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  • 1.
    Fritschi, Sarah K.
    et al.
    German Centre Neurodegenerat Disease DZNE, Germany; University of Tubingen, Germany; University of Tubingen, Germany.
    Cintron, Amarallys
    Emory University, GA 30329 USA.
    Ye, Lan
    German Centre Neurodegenerat Disease DZNE, Germany; University of Tubingen, Germany; University of Tubingen, Germany.
    Mahler, Jasmin
    German Centre Neurodegenerat Disease DZNE, Germany; University of Tubingen, Germany; University of Tubingen, Germany.
    Buehler, Anika
    German Centre Neurodegenerat Disease DZNE, Germany; University of Tubingen, Germany.
    Baumann, Frank
    German Centre Neurodegenerat Disease DZNE, Germany; University of Tubingen, Germany.
    Neumann, Manuela
    German Centre Neurodegenerat Disease DZNE, Germany; University of Tubingen, Germany.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hammarström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Walker, Lary C.
    Emory University, GA 30329 USA; Emory University, GA 30322 USA.
    Jucker, Mathias
    German Centre Neurodegenerat Disease DZNE, Germany; University of Tubingen, Germany .
    A beta seeds resist inactivation by formaldehyde2014In: Acta Neuropathologica, ISSN 0001-6322, E-ISSN 1432-0533, Vol. 128, no 4, 477-484 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cerebral beta-amyloidosis can be exogenously induced by the intracerebral injection of brain extracts containing aggregated beta-amyloid (A beta) into young, pre-depositing A beta precursor protein- (APP) transgenic mice. Previous work has shown that the induction involves a prion-like seeding mechanism in which the seeding agent is aggregated A beta itself. Here we report that the beta-amyloid-inducing activity of Alzheimers disease (AD) brain tissue or aged APP-transgenic mouse brain tissue is preserved, albeit with reduced efficacy, after formaldehyde fixation. Moreover, spectral analysis with amyloid conformation-sensitive luminescent conjugated oligothiophene dyes reveals that the strain-like properties of aggregated A beta are maintained in fixed tissues. The resistance of A beta seeds to inactivation and structural modification by formaldehyde underscores their remarkable durability, which in turn may contribute to their persistence and spread within the body. The present findings can be exploited to establish the relationship between the molecular structure of A beta aggregates and the variable clinical features and disease progression of AD even in archived, formalin-fixed autopsy material.

  • 2.
    Jonsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Brief History of the Masses: Three Revolutions2008Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stefan Jonsson uses three monumental works of art to build a provocative history of popular revolt: Jacques-Louis David's The Tennis Court Oath (1791), James Ensor's Christ's Entry into Brussels in 1889 (1888), and Alfredo Jaar's They Loved It So Much, the Revolution (1989). Addressing, respectively, the French Revolution of 1789, Belgium's proletarian messianism in the 1880s, and the worldwide rebellions and revolutions of 1968, these canonical images not only depict an alternative view of history but offer a new understanding of the relationship between art and politics and the revolutionary nature of true democracy.

    Drawing on examples from literature, politics, philosophy, and other works of art, Jonsson carefully constructs his portrait, revealing surprising parallels between the political representation of "the people" in government and their aesthetic representation in painting. Both essentially "frame" the people, Jonsson argues, defining them as elites or masses, responsible citizens or angry mobs. Yet in the aesthetic fantasies of David, Ensor, and Jaar, Jonsson finds a different understanding of democracy-one in which human collectives break the frame and enter the picture.

    Connecting the achievements and failures of past revolutions to current political issues, Jonsson then situates our present moment in a long historical drama of popular unrest, making his book both a cultural history and a contemporary discussion about the fate of democracy in our globalized world.

  • 3.
    Fägerskiöld, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A change in life as experienced by first-time fathers2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 22, no 1, 64-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that the attitude of men towards pregnancy, childbirth and child-caring is different from that of women. Up to now, research has focused mainly on motherhood. The aim of this study was to explore first-time fathers’ experiences during early infancy of their children. Grounded theory and constant comparative method were used and 20 fathers aged 20–48 participated. Interviews were carried out in 2002–2003. ‘Changing life’ emerged as the core category consisting of the categories: becoming a father, alternating between work and home, changing relationship towards partner and developing relationship with their child. Changing life implied that they have left bachelor life and become responsible for a child. Becoming a father was much more fantastic than they could have imagined and they suggested that they performed childcare to the same extent as the mother when both parents were at home. Still fathers viewed the mother as the main parent, partly because of their alternating between work and home and because the mothers breast-feed the infants. Fathers’ attitude towards breast-feeding seemed to be ambiguous; it was a matter of necessity, but made them feel insignificant. Changing relationship towards partner was common but it was not necessarily for the worst and often resulted in a more closely united relationship. However, tiredness because of lack of sleep could result in increased irritability towards problems. Developing relationship with their child implied increasing possibilities to learn to know the infant’s signals. Fathers are one of two parents, and hence are important for their child’s growth and development, emotional health and cognitive development. Knowledge about first-time fathers’ experiences during the early infancy of their children may bring about increased support from midwives and child health nurses.

  • 4.
    Cekaite Thunqvist, Asta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    A child's development of interactional competence in a Swedish L2 classroom2007In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 91, no 1, 45-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores a child's emergent second language (L2) interactional competence during her first year in a Swedish immersion classroom. Within the theoretical framework of situated learning, it focuses on how she acquires expertise in a specific classroom practice: multiparty classroom talk. The data cover three periods (the early, middle, and late phases) of her first school year. The methods adopted combine a microanalytic approach with ethnographic fieldwork analyses of L2 socialization within a classroom community. The analyses revealed systematic changes in the novice's interactional engagements. An interplay of language skills and turn-taking skills influenced her participation in multiparty talk during the three periods, casting her as (a) a silent child, (b) a noisy and loud child, and (c) a skillful student. These changes indicate that learning cannot be seen as the unilinear development of a single learner identity. It is argued that a detailed longitudinal analysis may provide important insights into the relationship between participation and L2 learning. Instead of unilinear development of a single learner identity, we may find different participation patterns linked to distinct language learning affordances over time. © 2007 The Modern Language Journal.

  • 5.
    Östberg, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    A Comparative Study of Efficient Power Amplifiers in CMOS2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During later years communication schemes for handheld devices have increased in complexity due to the desire to increase the throughput, i.e. the amount of information sent over a medium simultaneously. Increasing throughput can be accomplished, not only by modulating the phase or frequency, but also the amplitude. This leads to tougher requirements on the power amplifier. The conventional power amplifiers, which have the ability to follow the envelope of the carrier, are inefficient. This thesis aims to compare two old but revived architectures which exploit high-efficiency amplifiers and still have a linear relationship between the input and output. The architectures; the Polar Linearization Technique and Outphasing share the same foundation. Based on literature, the polar technique have been more successful of employing examples fufilling communication standards. The polar technique is also more versatile regarding power combiners, distortion correction and alternative implementations. The simulations performed in this thesis results show that the polar amplifier is less sensitive to process variations and has higher maximum efficiency. On the other hand, the outphasing topology have the highest linearity figures.

  • 6.
    Fjellstedt, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Nephrology and Transplantation, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Denneberg, Torsten
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Urology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jeppsson, Jan-Olof
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Tiselius, Hans-Göran
    University Hospital Malmö and Department of Urology, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A comparison of the effects of potassium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the alkalinization of urine in homozygous cystinuria2001In: Urological research, ISSN 0300-5623, E-ISSN 1434-0879, Vol. 29, no 5, 295-302 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, urine alkalinization has been one of the cornerstones in the treatment of homozygous cystinuria. Because of the relationship found between the excretion of urinary sodium and cystine, potassium citrate has emerged as the preferred sodium-free alkalizing agent. To evaluate the usefulness of potassium citrate for urine alkalization in cystinuric patients, sodium bicarbonate and potassium citrate were compared in 14 patients (10 on tiopronin treatment and four without treatment with sulfhydryl compounds). The study started with 1 week without the use of any alkalizing agents (Period 0) followed by 2 weeks with sodium bicarbonate (Period 1) and 2 weeks with potassium citrate (Period 2). Urinary pH, volume, excretion of sodium, potassium, citrate and free cystine, as well as the plasma potassium concentration, were recorded. Potassium citrate was shown to be effective as an alkalizing agent and, in this respect, not significantly different from sodium bicarbonate. Even though a normal diet was used, a significant increase in urinary sodium excretion was observed with sodium bicarbonate (Period 1). Urinary potassium and citrate excretion increased with potassium citrate (Period 2). A significant correlation was found between urinary sodium and cystine in the tiopronin-treated patients. No significant differences in cystine excretion were recorded in Periods 0, 1 and 2. Plasma potassium was significantly higher during Period 2, but only one patient developed a mild hyperkalemia (5.0 mmol/l). The use of potassium citrate for urine alkalization in homozygous cystinuria is effective and can be recommended in the absence of severe renal impairment.

  • 7.
    Doherty, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, KPLAB - Knowledge Processing Lab.
    Szalas, Andrzej
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, KPLAB - Knowledge Processing Lab.
    A correspondence framework between three-valued logics and similarity-based approximate reasoning2007In: Fundamenta Informaticae, ISSN 0169-2968, E-ISSN 1875-8681, Vol. 75, no 1-4, 179-193 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on approximate reasoning based on the use of similarity spaces. Similarity spaces and the approximated relations induced by them are a generalization of the rough set-based approximations of Pawlak [17, 18]. Similarity spaces are used to define neighborhoods around individuals and these in turn are used to define approximate sets and relations. In any of the approaches, one would like to embed such relations in an appropriate logic which can be used as a reasoning engine for specific applications with specific constraints. We propose a framework which permits a formal study of the relationship between approximate relations, similarity spaces and three-valued logics. Using ideas from correspondence theory for modal logics and constraints on an accessibility relation, we develop an analogous framework for three-valued logics and constraints on similarity relations. In this manner, we can provide a tool which helps in determining the proper three-valued logical reasoning engine to use for different classes of approximate relations generated via specific types of similarity spaces. Additionally, by choosing a three-valued logic first, the framework determines what constraints would be required on a similarity relation and the approximate relations induced by it. Such information would guide the generation of approximate relations for specific applications.

