in the product such as specification or design to modifying a company’s market strategy depending on which stage the product is in its life cycle. Technology innovation can enable a firm keep the market share and retain customers especially in a mature and technology driven industry where the market is saturated and consumers diffuse to competitors who easily copy the product. However, the role of technology innovation to adapt a product in the growth stage to mature markets is missing from the present literature. This present thesis will investigate the role of technology innovation in product adaptation and the factors to consider thereof the Swedish high tech company Saab will be used as the case study.

    Methodology: Research method for the present thesis includes the qualitative approach with the case study design. For the purposes of this thesis the Swedish high-tech company Saab will be studied to explore the practices of adapting product (field hospital) to different markets.

    Completion and results: Result of the study showed that there are similarities and differences between what literature provides and Saab does to adapt a product in markets. Analyzing the theory and practice recommendations for Saab were concluded. Suggestions drown for Saab can be useful for other high technology companies as well.

  • 10.
    Åman, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Joakim, Behrendtz
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Anestesipersonalens peri-operativa omvårdnad av överviktiga och obesa barn2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children are a group of patients that require special knowledge from the anesthesia staff, both general and specific. Theoretical knowledge and practical experience is necessary to adequately care for the child as it anatomically, physiologically and mentally may differ from adult patients.

    A growing problem in the pediatric population is overweight and obesity. From a stagnation in the early 2000s the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in the world are again increasing.The purpose of this study was to examine peri-operative care of overweight and obese children.

    Systematic searches were done in PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus. After the quality audit according to SBU, twelve articles were included for analysis.

    Results suggest that overweight and obese children have a higher risk of respiratory peri-operative complications. The risk of hospital admission after outpatient surgery was also greater in this group as well as higher costs for health care.

    Overweight and obese children are complex subjects with more frequent peri-operative risk factors than normal-weight children. This group requires special knowledge of the anesthesia staff. More studies are required to secure evidence in anesthetic care for overweight and obese children.

  • 11.
    Horkeby, Filip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Melanie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Quality Assurance of Pressure Equipment Materials and Steelwork2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Kvalitetskraven i samhället blir allt högre och det blir allt tuffare för producenterna att hålla de kvalitetskrav som krävs av kund, men också att uppnå de kvalitetsdirektiv som finns i EU idag. Det finns idag en mängd olika definitioner på vad kvalitet är och hur kvaliteten ska uppnås. EU kräver att alla produkter ska ha CE-märkning, vilket är en försäkring om att produkterna håller den kvalitet som definierad av EU’s lagstiftning. För att möta de krav som finns på kvalitet idag undersöker Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB om deras leverantörer följer de direktiv som krävs för tryckbärande anordningar. För att materialen i de tryckbärande anordningarna ska vara godkända krävs det att ståltillverkaren är godkänd för tillverkningen. Ståltillverkaren ska kunna bekräfta godkännandet genom att uppvisa ett så kallat PED certifikat (Pressure Equipment Directive, 97/23/EC).

  • 12.
    Carlander, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Att bygga bostäder enligt miljöbyggnadskrav: En fallstudie i området Nya Wahlbecks2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and resource efficiency is an important part in moving towards a sustainable society. In the year 2013, the total energy use in Sweden was 563 TWh and approximately 26 % of the energy was used in the residential and service sector. Within the residential and service sector, nearly 60 % of the used energy is for heating (Energimyndigheten, 2015). The construction of energy efficient buildings is a central part in creating a sustainable society and Nya Wahlbecks is supposed to become a city district which will show that it is possible to increase growth, quality of life and well-being and at the same time decrease the use of non recyclable and non reusable resources.The primary purpose of this master thesis has been to generate suggestions on how to design the residential buildings in the new city district Nya Wahlbecks, which will be built in east Valla in Linköping, so they can be certified in accordance to the environmental certification system Miljöbyggnad. Besides the primary purpose an investigation on how much electricity that can be generated with photovoltaic and how much energy that can be saved by the use of solar heating panels, has also been conducted. Finally a comparison in emissions of CO2-eqvivalents between a building that just meets the criteria´s of Boverkets Byggregler (BBR) and the generated building models was done.The results which the case study has generated, clearly shows that it is possible to build the new residential buildings in Nya Wahlbecks so that they will meet the different criteria’s for grade Silver and Guld from Miljöbyggnad. The requirements from Miljöbyggnad aim to have as low energy use as possible at the same time as a good indoor climate is kept. These two factors can be contradictions to one another, as for instance low energy use can be reached by having thicker insulation, but thicker insulation often results in higher indoor temperature which can then lead to deterioration in indoor climate. The investigations of energy use and indoor climate were conducted through simulations in the building-simulation program IDA-ICE, where several optimizations were done for different parameters to finally meet the requirements from Miljöbyggnad. Simulations with solar panels for heating and generation of electricity were also conducted with IDA-ICE. The results of the study shows that nearly 60 % of the used electricity in the project building can be generated from photovoltaic panels placed on the roof of the building. About 9 % of the buildings heating energy can be produced with solar panels placed in the same way as the photovoltaic ones. When it comes to emissions of CO2-eqvivalents there would be a difference in approximately 19 tons, which is equivalent to about 30 %, if the building meets the requirements of Miljöbyggnad Silver instead of just meeting BBR´s requirements.

  • 13.
    Svensson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Outsourcing och backsourcing av IT-lösningar: Utveckling och bakomliggande faktorer2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Outsourcing, that is to say when an organization's services or products within a function or an activity are being contracted out to an external vendor, became increasingly noticeable during the 1990s. The trend has grown to represent the norm in today’s society and nowadays organizations outsource operations ranging from the management of information technology (IT) to whole functions. The outsourcing of IT is considered to be a growing and increasingly global phenomenon. However, problems with an outsourcing agreement or changes in a company's business situation can lead to backsourcing, a concept meaning that an organization chooses to bring back and re-implement activities within its own operations. Decisions regarding the outsourcing of IT solutions have been a central aspect in both research and practice while the decision to change supplier or backsource has received relatively little attention. Nevertheless, the drivers of backsourcing constitute an equally relevant topic to study. Hence, the aim of this study is to identify the motives underlying an organization’s decision to outsource, as well as backsource, IT related activities and functions and to examine how the conditions that applied when making the decision to outsource can change during an outsourcing process. 

    I have conducted a qualitative study where a case study design has been applied. A number of organizations that use IT and IT solutions in their day-to-day operations have been studied where the organizations previously have backsourced and/or now find themselves in the process of bringing back their IT. A literature review has been conducted and empirical data has been collected through the use of semi-structured interviews. In the analysis, the empirical data has been analyzed in relation to previous research regarding (1) outsourcing and (2) backsourcing. 

    The results of this study show that reasons and motives that can result in a firm's decision to outsource its IT include the possibility of achieving cost reductions, a greater flexibility and the possibility of gaining access to expertise. Examples of changes that can occur during an outsourcing process are within the management since the replacement of an organization’s management can bring new opinions and attitudes towards the firm’s sourcing strategy. The importance of IT to the operations can also change during an outsourcing process. Furthermore, a number of underlying factors that may affect an organization’s decision to backsource its IT have been identified. Examples of factors are that the outsourcing has resulted in no overall cost savings and that there’s a lack of compliance with the contract regarding, for example, the quality of the services being delivered.

  • 14.
    Antunez de Mayolo, Eduardo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Study of the Optical Properties of sp2-Hybridized Boron Nitride2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nitride-based semiconductor materials make it possible to fabricate optoelectronic devices that operate in the whole electromagnetic range, since the band gaps of these compounds can be modified by doping. Among these materials, the sp2-hybridized boron nitride has properties that make it a potential candidate for integration in devices operating in the short-wavelength limit, under harsh environment conditions, due to the strength of the B-N bond.  Nevertheless, this binary compound has been the less studied material among the nitrides, due to the lack of complete control on the growth process.

