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  • 1.
    Vastesson, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Micro-Structuring of New Materials Combined with Electronic Polymers for Interfaces with Cells2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Materials based on novel Off-Stoichiometry Thiol-Ene polymers, abbreviated OSTE, show promising properties as materials forlow cost and scalable manufacturing of micro- and nanosystems such as lab-on-chip devices. The OSTE materials have tunablemechanical properties, offer possibility for low temperature bonding to many surfaces via tunable surface chemistry, and can beused in soft lithography. Unlike the commonly used elastomer poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS, the OSTE materials have lowpermeability for gasses, are resistant to common solvents and can be more permanently surface modified.In this master’s thesis project, the OSTE materials have been evaluated with focus on compatibility with cells, possibility fornanostructuring using soft lithography and the use of OSTE as a flexible support for conducting polymers.Results from cell seeding studies with HEP G2 cells suggest that cells can proliferate on a low thiol off-stoichiometry OSTEmaterial for at least five days. The biocompatibility for this type of OSTE material may be similar to poly(styrene). However, highlevels of free thiol monomers in the material decrease cell viability considerably.By using soft lithography techniques it is possible to fabricate OSTE nanochannels with at least the dimensions of 400 nm x 15nm. Combined with the advantages of using the OSTE materials, such as low temperature bonding and possibility for stablesurface modifications, a candidate construction material for future development of systems for DNA analysis is at hand.OSTE can serve as a flexible support for an adsorbed film of a conducting polymer with the possibility for future applicationssuch as electronic interfaces in microsystems. In this project, a film of PEDOT:PSS with the electrical resistance of ~5 kΩ wascreated by adsorption to an flexible OSTE material. Furthermore, results suggest that it is possible to further optimize theconductivity and water resistance of PEDOT:PSS films on OSTE.

  • 2.
    Harnesk, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Hellström, John
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Effekter av e-tjänster inom den offentliga vården: En kvalitativ fallstudie om hur e-tjänster kan påverka en offentlig vårdorganisations verksamhet och dess medarbetare2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    E-services are becoming increasingly prevalent in various contexts. Organizations in the public sector have also embraced this trend and today provide e-services with different purposes, e.g. various e-health services. Although there are advantages of e-services compared to traditional channels, they are not free of problems; a public organization must, among other things, provide an availability that private organizations may not need. This in turn means that the business needs to adapt its internal IT systems to handle incoming cases, which affects both the organization’s business and its employees. As today’s demands exceeds the resources, and that the population in Sweden is growing older, demands increase on the health care’s business. Citizens have to take greater responsibility for their own healthcare, which involves changes in working methods through effective e-services. Therefore, we examined the consequences this has within the business, as well as how the use of e-services affects the employees’ working routines and administrative work.

    The study aims to identify and analyze consequences, opportunities and obstacles with e-health and e-services within a public health care organization. In this way, we see that the study may help with possible explanations to the challenges that arise from the use of e-services in the public health care. The intention is also to identify and describe possible gaps between expected effects of strategies and the outcome in the operational business, which we see can contribute to greater understanding of the differences and how they might be handled. The study is based on a qualitative case study on Region Östergötland, where we have collected empirical data through interviews. The interviews have then been interpreted and analyzed to provide an illustration of how the organization strategically works with e-services in the public healthcare and how this is manifested in the business.

    The study results and conclusions show that there are both positive and less desirable effects of e-services within the operational level of the business. The same also applies to certain strategic decisions, particularly the decision to make patient records available through the e-service My health care contacts. We consider that an important contribution of the study is to highlight the needs from the operational health care business, as well as the importance of taking these into account in the development of e-health and e-service related strategies. We consider that another contribution of the study is the need to reflect on the business implications that may arise as a result of e-services.

  • 3.
    Steen Lagerstam, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship.
    Expansion av e-handelsverksamhet i detaljhandeln: En studie om utmaningar och framgångsfaktorer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has become a central part of the modern society and has change our everyday life in many ways. An area that’s been strongly affected by this development is the Swedish retail e-commerce market. E-commerce sales have increased six-fold over the course of the past decade and forecasts indicate that this expansive trend will continue. This trend places significant challenges on Swedish retail companies who have a legacy of exclusively carrying out their sales in the traditional brick and mortar format. The subject of this study was originally proposed by the Swedish retail company Företag X[1], who have decided to embark on their e-commerce initiative in early 2016. Företag X asked the author of this report to help with finding out what it takes to develop a small e-commerce store, in such a way that it becomes a successful part of the company, contributing to the company’s overall profitability. The purpose of this study is therefore to identify practices and methods that enable successful expansion of e-commerce for medium-sized, Swedish retail companies.