  • 8.
    Haglund, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care.
    A critical analysis of the Model of Human Occupation.1999In: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy / Revue Canadienne d`Ergotèrapie, ISSN 0008-4174, no 2, 102-1089 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Examination of the applicability of the Model of Human Occupation in Swedish occupational therapy concludes that the environment is a central factor in understanding occupational behavior, but the model does not accurately or adequately depict the relationship between individuals and the environment. Volition is also an important factor in occupational-therapy intervention

  • 9.
    Arnett, Anne
    et al.
    University of Denver, USA.
    Pennington, Bruce
    University of Denver, USA.
    Willcutt, Erik
    University of Colorado, USA.
    Dmitrieva, Julia
    University of Denver, USA.
    Byrne, Brian
    University of New England, Armidale, Australia .
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Olson, Richard
    University of Colorado, USA.
    A cross-lagged model of the development of ADHD inattention symptoms and rapid naming speed2012In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 40, no 8, 1313-1326 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has identified contemporaneous associations between cognitive deficits and symptom phenotypes in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, no studies have as yet attempted to identify direction of effect. The present study used cross-lagged path modeling to examine competing hypotheses about longitudinal associations between rapid naming speed and symptoms of inattention in children. 1,506 school-age twins from Australia and the U.S. were tested for inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and rapid naming speed at three and four time points, respectively. Symptom severity of inattention from Kindergarten to fourth grade is consistently predicted by previous rapid naming, over and above auto-regressive and correlational associations in the model. Likewise, inattention symptoms have a small but significant predictive effect on subsequent rapid naming. The findings support a reciprocal relationship between naming speed and ADHD inattentive symptoms.

  • 10.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    A cross-sectional study of adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: support for a specific distress-function relationship2014In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 8, no 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This study has investigated the specific relationship between childhood adversities, individual trauma symptoms and the functions of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The aim was to examine whether different self-reported adverse experiences and trauma symptoms predict the need to engage in NSSI, either to regulate emotions or to communicate with and influence others.

    METHOD: The participants were a community sample of 816 adolescents aged 15-17 years with NSSI. Hierarchical multiple regression was used, controlling for NSSI frequency and gender. The dependent variables were the automatic and social functions of NSSI, respectively. The predictors entered in the model were several different maltreatment and adversity experiences as well as individual trauma symptoms. Mediation analyses were also performed using the bootstrapping method with bias-corrected confidence estimates.

    RESULTS: Frequency of NSSI, gender (female), emotional abuse, prolonged illness or handicap during upbringing and symptoms of depression uniquely predicted the automatic functions of NSSI in the final regression model, but not the social functions. Symptoms of anxiety uniquely predicted social but not automatic functions. Having experienced physical abuse, having made a suicide attempt and symptoms of dissociation were significant predictors in both final models. The model for automatic functions explained more of the variance (62%) than the social model (28%). The relationship between childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse and performing NSSI for automatic reasons was mediated by symptoms of depression and dissociation. The relationship between physical abuse and the social functions of NSSI was mediated by symptoms of anxiety and dissociation.

    CONCLUSIONS: It is important to understand the specific context in which NSSI has developed and is maintained. Experiences of emotional abuse and symptoms of depression could guide clinical work in the direction of emotion regulation skills since in this study these variables were uniquely associated with the need to engage in NSSI to regulate emotions, to self-punish or to generate feelings. The presence of physical abuse, a suicide attempt and symptoms of dissociation could alert clinicians to a broad treatment approach since they were associated with performing NSSI to regulate both social and automatic experiences.

  • 11.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    A Design-Oriented Computer Simulation Project for Enabling Reflective Action-Focused Mentoring for Preservice Teachers2013In: Education and poverty: theory, research, policy and praxis, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there is a dearth of authentic learning spaces for pre-service teachers to experience maximized variation of disturbances, provocations, and conflicts that are a natural part of teaching. To provoke such situations for practice with real pupils would be ethically problematic, as it would compromise the integrity, mutual respect, and ethic of caring within the teacher-learner relationship. Its pedagogical scope would also be limited, as real-time classroom management do not allow for adequate reflection. Our paper will explore the use of computer simulations as a tool to use during mentorship for pre-service teachers when learning classroom management. We will therefore focus on understanding the personal leadership experiences that pre-service teachers can develop in computer simulators to become confident leaders in their classroom and how this understanding can be integrated into the design process of such simulators. Perspectives: Earlier empirical studies by (Granström & Einarsson, 1998; removed for blind review) documents problematic situations of disturbances, provocations, and conflicts that affect teachers as well as pupils in Swedish schools. Previous work by (Lewis, 2001) reveals that teachers might resort to punishment when conflicts arise, while (Woolfolk & Weinstein, 2006; Lewis, Romi, Katz & Xing, 2008) problematize the falsely perceived effectiveness of punishment. Our project therefore seeks to empower pre-service teachers by grounding their leadership in personal experiences through classroom computer simulations that allow exploration of alternative strategies for classroom management and continuous reflection on their appropriateness. Modes of Inquiry: A phenomenographical analysis, based on stimulated recall interviews, will focus on pre-service teachers’ verbalized descriptions of classroom management decisions taken within the simulator. This explorative form of reflective action-focused mentoring is contrasted with the standard formats as it seeks to understand the appropriateness of using computer simulations to teach classroom management. Data sources: Data from the project Simulerade Provokationer (eng. Simulated Provocations) generated by pre-service teachers from a Swedish university is utilized. This data includes the choices and verbalized reflections that the pre-service teachers made while exploring the simulation. Results: In the simulation the pre-service teachers are forced to take actions, reflect on choices, and change their decisions in an explorative fashion. The hypothesis being that through active participation and continuous self-reflection pre-service teachers will feel better prepared to be the classroom leaders they are expected to be and will carry out a leadership that’s consistent with their desired self-image. Scholarly significance: Numerous Swedish teachers resign in the beginning of their careers as the reality-check hits them of being unprepared for the leadership required of them (Akin-Little & Little, 2008; Colnerud, Karlsson & Szklarski, 2008). Despite the number of academically proposed approaches to classroom management all Swedish pre-service teachers do not successfully manage to apply those approaches as practical knowledge in the classroom. As academics we need to explore new ways of supporting pre-service teachers in learning how to perform classroom management as they after graduation will join a community of practice that is currently unable to support them in that growth.

  • 12.
    Linderholm, Märit
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, East County Primary Health Care.
    Friedrichsen, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Center of Palliative Care.
    A desire to be seen:: family caregivers' experiences of their caring role in palliative home care2010In: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, E-ISSN 1538-9804, Vol. 33, no 1, 28-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary health care is the base of Swedish healthcare, and many terminally ill patients are cared for at home. A dying relative has a profound impact on his/her family members' situation, including negative effects on roles, well-being, and health. The aim of this study was to explore how the informal carers of a dying relative in palliative home care experienced their caring role and support during the patient's final illness and after death. Fourteen family members were selected in 4 primary health care areas in Sweden. Data were collected using open, tape-recorded interviews. A hermeneutic approach was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that being an informal carer was natural when a relative became seriously ill. More or less voluntarily, the family member took on a caring role of control and responsibility. The informal carers felt left out and had feelings of powerlessness when they did not manage to establish a relationship with the healthcare professionals. For the informal carers to feel seen, it was necessary for them to narrate about their own supporting role.

  • 13.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Tongji University, Shanghai, China .
    Hu, Jiwen
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China .
    Cui, Yang
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China .
    Wang, Guannan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Xuanjun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gao, Hong-Wen
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China .
    A facile "click" reaction to fabricate a FRET-based ratiometric fluorescent Cu2+ probe2014In: Journal of materials chemistry. B, ISSN 2050-750X, E-ISSN 2050-7518, Vol. 2, no 28, 4467-4472 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A facile one-step Cu(I)-catalyzed "click" reaction, between a dansyl-azide and a propargyl-substituted rhodamine B hydrazide, is employed to fabricate a novel FRET ratiometric "off-on" fluorescent probe. The sensitive emission of the donor, a dansyl group, overlaps perfectly with the absorption of the acceptor, xanthene in the open-ring rhodamine. The proposed probe shows high selectivity towards Cu2+. The ratio of emission intensities at 568 and 540 nm (I-568/I-540) exhibits a drastic 28-fold enhancement upon addition of Cu2+. The probe shows an excellent linear relationship between emission ratios and the concentrations of Cu2+ from 10 to 50 mu M, with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.12 mu M. The preliminary cellular studies demonstrated that the probe is cell membrane permeable and could be applied for ratiometric fluorescence imaging of intracellular Cu2+ with almost no cytotoxicity. The ingenuity of the probe design is to construct a FRET donor-acceptor interconnector and a selective receptor simultaneously by "click" reaction. The strategy was verified to have great potential for developing novel FRET probes for Cu2+.

  • 14.
    Wissing, Ulla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A follow-up study of ulcer healing, nutrition, and life-situation in elderly patients with leg ulcer2001In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 5, no 1, 37-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was undertaken in order to follow up ulcer healing, ulcer recurrence, nutritional status and life-situation in elderly patients with leg ulcers. Of 70 patients assessed previously in 1996, 43 (61%) were still alive in 2000 and, of these, 38 (88%) participated in the follow-up. Rate of healing, recurrence and amputation were obtained from medical records and interviews with the patients. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was used to assess their nutritional status and the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Multilevel Assessment Instrument was used for assessment of their life-situation. Nineteen patients (50%), mean age 82+/-4.6 years, had healed ulcers. Two (5%) patients, mean age 86+/-2.8, had required amputation and had no ulceration after surgery. Seventeen patients (45%), mean age 80.3+/-6 years, had open ulcers, six had their original ulcers still unhealed, and 11 had open recurrent ulcers. Decreased mean MNA scores, as well as decreased mean scores in ADL and mobility, were seen over time in patients with open ulcers but not in those who were healed. Patients with healed ulcers had significantly higher mean scores in social interaction than those with open ulcers and significantly increased mean scores in environmental quality over time. The results indicate that nutrition and the life-situation might be related to leg ulcer healing. The nutritional situation and the whole life-situation should be observed and taken into consideration when care is planned. Additional research is needed to increase the understanding of the relationship between nutrition, life-situation and ulcer healing.

  • 15.
    Padgham, Lin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lambrix, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Framework for Part-of Hierarchies in Terminological Logics1994In: Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning - Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference - KR 94, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1994, 485-496 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing recognition that part-whole hierarchies are a very general form of representation, widely used by humans in commonsense reasoning. This paper develops a terminological logic, and related inference mechanisms for representing and reasoning about composite concepts and individuals. A basic terminological logic language is extended with constructs for describing composite concepts in terms of their parts and the relationships between them. A part-of hierarchy is defined, based on the relationship of compositional inclusion. This part-of hierarchy is analogous to, but different from, the “is-a” hierarchy. Compositional inferencing is defined as a process which infers the existence of a whole, based on the existence of the required parts, where the parts are in the necessary relationship to each other. Three stable states are defined with respect to compositional inferencing - compositional extensions, credulous compositional extensions and skeptical compositional conclusions. This framework significantly enhances and is complementary to, knowledge representation and reasoning based on is-a hierarchies.