    This thesis is focused on the study of the optical properties of sp2-hybridized boron nitride grown by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, at the Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, at Linköping University, Sweden. The samples received for this study were grown on c-plane aluminum nitride as the buffer layer, which in turn was grown by nitridation on c- plane oriented sapphire, as the substrate material. The first objective of the research presented in this thesis was the development of a suitable ellipsometry model in a spectral region ranging from the infrared to the ultraviolet zones of the electromagnetic spectrum, with the aim of obtaining in the process optical properties such as the index of refraction, the energy of the fundamental electronic interband transition, the frequencies for the optical vibrational modes of the crystal lattice, as well as their broadenings, and the numerical values of the dielectric constants; and on the other hand, structural parameters such as the layers thicknesses, and examine the possibility of the presence of roughness or porosity on the boron nitride layer, which may affect the optical properties, by incorporating their effects into the model. The determination of these parameters, and their relation with the growth process, is important for the future adequate design of heterostructure-based devices that incorporate this material. In particular, emphasis has been put on the modeling of the polar lattice resonance contributions, with the TO- LO model, by using infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry as the characterization technique to study the phonon behavior, in the aforementioned spectral region, of the boron nitride. On the other hand, spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible-ultraviolet spectral range was used to study the behavior of the material, by combining a Cauchy model, including an Urbach tail for the absorption edge, and a Lorentz oscillator in order to account for the absorption in the material in the UV zone. This first step on the research project was carried out at Linköping University. 

    The second objective in the research project was to carry out additional studies on the samples received, in order to complement the information provided by the ellipsometry model and to improve the model itself, provided that it was possible. The characterization techniques used were X-ray diffraction, which made it possible to confirm that in fact boron nitride was present in the samples studied, and made it possible to verify the crystalline quality of the aforementioned samples, and in turn relate it to the quality of the ellipsometry spectra previously obtained; the Raman spectroscopy made it possible to further verify and compare the crystalline qualities of the samples received, as well as to obtain the frequency for the Raman active B-N stretching vibration in the basal plane, and to compare this value with that corresponding to the bulk sp2-boron nitride; scanning electron microscopy made it possible to observe the rough surface morphologies of the samples and thus relate them to some of the conclusions derived from the ellipsometry model; and finally cathodoluminescence measurements carried out at low temperature (4 K) allowed to obtain a broad band emission, on all the samples studied, which could be related to native defects inside the boron nitride layers, i.e., boron vacancies. Nevertheless, no trace of a free carrier recombination was observed. Considering that the hexagonal-boron nitride is nowadays considered to be a direct band gap semiconductor, it may be indirectly concluded, in principle, that the dominant phase present in the samples studied was the rhombohedral polytype. Moreover, it can be tentatively concluded that the lack of an observable interband recombination may be due to the indirect band gap nature of the rhombohedral phase of the boron nitride. Spectroscopic ellipsometry does not give a definite answer regarding this issue either, because the samples analyzed were crystalline by nature, thus not being possible to use mathematical expressions for the dielectric function models that incorporate the band gap value as a fitting parameter. Therefore, the nature of the band gap emission in the rhombohedral phase of the boron nitride is still an open research question. On the other hand, luminescent emissions originating from radiative excitonic recombinations were not observed in the cathodoluminescence spectra. This second step of the project was carried out at the Leroy Eyring Center for Solid State Science at Arizona State University.  

  • 15.
    Pavski, Johann Joachim
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Handover Optimization in GSM2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In telecommunications in general and in GSM in particular, the handover is a feature that guarantees a smooth transition of a call from one base station - that is for the purpose of this project an antenna - to another. In the recent ten years, the amount of data traffic through mobile telecommunications has doubled annually, putting an enormous strain on the network and forcing operators to upgrade with more and more base stations and new features. Although 3G and 4G are responsible for data traffic in most countries, GSM still provides more than 80% of the coverage for mobile devices around the world. Due to the increase in data traffic, 3G and 4G need to use more and more frequencies at the expense of GSM. An optimization of the GSM network is thus vital. In this project, we research two methods to automatically choose the parameters of interest (PoI) that govern the handover feature in each cell which is, roughly speaking, the area of coverage of one antenna. In one of these methods, the choice of cell- and cell-to-cell-specific parameters has its origins in control theory while the other method is based on mathematical optimization. In the mathematical sense, our goal is to optimize the quality of service over PoIs. Extensive simulations have been run using these PoIs in order to evaluate if and how the two different methods can effectively be used in reality. Several useful insights have been gained that will provide the basis for future work. The optimization approach in particular has proved to deliver good results within the limitations of the simulated environment used for testing.

  • 16.
    Poelstra, J. W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Vijay, N.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hoeppner, M. P.
    Linköping University. Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wolf, J. B. W.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Science Life Lab, Sweden.
    Transcriptomics of colour patterning and coloration shifts in crows2015In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 24, no 18, 4617-4628 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal coloration is one of the most conspicuous phenotypic traits in natural populations and has important implications for adaptation and speciation. Changes in coloration can occur over surprisingly short evolutionary timescales, while recurrence of similar colour patterns across large phylogenetic distances is also common. Even though the genetic basis of pigment production is well understood, little is known about the mechanisms regulating colour patterning. In this study, we shed light on the molecular elements regulating regional pigment production in two genetically near-identical crow taxa with striking differences in a eumelanin-based phenotype: black carrion and grey-coated hooded crows. We produced a high-quality genome annotation and analysed transcriptome data from a 2 3 2 design of active melanogenic feather follicles from head (black in both taxa) and torso (black in carrion and grey in hooded crow). Extensive, parallel expression differences between body regions in both taxa, enriched for melanogenesis genes (e.g. ASIP, CORIN, and ALDH6), indicated the presence of cryptic prepatterning also in all-black carrion crows. Meanwhile, colour-specific expression (grey vs. black) was limited to a small number of melanogenesis genes in close association with the central transcription factor MITF (most notably HPGDS, NDP and RASGRF1). We conclude that colour pattern differences between the taxa likely result from an interaction between divergence in upstream elements of the melanogenesis pathway and genes that provide an underlying prepattern across the body through positional information. A model of evolutionary stable prepatterns that can be exposed and masked through simple regulatory changes may explain the phylogenetically independent recurrence of colour patterns that is observed across corvids and many other vertebrate groups.

  • 17.
    Malmström, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Design and Implementation of NFC-based gym mobile app2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report investigates the technical and economic viability of introducing a Near Field Communication (NFC) client system in a gym environment. The system aims to aid the customers with logging their workout, retrieving information regarding exercises as well as enhancing the attendance control for both staff and customers. To identify what information to be presented, the most important quality factors and what functionalities are most desired, an exploratory case study was conducted. The study showed that there is a discrepancy between the desire to log ones workout and actually doing it. Most people want to keep track of how they workout, but despite the wide variety of workout applications on the market, they choose not to use them. The main concern expressed was that the logging needs to be fast and easy, indicating that the existing apps do not fulfill the ease of use desired. The system presented in this report is coupled to the gym where NFC tags pair an exercise to its corresponding logger and information in the application. The ability for the gym to track its customers’ workout habits is a rare feature that provides several economic benefits such as targeted advertisement, better maintenance control and new customer services analyzing their workout. For the system to be effective the customers need to use the system and log their workout, therefore it needs to be supported by the major mobile platforms. To accommodate this a hybrid platform approach using PhoneGap was used. This approach allows for development in one language that translates into native embedded web applications. At the time of writing Apple’s latest models do include the hardware for NFC communication. However, it is not possible to develop a custom NFC application for iPhone yet. By adopting the hybrid approach there is no need to create a whole new app when they do release the rights to do so. In conclusion, the technical viability of the NFC based system comes with the tradeoffs of dealing with the lack of standards of a new technology and being early on the market with a new feature. This calls for some custom solutions, since each platform adopts their own way of NFC implementation, but is manageable. The economic aspects are tied to the use of the system where the ease of use is the key factor for the customers. The end user tests indicate that NFC provides that small advantage over traditional workout applications needed to make logging attractive.

