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  • 1.
    Åström, Jennie
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Tvåsamhället: Om att förhålla sig till normer som skaver2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on single peoples construction of their lifes in relation to normative heterosexual coupledom. It is based on five interviews made with single women and men at the age of 24 to 51 who live by themselves. The queer theory which puts the heteronormativity in question is used as a theoretical framework. Discourse psychology functions as an analytic approach. It focuses on the use of language in the construction of reality in a world of determinant discourses. The thesis shows how the life of singles is made understandable where the interviewee´s constructs their reality by either creating their own life's as possible ways of living and distance themselves from coupledom or by striving for the twosome way of living. This is done by a construction of gender and age performance as different in the single and the twosome life. It also shows paradoxes where discourses of advantage independence meet discourses that construct twosome relationships as the only place for the development of real masculinity or of a special form of preferable femininity. The construction of gender and age as performed different in the single and the couple life provides an understanding of the interviewee's creation of self-image in relation to normative heterosexual coupledom.

  • 2.
    Malmström, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svedjeholm, Sanna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Heteronormativitet – en begreppsanalys: ”Alla är både offer och supportrar av systemet”2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept heteronormativity was used in the literature for the first time in 1993. This term can be found in dictionaries and encyclopedias from 2006 but only in a few of the most modern publications. The term currently lacks an exact definition. The aim of concept analysis is to identify characteristics for a term by studying its use. Healthcare relations can and should be developed into a caring relation, which is dependent on a connection involving body, mind and soul between the caregiver and the patient. The aim of this work was to describe and deepen the understanding of the term heteronormativity from a healthcare perspective. Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis of 23 scientific papers and common newspapers resulted in seven defined attributes: assumptions, norms, social hierarchies, sanctions for those deviating from the norm, gender roles, sexual relationships and stereotype family apprehension. The analysis also identified what precedes the concept, two women working with the concept and five related concepts: equality, gender, power, discrimination and homophobia. A number of consequences of which all were negative for both individuals and the society were found. Healthcare is negatively influenced in several ways by heteronormativity rendering the caring relation impossible. Conclusion: Heteronormativity leads to a number of problems and everyone are both victims and supporters of the system.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Ulrica
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Placerade barns skolgång: En studie om ungdomar som är eller har varit placerade i samhällsvård och deras upplevelse av skolgång, stöd och relationer i skolan.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt både svensk och internationell forskning är placerade barns skolgång bristfällig. Syftet med denna studie är att utifrån ett barnperspektiv undersöka hur placerade ungdomar mellan 16- och 20 år har upplevt/upplever sin skolgång och hur samspelet mellan dem och lärarna har sett ut, och även om de har fått särskilt stöd under sin skoltid. Frågeställningarna är följande: Vilka erfarenheter och upplevelser av skolan har ungdomar över 16 år som varit eller är placerade i samhällsvård? Hur har samspelet mellan ungdomarna och lärarna/pedagogerna fungerat under skolgången enligt ungdomarna? Har dessa ungdomar fått något särskilt stöd under sin skolgång och vad berättar de om detta? Denna studie är inspirerad av livsberättelse som metodansats och kvalitativa intervjuer har använts som datainsamlingsmetod. Fem personer har intervjuats med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Intervjuerna har transkriberats. Utifrån berättelserna har teman skapats och analyserats/diskuterats utifrån det sociokulturella perspektivet, barnperspektivet och det relationella perspektivet. Huvudresultaten i studien är att läraren i skolan har en viktig roll för placerade barn. Läraren behöver ge stöd, samspela och se ungdomarna som individer oavsett bakgrund eller prestation. Att ha en social tillhörighet och goda relationer med andra elever och lärare har också visat sig vara betydelsefullt. Ungdomarna nämner också att stödet de har fått i skolan har sett olika ut och upplevts både positivt och negativt. Positivt utifrån att de har fått det stöd de behöver men även negativt med skamfyllda upplevelser där ungdomarna känt sig bortvalda vilket i sin tur har lett till störande beteenden eller att de har gett upp hoppet om att lyckas i skolan.

  • 4.
    Rundqvist, Mikael (Editor)
    Integrationsverket, Analysavdelningen, Norrköping.
    Staten som förebild?: om planer, insatser och utfall i 17 myndigheters arbete med etnisk mångfald2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The “State as a Role Model” report (Staten som förebild?) deals with the observance of the federal politicians’ regulatory instructions and ethnic diversity work in government authorities. The general idea is that the integration policy be taken seriously, both through giving concrete substance to the objective, of the state serving as a model, when it comes to ethnic diversity, and through examining adherence to this objective. The report focuses on planning, initiatives and outcomes. Working on the basis of the regulations set out by Swedish parliament and Government, the action plans of 17 federal authorities are examines with respect to ethnic diversity, the 17 authorities are asked about their work with diversity, and the outcome in their personnel numbers are mapped. The relationships between planning, initiatives and outcomes are considered, as are the regulatory instructions.

    Of the 17 authorities selected, 15 have drawn up action plans for promoting ethnic diversity. Generally speaking, most of these programs are weak from a content perspective, and the authorities’ diversity work is in need of holistic thinking. Methods for incorporating the integration policy into current day-to-day activities need to be developed.

    One overall impression gained from the interviews with the authorities is that internal work to increase and better utilize the diversity found in Swedish society is perceived as fairly new, and as yet both given relatively little reflection and rather shaky. All of the authorities interviewed need to further develop their diversity work, some more than others.

    When it comes to the outcome in personnel numbers, the percentage of foreign-born individuals working at the 17 authorities is in general considerably lower than the corresponding figure for foreign-born workers otherwise employed in the nation. The fact that foreign-born individuals are generally under-represented in federal administration is reflected in their also being under-represented in different occupations at the 17 authorities, especially with respect to management positions.

    One important observation is that, at most of the authorities surveyed in the study, there was a decline in the total number of employees between the years of 1997 and 2001, although this has not affected foreign-born employees, as is otherwise often the case. The need to hire new people at the 17 authorities during this period, as a whole, has been small. This means that any substantial changes in the composition of personnel through new recruitment have not been possible during the initial years of the integration policy.

    When focus is directed to the local and regional levels, and to the more concrete day-to-day work of the authorities, it becomes clear that an authority’s diversity work is characterized by the nature of its activities. Indepth study on the local and regional levels also shows the importance of organizing the work, as well as the importance of diversity for externally-oriented activities, and that diversity can be perceived as somewhat of a sensitive, new or unfamiliar issue. The closer analyses also show that organizations can follow independent strategies in relation to their plans for ethnic diversity.

    Even if no strong connections can be demonstrated between planning, initiatives and outcomes in the analysis in this report, the Swedish Integration Board feels it is too early to rule out the federal stipulation that authorities use special action plans in their work to promote ethnic diversity. One must remember that the integration policy is a new policy that involves long-range development processes, not all of which are subject to immediate impact. Before the policy is abandoned, the directives on diversity should be implemented in full. One way to make the policy more clear may be to write more specific demands into the directives and budget appropriations to the authorities.

  • 5.
    Levin, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Upsetting Offsets: A case study of Colombia and their legislation of biodiversity offsetting2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Upsetting Offsets - A case study of Colombia and their legislation of biodiversity offsetting

    Authors: Linda Levin and Linda Olsson

    Supervisor: Åsa-Karin Engstrand

    Background: The global loss of biodiversity is a very timely debate, and experts are actively working on finding new ways to lessen and reverse the negative impacts placed on the environment. One such way is biodiversity offsetting and it is a methodology that is becoming more prevalent within national environmental legislations. Colombia enforced a legislation regarding biodiversity offsetting in 2012, and it quickly became apparent that the process would not progress without its issues.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to research the government, NGOs and companies in relation to the legislation of biodiversity offsetting in Colombia established in 2012, to acquire knowledge regarding their roles, relationships and the challenges they are experiencing.

    Methodology: The empirical data was collected during a two months field study in Colombia. The data was collected in a qualitative manner, through interviews with employees at governmental entities, NGOs and companies. While conducting the empirical research, theoretical information was gathered, which implies an iterative approach.

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, there are various issues to be found in the implementation process of the legislation, both in regards to practical difficulties, as well as in the relationships between the different actors. Some of these problems could be mitigated with a national habitat banking system, where the offsetting activities are managed by an external part. 

    Key words: Biodiversity offsetting, environmental governance, Colombia, NGOs, the government, companies, roles, relationships, challenges.

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Lina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    "I am not just a domestic worker": A phenomenological study of organized Nicaraguan domestic workers in Costa Rica2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, I use semi-structured interviews in an intersectional and phenomenological theoretical framework, elaborating on analytical concepts such as belonging and translocational positionality, to investigate the lived experiences of Nicaraguan migrant domestic workers in Costa Rica who are organized in the association Astradomes.