  • 16.
    Flodström, Raquel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Framework for the Strategic Management of Information Technology2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategy and IT research has been extensively discussed during the past 40 years. Two scientific disciplines Management Science (MS) and Management Information Science (MIS) investigate the importance of IT as a competitive factor. However, although much research is available in both disciplines, it is still difficult to explain how to manage IT to enable competitive advantages. One reason is that MS research focuses on strategies and competitive environments but avoids the analysis of IT. Another reason is that MIS research focuses on IT as a competitive factor but avoids the analysis of the competitive environment. Consequently, there is a gap of knowledge in the understanding of the strategic management of information technology (SMIT).

    The strategic analysis of IT as a competitive factor is important for achieving the competitive advantages of IT. This thesis explores factors related to strategy and IT that should be considered for the strategic analysis of IT as a competitive factor, and proposes a framework for SMIT. The research is conducted by means of a qualitative analysis of theoretical data from the disciplines of MS and MIS. Data is explored to find factors related to SMIT.

    The results of the analysis show that the strategic management of information technology is a continuous process of evaluation, change, and alignment between factors such as competitive environment, competitive strategies (business and IT strategies), competitive outcome, and competitive factors (IT). Therefore, the understanding of the relationships between these factors is essential in order to achieve the competitive advantages of using IT.

    This thesis contributes to strategic management research by clarifying the relationships between strategic management, competitive environment, and IT as competitive factor into a holistic framework for strategic analysis. The framework proposed is valuable not only for business managers and for IT managers, but also for academics. The framework is designed to understand the relationship between competitive elements during the process of strategic analysis prior to the formulation of competitive strategies. Moreover, it can also be used as a communication tool between managers, in order to achieve alignment among company strategies. To academics, this thesis presents the state-of-the-art related to strategic management research; it can also be a valuable reference for strategic managers, as well as researchers interested in the strategic management of IT.

  • 17.
    Abrahamsson, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Gröbner basis algorithm for fast encoding of Reed-Müller codes2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the relationship between Gröbner bases and algebraic coding theory is investigated, and especially applications towards linear codes, with Reed-Müller codes as an illustrative example. We prove that each linear code can be described as a binomial ideal of a polynomial ring, and that a systematic encoding algorithm for such codes is given by the remainder of the information word computed with respect to the reduced Gröbner basis. Finally we show how to apply the representation of a code by its corresponding polynomial ring ideal to construct a class of codes containing the so called primitive Reed-Müller codes, with a few examples of this result.

  • 18.
    VendlerToft-Kehler, Rasmus
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark; Accelerace, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kim, Phillip H.
    Babson College, Arthur M. Blank Center for Entrepreneurship, Babson Park, MA, USA.
    A little bit of knowledge is a dangerous thing: Entrepreneurial experience and new venture disengagement2017In: Journal of Business Venturing Insights, ISSN 2352-6734, Vol. 6, 36-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing research has offered conflicting narratives of how entrepreneurial experience influences whether founders will continue working on or disengage from their ventures. We theorize and test how entrepreneurs with varying levels of experience disengage from early-stage companies. Findings reveal a U-shaped relationship, such that novices and highly experienced entrepreneurs are more likely to quit their ventures, while moderately experienced entrepreneurs are more likely to persist in their pursuits. We offer both theoretical and empirical explanations for how the propensity to disengage from new ventures evolves with entrepreneurial experience.

  • 19.
    Kempe, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    A longitudinal study of early reading difficulties and subsequent problem behaviors2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 3, 242-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally believed that early academic failure in school develops into a downward spiral of negative motivational and behavioral consequences. In this study, children with reading difficulties were compared with typical readers on questionnaires measuring ADHD symptoms and other behavior problems such as withdrawn symptoms, somatic complaints, anxiety/depression, social problems, and aggression. The results revealed that reading difficulties and problem behaviors appear more independent of each other rather than problem behaviors being a consequence of reading failure. In addition, gender differenceswere negligible when examining the relationship between reading difficulties and subsequent problem behavior. Some implications for special educationand intervention are suggested.

  • 20.
    Solinen, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Trafikverket, SE-172 90 Sundbyberg, Sweden.
    Nicholson, Gemma
    Birmingham Centre for Railway Research and Education, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    A microscopic evaluation of railway timetable robustness and critical points2017In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One method to increase the quality of railway traffic flow is to construct a more robust timetable in which trains are able both to recover from delays and the delays are prevented from propagating. Previous research results show that the indicator Robustness in Critical Points (RCP) can be used to increase timetable robustness. In this paper we present the use of a method for RCP optimization: how it can be assessed ex-post via microscopic simulation. From the evaluation we learn more about how increased RCP values influence a timetable's performance. The aim is to understand more about RCP increase at a localised level within a timetable in terms of effects to the pairs of trains that are part of the indicator. We present a case study where an initial timetable and a timetable with increased RCP values are evaluated. The ex-post evaluation includes the quantification of measures concerning train-borne delay and robustness of operations, as well as measures capturing the subsequent quality of service experienced by passengers to assess the broader effects of improved robustness. The result shows that it is necessary to use several key performance indicators (KPIs) to evaluate the effects of an RCP increase. The robustness increases at a localised level, but the results also indicate that there is a need to analyse the relationship between ex-post measures and RCP further, to improve the method used to increase RCP and thus its overall effect on timetable robustness.

  • 21.
    Solinen, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Trafikverket, Sundbyberg, Sweden.
    Nicholson, Gemma
    Birmingham Centre for Railway Research and Education, University of Birmingham, Unnited Kingdom.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Microscopic Evaluation of Robustness in Critical Points2017In: 7th International Conference on RailwayOperations Modelling and Analysis (RailLille 2017) / [ed] N. Tomii, I.A. Hansen, J. Rodriguez, P. Pellegrini, S. Dauzère-Pérès, D. De Almeida, International Association of Railway Operations Research , 2017, 83-103 p., 1705Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One method to increase the quality of railway traffic flow is to construct a more robust timetable in which trains are able to both recover from delays and the delays are prevented from propagating. Previous research results show that the indicator Robustness in Critical Points (RCP) can be used to increase timetable robustness. In this paper we present the use of a method for RCP optimization, how can be implemented and assessed ex-post via microscopic simulation and subsequently evaluated. From the evaluation we learn more about how increased RCP values influence a timetable’s performance. The aim is to understand more about RCP increase at a localised level within a timetable in terms of effects to the pairs of trains that are part of the indicator. We present a case study where an initial timetable and a timetable with increased RCP values are evaluated. The ex-post evaluation includes the quantification of measures concerning train-borne delay and robustness of traffic flow, as well as measures capturing the subsequent quality of service experienced by passengers to assess the broader effects of improved robustness. The result shows that it is necessary to use several Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to evaluate the effects of an RCP increase. The robustness will increase at a localised level, but the results also indicate that there is a need to analyse the relationship between ex-post measures and RCP further, to improve the method used to increase RCP and thus its overall effect on timetable robustness.

  • 22.
    Hylander, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Guvå, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A model for consultation with day care and pre-schools2004In: Consultee-centered consultation: Improving the Quality of Professional Services in schools and community organizations / [ed] Nadine M. Lambert, Ingrid Hylander, Jonathan H. Sandoval, Mahwah: NJ. Erlbaum , 2004, -405 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume describes the history, development, and contemporary practice of Consultee-Centered Consultation in human service organizations. Consultee-Centered Consultation is a non-hierarchical, non-prescriptive helping role relationship between a resource (consultant) and a person or group (consultee) who seeks professional help with a work problem involving a third party (client). The several examples provided in this volume from child-care programs, schools, social welfare and hospital settings show how the consultant and the consultee mutually choose and reframe knowledge about well-being, development, interpersonal, and organizational effectiveness appropriate to the consultee's work setting to achieve the goals of the consultation process. The desired outcome of consultee-centered consultation is the joint development of a new way of conceptualizing the work problem so that the repertoire of the consultee is expanded and the professional relationship between the consultee and the client is restored or improved.

  • 23.
    Stenkula, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A molecular approach to insulin signalling and caveolae in primary adipocytes2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of type II diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate due to the western world lifestyle. Type II diabetes is characterized by an insulin resistance distinguished by impaired glucose uptake in adipose and muscle tissues. The molecular mechanisms behind the insulin recistance and also the knowledge considering normal insulin signalling in fat cells, especially in humans, are still unclear.

    Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) is known to be important for medating the insulin-induced signal from the insulin receptor into the cell. We developed and optimized a method for transfection of primary human adipocytes by electroporation. By recombinant expression of proteins, we found a proper IRS to be crucial for both mitogenic and metabolic signalling in human adipocytes. In human, but not rat, primary adipocytes we found IRS1 to be located at the plasma membrane in non-insulin stimulated cells. Insulin stimulation resulted in a two-fold increase of the amount of IRS1 at the plasma membrane in human cells, compared with a 12-fold increase in rat cells. By recombinant expression of IRS1 we found the species difference between human and rat IRS1 to depend on the IRS proteins and not on properties of the host cell.

    The adipocytes function as an energy store, critical for maintaining the energy balance, and obesity strongly correlates with insulin resistance. The insulin sensitivity of the adipocytes with regard to the size of the cells was examined by separating small and large cells from the same subject. We found no increase of the GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation in the large cells, whereas there was a two-fold increase in the small cells. This finding supports the idea of a causal relationship between the enlarged fat cells and reduced insulin sensitivity found in obese subjects.

    The insulin receptor is located and functional in a specific membrane structure, the caveola. The morphology of the caveola and the localization of the caveolar marker proteins caveolin-1 and -2 were examined. Caveolae were shown to be connected to the exterior by a narrow neck. Caveolin was found to be located at the neck region of caveolae, which imply importance of caveolin for maintaining and sequestering caveolae to the plasma membrane.

    In conclusion, the transfection technique proved to be highly useful for molecular biological studies of insulin signal transduction and morphology in primary adipocytes.