  • 18.
    Hyvönen, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics.
    Protein-Protein Docking Using Starting Points Based On Structural Homology2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Protein-protein interactions build large networks which are essential in understanding complex diseases. Due to limitations of experimental methodology there are problems with large amounts of false negative and positive interactions; and a large gap in the amount of known interactions and structurally determined interactions. By using computational methods these problems can be alleviated.

    In this thesis the quality of a newly developed pipeline (InterPred) were investigated for its ability to generate coarse interaction models and score them. This ability was investigated by performing docking experiments in Rosetta on models generated in InterPred.

    The results suggest that InterPred is highly successful in generating good starting points for docking proteins in silico and to distinguish the quality of models.

  • 19.
    Norén, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Epitaxial and bulk growth of cubic silicon carbide on off-oriented 4H-silicon carbide substrates2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of bulk cubic silicon carbide has for a long time seemed to be something for the future. However, in this thesis the initial steps towards bulk cubic silicon carbide have been taken. The achievement of producing bulk cubic silicon carbide will have a great impact in various fields of science and industry such as for example the fields of semiconductor technology within electronic- and optoelectronic devices and bio-medical applications. The process that has been used to grow the bulk cubic silicon carbide is a modification of the seeded sublimation growth, and the seeds have been grown by sublimation epitaxy. Selected samples have been characterized with a variety of different methods. The surface morphology of the samples has been examined using optical microscope, atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscope. The crystal structure has been investigated by the methods X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The electrical resistance of the grown seeds was evaluated by four probe measurements. High crystal quality seeds have been grown with semiconductor properties and bulk silicon carbide was demonstrated using the seeds.

  • 20.
    Hedström, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of a forecast model for public transport trips in smaller cities2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has become more important for operators to be able to predict the future number of public transport passengers when consider to place a tender for operating public transport in a city or region, this is due to the new types of operator contracts was introduced quite recently. There are models in use today that can predict this, but they are often time consuming and complex and therefore it can be expensive to perform a forecast. Aside from this, most models in use for Sweden today are adapted for larger cities. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to propose a model that requires minimal input data with a short set up and execution time that can be used to predict a forecast for the public transport system in smaller cities without notably affecting the quality of the result. The developed model is based on a forecast model called LuTrans, which in turn is based on a common method, the four step model. The aim of the model lies within public transportation but it also consider other modes. The input data used by the model mainly consists of socio-economic data, the travel time and distance between all the zones in the network. The model also considers the cost for traveling by car or public transport. The developed model was applied to the Swedish city, Örebro, where a forecast was conducted for a future scenario. It is easily to apply the model to different cities to estimate a forecast for the public transport system. The developed model for the base scenario predicts trips for individual bus lines with an accuracy of 85 % for the city of Örebro. The developed model gave the result that the trips made by public transport in the future scenario of Örebro 2025 will increase annually by 0.94 %. The conclusion is that it is possible to develop a simple model that can be easily applied for a desired city. Although the developed model produced a plausible result for Örebro, further work such as implementation on other cities are required in order to fully evaluate the developed model.

  • 21.
    Eklöw, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marknaden för gymnasial utbildning och dess problematik2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When friskolereformen in Sweden was introduced in 1992, the market for secondary education became a competitive market. With new opportunities for schools to pursue secondary education business, the Swedish government hoped that students' preferences could be better met and that the use of resources would be more efficient. Questions answered in this paper is what characterizes the market, which strategies secondary schools uses, effects of asymmetric information and the factors that affect the degree of variation, and what the optimal degree of variation might be.The market for secondary education is mapped based on the SCP-model to get an overview of the market and its characteristics. Salop circle will be applied and detailed discussion about asymmetric information, variety and strategies on the secondary market will be made.In summary, it is noted that the market is characterized by monopolistic competition where it is difficult to predict the secondary schools' incentives. Furthermore, the market is characterized by being fully subsidized in the form of skolpeng with the reason that the positive impact of education on society. The strategies used in the market are marketing, acquisitions, grade inflation, complimentary products and research and development. As there is a lack of information on the market means that students do not make informative choices, which means that it becomes more difficult for individuals to achieve their full potential. Furthermore, the lack of information barriers to entry in the market and the opportunities to compete with quality weakens. The factors that affect the variation in the market were found to be individual preferences, the substitution tendencies, competition and economies of scale.

  • 22.
    Bostedt, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bitcoin & valutakonkurrens: En jämförande nyttoanalys2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the fulfillment of utility in the currency Bitcoin in relation to the Swedish krona in general andthe macroeconomic consequences of such fulfillment of utility in particular. The paper starts with the assumption thatthe utility generated by money is deduced from its qualities, mainly the quality in storage of value and the currency´spossibilities of generating low transaction costs. The investigation finds that there are possibilities that Bitcoin maygenerate a higher utility for its users than the Swedish krona under some circumstances. This mainly from Bitcoinsqualities in storage of value due to its predetermined change in money supply and in times when the Swedish krona´smonetary base is expanded by monetary policy and its subsequent inflation. In such periods when monetary expansionis undergoing in the Swedish krona, the investigation finds that the expected higher utility in Bitcoin in relation to theSwedish krona may cause a change of individuals incentives for currency, away from the Swedish krona and towardsBitcoin, if the profit gained from such change for an individual is great enough. From this, the central analysis ofBitcoins consequences on macroeconomic level follows. If there is an opportunity to change currency, which causesutility profits for individuals, there is also risk that the stimulus in monetary policy fails. This due to the decrease ofpurchasing power in the Swedish krona due to the lower demand of the currency in question subsequent to its loss init’s quality of storage of value. The analysis finds that depending on which theoretical perspective that is used, systemicrisks stemming from Bitcoin usage can be found in an analysis made with the Keynesian perspective. This while theopposite, that the systemic risks are introduced in the economy with the Swedish krona, is the result of an analysis madewith the Austrian theory of business cycle. Even with the systemic risks identified in the Keynesian analysis, reformsare suggested so that Bitcoin is able to co-exist with Keynesian monetary institutions to be able to take care of the utilitygained on the microeconomic, individual level that may result from Bitcoins usage as means of trade.

  • 23.
    Söllvander, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magical Garden Balloon Game2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I will describe the methods used and problems I have faced and attempted to solve during my time developing a math game for younger kids, a game that makes an attempt to teach kids something called number sense. Teaching pre school kids about number sense is something relatively new and the group I have been working with are of the understanding that it’s something that is very likely to be important to prevent children from falling behind in math during the earlier years of school. Number sense basically means the ability to connect symbolic numbers to their meaning interms of sets, amounts and dimensions such as larger-smaller, higher-shorter, more-less, etc. If this proves to be useful then the quality of education will improve as a result of more children being able to keep up with their math from an early stage.