    In order to achieve the purpose, a qualitative multi-case study design was chosen for the study. Information for the theoretical framework was collected from articles in scientific journals and books, and supplemented with secondary empirical data in the form of reports from companies. Qualitative primary data were then collected from interviews with three chosen companies, which were found with through a small cross-sectional study of 20 competitors to Företag X where their EBITDA margins over the past five years were studied.

    The study results showed an expansive trend on the Swedish retail e-commerce market, and it seems that this trend is set to continue over the next decade. As a consequence, market climate is changing and shifting towards becoming more digitalized, which requires companies to review their sales organizations. The main trend in the market is called “omni-channel retailing" and means that a company is integrating its brick and mortar and e-commerce sales to enable a seamless shopping experience for the customer. This trend has emerged as a response to a new buying patterns observed among customers, who move between their digital and physical sales channels during the purchase.

    The study indicates that the e-commerce-related issues that are most important to address and work with are in the following areas:

    • Customer Focus
      • IT
      • Customer relations
      • Responsiveness to customers
    • Cost effectiveness
      • Supply chain and logistics
      • Strategy and governance
    • Resistance Management
      • Education
      • Synchronization between brick and mortar stores and e-commerce store

    This study represents the author’s master’s thesis in the Industrial Engineering and Management program at Linköping University, Sweden.

    [1] Företag X are known by a different name, but have asked to remain anonymous in this study

  • 4.
    Norén, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Epitaxial and bulk growth of cubic silicon carbide on off-oriented 4H-silicon carbide substrates2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of bulk cubic silicon carbide has for a long time seemed to be something for the future. However, in this thesis the initial steps towards bulk cubic silicon carbide have been taken. The achievement of producing bulk cubic silicon carbide will have a great impact in various fields of science and industry such as for example the fields of semiconductor technology within electronic- and optoelectronic devices and bio-medical applications. The process that has been used to grow the bulk cubic silicon carbide is a modification of the seeded sublimation growth, and the seeds have been grown by sublimation epitaxy. Selected samples have been characterized with a variety of different methods. The surface morphology of the samples has been examined using optical microscope, atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscope. The crystal structure has been investigated by the methods X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The electrical resistance of the grown seeds was evaluated by four probe measurements. High crystal quality seeds have been grown with semiconductor properties and bulk silicon carbide was demonstrated using the seeds.

  • 5.
    Mc Glinn, Sarah
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Performing the Jersey: Subjectivity, Identity, and Change within the Scottish Football Culture2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Before the days of cable television it was almost impossible to watch Scottish Football in Sweden. As such, my father would listen to all important Celtic games on the radio. He would go into his bedroom, close the door and listen intently to the crackling, yet passionate voices which tried vigorously to transmit scenes of green grass, screaming crowds, twenty-two men, and a ball, to all the people who lacked the good fortune of being at the stadium. I remember one occasion especially well: it was a Saturday in May, 1998; I was twelve years old and stood in the hall. As I peered through my parents bedroom door, I caught my father kissing the radio as it announced Celtic’s winning goal; the goal which stopped their opponents, Rangers, from winning ten Scottish leagues in a row. He was crying, laughing and yelling, all at once. And after the game had finished, he came down stairs, and we celebrated by putting on our favourite Celtic CD. Dancing, while singing classic Celtic songs, we revelled in ‘our’ victory.

    The memory of this day is dear to me, along with many other recollections I have of amazing afternoons which were spent singing (and sometimes crying), first with my father and, later also with his friends. Because when cable TV finally did come to my hometown Malmö in 1999, we formed a network. We joined forces with other people, (though mainly white, heterosexual men of working-class backgrounds), who, like us, loved Celtic, and thus wanted to watch them as often as they could. And together we sang the same songs which my father and I had danced to on that aforementioned day: the 9th of May 1998. In fact, he and I still sing many of those songs on a weekly basis, as do hundreds of thousands of other fans.