    List of papers
    1. Expression of a mutant IRS inhibits metabolic and mitogenic signalling of insulin in human adipocytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expression of a mutant IRS inhibits metabolic and mitogenic signalling of insulin in human adipocytes
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    2004 (English)In: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, ISSN 0303-7207, Vol. 221, no 1-2, 1-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Adipose tissue is a primary target of insulin, but knowledge about insulin signalling in human adipocytes is limited. We developed an electroporation technique for transfection of primary human adipocytes with a transfection efficiency of 15% ± 5 (mean ± S.D.). Human adipocytes were co-transfected with a mutant of IRS-3 (all four potential PI3-kinase binding motifs mutated: IRS-3F4) and HA-tagged protein kinase B (HA-PKB/Akt). HA-PKB/Akt was immunoprecipitated from cell lysates with anti-HA antibodies, resolved with SDS-PAGE, and immunoblotted with phospho-specific antibodies. We found that IRS-3F4 blocked insulin stimulation of HA-PKB/Akt phosphorylation and in further analyses also translocation of recombinant HA-tagged glucose transporter to the plasma membrane. IRS-3F4 also blocked insulin-induced activation of the transcription factor Elk-1. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of IRS for metabolic as well as mitogenic signalling by insulin. This method for transfection of primary human adipocytes will be useful for studying insulin signalling in human adipocytes with molecular biological techniques.

    Keyword
    Insulin, Transfection, Human, Adipocytes, Protein kinase B, Elk-1
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14538 (URN)10.1016/j.mce.2004.04.011 (DOI)000222854100001 ()
    Available from: 2007-06-01 Created: 2007-06-01 Last updated: 2013-10-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Cell surface orifices of caveolae and localization of caveolin to the necks of caveolae in adipocytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cell surface orifices of caveolae and localization of caveolin to the necks of caveolae in adipocytes
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    2003 (English)In: Molecular Biology of the Cell, ISSN 1059-1524, E-ISSN 1939-4586, Vol. 14, no 10, 3967-3976 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Caveolae are noncoated invaginations of the plasma membrane that form in the presence of the protein caveolin. Caveolae are found in most cells, but are especially abundant in adipocytes. By high-resolution electron microscopy of plasma membrane sheets the detailed structure of individual caveolae of primary rat adipocytes was examined. Caveolin-1 and -2 binding was restricted to the membrane proximal region, such as the ducts or necks attaching the caveolar bulb to the membrane. This was confirmed by transfection with myc-tagged caveolin-1 and -2. Essentially the same results were obtained with human fibroblasts. Hence caveolin does not form the caveolar bulb in these cells, but rather the neck and may thus act to retain the caveolar constituents, indicating how caveolin participates in the formation of caveolae. Caveolae, randomly distributed over the plasma membrane, were very heterogeneous, varying in size between 25 and 150 nm. There was about one million caveolae in an adipocyte, which increased the surface area of the plasma membrane by 50%. Half of the caveolae, those larger than 50 nm, had access to the outside of the cell via ducts and 20-nm orifices at the cell surface. The rest of the caveolae, those smaller than 50 nm, were not open to the cell exterior. Cholesterol depletion destroyed both caveolae and the cell surface orifices.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14539 (URN)10.1091/mbc.E03-01-0050 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-06-01 Created: 2007-06-01 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. Human, but not rat, IRS1 targets to the plasma membrane in both human and rat primary adipocytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human, but not rat, IRS1 targets to the plasma membrane in both human and rat primary adipocytes
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    2007 (English)In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 363, no 3, 840-845 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Adipocytes are primary targets for insulin control of metabolism. The activated insulin receptor phosphorylates insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), which acts as a docking protein for downstream signal mediators. In the absence of insulin stimulation, IRS1 in rat adipocytes is intracellular but in human adipocytes IRS1 is constitutively targeted to the plasma membrane. Stimulation of adipocytes with insulin increased the amount of IRS1 at the plasma membrane 2-fold in human adipocytes, but >10-fold in rat adipocytes, with the same final amount of IRS1 at the plasma membrane in cells from both species. Cross-transfection of rat adipocytes with human IRS1, or human adipocytes with rat IRS1, demonstrated that the species difference was due to the IRS1 protein and not the cellular milieus or posttranslational modifications. Chimeric IRS1, consisting of the conserved N-terminus of rat IRS1 with the variable C-terminal of human IRS1, did not target the plasma membrane, indicating that subtle sequence differences direct human IRS1 to the plasma membrane.

    Keyword
    Insulin receptor substrate; Human; Rat; Insulin; Plasma membrane; Signaling; Transfection; Caveolae
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14540 (URN)10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.09.065 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-06-01 Created: 2007-06-01 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane is blunted in large compared with small primary fat cells isolated from the same individual
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane is blunted in large compared with small primary fat cells isolated from the same individual
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    2007 (English)In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 50, no 8, 1716-1722 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: Several studies have suggested that large fat cells are less responsive to insulin than small fat cells. However, in these studies, large fat cells from obese individuals were compared with smaller fat cells from leaner participants, in effect making it impossible to draw conclusions about whether there is a causal relationship between fat cell size and insulin sensitivity. We hypothesised that small fat cells might be more insulin-responsive than large adipocytes when obtained from the same individual.

    Materials and methods: We developed a method of sorting isolated primary human fat cells by using nylon filters of two different pore sizes. The cells were stained to visualise DNA, which allowed discrimination from artefacts such as lipid droplets. The sorted cells were left to recover overnight, since we had previously demonstrated that this is necessary for correct assessment of insulin response.

    Results: We found similar amounts of the insulin receptor (IR), IRS-1 and GLUT4 when we compared small and large adipocytes from the same volunteer by immunoblotting experiments using the same total cell volume from both cell populations. Activation of IR, IRS-1 and Akt1 (also known as protein kinase B) by insulin was similar in the two cell populations. However, immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of plasma membrane sheets did not reveal any increase in the amount of GLUT4 in the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation in the large fat cells, whereas we saw a twofold increase in the amount of GLUT4 in the small fat cells.

    Conclusions/interpretation: Our results support a causal relationship between the accumulation of large fat cells in obese individuals and reduced insulin responsiveness.

    Keyword
    Adipocyte, GLUT4, Human, Insulin, Insulin receptor, Insulin resistance, IRS-1, Primary fat cell
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14541 (URN)10.1007/s00125-007-0713-1 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-06-01 Created: 2007-06-01 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 24.
    Hoshi Larsson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Multiple Case Study on How SMEs Negotiate2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The objective of this paper is to explore buyer-seller negotiations in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and highlight patterns and differences within the studied group of companies. Design/methodology/approach – This is a multiple case study based on 12 cases. Each case represents an SME in the Östergötland county of Sweden. Representatives from each case company were interviewed. A cross case analysis informs the discussion. Findings – Results indicate that SMEs’ bargaining power is highly dependent on external factors such as competition, and the negotiation strategies of SMEs are influenced by their strong relationship focus. Negotiation preparation is given low priority in favor of informal information gathering during encounters with customers. The negotiation process of SMEs is embedded and influenced by the relational context. Strong SME negotiation areas include the understanding of customer value. Weak areas include the use of negotiation teams, and negotiation performance evaluation. Research limitations/implications – SMEs have previously been treated without special attention in research concerning business negotiations. However, this study identifies multiple aspects in which SMEs approach negotiations with customers differently. Most importantly, future research concerning SME negotiations should consider the relationship aspect of negotiations. Practical implications – Practitioners in SMEs should consider how their market affects their bargaining power, possible use of negotiation teams, alignment of company ethics and negotiation strategies, and spending more time on negotiation preparation and evaluation. Social implications – Originality/value – The study contributes through its exploration and identification of patterns of SMEs’ negotiations with customers. It adds critical areas to consider, to the developing literatures on SMEs and on business negotiations.

  • 25.
    Vande Walle, Johan GJ
    et al.
    Dept Pediatric Nephrology, University of Gent, .
    Mattsson, Sven
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Schurmans, Thierry
    Dept of Pediatric Nephrology, Brussels, Belgium.
    Hoebeke, Piet
    Dept of Pediatrics Urology, University of Gent .
    Deboe, Veerle
    Dept of Urology van de Vrije Universiteit, Brussels.
    Norgaard, Jens Peter
    Ferring Pharmaceuticals A/S Copenhagen, Denmark. .
    A new fast-melting oral formulation of desmopressin: A pharmacodynamic study in children with primary nocturnal enuresis2006In: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 97, no 3, 603-609 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacodynamic properties of a new oral lyophilisate formulation of desmopressin (in single doses of 30, 60, 120, 240, 360 or 480 μg) in children with known primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) and thus identify those dosages that could provide a duration of action corresponding to a typical length of night-time sleep in children with PNE, additional objectives were to determine the safety and tolerability of desmopressin in this population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Children with PNE (mean three or more wet nights/week), aged 6-12 years, were randomized into a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. An overhydration technique was used before dosing to suppress endogenous vasopressin production and thereby ensure that any antidiuresis could be attributed to treatment. Dosing with desmopressin or placebo occurred when urinary production was >0.13 mL/min/kg. Urinary volume, osmolality and duration of urinary-concentrating action (above three threshold levels: 125, 200 and 400 mOsm/kg) were determined as endpoints. RESULTS: All 72 participants receiving desmopressin had a pharmacodynamic response to the drug, while there was no change in urinary output in the 12 placebo-treated patients. There was a clear relationship between desmopressin dose and duration of action and osmolality during action, although the three highest-dose groups had similar results. The mean duration of action of desmopressin at the lowest osmolality threshold level was 3.6-10.6 h, according to dose, for the highest threshold, the values were 1.3-8.6 h. CONCLUSION: Desmopressin, as the oral lyophilisate, causes a marked decrease in urinary output in hydrated children with PNE. A small dose range (120-240 μg) is likely to control diuresis for a period corresponding to a night's sleep (7-11 h) in most children with PNE. However, some patients might require a higher dose to obtain antidiuresis for the complete night. © 2006 BJU International.

  • 26.
    Roback, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nelson, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hass, Ursula
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A New Fiberoptical Respiratory Rate Monitor for the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit2005In: Pediatric Pulmonology, ISSN 8755-6863, Vol. 39, no 2, 120-126 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new technique for respiratory rate measurement in the neonatal intensive care unit, fiberoptic respirometry (FORE), was tested using a specially designed nasal adapter. The aim was to investigate the system's accuracy and compare it to the transthoracic impedance (TTI) method and manual counting (MC). Further, the relationship between accuracy and degree of body movement was investigated. Seventeen neonates of median gestational age 35 weeks were included in the study. Video recordings (synchronized with data recordings) were used for classification of body movement. Breaths per minute data were obtained for 23-32-min periods per child, and a subset of these included MC performed by experienced nurses. A Bland-Altman analysis showed low accuracy of both FORE and TTI. A >20% deviation from MC was found in 22.7% and 23.8% of observations for the two methods, respectively. Both methods had accuracy problems during body movement. FORE tended to underestimate respiratory rate due to probe displacement, while TTI overestimated due to motion artefacts. The accuracy was also strongly subject-dependent. The neonates were undisturbed by the FORE device. In some cases, though, it was difficult to keep the adapter positioned in the airway. Further development should, therefore, focus on FORE adapter improvements to maintain probe position over time.