  • 24.
    Järemo Lawin, Felix
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Depth Data Processing and 3D Reconstruction Using the Kinect v22015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Kinect v2 is a RGB-D sensor manufactured as a gesture interaction tool for the entertainment console XBOX One. In this thesis we will use it to perform 3D reconstruction and investigate its ability to measure depth. In order to sense both color and depth the Kinect v2 has two cameras: one RGB camera and one infrared camera used to produce depth and near infrared images. These cameras need to be calibrated if we want to use them for 3D reconstruction. We present a calibration procedure for simultaneously calibrating the cameras and extracting their relative pose. This enables us to construct colored meshes of the environment. When we know the camera parameters of the infrared camera, the depth images could be used to perform the Kinectfusion algorithm. This produces well-formed meshes of the environment by combining many depth frames taken from several camera poses.The Kinect v2 uses a time-of-flight technology were the phase shifts are extracted from amplitude modulated infrared light signals produced by an emitter. The extracted phase shifts are then converted to depth values. However, the extraction of phase shifts includes a phase unwrapping procedure, which is sensitive to noise and can result in large depth errors.By utilizing the ability to access the raw phase measurements from the device we managed to modify the phase unwrapping procedure. This new procedure includes an extraction of several hypotheses for the unwrapped phase and a spatial propagation to select amongst them. This proposed method has been compared with the available drivers in the open source library libfreenect2 and the Microsoft Kinect SDK v2. Our experiments show that the depth images of the two available drivers have similar quality and our proposed method improves over libfreenect2. The calculations in the proposed method are more expensive than those in libfreenect2 but it still runs at 2.5× real time. However, contrary to libfreenect2 the proposed method lacks a filter that removes outliers from the depth images. It turned out that this is an important feature when performing Kinect fusion and future work should thus be focused on adding an outlier filter.

  • 25.
    Haile, Henok Debessai
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Sustainable Phosphorus Management in Sweden: A study of phosphorus recycling from wastewater sludge in several municipalities of the Östergötland County2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Environmental Agency (SEPA) proposed a national target to increase the rate of phosphorus recycling from wastewater sludge in 2013. Reusing phosphorus from wastewater sludge by spreading it on arable lands raises the risk of contamination and substance deposition in soils. In addition to quantifying the targeted rate of recycling, the proposal has also introduced new thresholds that limit the concentrations of undesired substances in wastewater sludge. This thesis assesses the potential challenges and opportunities in implementing the proposed measure in the Swedish municipality settings. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been gathered from three selected mid-sized Swedish municipalities in the Östergötland County and other data sources. The analytical framework of the thesis is based on the Systems Framework for Phosphorus Recovery and Reuse. Several discrepancies between the national goal to increase phosphorus recycling and local circumstances that affect local decision-making have been identified in this thesis. Reducing the flow of undesired substances into the wastewater stream raises goal conflict and is an enormous challenge which requires regulating the way chemicals are consumed in society. From the policy perspective, the national environmental objectives framework is ambiguous with regards to how local decisions should be directed in line with the national goals. The proposed measure should hierarchically be unequivocal and its implementation needs to be coordinated across all geographical scales. The thesis also highlights that there are significant local opportunities for addressing other sustainability goals through phosphorus recycling measures. Sweden’s commitment to creating a resource-efficient phosphorus cycle affirms that the key for a sustainable phosphorus management is the transformation of path-dependent social and technical systems.

  • 26.
    Gustavsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Zenterio.
    A Comparative Study of Automated Test Explorers2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With modern computer systems becoming more and more complicated, theimportance of rigorous testing to ensure the quality of the product increases.This, however, means that the cost to perform tests also increases. In orderto address this problem, a lot of research has been conducted during thelast years to find a more automated way of testing software systems. Inthis thesis, different algorithms to automatically explore and test a systemhave been implemented and evaluated. In addition to this, a second setof algorithms have been implemented with the objective to isolate whichinteractions with the system were responsible for a failure. These algorithmswere also evaluated and compared against each other. In the first evaluationtwo explorers, which I called DeBruijn and LStarExplorer, were consideredsuperior to the other. The first used a DeBruijn sequence to brute forcea solution while the second used the L*-algorithm to build an FSM overthe system under test. This FSM could then be used to provide a moreaccurate description for when the failure occurred. The result from thesecond evaluation were two reducers which both tried to recreate a failureby first applying interactions performed just before the failure occurred. Ifthis was not successful, they tried interactions further and further away, untilthe failure was triggered. In addition to this, the thesis contains descriptionsabout the framework used to run the different strategies.

  • 27.
    Lidestam, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Factors reflecting bids in procurement of bus transport2013In: Management of environmental quality, ISSN 1477-7835, E-ISSN 1758-6119, Vol. 24, no 4, 526-537 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– To facilitate the choice of the winning bid in the public procurement of bus transports in Sweden and to make sure that the winning bid has the qualities that are requested, the placed demands are very detailed. On the other hand, the detailed demands will lead to limitations and could force the operator to use less environmentally friendly alternatives.

    The purpose of this paper is to identify factors regarding the buses and their properties that are commonly used in the public procurement process and analyze their level of details.

    Design/methodology/approach– The method is to collect and study foundations from the process of public procurement of bus transport for three years in Sweden.

    Findings– The result shows the most common and relevant aspects regarding the buses and their properties that have been requested and taken into consideration when creating the final contracts. Most of the demands regarding the factors were also described in very great detail.

    Research limitations/implications– The study is done with data from three years. The demands have only been classified on two levels: detailed and non‐detailed.

    Practical implications– The results enlighten the amount of demands that are specified in the foundations for public procurement of bus transports. While these demands make the base for the contracts, they are important for the decision makers in public transports.

    Originality/value– The paper shows a general overview of hard and soft demands regarding factors that have been expressed in the foundations for public procurement of bus transports for the previous three years.

  • 28.
    Lönnerud, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effekter av kalkning på fosforhalten i en kalkrik sjö – ett mesokosmexperiment i Tåkern2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major current environmental issues is eutrophication of aquatic environments. Measures to reduce eutrophication of lakes and streams are of high priority in Sweden. There are several negative implications of eutrophication such as lowered water quality, reduced biodiversity and loss of recreational values. These negative effects can be correlated to high phosphorus concentrations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of reducing the amount of available phosphorus during spring using liming in Lake Tåkern in southern Sweden. The study was conducted in April of 2015 in five mesocosms, three were treated with a mixture of limestone powder (CaCO3) and slaked lime (Ca(OH)2) to pH and two were untreated (controls). The aim of the liming was to precipitate calcite, to which phosphorus adsorbs. The variables used to document effects of liming include particulate phosphorus (PP), total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and complementary water chemistry. In addition to this experiment, samples of TP from a previous mesokosm experiment in July 2014 were analysed for comparison. Results showed no significant effects of liming on either PP, TP or SRP. The lack of effects from liming was most likely a result of low concentration of SRP in Lake Tåkern. Conclusions from this study were that liming at one occasion is not suitable for control of phosphorus concentration, the low observed concentrations of SRP over a longer period also indicates that repeated liming’s would not affect phosphorus concentration in Lake Tåkern.

  • 29.
    Kajfalk, Rebecca
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Taylor, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mapping of the referral management at the Department of Internal Medicine2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At the Department of Internal Medicine, Vrinnevisjukhuset, there is a need to map the referral management system at all of their divisions. This report intends to map these and provide recommendations for where there is room for improvement.

    Data was collected by performing observations and interviews with doctors, nurses, assistant nurses and medical secretaries. Historical data from the year 2014 was also used to investigate how many referrals each department receives and how much time is needed for the assessment process. Historical data from January to April year 2015 was used to investigate how long the lead-time is from the referral has been received to the point where it has been assessed.

    After the mapping process was completed, emails were sent to the staff that had been observed and interviewed in order to validate its correctness. These maps illustrate the differences between the departments, where the most distinct differences were whether they work alone or in groups, if they handled the referrals digitally or on paper and which profession that handle the administrative tasks.