    I explore if and how their experiences are connected to intersections mainly between nationality, class and gender, and examine in which spaces and contexts agency and resistance can be located. I show that the intersections between nationality, class and gender - as well as age - have shaped the respondents experiences of working as domestic workers in Costa Rica, resulting in disorientation and hierarchical employer-employee relationships.  I also demonstrate that Astradomes is a social place where the social categories of the respondents, such as class, gender and nationality, produce solidarity, agency and resistance. Moreover, it is a space where the respondents have been able to relocate - and to feel at home.

  • 7.
    Hjelmberg, Evelina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zeisig, Filippa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Företagsförvärvs inverkan på förvärvande bolags aktiepris: En studie på den svenska marknaden med hänsyn till konjunkturläge, förvärvsfinansiering och förvärvsstorlek2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies falls well in line with the underlying theory that the acquiring company’s return will fall at the announcement of acquisition. However, this correlation is challenged by recently conducted studies that have not been able to show significant relationships between acquirers return and announcement of acquisition, and some studies have also demonstrated positive returns. The outcome appears to be dependent on many variables on which economic conditions, funding and target size have been recurrent in many studies within the subject.

    Aim: The study aims is to analyze if and how the announcement of acquisition affects the stock price of the acquiring company on the Swedish market from January 2004 to December 2014, and how the economic cycle, the funding and the acquired company’s relative size affects the said returns.

    Completion: In order to achieve the aim of the thesis empirical studies are concluded. The analysis of the acquisition’s impact on the share price is of the type of event study based on the historical time series of the price changes of the acquiring company’s stock.

    Results: This study shows that, during ten days around the announcement of an acquisition, the acquiring company’s stock price falls and produces negative returns. Daily abnormal returns shows significant negative returns, except for the date of announcement which showed no statistical relationship. The positive relationship between the abnormal returns and the economic condition in the country shows that positive returns occur in recession and negative returns occur in times of economic growth. The choice of funding has significant influence on the abnormal return when the acquirer’s shares are used as funding, providing an increase of the share price. The results also show that there is a positive correlation between the relative size of the acquired company and the acquirer’s return.

  • 8.
    Fonseka, Christopher
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ny, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hur kan incitament hantera interorganisatoriska osäkerheter i en leverantörsrelation?: En fallstudie av AstraZeneca2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: After a literature review we discovered that research about supplierrelationships exists, but that the connection between incentives, interorganizational controlssystems and uncertainties is absent. To study this connection is therefore in our interestbecause it contributes to academic research in the field of interorganizational controlsystems. This is because incentives bring a new perspective to the connection betweeninterorganizational control systems and uncertainties.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe which interorganizational uncertaintiesa buyer experiences within a supplier relationship and how the uncertainties affect thesupplier relationship. The purpose of the study is also to describe how a buyer can handleinterorganizational uncertainties with incentives.

    Completion: A comparative analysis of the supplier relationships to Arcadia, Nexus andValhalla was achieved by combining a theoretical uncertainty model and qualitativeinterviews.

    Conclusions: The study confirms that there are four different types of uncertainties in asupplier relationship, which are task uncertainty, task interdependency, environmentaluncertainties and relational stability. The effect of the uncertainties in a relationship isderived in a theoretical uncertainty model and is also empirically confirmed. The studyfurthermore identifies incentives that handle uncertainties the buyer experiences in asupplier relationship.

  • 9.
    Seidu, Mohammed Nazib
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Predicting Bankruptcy Risk: A Gaussian Process Classifciation Model2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis develops a Gaussian processes model for bankruptcy risk classification and prediction in a Bayesian framework. Gaussian processes and linear logistic models are discriminative methods used for classification and prediction purposes. The Gaussian processes model is a much more flexible model than the linear logistic model with smoothness encoded in the kernel with the potential to improve the modeling of the highly nonlinear relationships between accounting ratios and bankruptcy risk.

    We compare the linear logistic regression with the Gaussian process classification model in the context of bankruptcy prediction. The posterior distributions of the GPs are non-Gaussian, and we investigate the effectiveness of the Laplace approximation and the expectation propagation approximation across several different kernels for the Gaussian process. The approximate methods are compared to the gold standard of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling from the posterior.

    The dataset is an unbalanced panel consisting of 21846 yearly observations for about 2000 corporate firms in Sweden recorded between 1991−2008. We used 5000 observations to train the models and the rest for evaluating the predictions. We find that the choice of covariance kernel affects the GP model’s performance and we find support for the squared exponential covariance function (SEXP) as an optimal kernel.

    The empirical evidence suggests that a multivariate Gaussian processes classifier with squared exponential kernel can effectively improve bankruptcy risk prediction with high accuracy (90.19 percent) compared to the linear logistic model (83.25 percent).

  • 10.
    Ronquist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Sweden.
    Nieves-Aldrey, Jose-Luis
    CSIC, Spain.
    Buffington, Matthew L.
    USDA, DC 20250 USA.
    Liu, Zhiwei
    Eastern Illinois University, IL 61920 USA.
    Liljeblad, Johan
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Nylander, Johan A. A.
    Linkoping Univ, Bioinformat Infrastruct Life Sci, Linkoping, Sweden; Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Sweden.
    Phylogeny, Evolution and Classification of Gall Wasps: The Plot Thickens2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, e0123301- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini), which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI) and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2) markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will remain elusive.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Development of a customer support process tool in SharePoint Online2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Management thinking has changed focus from bringing in new customers to under- standing the significance of maintaining existing customers and the need to attain loyalty with these customers. This has increased the importance of keeping good customer relationships. One important element to attain good customer relations is through a solid customer support.

    In this thesis a customer support approach for a software consultancy company has been implemented. The goal was to create a SharePoint Online application that would work as a single point of contact for the customers to improve the issue resolution process.

    Requirements elicitation was done through five customer interviews to obtain opinions and needs. Moreover, based on the customer requirements a workshop were held with developers from the consultancy firm to design a workflow proto- type.

    The final result is a customer-centered process that takes reported issues and manages the tickets through the issue life cycle until the issue is resolved. The approaches relies heavily on light-weight feedback in terms of mail notifications, reminders, and automatic assignment of tasks.

    The new process was developed in SharePoint Online and implemented using SharePoint Designer. 

  • 12.
    Norman, Gustaf
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sensor Validation Using Linear Parametric Models, Artificial Neural Networks and CUSUM2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Siemens gas turbines are monitored and controlled by a large number of sensors and actuators. Process information is stored in a database and used for offline calculations and analyses. Before storing the sensor readings, a compression algorithm checks the signal and skips the values that explain no significant change. Compression of 90 % is not unusual. Since data from the database is used for analyses and decisions are made upon results from these analyses it is important to have a system for validating the data in the database. Decisions made on false information can result in large economic losses. When this project was initiated no sensor validation system was available. In this thesis the uncertainties in measurement chains are revealed. Methods for fault detection are investigated and finally the most promising methods are put to the test. Linear relationships between redundant sensors are derived and the residuals form an influence structure allowing the faulty sensor to be isolated. Where redundant sensors are not available, a gas turbine model is utilized to state the input-output relationships so that estimates of the sensor outputs can be formed. Linear parametric models and an ANN (Artificial Neural Network) are developed to produce the estimates. Two techniques for the linear parametric models are evaluated; prediction and simulation. The residuals are also evaluated in two ways; direct evaluation against a threshold and evaluation with the CUSUM (CUmulative SUM) algorithm. The results show that sensor validation using compressed data is feasible. Faults as small as 1% of the measuring range can be detected in many cases.

  • 13.
    Collin, Angelica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tollander, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Att leva med autismspektrumtillstånd: Innehållsanalys och samtalsanalys av en fokusgruppsdiskussion2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a neuropsychiatric impairment that may affect an individual's everyday life. Life areas that may be problematic include work, family, relationships and areas that require social interaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate communication in everyday life amongst adults with ASD as well as, by listening to the participants' personal narratives, explore how AST can affect an individual's life. The study was based on a video recorded focus group discussion with four participants who in adulthood have been diagnosed with ASD. Conversation Analysis and Content analysis were used for analysis of the material. The results showed that the participants have skills for social interaction and empathy. Some of the participants were perceived as using their gaze in a deviant way, and unexpected changes in topics and attempted interruptions were observed during the discussion. The majority of the participants described periods of psychiatric problems during their lives, and that the diagnosis has been important for their quality of life as it enables them to create relationships with people with similar difficulties. This appears to be important to them since they have difficulties building relationships. The results contribute to a better understanding of how a neuropsychiatric diagnosis can affect an individual's life.