  • 27.
    Ahmad, M. Rauf
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden and Department of Statistics, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    von Rosen, Dietrich
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematical Statistics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Singull, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematical Statistics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A note on mean testing for high dimensional multivariate data under non-normality2013In: Statistica neerlandica (Print), ISSN 0039-0402, E-ISSN 1467-9574, Vol. 67, no 1, 81-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A test statistic is considered for testing a hypothesis for the mean vector for multivariate data, when the dimension of the vector, p, may exceed the number of vectors, n, and the underlying distribution need not necessarily be normal. With n,p→∞, and under mild assumptions, but without assuming any relationship between n and p, the statistic is shown to asymptotically follow a chi-square distribution. A by product of the paper is the approximate distribution of a quadratic form, based on the reformulation of the well-known Box's approximation, under high-dimensional set up. Using a classical limit theorem, the approximation is further extended to an asymptotic normal limit under the same high dimensional set up. The simulation results, generated under different parameter settings, are used to show the accuracy of the approximation for moderate n and large p.

  • 28.
    Pizzari, T.
    et al.
    Section of Ethology, Dept. of Anim. Environ. and Health, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 234, Skara SE 532 31, Sweden, Evolution and Ecology Group, School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology .
    Cornwallis, C.K.
    Dept. of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, United Kingdom.
    A novel test of the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis reveals independent components of fertility2004In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 271, no 1534, 51-58 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis predicts that male sexual ornaments signal fertilizing efficiency and that the coevolution of male ornaments and female preference for such ornaments is driven by female pursuit of fertility benefits. In addition, directional testicular asymmetry frequently observed in birds has been suggested to reflect fertilizing efficiency and to covary with ornament expression. However, the idea of a phenotypic relationship between male ornaments and fertilizing efficiency is often tested in populations where environmental effects mask the underlying genetic associations between ornaments and fertilizing efficiency implied by this idea. Here, we adopt a novel design, which increases genetic diversity through the crossing of two divergent populations while controlling for environmental effects, to test: (i) the phenotypic relationship between male ornaments and both, gonadal (testicular mass) and gametic (sperm quality) components of fertilizing efficiency, and (ii) the extent to which these components are phenotypically integrated in the fowl, Gallus gallus. We show that consistent with theory, the testosterone-dependent expression of a male ornament, the comb, predicted testicular mass. However, despite their functional inter-dependence, testicular mass and sperm quality were not phenotypically integrated. Consistent with this result, males of one parental population invested more in testicular and comb mass, whereas males of the other parental population had higher sperm quality. We found no evidence that directional testicular asymmetry covaried with ornament expression. These results shed new light on the evolutionary relationship between male fertilizing efficiency and ornaments. Although testosterone-dependent ornaments may covary with testicular mass and thus reflect sperm production rate, the lack of phenotypic integration between gonadal and gametic traits reveals that the expression of an ornament is unlikely to reflect the overall fertilizing efficiency of a male.

  • 29.
    Mbabazi, Penelope
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Fejes, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Owe
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    A phenomenographic study of students' conceptions of quality in learning in higher education in Rwanda2013In: Studies in Continuing Education, ISSN 0158-037X, E-ISSN 1470-126X, Vol. 35, no 3, 337-350 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to understand the different ways that university students conceptualise quality in learning by drawing on a phenomenographic approach. A total of 20 students in higher education in Rwanda were interviewed and analysis of the interviews generated an outcome space of conceptions of quality in learning as transformation, practice, knowledge durability and employability. The findings illustrate the importance of the relationship between education and work as an important aspect of conceptions of quality in learning. This relationship connects to the discourse of employability in which graduates are expected to become flexible and adaptable to changes in context and over the course of time.

  • 30. Mack, WJ
    et al.
    Preston-Martin, S
    Dal Maso, L
    Galanti, R
    Xiang, M
    Franceschi, S
    Hallquist, A
    Jin, F
    Kolonel, L
    La Vecchia, C
    Levi, F
    Linos, A
    Lund, E
    McTiernan, A
    Mabuchi, K
    Negri, E
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Ron, E
    A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer: Cigarette smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea2003In: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 14, no 8, 773-785 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyze the role of smoking, alcohol, coffee and tea in relation to thyroid cancer, we conducted a pooled analysis of 14 case-control studies conducted in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Methods: The sample consisted of 2725 thyroid cancer cases (2247 females, 478 males) and 4776 controls (3699 females, 1077 males). Conditional logistic regression with stratification on study, age at diagnosis, and gender was used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Thyroid cancer risk was reduced in persons who had ever smoked. The relationship was more pronounced in current smokers (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.6-0.7) than former smokers (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.8-1.1). There were significant trends of reduced risk with greater duration and frequency of smoking. For consumption of wine and beer, there was a significant trend of decreasing thyroid cancer risk (p = 0.02) that was not maintained after adjustment for current smoking (p = 0.12). Thyroid cancer risk was not associated with consumption of coffee or tea. These findings were consistent in both gender-specific and histology-specific (papillary and follicular) analyses. Conclusions: Pooled analyses of these geographically diverse case-control data indicate a reduced thyroid cancer risk associated with current smoking. A reduced risk associated with alcohol was eliminated after adjustment for smoking, and caffeinated beverages did not alter thyroid cancer risk.

  • 31.
    Fayle, Tom M
    et al.
    University Museum Zoology, Cambridge.
    Bakker, Lieneke
    University Putra Malaysia.
    Mui Ching, Tan
    University Putra Malaysia.
    Davey, Alexandra
    New Guinea Binatang Research Centre.
    Earl, Adam
    Tmn Kingfisher.
    Hyland, Steve
    Linköping University. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ligtermoet, Emma
    Danum Valley Field Centre.
    Kai Lin, Ling
    University Malaysia Sabah.
    Phouthakone, Luangyotha
    Wildlife Conservation Society.
    Herlander Martins, Bruno
    Wildlife Conservation Society.
    Kepfer Rojas, Sebastian
    New Guinea Binatang Research Centre.
    Phuong Thi, Thanh Sam
    Bogor Agriculture University.
    Wahyudi, Agus
    Dipterocarp Research Centre.
    Walsh, Judy
    Malahide Co.
    Weigl, Stefanie
    University of Bristol.
    Jehle, Robert
    University of Salford.
    Metcalfe, Dan
    CSIRO Sustainable Ecosyst, Atherton.
    Trevelyan, Rosie
    Trop Biol Association.
    A positive relationship between ant biodiversity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and rate of scavenger-mediated nutrient redistribution along a disturbance gradient in a south-east Asian rain forest2011In: MYRMECOLOGICAL NEWS, ISSN 1994-4136, Vol. 14, 5-12 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human modification of pristine habitats almost always leads to the local extinction of a subset of the species present. This means that the ecosystem processes carried out by the remaining species may change. It is well documented that particular species of ants carry out important ecosystem processes. However, while much work has been carried out to investigate the link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in other taxa, this has received relatively little attention for ant communities. In particular, no attempt has been made to link levels of ant diversity with the rates of nutrient redistribution carried out by scavenging species. Here we investigate the impacts of anthropogenic disturbance on the rate of scavenger-mediated nutrient redistribution, using bait-removal rate as a surrogate measure. We found that although ant species richness, diversity, biomass and rates of bait removal did not change systematically across the disturbance gradient, the rate of bait removal was related to ant species richness. Sites with more ant species experienced a faster rate of bait removal. This is the first documented positive relationship between ant species richness and the rate of an ecosystem process. If these results are applicable at larger spatial scales for a wider range of nutrient sources, loss of ant species could lead to important changes in the way that ecosystems function.

  • 32.
    Fyrberg, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skoglund, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wolk, M
    Israel Minist Health Central Labs, Israel .
    Lotfi, Kourosh
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    A potential role of fetal hemoglobin in the development of multidrug resistance2012In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 427, no 3, 456-460 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our previous data from a human leukemic cell line made resistant to the nucleoside analog (NA) 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylguanine (AraG) revealed a massive upregulation of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) genes and the ABCB1 gene coding for the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The expression of these genes is regulated through the same mechanisms, with activation of the p38-MAPK pathway and inhibition of methylation making transcription factors more accessible to activate these genes. We could show that AraG, as well as other NAs, and P-gp substrates could induce global DNA demethylation and induction of Hb gamma and P-gp both at the mRNA and protein expression level. We speculate that the expression of HbF prior to drug exposure or in drug-resistant cell lines is a strategy of the cancer to gain more oxygen, and thereby survival benefits. We also believe that P-gp may be induced in order to excrete Hb degradation products from the cells that would otherwise be toxic. By using Hb gamma siRNA and pharmacological inhibitors of HbF production we here present a possible relationship between HbF induction and multi-drug resistance in a human leukemia cell line model.

  • 33.
    Malik, A
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Abdulhamid, H
    Lund University.
    Pagels, J
    Lund University.
    Rissler, J
    Lund University.
    Lindskog, M
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, P
    Lund University.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jozsa, P
    Volvo Technology Corp.
    Visser, J
    Ford Motor Co.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sanati, M
    Lund University.
    A Potential Soot Mass Determination Method from Resistivity Measurement of Thermophoretically Deposited Soot2011In: AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0278-6826, Vol. 45, no 2, 284-294 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Miniaturized detection systems for nanometer-sized airborne particles are in demand, for example in applications for onboard diagnostics downstream particulate filters in modern diesel engines. A soot sensor based on resistivity measurements was developed and characterized. This involved generation of soot particles using a quenched co-flow diffusion flame; depositing the particles onto a sensor substrate using thermophoresis and particle detection using a finger electrode structure, patterned on thermally oxidized silicon substrate. The generated soot particles were characterized using techniques including Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer for mobility size distributions, Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass analyzer for the mass-mobility relationship, and Transmission Electron Microscopy for morphology. The generated particles were similar to particles from diesel engines in concentration, mobility size distribution, and mass fractal dimension. The primary particle size, effective density and organic mass fraction were slightly lower than values reported for diesel engines. The response measured with the sensors was largely dependent on particle mass concentration, but increased with increasing soot aggregate mobility size. Detection down to cumulative mass as small as 20-30 mu g has been demonstrated. The detection limit can be improved by using a more sensitive resistance meter, modified deposition cell, larger flow rates of soot aerosol and modifying the sensor surface.