    The problem areas that have been identified and within the principles of Lean are called wastes, is over production, waiting, defects, skills and motion. Over production occurs when doctors work in groups to do the assessment, but the responsible doctor does the final assessment at a later date. Connected to this is also the waste waiting because of the extra time spent, since the assessment could have been done directly at the group assessment. The wastes over production and defects appear when processing inadequate referrals. Finally the wastes skills and motion were identified, because of some tasks being performed by the wrong profession.

    The final recommendations are that the divisions should do the assessment of the referrals in groups, provided that they have time to document the assessment directly in Cosmic and not at a later date. Medical secretaries should perform administrative tasks that do not require a medical education. The divisions should exploit Cosmic and handle the referrals digitally instead of doing it on paper. The Department of Internal Medicine should also investigate whether it is possible to create a template that the referring doctors can use when sending referrals to the Department of Internal Medicines divisions, in order to increase the quality of the ingoing referrals.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Knowledge management and throughput optimization in large-scale software development2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale software development companies delivering market-driven products have introduced agile methodologies as the way of working to a big extent. Even though there are many benefits with an agile way of working, problems occur when scaling agile because of the increased complexity. One explicit problem area is to evolve deep product knowledge, which is a domain specific knowledge that cannot be developed anywhere else but at the specific workplace. This research aims to identify impediments for developing domain specific knowledge and provide solutions to overcome these challenges in order to optimize knowledge growth and throughput.

    The result of the research shows that impediments occur in four different categories, based on a framework for knowledge sharing drivers. These are people-related, task-related, structure-related and technology-related. The challenging element with knowledge growth is to integrate the training into the feature development process, without affecting the feature throughput negatively.

    The research also shows that by increasing the knowledge sharing, the competence level of the whole organization can be increased, and thereby be beneficial from many perspectives, such as feature-throughput and code quality.

  • 31.
    Forsman, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wiström, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Experter i revisionsprocessen: Hur upplever revisorn att revisionskvaliteten påverkas?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Problem: Accountants have become dependent with using experts in theirwork because of the complexity that has occurred around both accountingand auditing. It is the auditor that decides when an expertshould be included and how great of impact the experts work willhave on the audit. Meanwhile the auditor’s duty is to deliver qualityassured information to stakeholders and it is the auditor that willdecide when adequate audit quality is achieved. The question ishow the auditor experiences the influence on audit quality whenthey include experts in their work?

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explain how the auditors experiencethe influence on audit quality when they include experts in theirwork.

    Method: This study has mainly a quantitative method where surveys havebeen sent to auditors to obtain answers to the study’s purpose. Toget a deeper understanding of the experts work has a qualitativefeasibility study with interviews been conducted.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that auditors feel that audit quality will behigher when the experts are used in the audit. The results from ourfirst regression model suggests that when the experts get moreleeway/influence auditors experience that audit the quality will behigher. Audit quality is also affected slightly by the extent towhich auditors are taking the help of experts. Accountants whotake the help of experts to a greater extent perceive that auditquality will be higher. The result from our second regression modelindicates that it’s only the expert's influence that leads to higheraudit quality. Our results indicate that, according to auditors isworth spending time and resources on experts when they contributeto higher quality audits.

  • 32.
    Jidegren, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gupta, Tushar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Quality control of a diagnostic tool through qualitative and quantitative measurement assessment of field testing2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to develop a method to qualitatively and quantitatively measure and assess the field testing of a diagnostic tool by identifying the parameters that are relevant to assess a field test. The study is conducted at Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden, a world leading manufacturer of trucks, buses and industrial and marine engines, where a method to assess the field test of their diagnostic currently does not exist.

    The study follows a deductive approach while taking a positivistic and hermeneutic perspective. The relevant theories and literature such as quality development and software testing are described to give a better understanding of the study. The study is conducted in four main steps- description of present situation, situation analysis, development of the assessment approach or framework and evaluation of the framework.

    The empirical information gathered from numerous interviews and meetings is presented in the description of present situation along with the various data sources available. The collected data from different databases is analysed where hypotheses are formulated based on the different influencing parameters for field testing. The correlations between the parameters are then calculated and analysed to verify the hypothesis as True or False. The ECU updates are also analysed to show that the ECU updates performed during field testing is a good representation of the actual usage after release.

    The framework to assess the field test is then developed using the available data and analysis made. A holistic view is taken to include the processes before and after the field test in the framework. The framework is in the form of an Excel workbook where data is either copied from databases or manually entered and relevant graphs describing the field test are generated automatically. The time period to be displayed on the graphs can be selected manually. This gives a good base to take decisions about how a field test has gone and whether or not the software is ready for release. Based on the correlation of the different parameters, a table with different key values of how much field test usage that should be conducted based on the number of implemented change requests are presented. Thus the result is that the most important attributes to consider for a field test are the amount of implemented changes where each field test usage occasion increases the chance of finding potential faults in the software of the diagnostic tool.

    An unrestricted framework is also described using data that may be available, but currently difficult to utilise effectively. Thus the recommended future work is represented by this framework which describes what information that can be obtained from different data sources and how they can be used to get a detailed understanding of what exactly has been used during field testing as well as after the software has been released.

    The framework is assessed in the last step and its uses along with limitations are described.  The difficulty in describing the success of software testing is also discussed to give a good context to the framework and understand its utility.

  • 33.
    John, M. T.
    et al.
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Feuerstahler, L.
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Waller, N.
    University of Minnesota, MN 55455 USA.
    Baba, K.
    Showa University, Japan.
    Larsson, Pernilla
    Centre of Oral Rehabilitation, Prosthetic Dentistry,Norrköping .
    Celebic, A.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Kende, D.
    University of Pecs, Hungary.
    Rener-Sitar, K.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Reissmann, D. R.
    University of Medical Centre Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany.
    Confirmatory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile2014In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 41, no 9, 644-652 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous exploratory analyses suggest that the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) consists of four correlated dimensions and that individual differences in OHIP total scores reflect an underlying higher-order factor. The aim of this report is to corroborate these findings in the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the projects Validation Sample (n = 5022), we conducted confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 4993 subjects with sufficiently complete data. In particular, we compared the psychometric performance of three models: a unidimensional model, a four-factor model and a bifactor model that included one general factor and four group factors. Using model-fit criteria and factor interpretability as guides, the four-factor model was deemed best in terms of strong item loadings, model fit (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.99) and interpretability. These results corroborate our previous findings that four highly correlated factors - which we have named Oral Function, Orofacial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact - can be reliably extracted from the OHIP item pool. However, the good fit of the unidimensional model and the high interfactor correlations in the four-factor solution suggest that OHRQoL can also be sufficiently described with one score.

  • 34.
    John, Mike T.
    et al.
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Reissmann, Daniel R.
    University of Medical Centre Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany.
    Feuerstahler, Leah
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Waller, Niels
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Baba, Kazuyoshi
    Showa University, Japan.
    Larsson, Pernilla
    Centre of Oral Rehabilitation, Prosthetic Dentistry, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Celebic, Asja
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Szabo, Gyula
    University of Pecs, Hungary.
    Rener-Sitar, Ksenija
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Factor analyses of the Oral Health Impact Profile - Overview and studied population2014In: Journal of Prosthodontic Research, ISSN 1883-1958, Vol. 58, no 1, 26-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A desideratum of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instruments such as the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is that they accurately reflect the structure of the measured construct(s). With this goal in mind, the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project was proposed to investigate the number and nature of OHRQoL dimensions measured by OHIP. In this report, we describe our aggregate data set for the factor analyses in the project, which consists of responses to the 49-item OHIP from general population subjects and prosthodontics patients from 6 countries, including a large age range of adult subjects and both genders. Materials and methods: The DOQ Projects aggregate data set combines data from 35 individual studies conducted in Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Slovenia, and Sweden. Results: The combined data set includes 10778 OHIPs from 9348 individuals (N = 6349 general population subjects, N = 2999 prosthodontic patients). To elucidate the OHIP latent structure, the aggregated data were split into a Learning Sample (N = 5173) for exploratory analyses and a Validation Sample (N = 5022) for confirmatory analyses. Additional data (N = 583) were assigned to a third data set. Conclusion: The Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Project contains a large amount of international data and is representative of populations where OHIP is intended to be used. It is well-suited to assess the dimensionality of the questionnaire. (C) 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland. All rights reserved.