    Yet, some of these songs, as well as others performed by various Scottish clubs, have become increasingly criticised, and in some cases banned, for containing discriminatory, or bigoted ideas and language; an example of this critical shift can be gauged by e.g. the Offensive Behaviour at Football and Threatening Communications (Scotland) Bill, which was passed by the Scottish Parliament on the 14th of December, 2011, and enacted on the 1st of March of the following year. The bill introduces new legislation which criminalizes offensive or threatening behaviour “likely to incite public disorder at certain football matches, and [which] provides for a criminal offence concerning the sending of communications which contain threats of serious violence or which contain threats intended to incite religious hatred” (The Scottish Parliament, 2011; My italics). This law is quite unique for a number of reasons. First, because it is specific to Scotland. Secondly, because it is a national law introduced to tackle the problem of mainly one city: Glasgow, and its famous rivalry between Celtic and Rangers, known as the ‘Old Firm’. Obviously bigoted rivalries exist all over Scotland - all over the world for that matter - but the ‘Old Firm’ is considered one of the most exaggerated rivalries in Europe. What is more, the law was passed soon after the 2011 Scottish cup final, in which two players were sent off, 13 players were given yellow cards, and Celtic’s manager, Neil Lennon pushed Rangers’ assistant manager Ally McCoist. The BBC reports that “Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond held a summit in Edinburgh with representatives from Celtic, Rangers, Scottish football authorities and Strathclyde Police to discuss ways to combat disorder associated with the fixture between Glasgow's main two rival clubs” (BBC, 2011). Scotland’s justice secretary, Kenny MacAskill, claims that “the majority of Scots - 91% - support tougher action to tackle the problem [of sectarianism1]” (STV, 2013). However, the law has been met with resistance from different groups of football fans, who argue that the laws infringe on free expression.

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Lina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    "I am not just a domestic worker": A phenomenological study of organized Nicaraguan domestic workers in Costa Rica2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, I use semi-structured interviews in an intersectional and phenomenological theoretical framework, elaborating on analytical concepts such as belonging and translocational positionality, to investigate the lived experiences of Nicaraguan migrant domestic workers in Costa Rica who are organized in the association Astradomes.

    I explore if and how their experiences are connected to intersections mainly between nationality, class and gender, and examine in which spaces and contexts agency and resistance can be located. I show that the intersections between nationality, class and gender - as well as age - have shaped the respondents experiences of working as domestic workers in Costa Rica, resulting in disorientation and hierarchical employer-employee relationships.  I also demonstrate that Astradomes is a social place where the social categories of the respondents, such as class, gender and nationality, produce solidarity, agency and resistance. Moreover, it is a space where the respondents have been able to relocate - and to feel at home.

  • 7.
    Backgård, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Invandringsmotstånd i Sverige - en ekonometrisk studie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stödet för det invandringskritiska partiet Sverigdemokraterna (SD) har blivit alltstarkare under de senaste tre valen. Denna trend sammanfaller med en ökad invandring,och allt större svårigheter för invandrare att integrera sig på arbetsmarknaden,vilket sammantaget innebär en utmaning för välfärdssystemen. Öppna gränser inomEuropa medför samtidigt arbetskraftsinvandring, vilken ökar konkurrensen om vissajobb. Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur mycket av SD:s stöd vilket tolkassom motstånd mot invandring som kan förklaras ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv:huruvida motståndet mot invandring är högre i kommuner där invandringen antasha mer negativa ekonomiska konsekvenser för befolkningen. Undersökningen görsutifrån data på kommunivå från valåren 2006, 2010 och 2014. Med tre valår och290 kommuner skapas en datapanel omfattande 870 observationer, och ett tjugotalvariablers inverkan undersöks med skattningsmetoderna xed- och random eects.Resultaten visar att den mesta variationen är oförklarad, men pekar också mot attgrupper som ekonomiskt sett bör förlora mest på invandring faktiskt stöder SD i 

    högre grad. Stödet är högre där invandrare i lägre grad förvärvsarbetar jämfört medsvenskfödda, där er människor saknar gymnasieutbildning och där medianlönernaär låga. Skattningar med interaktionsvariabler tyder dessutom på att hög grad avbidragsberoende bland svenskfödda har eekt främst i närvaro av hög andel invandrare.Dessa resultat talar tillsammans på att stödet för Sverigemokraterna är delviskopplat till oro för de sociala skyddsnätens fortlevnad. Vissa resultat pekar på attockså arbetskraftsinvandring från andra EU-länder haft stor inverkan på stödet förSD, men andra resultat motsäger detta. Visst stöd hittas också för att högre brottslighetbland invandrare stärker SD:s stöd. Den realtivt låga förklaringsgraden tolkassom att invandringsmotståndet till stor del är kulturellt betingat, men den kan ävenbero på att variation i partistöd är större än variationen i invandringsmotstånd.