  • 34.
    Chicksand, Daniel
    et al.
    Aston Business School, UK.
    Yang, Tong
    Unilever.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordigården, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Power Leverage perspective on Business Relationship Managment in China2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35. Welinder, H
    et al.
    Nielsen, J
    Rylander, L
    Ståhlbom, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    A prospective study of the relationship between exposure and specific antibodies in workers exposed to organic acid anhydrides2001In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 56, no 6, 506-511 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The exposure-response relationships for the induction of specific IgE and IgG were evaluated in a prospective study of workers exposed to organic acid anhydrides (OAAs). Special attention was paid to the modifying effects of atopy and smoking. Methods: The subjects were 163 previously unexposed persons exposed to epoxy resins with hexahydro-, methylhexahydro-, and methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride as curing agents. The levels of OAAs in air and of specific IgE and IgG in serum were recurrently monitored. The mean observation time was 32 (1-105) months. Results: The mean combined OAA exposure of the subjects was 15.4 (< 1-189) ╡g/m3. Positive specific IgE was demonstrated by 21 (13%) subjects with a mean induction time of 8.8 (1-35) months. The incidence of sensitization was 4.1 cases/1000 months at risk. The relative risk (OR) for atopics was 5.4 (1.9-15.3, 95% CI). An exposure-response relationship was demonstrated by an increasing risk of sensitization with increasing exposure. Conclusions: An association between exposure and atopy, respectively, and the induction of specific antibodies against OAAs were observed. The risk for atopics was comparable with the risk for the subjects in the most exposed group.

  • 36.
    Gavel, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A quantified and interactive relationship matrix applied to aircraft fuel system conceptual design2010In: International Review of Aerospace Engineering (IREASE), ISSN 1973-7459, E-ISSN 1973-7440, Vol. 3, no 1, 9-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how the House of Quality matrix has been quantified for use in conceptual design. The House of Quality matrix is used for visualizing the relationships between subsystem design parameters and top-level requirements. The idea is then to insert quantified values of the subsystems’ characteristics as coupling elements, thus visualizing both the requirements-subsystems relationship and system performance. Here, a spreadsheet program (MS Excel) with a built-in modeling/solver tool has been used to model the subsystems. This makes the matrix interactive, thus facilitating trade studies between requirements and system design. By adding probabilistic analysis it is possible to explore the entire range of system behavior early on, rather than just focusing on one or more worst case scenarios as has previously often been the case, and thus promoting the selection of more optimal solutions. The quantitative approach also opens up for mathematically formal optimization which has been exploited by deriving Pareto fronts for visualization of conflicting objectives, one such objective being. The design application used as illustrative example is conceptual design of an aircraft fuel system.

  • 37.
    Gavel, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design .
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design .
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design .
    A quantified relationship matrix aided by optimization and probabilistic design2008In: 26th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences,2008, Anchorage: ICAS , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Mörelius, Eva-lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Örtenstrand, Annika
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Frostell, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A randomised trial of continuous skin-to-skin contact after preterm birth and the effects on salivary cortisol, parental stress, depression, and breastfeeding2015In: Early Human Development, ISSN 0378-3782, E-ISSN 1872-6232, Vol. 91, no 1, 63-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    To evaluate the effects of almost continuous skin-to-skin contact (SSC) on salivary cortisol, parental stress, parental depression, and breastfeeding.

    STUDY DESIGN:

    This is a randomised study engaging families of late preterm infants (32-35weeks gestation). Salivary cortisol reactivity was measured in infants during a nappy change at one month corrected age, and in infants and mothers during still-face at four month corrected age. Both parents completed the Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ) at one month and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at one and four months. Ainsworth's sensitivity scale was used to control for parental sensitivity.

    SUBJECTS:

    Thirty-seven families from two different neonatal care units in Sweden, randomised to either almost continuous SSC or standard care (SC).

    RESULTS:

    Infants randomised to SSC had a lower salivary cortisol reactivity at one month (p=0.01). There was a correlation between the mothers' and the preterm infants' salivary cortisol levels at four months in the SSC group (ρ=0.65, p=0.005), but not in the SC group (ρ=0.14, p=0.63). Fathers in SSC scored lower on the SPSQ sub-scale spouse relationship problems compared to fathers in SC (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Almost continuous SSC decreases infants' cortisol reactivity in response to handling, improves the concordance between mothers' and infants' salivary cortisol levels, and decreases fathers' experiences of spouse relationship problems.

  • 39.
    Salomonsson, Bjorn
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Sandell, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF MOTHER-INFANT PSYCHOANALYTIC TREATMENT: I. OUTCOMES ON SELF-REPORT QUESTIONNAIRES AND EXTERNAL RATINGS2011In: INFANT MENTAL HEALTH JOURNAL, ISSN 0163-9641, Vol. 32, no 2, 207-231 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mother infant relationship disturbances occur in three domains: maternal distress, infant functional problems, and relationship difficulties. They constitute common clinical problems. In Sweden, they are usually handled by nurses as part of public Child Health Centre care. Severe cases are referred to child psychiatry services. This randomized controlled trial compared two groups of mother infant dyads in a Stockholm sample. One received only Child Health Centre care (the "CHCC" group) while the other received mother infant psychoanalytic treatment plus CHCC (the "MIP" group). Eighty dyads of mothers and infants under I years of age where the mothers had serious concerns about themselves in their role as mothers, their infants well-being, or the mother baby relationship were randomly selected for either the MIP or the CHCC group. The primary outcomes were mother-reported depression, mother-reported infant functional problems, and interviewer-based relationship assessments, all at 6 months after joining the project. Secondary outcomes were mother-reported stress and general psychic distress, externally rated video-recorded interactions, and the consumption of healthcare at the CHC, again all after 6 months. Intent-to-treat analyses of Treatment x Time effects significantly favored MIP treatment for maternal depression, mother infant relationships, and maternal sensitivity. Effects were nearly significant on maternal stress, but nonsignificant on mother-reported infant functional problems, general psychic distress, maternal interactive structuring and nonintrusiveness, infant responsiveness and involvement, and healthcare consumption. MIP treatment improved mother infant relationships and maternal sensitivity and depression, all of which are known to influence child development. If effects persist and are reproduced, MIP treatment holds promise for more widespread use.

  • 40.
    Salomonsson, Bjorn
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Sandell, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF MOTHER-INFANT PSYCHOANALYTIC TREATMENT: II. PREDICTIVE AND MODERATING INFLUENCES OF QUALITATIVE PATIENT FACTORS2011In: INFANT MENTAL HEALTH JOURNAL, ISSN 0163-9641, Vol. 32, no 3, 377-404 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A randomized control trial was performed on 75 dyads in Stockholm, Sweden, with infants under I years. It recruited mothers who worried about the babies, themselves as mothers, and/or the mother-baby relationship. Two groups of mother-infant dyads were compared. One received only Child Health Centre care (the "CHCC" group) while the other received mother-infant psychoanalytic treatment plus CHCC (the "MIP" group). Significant treatment effects were found on mother-reported depression, interviewer-rated dyadic relationship qualities and externally rated maternal sensitivity, and near-significant effects on mother-reported stress, all in favor of MIP. The objective of this study is to investigate the predictive and moderating influences on outcomes by qualitatively assessed maternal and infant characteristics. The qualitative factors covered maternal suitability for psychoanalysis, and "ideal types" of mother and child, respectively. Outcome measures from two interviews with a 6-month interval were depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (J. Cox, J. Holden, andamp; R. Sagovsky, 1987), stress (Swedish Parental Stress Questionnaire (M. Ostberg, B. Hagekull, andamp; S. Wettergren, 1997), distress (Swedish Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90; L.R. Derogatis, I 994; M. Fridell, Z. Cesarec, M. Johansson, andamp; S. Mailing Thorsen, 2002) and infant social and emotional functioning (Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional (J. Squires, D. Bricker, K. Heo, andamp; E. Twombly, 2002), relationship qualities (Parent-Infant Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS; ZERO TO THREE, 2005), and videotaped interactions (Emotional Availability Scales, Z. Biringen, J.L. Robinson, andamp; R.N. Emde, 1998). Suitability for psychoanalysis predicted outcome only on the PIR-GAS. Two overarching maternal ideal types were created, reflecting their attitude to the psychoanalytic process: "Participators" and "Abandoned." The Participators benefited more from MIP than they did From CHCC on maternal interactive sensitivity. A contrasting, but nonsignificant, pattern was found among the Abandoned mothers. Two ideal types of babies emerged: those "Affected" and "Unaffected" by the disturbance, respectively. Among Affected babies, dyadic relationships and sensitivity among their mothers improved significantly more from MIP than they did from CHCC. The superior effects of MIP applied especially to Participator mothers and Affected infants. For Abandoned mothers and Unaffected infants, CHCC seemed to be of equal value.

  • 41.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A reading comprehension perspective on problem solving2006In: Developing and researching quality in mathematics teaching and learning : proceedings of MADIF 5 : the 5th Swedish Mathematics Education Research Seminar, Malmö, January 24-25, 2006 / [ed] Christer Bergsten and Barbro Grevholm, Linköping: Svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning (SMDF) , 2006, 136-145 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the bi-directional relationship between reading comprehension and problem solving, i.e. how reading comprehension can affect and become an integral part of problem solving, and how it can be affected by the mathematical text content or by the mathematical situation when the text is read. Based on theories of reading comprehension and a literature review it is found that the relationship under study is complex and that the reading process can affect as well as act as an integral part of the problem solving process but also that not much research has focused on this relationship.

  • 42.
    Raddats, Chris
    et al.
    Management School, University of Liverpool , Liverpool , UK.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Management, Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management , Hanken School of Economics , Helsinki , Finland.
    A reconceptualization of manufacturers' service strategies2014In: Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, ISSN 1051-712X, E-ISSN 1547-0628, Vol. 21, no 1, 19-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: As part of service infusion, manufacturers use services to differentiate their products and provide growth. Although several attempts have been made to classify manufacturers' service strategies and offerings, most have been based on small purposive samples. The purpose of this article is to create a generic typology of manufacturers' service strategies.

    Methodology/approach: The unit of analysis was the manufacturer or strategic business unit. The data collection was based on a survey of 145 B2B manufacturers in the United Kingdom.

    Findings: Three categories of service offerings were identified: product-attached services, operations services on own products, and vendor independent operations services. These categories are used to specify three generic service strategies: Services Doubters, for whom services are not a strong differentiator with no focus on any category of service offerings; Services Pragmatists, for whom product-attached services are a key differentiator; Services Enthusiasts, for whom services are both a product differentiator and an enabler of growth, with all three categories of service offerings important.

    Research implications: Whereas prior studies tend to use the concepts of service strategies and categories of service offerings interchangeably, we find empirical support for the importance of making a clear distinction between the two concepts.