  • 35.
    Åstrom, Anne N.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Ekback, Gunnar
    Department of Dentistry, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ordell, Sven
    Dental Commissioning Unit,Ostergotland County Council.
    Nasir, Elwalid
    Department of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Long-term routine dental attendance: influence on tooth loss and oral health-related quality of life in Swedish older adults2014In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 42, no 5, 460-469 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesFew studies have investigated the effect of long-term routine dental attendance on oral health between middle-aged and older adults, using a prospective cohort design. This study aimed to assess routine dental attendance (attending dentist in the previous 12months for dental checkups) from age 50 to 65years. Moreover, this study examined whether long-term routine dental attendance contributes to oral health-related quality of life, OHRQoL, and major tooth loss independent of social factors and the type of treatment sector utilized. Whether oral health impacts of long-term routine attendance varied with type of treatment sector utilized was also investigated. MethodIn 1992, a census of the 1942 cohort in two counties of Sweden participated in a longitudinal questionnaire survey conducted at age 50 and again after 5, 10, and 15years. Information was collected on a wide range of health- and oral health-related aspects. Of the 6346 subjects who completed the 1992 survey, 4143 (65%) completed postal follow-ups in 1997, 2002, and 2007. ResultsRoutine dental attendance decreased from 69.1% at age 50-64.2% at age 65. Adjusted logistic regression analyses revealed that individuals reporting long-term routine attendance (routine attendance in both 1992 and 2007) were 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.5) times less likely than their counterparts who were nonroutine attenders to report oral impacts. According to generalized estimating equations (GEE), individuals who reported long-term routine attendance were 0.6 (95% CI 0.4-0.7) times less likely than nonroutine attenders to have major tooth loss across the survey years. The effect of long-term routine attendance on OHRQoL was stronger in public than in private dental healthcare attenders. ConclusionRoutine attendance decreased from age 50-65years. Long-term routine attendance had positive impact on major tooth loss and OHRQoL supporting the principle of encouraging annual dental attendance for preventive checkups among older people.

  • 36.
    Hongxing, Li
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Dentistry – Prosthodontics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    List, Thomas
    Orofacial pain and Jaw Function, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ing-Marie
    Specialist Center for Oral Rehabilitation, Norrköping, Sweden .
    Johansson, Anders
    Department of Clinical Dentistry – Prosthodontics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Nordrehaug Astrom, Anne
    Department of Clinical Dentistry – Community Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Validity and reliability of OIDP and OHIP-14: a survey of Chinese high school students2014In: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 14, no 158, 1-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To determine the impact of oral diseases on everyday life, measures of oral quality of life are needed. In complementing traditional disease-based measures, they assess the need for oral care to evaluate oral health care programs and management of treatment. To assess the reliability and validity of the Oral Impact of Daily Performance (OIDP) and the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) among high school students in Xian, the capital of Shanxi province, China. Methods: Cross-sectional one-stage stratified random cluster sample using high schools as the primary sampling unit. Students completed self-administered questionnaires at school. The survey included the OHIP-14 and OIDP inventories, translated and culturally adapted for China, and global oral health and socio-behavioral measures. Results: A total of 5,608 students participated in the study, with a 93% response rate (mean age 17.2, SD 0.8, 52% females, 45.3% urban residents). The proportion experiencing at least one impact (at any frequency) during the previous six months was 62.9% for the OHIP-14 and 45.8% for the OIDP. Cronbachs alpha measured internal consistency at 0.85 for OHIP-14 and 0.75 for OIDP while Cohens kappa varied between 0.27 and 0.58 for OHIP-14 items and between 0.23 and 0.65 for OIDP items. Kappa scores for the OHIP-14 and OIDP additive scores were 0.52 and 0.66, respectively. Both measures varied systematically and in the expected direction, with global oral health measures showing criterion validity. The correlation between OIDP and OHIP-14 was r(s) + 0.65. That both measures varied systematically with socio-behavioral factors indicates construct validity. Conclusion: Both the OIDP and OHIP-14 inventories had reasonable reliability and construct validity in relation to subjective global oral health indicators among adolescents attending high schools in China and thus appear to be useful oral health -related quality of life measures in this context. Overall, the OHIP-14 and OIDP performed equally well, although OHIP-14 had superior content validity due to its sensitivity towards less severe impacts.

  • 37.
    Larsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Department for Orofacial Pain and Jawfunction, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    John, M. T.
    Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, Department of Diagnostic and Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
    Hakeberg, M.
    Department of Behavioral and Community Dentistry, Institute of Odontology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg,.
    Nilner, K.
    Department of Oral Prosthetics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    List, T.
    Department for Orofacial Pain and Jawfunction, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    General population norms of the Swedish short forms of Oral Health Impact Profile2014In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 41, no 4, 275-281 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We reported the development and psychometric evaluation of a Swedish 14-item and a five-item short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile. The 14-item version was derived from the English-language short form developed by Slade in1997. The five-item version was derived from the German-language short form developed by John etal. in 2006. Validity, reliability and normative values for the two short form summary scores were determined in a random sample of the adult Swedish population (response rate: 46%, N=1366 subjects). Subjects with sufficient OHRQoL information to calculate a summary score (N=1309) were on average 50 center dot 1 +/- 17 center dot 4years old, and 54% were women. Short form summary scores correlated highly with the 49-item OHIP-S (r greater than= 0 center dot 97 for OHIP-S14, r greater than= 0 center dot 92 for OHIP-S5) and with self-report of oral health (r greater than= 0 center dot 41). Reliability, measured with Cronbachs alpha (0 center dot 91 for OHIP-S14, 0 center dot 77 for OHIP-S5), was sufficient. In the general population, 50% of the subjects had greater than= 2 OHIP-S14 score points and 10% had greater than= 11 points, respectively. Among subjects with their own teeth only and/or fixed dental prostheses and with partial removable dental prostheses, 50% of the population had greater than= 2 OHIP-S14 score points, and 10% had greater than= 11 points. For subjects with complete dentures, the corresponding figures were 3 and 24 points. OHIP-S5 medians for subjects in the three population groups were 1, 1 and 2 points. Swedish 14-item and 5-item short forms of the OHIP have sufficient psychometric properties and provide a detailed overview about impaired OHRQoL in Sweden. The norms will serve as reference values for future studies.

  • 38.
    Häger, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Performance Evaluation of Medium-Power Voltage Inverters2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Power inverters, used to convert DC power to AC, are often used in e.g. solar power applications. However, they tend to be impractically large and expensive; as such, power miniaturization is an active research area. In this thesis, several classes of modern power inverters are evaluated and compared with regards to size, efficiency and output quality in order to identify areas of potential improvement. Methods for estimation of THD, power losses and input ripple are created and verified against a simulation of a five-level neutral-point-clamped inverter with SPWM control. Finally, this design is implemented physically and is found to achieve 94.5% efficiency and 7% THD under low voltage laboratory conditions, while remaining smaller than an average textbook.