  • 8.
    Tidholm, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermodynamic and electronic properties of niobium at finite temperatures2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Niobium (Nb) is a fascinating element, that when it is in a solid state has remarkable properties. This is believed to be a result of its electronic configuration that has partially filled 4d and 5s sub-shells. Nb has a melting temperature of 2750 K, a high strength at high temperature, and a good wear resistance. Because of these properties, Nb is used as material for components of rockets and jet engines, and for strengthening steel.

    In the phonon dispersion relations, Kohn anomalies are experimentally observed to weaken with increased temperature, which is related to the superconducting properties of Nb. I include anharmonicity when I calculate the thermodynamic properties of Nb and relate this to the electronic structure.

    In this thesis I show that anharmonicity can not be neglected when considering thermodynamic properties of Nb. I observe broadening in the electronic band structure with increasing temperature, correlated with the gradual weakening of the Kohn anomalies in the phonon dispersion relations. Kohn anomaly in the phonon dispersion relation can be observed at 300 K and is completely absent at 1200 K. The observation of the Kohn anomaly's disappearance in the calculations is of great importance because it cannot be repeated by approaches that do not include anharmonic effects, meaning that properties that are directly related to phonon dispersion, like elastic constants, can be calculated more accurately with this approach.

  • 9.
    Eriksson Maggi, Emma
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Restrictions of Movement in Palestine. Intersectional Impacts and Strategies of Resistance.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study I use semi-structured interviews and participant observation, in an intersectional and post-colonial theoretical framework, to look at one specific aspect of the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territory: the restrictions of movement that are a result of the occupation, and how these influence different groups of the population in different ways, more specifically by analysing intersections of gender and age.  I consider not only restrictions caused by physical barriers, but also barriers caused by fear of violence or detainments and arrests. In the second part of the study I analyse strategies of resistance against the issues caused by the restrictions of movement and their gendered aspects. I show how the effects of the Wall, barriers and restrictions of movement are gendered and age-related, identifying multiple vulnerable locations at different intersections of gender and age. I also demonstrate how both individual strategies of resistance and the possibilities to participate in organised forms of resistance are gendered. 

  • 10.
    Imani, Roghayeh
    et al.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Elect Engn, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; [ 2 ] Univ Ljubljana, Fac Hlth Sci, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Pazoki, M
    Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Lab, Dept Chem, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boschloo, G ()
    Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Lab, Dept Chem, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Turner, Anthony (Contributor)
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kralj-Iglič, V (Contributor)
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Hlth Sci, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Iglič, Ales
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Elect Engn, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Band edge engineering of TiO2@DNA nanohybrids and implications for capacitive energy storage devices.2015In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 7, no 23, 10438-10448 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Novel mesoporous TiO2@DNA nanohybrid electrodes, combining covalently encoded DNA with mesoporous TiO2 microbeads using dopamine as linker, were prepared and characterised for application in supercapacitors. Detailed information about donor density, charge transfer resistance and chemical capacitance, which have important role in the performance of an electrochemical device, were studied by electrochemical methods. The results indicated the improvement of electrochemical performance of TiO2 nanohybrid electrode by DNA surface functionalisation. A supercapacitor was constructed from TiO2@DNA nanohybrids with PBS as electrolyte. From the supercapacitor experiment, it was found that the addition of DNA played an important role in improving the specific capacitance (Cs) of the TiO2 supercapacitor. The highest Cs value of 8 F/g was observed for TiO2@DNA nanohybrids. The nanohybrid electrodes were shown to be stable over long-term cycling, retaining 95% of their initial specific capacitance after 1500 cycles.