    Practical implications: Manufacturers can be classified according to their services strategies. For Services Doubters service infusion is unlikely to be an appropriate approach to creating differentiation. For Services Pragmatists services play a crucial role in creating product differentiation. Services Enthusiasts use services to both differentiate their own products and also develop services-led growth.

    Originality/value/contribution: The paper exposes an ambiguity in the extant literature, with a manufacturer's categories of service offerings used as proxies for service strategies. A new typology of service strategies is presented based on categories of service offerings, which provides insight into how manufacturers infuse services.

  • 43.
    Bäckström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Refined View of Causal Graphs and Component Sizes: SP-Closed Graph Classes and Beyond2013In: The journal of artificial intelligence research, ISSN 1076-9757, E-ISSN 1943-5037, Vol. 47, 575-611 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The causal graph of a planning instance is an important tool for planning both in practice and in theory. The theoretical studies of causal graphs have largely analysed the computational complexity of planning for instances where the causal graph has a certain structure, often in combination with other parameters like the domain size of the variables. Chen and Giménez ignored even the structure and considered only the size of the weakly connected components. They proved that planning is tractable if the components are bounded by a constant and otherwise intractable. Their intractability result was, however, conditioned by an assumption from parameterised complexity theory that has no known useful relationship with the standard complexity classes. We approach the same problem from the perspective of standard complexity classes, and prove that planning is NP-hard for classes with unbounded components under an additional restriction we refer to as SP-closed. We then argue that most NP-hardness theorems for causal graphs are difficult to apply and, thus, prove a more general result; even if the component sizes grow slowly and the class is not densely populated with graphs, planning still cannot be tractable unless the polynomial hierachy collapses. Both these results still hold when restricted to the class of acyclic causal graphs. We finally give a partial characterization of the borderline between NP-hard and NP-intermediate classes, giving further insight into the problem.

  • 44.
    Rönnbäck, Åsa
    et al.
    Division of Quality Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg.
    Witell, Lars
    Service Research Center, Karlstad University.
    A review of empirical investigations comparing quality initiatives in manufacturing and service organizations2008In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 18, no 6, 577-593 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate, by reviewing the literature, the relationship between quality management and business performance with a comparison between manufacturing and service organizations.Design/methodology/approach – This meta-analytic study critically examines the literature and evaluates the business performance implications of adopting quality management principles in manufacturing and service organizations. Altogether, 14 published research studies were identified that focused on the relationship between quality management and business performance with a comparison between manufacturing and service organizations.Findings – The results show several inconsistencies in previous research when it comes to the relationship between quality management and business performance when comparing manufacturing and service organizations. Some of these inconsistencies concern the principles of supplier relationships, leadership commitment and customer orientation. The inconsistencies can be explained by a number of factors: the difference in size of the organizations included in the studies, the cultural aspect and the research design. Regarding consistencies, two quality management principles stand out in several studies as being more central for service organizations: employee management and process orientation.Practical implications – The results can provide guidance for service managers aiming to implement quality management. In addition, the paper provides guidance to researchers about methodological issues so that future research can provide more reliable and valid results.Originality/value – The paper provides a critical review of previous research on what principles of quality management should be adopted in a service organization.

  • 45.
    Milberg, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Center of Palliative Care. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Advanced Home Care in Linköping.
    Appelquist, Gudrun
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland.
    Hagelin, Eva
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland.
    Jakobsson, Maria
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Center of Palliative Care.
    Olsson, Eva-Carin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science.
    Olsson, Maria
    Northern County of Kalmar.
    Friedrichsen, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Center of Palliative Care.
    "A rewarding conclusion of the relationship": staff members' perspectives on providing bereavement follow-up2011In: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339, Vol. 19, no 1, 37-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GOALS OF WORK: Staff members in palliative home care play an important role in supporting bereaved family members. The aim of this study was to explore staff members' perspectives on providing such support.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Staff members in six units responded (n = 120; response rate 58%) to a postal questionnaire with Likert-type and open-ended questions. The responses were analyzed using statistics and manifest content analysis.

    MAIN RESULTS: None of the respondents stated that bereavement follow-up was "most often difficult," 23% "most often rather difficult," 52.5% "most often rather easy," and 12.5% "most often easy." Apart from a tendency for age to be linked to perceived difficulty, there were no apparent patterns. Bereavement follow-up was a positive opportunity to support the family member's coping with their bereavement and to get feedback on the palliative care provided. Critical aspects concerned the question of whose needs actually were being met at bereavement follow-up, i.e., the staff members' needs for getting feedback on the care provided versus the risk of burdening the family members' by reminding them of the deceased's dying trajectory. Aspects that negatively influenced the staff members' experiences were complex and related, e.g., to the family member's dissatisfaction with the care provided, to the staff member's perceived lack of competence, and to the staff member's relationship to the family member.

    CONCLUSIONS: Bereavement follow-up was perceived as a rewarding conclusion to the relationship with the family member. The findings suggest that meaning-based coping might be an appropriate framework when understanding staff members' experiences with providing bereavement follow-up.

  • 46.
    Järemo, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Richter, Arina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A significant relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae seroreactivity and the severity of coronary atherosclerosisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Clinical evidence supporting a causal role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the process of atherosclerosis is limited. It is also uncertain if the organism participates in the inflammatory response in stable angina pectoris. The current study investigates C. pneumoniae IgG and markers reflecting the inflammatory response in stable angina pectoris. The data were subsequently compared with the extent of coronary atherosclerosis.

    Setting. Department of Cardiology, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.

    Experimental protocol. We investigated 92 patients with stable angina pectoris subject to coronary angiography to assess chest pain Before angiography C. pneumoniae IgG, neutrophil count and plasma levels of myeloperoxidase and interleukin 6 were analysed. The number of major coronary arteries (1-3) having at least one diameter narrowing(=> 50%) stenosis was determined. The patients were divided into two equal sized groups according to C. pneumoniae IgG levels.

    Results. Subjects with higher antibody concentrations had a more severe disease. The number of diseased arteries was 2.1±0.8(SD) and 1.4±0.6(SD) for the two groups, respectively. The difference proved to he highly significant (p<0.0001). The groups did not differ with respect to inflammatory parameters.

    Conclusion. This study with 92 consented individuals with stable angina pectoris suggests a causative relationship between C. pneumoniae IgG seroreactivity and the degree of coronary atherosclerosis. It does not, however, prove causality. Thus, it is likely that C. pneumoniae participates in the progression of atherosclerosis.

  • 47.
    Lindqvist Appell, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wagner, Agnieszka
    Blekinge Hospital, Sweden .
    Hindorf, Ulf
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden .
    A skewed thiopurine metabolism is a common clinical phenomenon that can be successfully managed with a combination of low-dose azathioprine and allopurinol2013In: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis, ISSN 1873-9946, E-ISSN 1876-4479, Vol. 7, no 6, 510-513 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: A skewed thiopurine metabolism is a phenomenon associated with both poor treatment response and toxicity. Our aim was to evaluate the frequency of this phenomenon and the relationship to thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) function. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: All thiopurine metabolite measurements in adult patients (n=4033) between January 2006 and April 2012 were assessed to evaluate the occurrence of a skewed metabolism and the relationship to TPMT genotype and activity. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: A skewed metabolism was observed in 14% of all patients. It only developed in patients with a normal TPMT genotype, but was observed at all TPMT activity levels within the normal range (9.1-24.2 U/ml RBC). Two cases that illustrate typical clinical scenarios of a skewed metabolism and the effect of combination treatment with low-dose azathioprine and allopurinol are presented. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: A skewed metabolism is a common clinical phenomenon in patients with a normal TPMT function, which can develop at all TPMT activity levels within the normal range. We suggest that metabolite measurements should be considered in patients not responding to treatment and in those with hepatotoxicity or myelotoxicity in order to detect a skewed metabolism, since this phenomenon can be successfully managed by a combination of low-dose azathioprine and allopurinol.

  • 48.
    Acosta, Lilibeth
    et al.
    Potsdam Institute Climate Impact Research PIK, Germany .
    Klein, Richard J T
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden .
    Reidsma, Pytrik
    Wageningen University, Netherlands .
    Metzger, Marc J
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland .
    Rounsevell, Mark D A
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland .
    Leemans, Rik
    Wageningen University, Netherlands .
    Schroeter, Dagmar
    Int Institute Appl Syst Anal, Austria .
    A spatially explicit scenario-driven model of adaptive capacity to global change in Europe2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 5, 1211-1224 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional impact models combine exposure in the form of scenarios and sensitivity in the form of parameters, providing potential impacts of global change as model outputs. However, adaptive capacity is rarely addressed in these models. This paper presents the first spatially explicit scenario-driven model of adaptive capacity, which can be combined with impact models to support quantitative vulnerability assessment. The adaptive capacity model is based on twelve socio-economic indicators, each of which is projected into the future using four global environmental change scenarios, and then aggregated into an adaptive capacity index in a stepwise approach using fuzzy set theory. The adaptive capacity model provides insight into broad patterns of adaptive capacity across Europe, the relative importance of the various determinants of adaptive capacity, and how adaptive capacity changes over time under different social and economic assumptions. As such it provides a context for the implementation of specific adaptation measures. This could improve integrated assessment models and could be extended to other regions. However, there is a clear need for a better theoretical understanding of the adaptive capacity concept, and its relationship to the actual implementation of adaptation measures. This requires more empirical research and coordinated meta-analyses across regions and economic sectors, and the development of bottom-up modelling techniques that can incorporate human decision making.

  • 49.
    Lindkvist, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A stepwise method towards products adapted for remanufacturing2016In: DS 84: Proceedings of the DESIGN 2016 14th International Design Conference / [ed] Marjanovic Dorian, Storga Mario, Pavkovic Neven, Bojcetic Nenad, Skec Stanko, The Design Society, 2016, 321-330 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is an important component of a resource-efficient manufacturing industry [see e.g. Rose and Ishii 1999; Steinhilper 1998; Sundin and Lee 2011]. By keeping components and their embodied material in use for a longer period of time, significant energy use and emissions to air and water (e.g. CO2 and SO2) can be avoided. According to Sundin and Lee [2011], environmental comparisons of remanufacturing versus new manufacturing and/or material recycling show environmental benefits for remanufacturing. This is due to alleviation of depletion of resources, reduction of global warming potential, and better chances to close the loop for safer handling of toxic materials [Sundin and Lee 2011]. In addition to its environmental benefits, remanufacturing provides opportunities for the creation of highly skilled jobs and economic growth.