  • 14.
    Åklint, Richard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khan, Muhammad Farhan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Multidimensional Visualization of News Articles2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Large data sets are difficult to visualize. For a human to find structures and understand the data, good visualization tools are required. In this project a technique will be developed that makes it possible for a user to look at complex data at different scales. This technique is obvious when viewing geographical data where zooming in and out gives a good feeling for the spatial relationships in map data or satellite images. However, for other types of data it is not obvious how much scaling should be done.

    In this project, an experimental application is developed that visualizes data in multiple dimensions from a large news article database. Using this experimental application, the user can select multiple keywords on different axis and then can create a visualization containing news articles with those keywords.

    The user is able to move around the visualization. If the camera is far away from the document icons then they are clustered using red coloured spheres. If the user moves the camera closer to the clusters they will pop up into single document icons. If the camera is very close to the document icons it is possible to read the news articles

  • 15.
    Andersson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Franklin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Friskolereformens effekt på arbetslöshet, inkomst och företagande på kommunal nivå: En ekonometrisk analys av ökade elevandelarna i fristående gymnasieskola2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown significant improvements in grades for the students in municipalities that have a larger percentage of their students in independent schools. Based on these results, we run the hypothesis that higher grades are a result of an increased level of knowledge and that this increased level of knowledge should lead to effects in the entire municipality. This paper analyses how unemployment, median income and enterprise in Sweden's municipalities have been affected by the increased competition in the school market. Our hypothesis is that a higher share of students in independent high school lowers unemployment and raises incomes. We also examine the effect on the rate of enterprise in the municipality due to the share of students. The effects have been searched in an econometric panel data analysis in which 284 of Swedish municipalities are followed over a period of 20 years. The models are estimated with percentages of unemployment, income and enterprise compared with the percentage of students in independent high schools in previous periods using a Fixed Effect Model.

    We find a negative relation between the students and the percentage of unemployment and a positive relation between income and the proportion of students. The impact on earnings is weaker than it is on unemployment and the effects vary depending on the delay we assume in the model. The effect on enterprise varies in estimates with different directions depending on the explanatory variables we include in addition to student shares from different periods. Through our regressions we find connecting relationships but we have difficulties in proving an existing causality.

  • 16.
    Grönhult, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Felicia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Key Account Managements värde för säljande tjänsteföretag2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To build strong and long-lasting customer relationships has become a necessity in industrial marketing, whereat the relationships in itself can be viewed as the most important asset for the company. Key Account Management has its roots in relationship marketing and has grown in popularity the past decades. By selecting and focusing primarily on a few key customers, which the company deems to be the most important, Key Account Management is purposed to generate and locate value. The purpose of this paper is to describe and substantiate the potential value, seen as the difference between advantages and disadvantages, that Key Account Management may provide for the selling company. The study has a qualitative approach consisting of six interviews. Two companies with Key Account Management, two companies without KAM and two customer companies were interviewed in a comparative design. One of the customers had a relationship to one of the companies with KAM, whilst the other one did not. By having a supporting organization, four critical aspects to the companies KAM, a qualified Key Account Manager, and active customers, soft values as improved relationships and customer understanding are guaranteed. These can in turn enable access to other soft and hard values that leads to higher profit. KAM is however an investment which occupies a lot of resources, alongside with creating potential disadvantages. The value has in this study been identified as the difference between potential advantages and disadvantages, but these differ from company to company which in turn makes the actual value from KAM various.

  • 17.
    Gustavsson, Emily
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mlivic, Anja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Medelstora företags inköpsarbete och affärsrelation med en större leverantör2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Purchasing has been more acknowledged during the last couple of years.Higher demands from customers have led to companies seeingadvantages with close business relationships. However, medium-sizedenterprises have influences from both big and small enterprises and it istherefore hard to know what starting position they have in businessrelationships. The literature review shows that research is lacking foronly medium-sized enterprise’s buying process. Therefore it isinteresting to study purchasing in medium-sized enterprises with focuson their business relationship with a larger supplier, to be able to see howboth parties perceive the business relationship and if medium-sizedenterprises can be classified in the same definition.

    Aim

    The aim with this study is to gain a greater insight of purchasing inmedium-sized enterprises, with a focus on their business relationshipwith a larger supplier. The study aims to gain a bigger insight of how acustomer and its supplier perceive and manage the business relationship.

    Methodology

    The study has a qualitative approach and is built on a case-study withinterviews from one supplier and three customers, to gain a biggerinsight of purchasing and to be able to see how each party perceive thebusiness relationship.

    Conclusion

    The results of the study show that medium-sized enterprises work a lot tomake purchasing more efficient and they all believe that purchasing is avalue adding function. Therefore they should not be classified in thesame definition as small-sized enterprises. One of the most importantcomponents in a business relationship is trust and power should not beused.

  • 18.
    Elwin, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att lita på andras blodgåva: Åsikter om att homosexuella män i praktiken nekas donera blod2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor Thesis investigates the perceptions nurses and homosexual men, respectively, have concerning the rules for blood donation, focusing on the fact that homosexual men in practice aren't able to donate blood. The study was conducted using qualitative interviews.

    The results emphasise that my informants classify blood and people differently, where both foreign and Swedish blood are rated on potential risk of infection. Nurses and homosexual men also handle the various rules differently, the nurses placing greater focus on protecting receivers of blood. At the same time nurses, like the homosexual men, find the rules discriminatory and based on the prejudice that homosexual men have a riskier lifestyle than others relating to infection. In reality, there can be no certainty in knowing if someone is honest when answering the health declaration which is meant to help the blood bank weed out unsuitable donors.

    The issue of blood donation by homosexual men can be approached from different angles and is therefore a complex topic without an easy solution, especially since current testing cannot detect the HIV virus immediately after transmission. In contrast, my informants emphasise that everyone should be judged on individual behaviour instead of collectively; for example, homosexual men in monogamous relationships should also be able to donate blood.

  • 19.
    Christiansson, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Evaluation of the attachment scale in the Trauma Symptom Inventory-2: Parental experiences of traumatic events and close relationships2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the attachment scale added in the newly developed self-rating questionnaire Trauma Symptom Inventory-2 (TSI-2). Participants were recruited from the Swedish parent-infant unit Hagadal (N=58). Reliability analyses concluded Cronbach´s α .92 for attachment total scale, .88 for avoidance subscale, and .91 for rejection sensitivity subscale. Convergent validity analyses concluded moderate to strong correlations between TSI-2 attachment scale and subscales, and Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) total scale and subscales (r= .34 - .68, p ≤ .01). Criterion validity analyses concluded that adverse childhood circumstances measured by Linköping Youth Life Experiences Scale (LYLES) signficantly estimated 17 % of variance in TSI-2 attachment scale scores. Preliminary support for reliability and validity of the TSI-2 attachment scale was obtained. No previous trauma symptom rating instrument has included information about adult attachment styles. The present findings point to the benefits of such inclusion.

  • 20.
    Torres Bahamonde, Berenice
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Topic, Boris
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kommuners val av pensionsförvaltning: En studie av den kommunala pensionsredovisningen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Swedish municipalities’ operations are described as being distinctive. This means that the municipalities differ from the private sector in terms of goal settings and performance. One of the characteristics found in the municipalities is their reporting of pensions that is to be accounted for according to the mixed model. Several studies have brought forward concerns that the accounting according to the mixed model may give rise to discretionary interpretations that assumedly are going to be exploited by the politicians in order to affect the financial reporting. A part of the discretion that is used in the earnings management is assumed to occur in the pension management of the defined benefit pension plans.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to explain the municipalities’ choice of management of the defined benefit pension plans.

    Method: A deductive approach has been used in the study to identify different theoretical relationships between the pension management and pension accounting. The study's design was based on providing a new insight into accounting research. To achieve this, twelve hypotheses were formulated and later tested using the statistical analysis.

    Conclusions: The study has shown that the variable profitability has been significant in the overall analyzes. This has led to the hypothesis that income smoothing could be used as to explain the municipalities’ choice of pension management. The variables population size and population change have also been shown to affect the choice of pension management. Doing the logistical regression with all the variables was however problematic. Therefore, the hypotheses on population size and population change have been rejected for the time being. The hypotheses that were designed have been interchangeable at different points between positive accounting theory and institutional theory, which has led to a more detailed explanation. They are therefore considered to have contributed each in its own way to explain the choice of pension management.