  • 39.
    Joelsson, Sophie
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Developing a web application: a usability approach2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis was to develop a user-friendly web application for quality annotation of text translations. Prototypes were designed in an iterative process to allow for continuous feedback from potential users. The iterative method drew attention to the frequently occurring difference between the developer’s and the user’s perception of the design, and was helpful to meet the high usability requirements. This thesis’ work included users throughout the process with user evaluation of each prototype, to ensure the usability of the final product. 

  • 40.
    Strand, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Ödmar, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Dragprovning av plastpåsar av återvunnen plast2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When manufacturing products from recycled plastic, they obtain a varying quality because of the unknown composition of the plastic. This is because it is hard to sort out the materials that are made of unwanted plastic types, or not made of plastic at all.

    The results show that there is a big difference between the machining and cross machining direction, particularly regarding the elongation at break. Several different positions on the bags are tested and compared. The center position on the bag is generally weaker than other positions for the plastic shopping bag. The elongation at fracture is on the same level as virgin plastic for both of the tested plastic bags.

    The project aims to determine a method for testing variations in the mechanical properties in plastic bags and conduct tests for different positions on the bags. To test the bags, tensile testing was used to compare modulus of elasticity, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation at fracture. 

  • 41.
    Askenberger, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hur är relationen mellan kommunikationen i en crowdfundingkampanj och dess utfall? En studie av glassprojekt i USA på kickstarter.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study previous research on the factors that contributed to successful crowdfunding campaigns have been compiled and a survey carried out on successful ice cream projects from kickstarter.com. Crowdfunding is a relative new way of collecting investment money; this is done by asking the public for small donation to raise a big amount and by that achieve the campaign goal. Communication in a crowdfunding campaign seems to have tremendous impact on a project’s success, and the conclusion from previous studies is that a project must be of high quality to do well. The result of the Ice Cream Projects analyzed indicated that the number of project updates correlates to the result. Video length does not correlate with the results and is not a measure of the campaign's quality. The number of private Facebook friends the creator of the project has affects campaign performance. The likely explanation is that the majority of donations is from friends and family, and these donations may be an indication to others that the project is serious and thus attracts the more donations.

  • 42.
    Havsvik, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enhanced Full-body Motion Detection for Web Based Games using WebGL2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By applying the image processing algorithms used in surveillance systems on video data obtained from a web camera, a motion detection application can be created and incorporated into web based games. The use of motion detection opens up a vast field of new possibilities in game design and this thesis will therefore cover how to create a motion detection JavaScript module which can be used in web based games.

    The performance and quality of the motion detection algorithms are important to consider when creating an application. What motion detection algorithms can be used to give a qualitativerepresentation without affecting the performance of a web based game will be analyzed and implemented in this thesis. Since the performance of the Central Processing Unit will not suffice, WebGL and the parallelism of the Graphical Processing Unit will be utilized to implement some of the most recognized image processing algorithms used in motion detection systems. The work resulted in an application where Gaussian blur and Frame Subtraction were used to detect and return areas where motion has been detected.

  • 43.
    Robertsson, Ester
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Revisorns personlighet: Hur påverkar revisorns personlighetsdrag preferens för struktur och bedömning?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: More structure is being introduced in the auditing profession. Auditors need to balance structured and judgment-related tasks to maintain a high quality in the audit process. The individual auditor influences the process as personality traits have been shown to be related to the tasks which are preferred. 

    Aim: The purpose is to explain how the auditor's personality traits influence preference for structure and judgment.

    Theory: Trait theory with focus on Big Five, vocational interests, comfort theory and definitions of structure and judgment.

    Method: The study uses a deductive research approach where hypothesis testing is used to test the above listed theories. The study is quantitative and survey method is used. The sample consists of certified auditors from Revisorsnämnden (2015).

    Result and conclusion: The result indicates that the auditor's personality traits may explain preference for structure and judgment. The study presents a positive significant relationship between auditors that are open and judgment-related tasks, and a negative significant relationship with structured tasks. A positive significant relationship exists between auditors that are conscientious and structured and judgment-related tasks. The study shows that the term comfort is an alternative way to measure preference.

    Contribution: The study provides a new perspective in the structure and judgment dilemma. The study also gives recruiters within audit companies an understanding in how the personality affects the work of auditors.

  • 44.
    Collin, Angelica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tollander, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Att leva med autismspektrumtillstånd: Innehållsanalys och samtalsanalys av en fokusgruppsdiskussion2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a neuropsychiatric impairment that may affect an individual's everyday life. Life areas that may be problematic include work, family, relationships and areas that require social interaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate communication in everyday life amongst adults with ASD as well as, by listening to the participants' personal narratives, explore how AST can affect an individual's life. The study was based on a video recorded focus group discussion with four participants who in adulthood have been diagnosed with ASD. Conversation Analysis and Content analysis were used for analysis of the material. The results showed that the participants have skills for social interaction and empathy. Some of the participants were perceived as using their gaze in a deviant way, and unexpected changes in topics and attempted interruptions were observed during the discussion. The majority of the participants described periods of psychiatric problems during their lives, and that the diagnosis has been important for their quality of life as it enables them to create relationships with people with similar difficulties. This appears to be important to them since they have difficulties building relationships. The results contribute to a better understanding of how a neuropsychiatric diagnosis can affect an individual's life.

  • 45.
    Sijaric, Edo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comparison of the assurance of desired quality level for concrete foundations in Sweden and foreign countries2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur kvalitetssäkring av utförandet kan säkerställas i internationella byggprojekt. Även om det svenska företaget ansvarar för detaljutformningen är det oftast lokala entreprenörer, anställda av kunden i det landet där produkten levereras, som utför arbetet vilket försvårar kvalitetssäkring och kvalitetsstyrning. Studien kretsar runt kvalitetssäkringen och kvalitetsstyrningen på två projekt som Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB i Finspång arbetade på: ett i Rya, Göteborg och ett i Perm, Ryssland. Siemens Finspång ansvarade för att upprätta kombikraftverk för energi produktion men en del av projektet var att gjuta betongfundament för utrustningen. De två projekten var avslutade då detta arbete påbörjades. För att svara på syftet och uppfylla frågeställningen har metoderna för kvalitetssäkring och kvalitetsstyrning undersökts på de båda projekten. De problem som uppstått och deras orsaker har också undersökts och sammanställts. Metoderna har sedan jämförts för att urskilja var skillnaden låg i processen för kvalitetssäkring i Rya och Perm.

  • 46.
    Dong, Yao
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sadegh Aminian, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Routing in Terrestrial Free Space Optical Ad-Hoc Networks2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communication uses visible or infrared wavelengths to broadcast high speed data wirelessly through the atmospheric channel. The performance of terrestrial FSO channel mainly depends on the local atmospheric conditions. Ad hoc networks offer cost-effective solutions for communications in areas where infrastructure is unavailable, e.g., intelligent transport system, disaster recovery and battlefield scenarios. Traditional ad hoc networks operate in the radio frequency (RF) spectrum, where the available bandwidth faces the challenge of rapidly increasing demands. FSO is an attractive alternative for RF in ad-hoc networks because of its high bandwidth and interference-free operation. This thesis investigates the influencing factors for routing traffic from given s-d pair while satisfying certain Quality of Services in terrestrial FSO ad hoc mesh networks under the effect of stochastic atmospheric turbulence. It starts with a comprehensive review of FSO technology, including the history, application, advantages and limitations. Subsequently the principle of operation, the building blocks and safety of FSO communication systems are discussed. The physics of atmosphere is taken into account to investigate how propagation of optical signals is affected in terrestrial FSO links. A propagation model is developed to grade the performance and reliability of the FSO ad hoc links in the network. Based on that model and the K-th shortest path algorithm, the performance of the path with highest reliability, the path with a second highest possible reliability and an independent path with no common links shared with the former two paths, were compared according to the simulation scenarios in node-dense area and node-sparse area. Matlab simulation shows that the short/long range dependent transmission delay are positively proportional to number of hops of the paths. Lower path reliability only dominate the cause of severe delay when traffic flow approaches near its upper link capacity in node-sparse area. In order to route traffic from given s-d pairs with satisfying certain Quality of Services, the path with highest reliability may not be the best choices since they may hold more hops which will degrade the QoS. Meanwhile, in case of exponential traffic congestion, it is recommended that both traffic demand and traffic flow propagating through the links should be pressed below a value close to the effective capacity, where the nonlinearity of the transmission delay curve starts to obviously aggravate.