     

    In order to make remanufacturing businesses more beneficial, product information should be accessible for the remanufacturing personnel and the products should be adapted for the remanufacturing process [Sundin and Bras 2005]. Although previous research identified information that could be fed back to the design phase from remanufacturing [e.g. Lindkvist and Sundin 2012] (see Table 1), such information is not often available in the design phase [Lindkvist and Sundin 2015]. Design for remanufacturing (DfRem) aims at facilitating the remanufacturing process so that e.g. disassembly, cleaning, reprocessing and reassembly are facilitated [Sundin and Bras 2005]. However, products are often not designed for remanufacture [Sundin and Bras 2005; Hatcher et al. 2011], although there do exist guidelines for design for remanufacturing [see e.g. Charter and Gray 2008, Sundin and Bras 2005].

     

    Successful integration of DfRem requires support on a strategic as well a tactical level, i.e. both what to do and how to do it [Yang et al. 2014]. Further, Hatcher et al. [2014] point out a gap in research regarding the operational factors influencing DfRem integration into the design process. In their findings, external factors such as customer demand and internal factors such as the OEM-remanufacturer relationship were identified. This paper addresses the combination of the strategic and tactical approaches, targeting the internal factors affecting DfRem integration into the design process. The proposed method is directed at companies that include both design and remanufacturing in their operations, and specifically supports integration of information from remanufacturing into the design process in order to better adapt products for remanufacturing. 

  • 50.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Strategic Perspective on Plants in Manufacturing Networks2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation addresses the topic of manufacturing network strategies, with a particular focus on the plant perspective. Research on manufacturing networks aims at contributing decision support on how to set up and how to coordinate factories that act in a global setting. Manufacturing networks are networks consisting of wholly owned plant, as opposed to supply chains management where also plants belonging to other organisations are considered. Research on the role of the plant in manufacturing networks can help to gain insights in how the network works and how to achieve network-related competitive advantages. Over the last two decades there has been a trend in increased globalisation and when companies expand beyond their home markets there is a leap in complexity that needs to be handled. A survey of Swedish plants shows that a large majority of medium and large sized plants are part in some kind of manufacturing network, making research on such networks highly relevant.

    The overall objective of this dissertation is to investigate how factories fit into the network in terms of roles, strategic autonomy and market configurations. Much research has either focused on networks as a whole, often assuming similar or identical plants, or the focus has been on plant internal decision. This research addresses the borderland between plant and network. This dissertation addresses two research objectives. The first is to investigate the relationship between networks and plants roles with particular focus on Swedish based networks and plants and the second is to test and further develop the theory on plant roles.

    The empirical data that was used in the dissertation was the product of a mail survey and a case study at a manufacturer of heat exchangers. The survey was sent to 563 Swedish factories and included information on competitive priorities, processes, plant roles, performance, suppliers, risk as well as general product and company information. Using focus groups, the case company was followed from the start of the project in January 2006. Following the case company during five years gave the opportunity to study networks in transformation.

    The research contributed to several insights to the area of plant roles and manufacturing networks as well as to practitioners in manufacturing. Internal and external suppliers are handled differently in terms of selection criteria, which indicates different roles in the network. Detailed exploration of individual site competences has lead to an improved model based on competence themes and links between the plant level and the network level have been established. Additionally we contribute to the manufacturing strategy process area by investigating and suggesting a model for strategic decision autonomy in manufacturing networks. The results are aimed at providing guidance for decision making in manufacturing networks as well as providing an improved foundation for further research in the area.

    List of papers
    1. Designing and managing manufacturing networks: a survey of Swedish plants
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing and managing manufacturing networks: a survey of Swedish plants
    2009 (English)In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 20, no 2, 101-112 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The design and management of the manufacturing network for a firm is an important factor for its competitive position. By manufacturing network we mean the plant or plants of a manufacturing firm and the relationships with external suppliers. The way that these operate together is crucial for supporting the competition of the products in the marketplace. This article presents the results of a survey of 106 Swedish manufacturing plants. We find that the markets and supply networks of Swedish plants are global, but there is a focus on Europe. The main reason for locating a plant in Sweden is proximity to skills and knowledge, and we find no pure low-cost plants. The overall level of site competence is very high. There are many significant differences between how internal and external suppliers are selected. The choice of internal suppliers, i.e. those suppliers in the manufacturing network that belong to the same firm, is to a large extent based on a single corporate decision reflecting quality and competence, while external suppliers are chosen based on quality, price and delivery dependability considerations. This study provides a broad analysis of the manufacturing networks in which Swedish plants operate, and the roles of these plants.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2009
    Keyword
    empirical analysis, operations management, supply chain management, survey research, Sweden
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17137 (URN)10.1080/09537280802705252 (DOI)000263561600002 ()
    Note

    This is an electronic version of an article published in:Andreas Feldmann, Jan Olhager and Fredrik Persson, Designing and managing manufacturing networks-a survey of Swedish plants, 2009, PRODUCTION PLANNING and CONTROL, (20), 2, 101-112.PRODUCTION PLANNING and CONTROL is available online at informaworldTM: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537280802705252Copyright: Taylor & Francishttp://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/default.asp

    Available from: 2009-03-23 Created: 2009-03-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Internal and external suppliers in manufacturing networks: An empirical analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internal and external suppliers in manufacturing networks: An empirical analysis
    2008 (English)In: Operations Management Research, ISSN 1936-9735, E-ISSN 1936-9743, Vol. 1, no 2, 141-149 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to explore the way manufacturing firms use internal and external suppliers in the design and management of manufacturing networks. The main area of interest is to explore the similarities and differences between internal and external suppliers, with respect to their roles and the reasons for choosing a certain type of supplier. We base our analysis on data from 104 Swedish manufacturing plants and their corresponding manufacturing networks of internal and external suppliers. The results of the study show that there are significant differences between the criteria that are influential in choosing a certain type of supplier. The choice of an internal supplier is largely based on a single corporate decision, while an external supplier has to perform well on a number of criteria (primarily quality, cost, and delivery dependability). When comparing the selection criteria with competitive priorities and plant performance, we find that the criteria for selecting external suppliers has a better match than those for selecting internal suppliers. The sample contained plants having only external suppliers as well as plants having both internal and external suppliers, but the selection criteria for external suppliers are the same for both groups and not dependent upon the presence or absence of internal suppliers.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer-Verlag New York, 2008
    Keyword
    Make-or-buy, Strategic sourcing, Supplier selection
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19437 (URN)10.1007/s12063-008-0011-1 (DOI)
    Projects
    PROFIL (Vinnova)
    Available from: 2009-06-26 Created: 2009-06-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Bundles of site competences in defining plant roles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bundles of site competences in defining plant roles
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the strategic role of plants, in terms of the type and level of sitecompetence, the relationship with the strategic reason for location, and the impact onoperational performance.

    Design/methodology: We use a survey of 103 Swedish manufacturing plants that belong to international manufacturing networks. We analyze patterns within this context to identify potential archetypes of plants with respect to plant roles, based on factor analysis and cluster analysis.

    Findings: We find that the areas of site competence can be grouped into three bundles, characterized thematically as production-related, supply chain-related and developmentrelated. The plants fall into three categories: some plants have only production-related competences, some have competences concerning both production and supply chain, and the third group of plants possesses all three bundles of competences.

    Research limitations/implications: The results provide empirical evidence that site competences come in bundles in three steps according to themes rather than individually. We find no significant relationship between the level of site competence and the strategic reason for site location.

    Practical implications: The results provide insights into how site competence areas are bundled and combined for manufacturing plants, and indicate that higher levels of site competence lead to better performance in cost efficiency, quality, and new product introductions.

    Originality/value: We research patterns of site competence at a more detailed level than before, as well as study the impact on performance. The results provide empirical evidence that site competences come in bundles in three steps according to themes rather than individually.

    Keyword
    Empirical research, Manufacturing network, Operations strategy
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68663 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-27 Created: 2011-05-27 Last updated: 2011-05-27Bibliographically approved
    4. Linking networks and plant roles: The impact of changing a plant role
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking networks and plant roles: The impact of changing a plant role
    2013 (English)In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 51, no 19, 5696-5710 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturing firms are expanding their global footprint to explore new opportunities for efficient and effective production. The strategic perspective on international manufacturing networks involves both the network level and the plant level. A key aspect is the relationship between the network and the role of plants. In this research, we investigate the relationship between the network and plant perspectives in international manufacturing networks. We use an embedded case study that includes five plants in two product networks over a period of three years. We analyse how changing the role of one plant affects the network as well as the roles of the other plants in the networks. We find that decisions on plant roles are, to a very high degree, network decisions and not decisions for individual plants. Based on the insights into the case study, we also develop a framework for mapping manufacturing networks, including market coverage, plant location and site competence.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2013
    Keyword
    Case study, Global operations, International manufacturing, Longitudinal study, Manufacturing strategy
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68668 (URN)10.1080/00207543.2013.778429 (DOI)000325069700003 ()
    Available from: 2011-05-27 Created: 2011-05-27 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    5. Distribution of Manufacturing Strategy Decision-Making in Manufacturing Networks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution of Manufacturing Strategy Decision-Making in Manufacturing Networks
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with manufacturing strategy decision-making. In particular, we study how strategic decisions are distributed between the network level and manufacturing plants in manufacturing networks. We use data from 107 manufacturing plants. This research shows that manufacturing strategy decisionmaking (in terms of decision categories and policy areas) can be divided into three difference types: centralized at the network level, decentralized at the plant level, and integrated between central headquarter and local plants. All decision categories follow the same structure, i.e. one of the three types is applied to all decision areas. Thus, we do not find support for that some decision areas are centralized while others are decentralized. The levels of site competences are significantly related to these decision-making patterns, such that plants with high levels of decision autonomy have significantly higher levels of site competences than plants with other decision-making structures.

    Keyword
    Decision categories, Exploratory study, Manufacturing strategy process, Survey research.
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68664 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-27 Created: 2011-05-27 Last updated: 2011-05-27Bibliographically approved
    6. Testing a cumulative model of site competences
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing a cumulative model of site competences
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper sets out to test the cumulative nature of site competences, also referred to as technical activities and their relationship to operational performance. Based on previeous identification of competence bundles, we specifically test the hypothesis that first production responsibilities are added at a plant then supply chain and finally  development responsibilities. We do this using structural equations modeling based on data from 109 Swedish plants. The results do not conclusively confirm a cumulative model, but give partial support for the hypothesis. There is also support for that higher degree of site competences can have a positive impact on certain aspects of operational performance.

    Keyword
    Plant role, cumulative competences, structural equations modeling
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68665 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-27 Created: 2011-05-27 Last updated: 2011-05-27Bibliographically approved
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