  • 21.
    Strojwas, Iwona
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Har behandlarens etnicitet/kultur betydelse? På spaning efter transkulturellt familjearbete2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to contribute to the description and development of cross-cultural family work. Six family therapists in social services outpatient were interviewed with a focus on the importance of their own ethnicity/culture in the meeting with the families and the similarities/differences in working approach with the Swedish and immigrant families. Interviews were analyzed using qualitative method

    The results shows that the therapist’s ethnicity/culture are important but socio-economic classis important too.

    My stud shows that there are both differences and similarities in working approach with immigrant families and Swedish families.

    The clearest differences that emerge in working approach with immigrants are described in the categories: to inform, to meet, different values and not knowing. Similarities are described in the categories: to see the universally human, to create relationships and to ensure resources,

    The result also describes what is important for a new employee to think about in an areawhere many immigrants live and what cross-culture work means to family therapists.

  • 22.
    Håkansson, Rebecka
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Staff scheduling in elderly care - A simulation study of trade-offs2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies have been done in the area of nurse scheduling, since this is a complex area with a lot of aspects that has to be taken into account. An interesting but little studied subject is how the requirements for the scheduling affect the possibility to construct a feasible schedule, or how the requirements affect the quality of the schedule. Of special interest is the effect of the composition of the workforce and of the change in scheduling rules. What is missing is results showing which composition and changes that are possible, and if so what is needed to be able to follow through with them.

    The changes tested in our simulation study are changes that is up for discussion at many wards in Sweden today, with topics such as split shifts and high part-time work percentages within the staff. In order to simulate various scheduling requirements and changes, an integer linear model for creating nurse schedules is developed. The results provide some insight into the dependence between scheduling requirements and the resulting schedules. In particular our simulation results indicate that there is an inherent conflict between high part-time work percentages and split or long work shifts. Our results can be used as a basis for future research on these topics in the area of nurse scheduling.

  • 23.
    Svensson, Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Adam, Störe
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    EU-länders val av en finansiell transaktionsskatt: En studie i Politisk ekonomi2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis the European Union was put to the test. As a result, the EU submitted a proposal for a directive regarding a financial transactions tax levied throughout every nation in the European Union. Eleven of the 28 EU member states decided to support the proposal for a financial transactions tax. The eleven member states adopted the stance to support the proposal in spite of the historical empirical evidence indicating a financial transactions tax to not be as effective as the advocators claim.

    This paper aims to analyse the basis of the EU member states adopted stance towards a financial transactions tax. The thesis statement suggest that there is a positive correlation between the impact of the financial crisis on each respective EU country, domestic public opinion and a positive stance towards a financial transactions tax in the EU.

    To test the thesis statement an inductive method, based on academic articles and economic literature, is applied. Furthermore a regression analysis is used to prove the appearance of the expected positive relationships in the thesis statement.

    The results of the paper indicate the thesis statement to be probable. Therefore, this paper concludes that there is a positive relationship between the impact of the financial crisis in the EU states, domestic opinion and a positive stance to a financial transactions tax.

  • 24.
    Kemperyd, Emmeline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mideklint, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modifying Lean Production for Implementation in Production of Digital, Customized Products2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To evaluate how lean production should be modified to be suitable for implementation in the production of digital, customized products and how the first phase of this implementation can be conducted.

    Research Questions

    RQ1: What constitutes waste when producing digital, customized products, and to what extent can the waste be eliminated?

    RQ2: Which lean concepts and tools are suitable to apply in the production of digital, customized products?

    RQ3: What steps are necessary for initial implementation of lean production for production of digital, customized products, and how should they be prioritized?

    Methodology

    The empirical findings are the result of a single case study focused around in-depth analysis and understanding of concepts and relationships. The data is collected through interviews work shops and observations during a period of three months.

    Conclusions

    RQ1: The types of waste are; Waiting, Transportation, Over processing or incorrect processing, Excess inventory, Unnecessary efforts, Defects and Unused employee creativity. Waste are further classified as removable, non-removable and in some instances necessary.

    RQ2: Unsuitable concepts: Value stream mapping (varying level of unsuitability), Kaikaku, Just in time, Stopping the

     line (without modifications) and Physical visual controls. Redundant concept: Pull. Especially suitable concepts: 5 Why, Decentralized responsibility, Digital visual controls and Isolating variation. Suitable concepts: Elimination of waste, Root cause analysis, Genchi genbutsu, Kaizen events, Flow, Stopping the line (with modifications) and Standardization.

    RQ3: Step I: Aligning the production strategy and process with the organization’s strategy and goals. Step II: Standardization.

  • 25.
    Islamovic, Azra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bumblebee (Bombus spp.) occurrence in relation to vegetation height, variation in vegetation height and flower abundance2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bumblebees are a group of valuable pollinators that are declining all over the world. The main reason is believed to be habitat loss due to the changes in agriculture. The changes in agriculture influence the structure of the vegetation and flower abundance, which are of great importance to the abundance of bumblebees. The aims of this study were to get a better understanding of bumblebees and what preferences they might have regarding vegetation height and flower abundance in semi-natural grasslands. This study is based on data collected by a Swedish national environmental monitoring program in 2006-2010. Data on twelve bumblebee species were analysed using a generalized linear model based on the dependent variables of occurrence/ non-occurrence. The target variables used in the analysis were flower abundance, vegetation height and standard deviation of vegetation height. The species-wise analyses mostly showed no or weak positive relationships between the bumblebee occurrence and the three target variables. Grouping the species-wise results into ecologically meaningful guilds and analysing them did not increase the explanatory power of flower abundance or vegetation characteristic, but vegetation height showed significant (positive) results in relation for the forest dwelling species and the species group non-parasite and parasite. The results of this study were considerably weaker than expected. Flower abundance and variation in vegetation height could not explain the occurrence of bumblebees. However, the results of this study show that vegetation height is of importance to the occurrence of bumblebees. Bumblebees in general seem to prefer a higher vegetation height. Based on the findings of this study I would recommend a low intensity of grazing in semi-natural grasslands.

  • 26.
    Aaboen, Lise
    NTNU, Trondheim.
    BATON-CHANGING ON EGGSHELLS – TRANSFERRING SUPPLIER RELATIONSHIPS WHEN MOVING PRODUCTION2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production transfers are a result of outsourcing and offshoring decisions. Though, because of

    the strategic focus of the outsourcing literature have not the operational issues of how

    relationship development between sender, receiver and raw material been fully depicted. The

    purpose of the present paper is to explore relationship development connected to transfer of

    raw material supplies responsibility during transfer of production. To fulfil the purpose, four

    different production transfers were studied: three from Sweden to China, Romania and

    Hungary respectively and one transfer from Holland to Sweden. We can see that the

    dependence and power shifts gradually between the sender and the receiver and the

    relationship between them sets the arena for what relationship is developed between the

    receiver and the raw material suppliers. Furthermore, short social distances can over bridge

    cultural and technological distances to some extent, because it motivates to take the

    relationship into a more developed state.

  • 27.
    Nealy, Marcellus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Impact of Collectivist Self-Identity, Collectivist Social-Identity on Creative Self-Identity and Creative Self-Efficacy from a Japanese Context: Implications on Creativity Education2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A quick search in Google Scholar for documents containing both keywords “Japan” and “collectivism” revealed 28,100 results. This fact alone is enough to support the notion that collectivism is a commonly reoccurring descriptive in discussions about Japanese society. This is also enough to give serious consideration to the impact of collectivism when thinking about the development of educational programs that foster the development of creativity. More specifically it raises the question: if some people within Japan believe in the collectivist nature of themselves and their society how does that belief influence creative self-identity and creative self–efficacy? Since creativity and innovation require the ability to think divergently, understanding the impact of the alleged pressure towards conformity on creativity should be a top priority. Furthermore, understanding this relationship becomes important when considering methodologies and potential barriers to learning in the creativity classroom or workshop. With this in mind, a questionnaire was given to 50 Japanese participants of various ages and backgrounds. Using open-ended questions and a Likert scale, the questionnaire examines the collectivist self-identity, the collectivist social-identity, creative self-identity, and creative self-efficacy. Through narrative qualitative analysis of the open-ended questions and quantitative analysis of the scaled questions the relationships between the four categories were examined to see if any influenced the others. From this study we can see that the quantitative data and the qualitative data both showed the similar findings. Within the group the majority did not identify as having a collectivist self-identity, the results on collectivist socialidentity were split down the middle, and a majority of the participants did identify with having a creative self-identity. It is also clear from both the qualitative and quantitative data that creative self-identity and creative self-efficacy are linked. It appears that if the person does not believe that he or she is a creative person then that same individual is very likely to believe they do not have the capacity to do creative things.