  • 47.
    Ahmed, Uday
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ayo, Priscilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Developing Common Questions about Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE), Ecodesign and Engineering Education2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, more and more manufacturing firms recognize the benefit of providing products together with related services with an aim to gain higher profits as compared to supplying products without additional services. On the other hand, the competition in the global markets has been increased dramatically through increased sales of services in order to gain additional value for their products. In addition, several environmental challenges such as climate change, pollution, global warming impact, greenhouse gases emissions have played a vital role by influencing on the production protocols and trend of the companies. These challenges forced manufacturing countries to take into consideration environmentally conscious approach to their design thinking and industrial production processes. As a result, it became an important drive for manufacturing industries to shift from traditional product-oriented to service-oriented business models that has been witnessed during the last few years.

     

    The objective of this study research is to develop common questions that capture fundamental and common issues about Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE), Design for Environment (DFE) and Engineering education are effectives for industries to check and develop their knowledge, because the Engineering education plays a necessary role in associating socio-ethical knowledge with scientific and technological advances. The strategy taken to conduct this thesis task was first to study and understand the concept of Product Service System (PSS), IPSE, and Ecodesign as well as Engineering Education. Informative knowledge on these concepts were collected by reviewing several related journal articles, CIRP IPS2 conference proceedings.

     

    In this thesis the concepts of PSS, IPSE, DFE and Engineering Education discussed to develop the key common questions and issues to address the environmental, economic and social problems. Since PSS aims to reduce consumption through alternative schemes of product use as well as to increase overall resource productivity and dematerialization, but IPSE does not focus on a single factor but incorporates a wide range of factors such as environmental, social and economic issues. Whilst one of the main problems in this research focused on how to develop and strengthen the relationship between the academia and industry, and how this relation can be used to improve the academic performance and scientific research at universities and transfer them to industry.

     

    Sustainability and the life cycle concept have become a main solution for various problems such as a growing world population and a change in the industrial culture to come. As results Ecodesign and environmental considerations, financial aspects, product improvement as well as the commercial aspects were discussed in this project by understanding the previous concepts. The university considered as an important base of cultivating the talents, basic of inputs business organizations which help them to develop and improve their level of performance and quality of their products and services, and enhance its competitive position in the market. Changes in organized science further encouraged university interests in expanding technology transfer, because the scientific disciplines play an important role in influencing the type of interactions with industry as well as the University and Industry collaboration became the basic method of solving the problems to achieve (environmental, economic and social) sustainability.

  • 48.
    Sigfridsson, Isac
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    von Düben, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Kvalitetssäkring av Patent- och registreringsverket: EPO-praxis som förebild för svensk handläggning av patent2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk patenträtt har i stor omfattning harmoniserats med praxis utvecklad av det europeiska patentverket (EPO), vad avser patenterbarhetskriterier. Anledningen till harmoniseringen har motiverats av att det ska bli en mer enhetlig bedömning av patent i Europa. Harmoniseringen har i vart fall inte innefattat så kallad formell praxis, som innefattar regler om hand­läggandet hos det svenska patentverket, i förhållande till handläggandet av det vid EPO.

     

    Vid Sveriges anslutning till European Patent Convention (EPC) år 1978, förespråkades att det svenska patentverket ansågs hålla en godtagbar standard i sin handläggning, men att det fram­tida förhållandet mellan svensk patenträtt och EPC kunde komma att innebära förändring om kvalitetsnivån inte kunde anses tillräcklig hög. Efter ett nyligen taget beslut av Patentbesvärsrätten (PBR) har Patent- och registreringsverkets (PRV) handläggning ifrågasatts, varför författarna valt att undersöka om en förändring av hand­läggningen vid PRV bör genomföras, i enlighet med det förslag som framställs i proposition 1977/78:1, med beaktande av praxis utvecklad av EPO.

     

    I uppsatsen redogörs för hur EPO har tydligare regler avseende patent­ärenden än vad PRV har, varför en harmonisering av detta område bör diskuteras för säkerställandet av hög kvalitet vid handläggningen hos det svenska patentverket. Det är författarnas uppfattning att en ofullständig harmonisering även av formella regler resulterar i ett problem för säkerställandet av rättssäkerheten, eftersom lagregleringen i Sverige kan anses bristfällig. Således är det av intresse för svensk patenträtt att ta hänsyn till formell praxis utvecklad av EPO, alternativt, genom lagstiftningsförfarande, reglera bristen av tydliga regler. 

  • 49.
    Suwala, Pawel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Challenges with modern web testing2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of web applications continues to grow rapidly. Many applications that were traditionally desktop-based such as word processors, email clients or even file managers have now their web alternatives that often have bigger user base.

    While the software world is shifting from providing desktop-based applications to offering cloud-based services, challenges arise to provide high quality software in this radically different environment.

    Web-based applications are different in many aspects to their desktop equivalents. Web-based and desktop-based applications have radically dissimilar architecture, user interface, execution environment, requirements and limitations. To mention a few specific differences: the web application is executed in the context of a web browser, not operating system; code is executed in two separate places: on the server and in the web browser; code for the server is written in a different language than code for the client.

    Because of these differences, the traditional software testing techniques are only of limited use. To properly test a web application one needs to take into account numerous differences in Web-Browsers such as Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome or Apple Safari. Simple input-output testing is useful only to limited degree, because output cannot be just compared to the predefined value but must be compared within the context of all the environments and operating systems the application supports. The fact that an application works in one browser does not guarantee that it will work at all in other browsers.

    The entire complexity of the problem makes testing web applications a very time consuming and difficult task. Often it takes significantly longer time to test the application than it is to implement it. Because of these difficulties, web applications are often tested exclusively manually by humans, and only to a limited degree. New techniques and technologies are necessary to approach the problem of web application testing.

    This paper includes a case study carried out during author’s work on a web-based application. It examines the current state-of-the-art of web application testing and suggests useful techniques in tackling the problem. 

  • 50.
    Hamnér, Karolin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ferno, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mineral Resources and Social Development: Non-Fuel Minerals and their Association to the Natural Resource Curse2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the phenomenon of the natural resource curse in order to discern if there is astatistical correlation between the value of non-fuel mineral resource production, expressed relative to thecountry’s total economy, and the level of social development.The correlation is estimated as a 2SLS panel model in which we use mineral production data, for the timeperiod from the years 1977 until 2011. The dependent variable is an index for social developmentincluding life expectancy, immunization rate, and educational level. We control for institutional quality,government spending, trade openness as well as geographical location and time period. In contrary toprevious research, this study does not rely on United Nations exports statistics, but instead we construct adisaggregated mineral variable, based on data from the United States Geological Survey. This data alsoallows us to create our own price volatility variable as well as a price index unique to each country.Extrapolated data for mineral production is used for Soviet Union mineral production due to the fact thatthese countries have rich mineral resources.The results show a statistically significant negative correlation between the level of social developmentand mineral production. This outcome supports earlier research on social development and naturalresources. However, the level economic significance is low, indicating that mineral production wouldonly have a minor effect on social development.

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