  • 28.
    Knutsson, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Blueprint for Women’s Fulfilment: A Reading of Three Novels in the Early Fiction of Margaret Drabble2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will argue that Margaret Drabble has developed a pattern, that there is a blueprint for fulfilment in the life of the modern independent woman to be found inher early work. Three of Drabble's novels will be examined, moving from The Millstone(1965) and The Waterfall (1967), with their descriptions of two young heroines'pregnancies and lives with infant children, on to the more mature main character of TheRealms of Gold (1975). These three books form a chronology, both in regard to whenthey were written and, more importantly, to the different stages of a woman’s life thatthey represent. This will make it possible to see how Drabble perceives the demands ofsociety and different relationships influencing a woman's actions, her search foridentity, and the direction and fulfilment of her life. The pattern will be traced throughthree themes which are made visible in the novels in varying degrees. These are singlemotherhood and the role of the family, missing husbands and sexual fulfilment, andcareer and social interaction.The method is an analysis of the texts where the selected novels form the basis andstructure of the essay.

  • 29.
    Martin, Gabi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonasson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enhancing trust online A cross Bsectional study on users judgments of online bank websites in Germany2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One the latest developments in the banking sector are online banks, which provide their services only online while physical offices are not available. Market research conducted in Germany, have shown that Germans are hesitating to adopt to the digital offered banking services. The major barrier for adoption is due to trust issues, which are rooted in perceived security and privacy protections. Earlier literature has found that other website interaction factors are also playing a role in order to enhance the trustworthiness of a website. Trust is a necessity in every economic and social relationship, since all relationships involve a possibility that one of the actors behaves opportunistically, and takes advantage of the other actor. The chance of opportunistic behavior contributes to the level of judged risk in the specific relationship, and together with trust ultimately affects the adoption of online banks. In order for users to become consumers of an online bank, they need to judge the online bank website as trustworthy. These judgments can be done either intuitively or throughout reasoning, considering information. The marketing field is emphasizing that intuitive judgments are essential in order to attract new consumer. However, the psychology field is stressing that even though most individuals tend to rely on intuitive judgments, these can be wrong since they can be based on heuristics and include biases.

    Purpose: In order to understand the formation of judgments by users of an online bank website, the purpose of our thesis is twofold. First, to measure the relationships between the website interaction factors and the concepts trust and risk. Second, with a lower degree of ambition, the purpose is to measure the relationship between intuitive and reasoned trust judgments.

    Methodology: The study was conducted through a quantitative research method. A six-point scale questionnaire was used in order to examine the relationships between trust, risk and the website interaction factors. A web-based questionnaire was sent out to German web users, where in total 122 respondents responded. The sample was equally split into online bank consumers and non-consumers. The statistical analysis of the data revealed results enabling to fulfill the purpose.

    Results: The findings of our thesis demonstrate that online bank consumers and non-consumers do not significantly differ in their judgments regarding the websites. The perceptions of the information quality, security and privacy protection are found as the most influential website interaction factors towards the trust judgments. Privacy and security protection are mostly influence website users in their risk judgment. Our study further reveals that online bank website users make their trust judgments through the first impression while further considerations of the websites' content enhance their trust judgments.

  • 30.
    Valdner, Faith
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Significant Others: A Literature Review on How Peers and Teachers Affect Adolescents in Their Academic Life2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Students spend most of their waking hours with their teachers and peers, who are considered to be the significant others, that influence their learning motivation and school life. Whether a student likes to go to school or not, whether she can adjust in school and engage in all learning activities, whether she can get good grades or fail depend not only on herself, but on the significant others. In this study, the aim is to find out how and in what ways teachers and peers influence adolescents in their academic life. Forty-one articles were reviewed to discuss around four research questions:

    1. What kinds of influences do peers have on adolescents in the academic context?
    2. In what ways do teachers’ high expectations affect the students?
    3. What kind of teacher-student relationships do students perceive in order to have positive attitudestowards school and have satisfying outcomes?
    4. What aspects in adolescents’ academic life are influenced by teachers’ self-efficacy?

    Teachers and peers are important motivators in students’ academic life. When the school, teacher and parents are aware of the influences from peers and teachers, they are given a chance to improve the factors involved so that students can learn best in a supportive atmosphere and environment.

  • 31.
    Fehle, Corinna
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rewriting Shakespeare - a Contemporary Approach to The Sonnets2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, I am going to analyze and interpret five contemporary rewritings together with their corresponding original versions by Shakespeare. These five rewritings taken from The Sonnets. Translating and Rewriting Shakespeare, edited by Sharmila Cohen and Paul Legault (2012) have been chosen because each of them represents a different text form which does not necessarily remind of the traditional sonnet form. It will be shown how later authors make use of Shakespeare´s material through rewriting, how this represents a contemporary approach to the sonnet sequence and how intertextual relationships become evident in the rewritings.

  • 32.
    Arhall, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cox, Emmie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Key Performance Indicators for SAS Flights2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Revenue management is a thoroughly researched field of study and it is widely used in several different industries. The Revenue Management Department at the airline SAS (Scandinavian Airline System) serves to maximise the profit of the company’s flights. At their disposal they have a number of tools, which use KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) as a measurement. The KPIs are used in prognosis to determine future initiatives, and to analyse and verify results. SAS does not know if the KPIs they focus on to measure performance are the most relevant for optimisation of revenue for their flights. In an attempt to simplify the use of SAS’ optimisation system we have performed a correlation analysis on a set of selected KPIs and assessed the influence relationships between these KPIs, in order to identify pivotal KPIs. Furthermore, we have researched origindestination control and the network effect to broaden the scope of the investigation. We have presented the work and the results in this thesis. The correlation analysis was performed using data, spanning a two-year period, for domestic flights (within Sweden) provided by SAS. The results of the analysis showed that the assessed KPIs could be divided into three groups; within each group the KPIs are closely correlated. As a result, we concluded that to focus on one KPI in each group should be adequate for evaluating performance. The three pivotal KPIs are revenue passenger kilometre, cabin factor and revenue per available seat kilometre. We have recommended SAS to continue working with origin-destination control and that the pivotal KPIs should be used as a measurement for the network, as well as measurements such as net leg revenue. Additionally, we have suggested that SAS conducts equivalent or similar analyses in other suitable areas to identify or confirm pivotal KPIs.

  • 33.
    Demircioglu, Sevilay
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Chenchen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perspectives of Suppliers on Corporate Social Responsibility in Emerging Economies: China and Turkey2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate Social Responsibility is attracting more public attention in business world nowadays. It has evolved well in developed countries while there still remains some CSR issues in emerging economies such as China and Turkey. Thus, when some multi- national enterprises select suppliers in China and Turkey they come with CSR requirements and pressure. In this supplier-buyer context, less study has been carried out from suppliers’ perspective on how they implement the CSR pressure and whether it has positive or negative impact on their relationship with the buyer and impact on themselves.

    In addressing this problem in this particular supplier-buyer environment, the purpose of this study is to explore the perspectives and practices of suppliers regarding CSR in emerging economies like China and Turkey with strong export relationships to companies in developed countries. In order to achieve this purpose, this thesis presents a qualitative study supported by primary data gathered by interviews and secondary data gathered by examining company documents. One Chinese supplier and one Turkish supplier were chosen as two cases in this study. Both have supplier-buyer relationships with the same buyer which has a large role in the textile industry. Interviews were conducted with two suppliers respectively to gain research data.

    The result of the study shows that: (1) CSR is perceived differently by Turkish and Chinese supplier. The Chinese supplier emphasizes their CSR perspectives on only economic and philanthropic levels while the Turkish supplier includes also ethical and legal levels. (2) In supply chains, both suppliers comply with codes of conduct from the buyer and additionally conduct CSR activities voluntarily. Both suppliers focus on philanthropy and community contribution but the Turkish supplier work on environmental friendly products. (3) There is no direct positive impact linked with CSR compliance in terms of supplier-buyer relationship for both suppliers. In other words, requirements on CSR from the buyer do not contribute much to their supply chain relationships. (4) CSR practices bring competitive advantages for both suppliers. Those competitive advantages include innovation capability and positive corporate reputation.

  • 34.
    Kawai, Maho
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    THE APPLICATION OF POLITENESS THEORY INTO ENGLISH EDUCATION IN JAPAN2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Japan, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) revised the Course of Study in English education twice in the last decade (in 2002 and in 2011), and the drastic changes have been made especially in the section of communicative skills: introduction of English study in elementary school, teaching English in English in high school, requirement of the subject ‘Oral Communication I’ in high school, etc. The aim of the revisions is to produce international individuals, who have high English proficiency not only in input-skills but also in output-skills, especially in speaking (MEXT 2004: 90, MEXT 2011). Despite the revisions of the Course of Study, Japan is still ranked low in English proficiency not only among the developed countries but also among the Asian countries (Sakamoto 2012: 409; Sullivan and Schatz 2009: 586; Educational Testing Service 2012).

    Inputs on different cultures and languages take an important role in language learning especially in the modern society where students have high chances to encounter cross-cultural communication. The politeness strategy is one of those factors that the social actors must learn for the sound relationships with others. Each culture has its own politeness strategy; therefore, miscommunication is observed more often in intercultural conversations due to the various conceptualization of politeness in different cultures (Sifianou 1992: 216). That is, comprehending the diversity in politeness strategy seems to be a clue of smooth communication and better apprehension of different cultures in cross-culture conversations. The Course of Study for foreign languages and English language also refers to the significance of comprehending various cultures and languages (MEXT 2009); however, as previous studies represent the Japanese students studying abroad or the Japanese businessman in intercultural communications seem to lack the understanding of the western politeness strategy (cf. Fujio 2004, Nakane 2006). Besides, it is vague what ‘different cultures’ refers to in the Course of Study for English. Based on the attitudes of the Japanese students towards cross-cultural communication and ambiguous explanation on ‘cultural learning’ by the Course of the Study, I assume that one of the reasons why Japan cannot achieve the communication-focused curriculum might be attributed to the lack of politeness theory perspective in English learning. Taking differences in politeness strategies between the western societies and the Japanese ones into consideration, it seems to be unfeasible and insufficient to only increase the number of communicative lessons and compel students into speaking English. The differences in politeness strategy should be applied into English learning in order to boost the English proficiency of Japanese students and produce globalized students.

    The present paper focuses on the following two aspects of English learning in Japan in order to test the hypothesis:

    • The Course of Study in English learning in Japan does not specify what is ‘cultural learning’, which triggers the lack of politeness perspective
    • The lack of politeness learning obstruct Japanese students to successful crosscultural communication

    In the present paper, in order to observe the application of the politeness theory in English learning, firstly English textbooks used in Japan are analyzed in terms of the politeness theory by focusing on the following four aspects: silence, speech style, ambiguity, and hierarchical relationship. Previous studies have shown that extinctive differences between the western politeness and the Japanese politeness in communication are obviously revealed in those four points (cf. Fujio 2004; Kameda  2001; Nakane 2006). In addition to the analysis of the English textbooks, an interview on the correlation between English learning and politeness theory is conducted on international Japanese in order to observe how they acquire the western politeness strategy, how English learning at school functioned to learn the western politeness strategy, etc. (cf. see 3. for details). To contextualize this paper, the politeness theory and the previous studies on the relation between the Japanese politeness and crossculture communication will be presented first, and a brief overview of English education in Japan and tendencies in Japanese schooling will follow.

  • 35.
    Pishali Bajestani, Behnam
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Study of Menace, Pause and Silence in Harold Pinter’s Early Plays2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The particular characteristics of Pinter’s theatre such as the theme of violence, the competitive interpersonal relationships, the implied unwillingness in communication between the characters and the distinctive use of silences and pauses, distinguish his work from the writers of the absurd. Pinter makes particular use of “Silences” and “Pauses” as theatrical techniques that present a non-verbal way of communication in his plays. The frequent use of these particular techniques in Pinter’s dialogue has urged some critics to coin new expressions such as “Pinteresque” or “Pinter Pause” in the vocabulary of drama to specify Pinter’s technique. One of the important objectives in this essay is to point out the fundamental significance and function of the “Silences” and “Pauses” in Pinter’s work and point out their distinction. I will discuss how the silences and pauses function in Pinter’s theatre as a non-verbal way of communication by creating fragments in the dialogue.

     

    The plays which will be analyzed in this essay are: The Room, The Dumb Waiter, The Birthday Party and The Caretaker. My objective in this essay is to explore the context of these plays with regards to the theme of menace. In the first chapter, I mainly aim to explore the menacing context of these plays regarding the structure of menace and the ways it takes place in each play separately. This analysis will be presented in relation to the spatial territory in which the characters are confined. My aim is also to describe why menace is presented in a theatrical sense. I have chosen to quote some significant passages of each play in each section to illustrate my purposes in the first chapter. The aim of the second chapter is to define the character types involved in the presentation of menace, “The Intruders” and “The Victims”, and to analyze the strategies their use in encounters with each other. After describing the character types I will explore in detail how “The Intruders” use linguistic strategies to confuse and subdue their victims and finally victimize them and how “The Victims” use strategies to cope with menace in order to survive. There are some passages quoted from the plays to facilitate the purpose of the second chapter. The objective in the third chapter is to define “Silences” and “Pauses” as theatrical techniques used in form of non-verbal communication between the characters. I will discuss, based on Peter Hall’s definition, how these techniques are significant in understanding a Pinter play for the readers and the actors who perform them on stage, and will further explore the function of “Silences” and “Pauses” and their distinction in the context of the plays in question in this essay.

     

  • 36.
    Sjöstrand, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Graphical Cross-Reference Browser for the OMDev Environment2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With todays software development we see huge structures of objects and relationships beingbuilt up. How these are constructed and designed is important to how we make robust andflexible architectures. Developers have to constantly have this overview in mind whenworking with the whole system to prepare for potential changes later on. One object may bereplaced by another one or removed completely; this is when the relationship going to andfrom them comes into picture. Many decisions on what to change or what to remove from thisstructure needs some way of proving that this wont have any side-effects on anything else. Adeveloper could make such a decision by scanning through all files and build a mindset of allthe dependencies between the objects to make sure that something like this would be okay.This report evaluates the possibilities of making a tool that can ease this task in order togain a better overview of all the dependencies going through the system. By observingprojects that are built for other similar tasks and how they haven chosen their implementationwe can build a tool that will inspect the objects specifically to Modelica code. This report alsodiscuss how we can elaborate on the number of features in order to gain more interactivityand make a more user-friendly experience to the end users.The results of our implementation will show a fully functional and optimized productinside the software Eclipse. This product provides all required information by extending uponexisting functionalities of Modelica to get the perspective and access to data that we need fora complete analyze. This report will also show how we effectively make use of graphicallibraries to provide interactivity, bonds, layout orderings and translation from data to visualsobjects. All of these together are ingredients to a tool in which a user can gain a fast responseand move around quickly in his model-structure. In the end we can see that our implementation can reference most things related todependencies in an object-oriented language and explain to the user how these relationshipsplay into our object-structure or where their sources are and where they are pointing.

  • 37.
    Sunnerstam, Hanna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Food, Humans and Other Kinds of Matter: A Posthumanist and Materialist Reading of the Anime Film Spirited Away2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My aim with this thesis is to use a combination of posthumanist and feminist materialist perspectives in analysing the anime film Spirited Away (2001).

    The analysis is organised as follows: the first chapter of the analysis deals with the notions of agency and magic. Magic is an omnipresent force in the bathhouse depicted in the film; a force that creates connections between different bodies and that also bridges the language-matter divide. By making inanimate matter come alive, magic points to a conception of life as relations rather than as possession. However, magic also reveals the hierarchies at work, as not all animate(d) beings have the capacity or the right to use it.

    The first chapter is followed by three chapters focused on eating, understood as a kind of intra-action between different kinds of matter. Food is, as I will show, important in the negotiations of boundaries and agency. The question of who is eating who also reveals some of the power relationships that govern the posthuman world depicted in the film.

    In the two last chapters of the analysis I will, so to speak, push the food plate aside in favour of other matters. The fifth chapter will focus on the physical transformations taking place in the film and how these can be interpreted from a posthumanist and materialist perspective. I will look at embodiments, using a narratologically influenced perspective that allows for corporeal ambiguities and shuns notions of bodies as fixed and clearly separate from other bodies. The discussion will continue in the final chapter where I use 'monster theory' to further examine the leakages between categories. The monstrous corresponds not necessarily to widely-spread images of monsters (known from various cultural masterplots) or to bodies that distinctly disobey the norms. The morphological diversity exhibited by the characters in the film reveals the impossibility of clearly demarcating categories and boundaries between Self and Other.

  • 38.
    Zheltukhina, Daria
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Functions of Journey and Ascent in Selected Short Stories in Margaret Drabble’s A Day in the Life of a Smiling Woman2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present essay studies the functions of journey and ascent as recurrent motifs in A Day in the Life of a Smiling Woman by Margaret Drabble. The relationships between the geographical and psychological journeys and ascents are explored. Chapter 2 of the core analysis presents the four themes in which the protagonists articulate their strength and self-worth. Chapter 3 is devoted to the comparative analysis of the structures of the geographical and psychological journeys and ascents (item 3.2) and the study of the author's multiple angles on marriage, adultery and widowhood (item 3.3). 

  • 39.
    Carstensen, Anna-Karin
    Ingenjörshögskolan, Jönköping.
    Make links: Learning complex concepts in engineering education2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In engineering education many concepts are complex, and the student has to move between different representations. In electric circuits these representations are for example: graphs, mathematical models, drawings of circuits and the real circuits. The learning of a complex concept is a learning of a whole, consisting of as well single concepts as the relations between them. In our research we have found that exploring the relationships - links - between these different representations is of uttermost importance.

    The links are not there just to learn, but have to be made by the students. As we have continued our work on how students make links between the different islands of single concepts, in order to make a whole of the complex concept, we have noted that the links between the islands are of different kinds. We will here discuss what kinds of relationships these links consist of, and how they differ in ways of coping with them for students, and how the teachers may notice and highlight these relationships in their instructions. 

  • 40.
    Lee Bergström, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of Sales, Saved Configuration & Marketing Performance2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this master thesis is to first investigate the influence that the marketing campaigns have on site visits, saved configurations and sales orders as well as the relationship between these variables. Secondly, to explore the association between saved configurations and sales orders and finally to investigate short term color trends between saved configurations and sales orders.

    The selected data was extracted from different databases from the Volvo IT. Different methods were used for the analysis. Regression and mediation analyses were used to identify the relationship between the variables. Association analysis and multidimensional scaling methods were conducted to measure the association between saved configuration and sales orders. In order to investigate the short term color trends in data, a Mann-Kendall monotone test was used.

    A total 8 weeks of lagged marketing campaigns and saved configurations data were used to investigate the influences on saved configurations and/or sales. The result shows that marketing campaign budgets does have an effect on site visits, site visits have impact on saved configurations and saved configurations have an impact on sales order. Marketing campaign budgets and site visits also have significant mediated effect on relationships between the variables. Result also show that the selected options and feature combinations are mostly similar between saved configurations and sales orders, but there are also dissimilarities that exist between the two data sets. Short term color trends for car model, series, and country exist in both saved configurations and sales orders. However, it should be noted that color trends mostly exist in the more uncommon colors.

  • 41.
    Stenerfelt, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Relationships between Image Popularity and Color Emotions in Image Retrieval Systems2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Colors evoke various emotional feelings which can be described by semantic words such as excitement, harmony, energy, to mention a few. These feelings, evoked either by single- or combinations of colors, are called color emotions. We use previous developed models by Li Chen et al. aimed for estimating values describing color emotions (in this thesis activity, heat, weight and harmony). By calculating histograms, we adopt a previous proposed method by R. Lenz and M.Solli for applying three of the models on ordinary multicolor images. We propose a method using color histogram for applying the harmony model on multicolored images. Out of gathered user data from Picsearchs public search engine, popularity metric for images is approximated. On the basis of a database approximately containing 284 000 images, we analyze the relationship between derived color emotion parameters and approximated popularity values using visual and statistical methods. The experimental results show that individual relationships between different derived emotional values from specific key words and popularity values exist, however, no common relationships that hold for all key words was found.

  • 42.
    Turk, Ana
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Warranty claims analysis for household appliances produced by ASKO Appliances AB2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The input collected from warranty claims data links customer feedback with product quality. Results from warranty claim analysis can potentially improve product quality, customer relationships and positively affect business. However working on warranty claims data holds many challenges that requires a significant share of time devoted to data cleaning and data processing.

    The purpose of warranty claims analysis is to get the comprehensive overview of the reliability, costs and quality of household appliances produced by ASKO. While there are different ways to approach this problem, we will focus on non-parametric and semi-parametric methods, by using Kaplan-Meier estimators and Cox proportional hazard model respectively. These kinds of models are time dependent and therefore used for prediction of household appliance reliability. Even though non-parametric models are quite informative they cannot handle additional characteristics about observable product hence the semi-parametric Cox proportional hazard model was proposed. Apart from the reliability analysis, we will also predict warranty costs with probit model and observe inequality in household appliances part failures as a part of quality control analysis. Described methods were selected due to the fact that the warranty claims analysis will be practiced in future by ASKO’s quality department and therefore straight forward methods with very informative results are needed.

  • 43.
    Olsson, Erik Carl Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Josefine was a hockey pro2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this examination paper is to make children’s songs that are not gender, hetero- or nuclear family normative. Songs where the lyrics rather defuse than problematize the subjects that are handled. I wanna find out which dilemmas can be found while writing such songs, and how one should work musically to make the message apply to the children.

    I would also like to know how children react when they are meeting these songs. My method comes in to pieces. First I have written lyrics and music, then I have, together with a female friend, performed the songs to a group of nine-year-olds. I have at the same occasion discussed the songs to get to know how they react. This meeting has been video recorded and thereafter analyzed. I have also made a shorter interview with the children´s teachers.

    My theoretical background is mainly in three fields: children’s relation to music, gender sience and queer theory.

    The songwriting developed as planned: I was effectiv, I varied the songs both lyrically and musically and I managed with one exception to write songs that could be performed in the simpliest of ways. The performance and the interview with the children went well, though it was difficult to balance between boring the children and make discussions that were deep enough.

    I found myself in some dilemmas during the songwriting. It was difficult to balance between problemizing and defusing, or indistinctness and over-explicity. I was also struggling not to fall into a heteronormative thinking, which led to some picking in details and small words in the lyrics. Another dilemma appeared while writing the lyrics for the song “Mat, mat, mat”, where I on one hand was thinking of whether I encouraged boys to get eating disorders, and on one hand was thinking of whether I encouraged the gender normative “rowdy boys and good girl”-concept.

    I got quite a few answers during the performance. It turned out that the children found most of the songs good and funny. According to the teachers they were more attentive and interested than usual. The songs with the most “hitty” melodies and most humorous lyrics were the ones that the children appreciated the most, which shows that hit-potential and humour seems to be good means to reach children. It also turned out that the children seemed to be able to identify with the one singing the song, irrespective of the sex.

    It turned out that gender normativity was more deeply settled in the children than heteronormativity.

    The girls wouldn’t, for example, dress as hockey pros, like one of the girls in the song “Min maskerad”. It was to “boyish”, while the dream outfit were as princess or rabbit. The elated need of defusing was mostly shown while performing the song “Min snippa och jag”. Several of the children didn’t know what a “snippa” was, and when they got to know it, they showed very clear that they weren’t used to talk about it, not with adults anyway.

    It turned out that the children didn’t attach great importance to with whom one is in love. The homosexual relationships that are shown in the song “Hemlis” are accepted without further annotations. In the song “Familjer” the children evidently thought that the verse about a family with two mothers is the most interesting, but they do not put any special valuation on the relationship. And when it comes to the nuclear family norm, it seems to be a minor problem among nine-year-olds of today.

  • 44.
    Hedlund, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Personality and production in dairy cows2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in animal personality, in other words, behavioural responses consistent within individuals over time and/or across contexts, is predicted to be related to life-history traits, such as growth rate and investment in reproduction. How this translates into relationships between personality and milk production in dairy cows is however scarcely investigated and previous studies are showing contradicting results. To further investigate this relationship, individual consistencies in behaviour were related to milk production in two breeds of dairy cows (Swedish red and white cattle, SRB, and Holstein). Variation was found among the breeds in consistency of behaviours and both SRB and Holstein cows were highly consistent over time in stepping behaviour during milking and frequency of performed abnormal behaviours in home pen. Overall were Holstein cows consistent in more observed behaviours than SRB. Variation in neophobia and responses to social separation were more flexible, both among breeds and over time. Nevertheless, behaviour showed limited relationship with milk production. To conclude, the tests here carried out are useful in describing personality in cows; however, personality showed no relationship with milk production, encouraging future studies to explore this expected relationship further in other breeds and species.

  • 45.
    Clancy, Anne
    et al.
    Harstad University of Coll, Norway .
    Gressnes, Thomas
    Harstad University of Coll, Norway .
    Svensson, Tommy
    Nordic School Public Heatlh, Sweden .
    Public health nursing and interprofessional collaboration in Norwegian municipalities: a questionnaire study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 27, no 3, 659-668 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine collaboration relating to public health nursing in different sized Norwegian municipalities. It sought to gain insight into factors that are important for successful collaboration, frequency of meeting points for collaborating activities and missing professionals in different sized municipalities. A cross-sectional e-post questionnaire study was carried out on a national sample of public health nurses and their collaborators. A total of 849 public health nurses (43.64%), 113 doctors at clinics and school health services (54.8%), 519 child protection workers (16.34%) and 115 midwives (41.3%) returned the questionnaire. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis H and chi-square tests were used to tests differences between groups. Trust, respect and collaborative competence were ranked highest by all the respondents and formalised structures, economy and leadership ranked least important in collaborative activity. The majority of the respondents stated that they do not have fewer meeting points compared with 5 years ago. Collaboration with mental health services was missed most by all respondents. There were associations between frequency of meeting points and statements on collaboration related to municipality size. Norway is in the throes of a major coordination reform. The fact that relational factors were deemed most important for successful collaboration is an important finding at a time when focus is on structural change. The findings indicate the need for further in depth qualitative studies on reasons for missing collaborators, on professional cultures in different sized municipalities and on interpersonal relationships. Qualitative enquiry is necessary to gain a greater understanding of how relational concepts of respect, trust and conflict are understood by municipal public health professionals.

  • 46.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    What is Wrong Between Us?: On the problem of circularity in Scanlon's contractualism2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, the Scanlonian contractualist formula will be understood as follows: Within the domain of morality of what we owe to each other, an action is morally wrong if it follows principles that similarly motivated people can reasonably reject. Consequently, the concept of ‘reasonable rejection’ is the operative element in moral valuation, thus begging the question of what it is for a rejection to be reasonable. The problem of circularity in Scanlon’s contractualism builds upon a reading according to which Scanlon’s explanation of what it is to be ‘reasonably rejected’ seems to be understood as ‘when the action is morally wrong’. If this is the case, then Scanlon’s contractualism refers to its own thesis when performing moral valuations: that is wrong which can be reasonably rejected, and for an action to be reasonably rejected it must be morally wrong. The problem of circularity apparently renders Scanlon’s contractualism ‘empty’ as it cannot explain what it is for an action to be morally wrong without referring to its own thesis.

    In this essay I will try to clarify the difference between welfarist and structural charges of circularity. I will argue that the structural charges of circularity are due to a fallacious constructivist reading of What We Owe to Each Other. As I understand Scanlon, the constructivist reading places Scanlon’s theory too close to the contractualist tradition. I will also argue that critics holding Scanlon’s contractualism to be circular have failed to note that his theory only claims to cover a narrow domain of morality. Where critics hold Scanlon’s contractualism to refer to its own thesis when performing moral valuations I will argue that the theory refers to moral domains outside that of what we owe to each other. Hopefully my discussion on constructivism and circularity will shed some light on the simple brilliance and practical applicability of Scanlon’s contractualism.

    I will give a brief overview of What We Owe to Each Other before I present the critique put forth by Onora O’Neill, Mark Timmons and Joseph Raz. Then I will show how Scanlon treats the problem of circularity in his book, and how his defense targets substantial and not structural charges of circularity. I will then show that the structural critique is fallacious by analyzing the domain of morality that Scanlon’s contractualism targets. Finally I will try to apply Scanlon’s formula on personal relationships and on environmental issues. As of this point I will refer to Scanlon’s thesis as ‘contractualism’ while other theories following the contractualist tradition will be referred to as ‘contractarian’.

  • 47.
    Myrelid, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics.
    Olhager, Jan
    Lund University, Department of Industrial Management and Logistics.
    Manufacturing decision-making based on product costing and management accounting information – a critical reviewManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the literature on management accounting and product costing and its relationship to manufacturing decision-making. Today, there exists a multitude of approaches, such as activity-based costing, lean accounting, and throughput accounting besides more traditional accounting and costing approaches. We review a total of 86 articles from 45 refereed journals that deal with product costing, management accounting, and manufacturing decision-making. A literature classification scheme is suggested. We classify the subject matter into factors to consider, single approach, and comparisons between approaches. We also classify the methodology in terms of case study research, survey research, mathematical modeling or simulation, and others (conceptual modeling or numerical examples). Based on this we propose a conceptual model for the relationships among contextual factors, the choice and design of approaches and performance. Furthermore, we identify some research issues for further studies.

  • 48.
    Jonsson, Emilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Van Zant, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att Dela på HRM: Human Resource Management mellan Bemanningsföretag, Kundorganisation och Konsult2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Problem definition: Atypical employment is something that has becomeincreasingly common in recent decades, these are defined as positions where no relationship is of thetraditional type in which the employee has a long term relationship with the employer and where hecarries out his work at the premises of the employer. These atypical employments can take variousforms, it can be fixed term contracts, project work or jobs in employment agencies and so on. Thestaffing sector in Sweden has grown rapidly since the 90s, and since international research shows thatthe three-way relationship arising from the use of staffing agencies may lead to challenges in differentparts of HRM, we have chosen to study this topic.

    Aim: The purpose of this paper is to describe and understand how HRM is handled in atypicalemployment relationships.Method: The epistemological starting point for this work is hermeneutics, as a result of this theresearch approach is qualitative and inspired by abduction. The authors have chosen to carry out thework as a case study of three primary cases, each one consisting of an employment agency, a clientorganization and an employee. The analysis is based on the hermeneutics principles of interpretationand concentration of meaning.

    Results: What emerged as central to how HRM is handled are the interdependencies that existbetween the business environment and the strategies of the firm, how they affect different parts ofHRM and how participation and liminality have an impact on the three-way relationship.Keywords: HRM, atypical employment, staffing agencies, three-way relationship and strategy.

  • 49.
    Böckerman, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forsman, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Human Resources i en kontroversiell verksamhet: En studie som visar vikten av anpassning till omgivningen2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Problem: Human Resources are considered one of the most important assets when competing with other companies. There are a lot of studies made in general on the subject while studies considering a specific context are missing. To consider the context when adapting a HR-strategy is interesting as the structure of the organization and the environment affects both the organization and the individuals within it. To study how the controversial context affects an organization is particularly interesting as the context is subject for discussion in the society.

    Aim: The study's purpose is to investigate how Human Resources are handled in a controversial business and to identify success factors when adapting the strategy to the controversial context.

    Methodology: The study started out by collecting theories connected to the subject with Fombrun, Devanna & Tichys HR-cycle. Interview questions where made based on the theories and answered by three of the case company's employees, whom all are well familiar with the case company's HR-strategy.

    Conclusion: We have come to the conclusion that there are no remarkable differences when handling Human Resources in a controversial context then in earlier published theories. However the importance of an adjusted HR-strategy to best be able to handle the employees are proven. Some areas must be considered more important when adjusting the HR-strategy to the context. In these situation areas resulting in long-term relationships between the employee and the organization seems to be high valued.Key words: Human Resource, controversial context, gambling company and long-term relationships.

  • 50.
    Fredborg, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Wallén, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Orest, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    En flexibilitetsstrategis konsekvenser: En fallstudie om arbetsvillkor och socialarelationer mellan inhyrd och ordinarie arbetskraft2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: Today, it has become more common for the companies to hire staff from employment agencies. This brings positive aspects along, such as increasedflexibility, but can also cause negative consequences. The company can through the heterogeneity in the working force get difficult to manage and it has also been found that thesocial relationships can be affected of this. However, previous literatures are deficient inrelation to this. As social relations are an essential factor to work satisfaction, and that in turn affect the future of the company. This is relevant to study more closely. At the same time, theworking conditions can be the basis for how the social relations between temporary andregular workers get along. To get an accurate picture of this, both temporary and ordinary workers perspectives has been studied. Since even the leaders can have an impact on both the working conditions and the social relations, their perspective should also be taken into consideration.

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to explore what consequences a flexibility strategy will have on the working conditions and the social relations between temporary and regularworkers.

    Method: The thesis is based on a case study of quality type with a hermeneutic view. 11interviews have been conducted from three different perspectives, with leaders, temporary and regular workers.

    Previous research and theory: We have chosen to present previous research within thecurrent research field, which is considered to be relevant to the purpose of this study. Thestudy´s main focus is therefore related to conditions in the workplace and social relationshipswithin organizations, which use hired employees as a part of their flexibility strategy. The theoretical framework chapter is founded on three parts: flexibility strategy, social relationships, and what factors that could affect the social relationships.

    Results: We can through the study conclude that a flexible approach has implications for bothworking conditions and social relations between temporary and regular workers. The strategy has resulted in various working conditions for the employment groups, and those working conditions in turn, also affect the social relations between the employees. The physicalseparation the case company use, create for example, flawed relationships, an “us and them ”thinking, as well as certain prejudices and “small disputes” between them. However, this didnot appear to affect the employment groups significantly, which we believe, is because of thesocial relations are met on each floor. However, to try to avoid the negative a physical separation brings, we have come up with some ideas, which the leaders in the case companyfurther should work with, such as information, introduction and more activities for both employment groups.

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