  • 11.
    Raoufi Masouleh, Azar
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Everyday Construction of Gender Identity in a Sex-reassigned Child Negotiating Membership Categorization: A case study of an Iranian family in Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conversation analytic (CA) and ethnomethodological (EM) techniques are employed in this study to explore the ways speakers within and between interactional turns build and resist gender category by resisting its activities/predicates. It aims to reveal how a sex-reassigned child’s identity is pertinent to the construction of membership categorization and the doing of resistance towards category-bound activities/predicates.  The study attempts to explain how the child tries to design her answers in a way that - both explicitly and implicitly - resist both the gender membership categorization she is being assigned to be and its ties (predicates/activities) she is being asked to accomplish. Membership categorization analysis (MCA), formulated by Sacks (1979), is employed here to show that the identity categories used in talk are tools by which participants organize and perform activities/predicates to establish their categories. The human subject that this project concentrates on is an immigrant family having a sex-reassigned child called Aidan. The data, which is analyzed, was collected during a dispute around the haircut and clothing style for the sex-reassigned child between the child and the parents. During the interaction the parents try to generate the category predicates for building up a set of activities around what might be considered ‘normal’ within a community that enables them to define and validate the child particular membership category. The main resistance strategies adopted by the child are dispreferred actions such as refusals mainly through accounting (e.g., justification and explanation) and disagreement.

  • 12.
    Raoufi Masouleh, Azar
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Everyday Construction of Gender Identity in a Sex-reassigned Child Negotiating Membership Categorization: A case study of an Iranian family in Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars in the field are of the opinion that the early simultaneous bilingual and bicultural exposure not only does not harm the bilinguals, but also strengthens their social and cultural foundations and keeps them from getting vulnerable to external environment (Deuchar and Quay 1999, 2000; Genesee 1989; Genesee, Nicoladis, and Paradis 1995; Holowka, Brosseau-Lapre ́, and Petitto 2002; Lanza 1992; Meisel 1989; Petitto et al. 2001). Also it has been demonstrated that bilingual children have differentiated systems to provide them with the ability to distinguish between their two input languages from the beginning of language acquisition (Petitto & Holowka, 2002). However, the driver of the children’s language preference patterns at home needs to be further explored. The present study is indeed an attempt to answer the question of why it is that some children regularly exposed to their heritage language from a very young age actually continue to actively use it, and other children involving in similar parental policy about bilingualism do not? It aims to examine the impacts of parental language strategies during the childhood on children language preference at home after they achieve the key competences in each of the two languages. The foci are parental attitudes towards the patterns of language choice and their influence on child language preference. Data are collected from two Iranian immigrant families; one has been experiencing additive bilingualism, while the other has been involved in the process of subtractive phenomenon. Some implications for parent-child closeness, heritage language and the risk of language contamination are touched on briefly.

  • 13.
    Rozic, Tina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Taxén, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Incentives for knowledge sharing in project based organizations: A case study at Sectra AB2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Previous research in the area of knowledge management shows that projectbased organizations often struggle with their employees resistance to shareknowledge with colleagues for reasons of self-interest. Other research show thatimplementing incentives to stimulate knowledge sharing behaviors has beenproven efficient. However, the fact that no previous research has touched uponthe topic in the context of project based organizations, motivated us to immerseourselves in the area.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to map how incentives stimulate knowledgesharing in project based organizations.

    Method

    A qualitative single-case study performed with semi-structured interviews on thedepartment of medical systems at project based Sectra AB.

    Conclusion

    The study highlights the value of combining incentives with clan control formotivating knowledge sharing in project based organizations. It indicates thatproject based organizations with help from incentives can stimulate knowledgesharing behaviors, both directly and indirectly.

  • 14.
    Keshmiri, Vahid
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Study of the Memristor Models and Applications2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Before 1971, all the electronics were based on three basic circuit elements. Until a professor from UCBerkeley reasoned that another basic circuit element exists, which he called memristor; characterized bythe relationship between the charge and the flux-linkage. A memristor is essentially a resistor withmemory. The resistance of a memristor (memristance) depends on the amount of current that is passingthrough the device. In 2008, a research group at HP Labs succeeded to build an actual physical memristor. HP's memristorwas a nanometer scale titanium dioxide thin film, composed of two doped and undoped regions,sandwiched between two platinum contacts. After this breakthrough, a huge amount of research startedwith the aim of better realization of the device and discovering more possible applications of thememristor. In this report, it is attempted to cover a proper amount of information about the history, introduction,implementation, modeling and applications of the device. But the main focus of this study is onmemristor modeling. Four papers on modeling of the memristor were considered, and since there wereno cadence models available in the literature at the time, it was decided to develop some cadencemodels. So, cadence models from the mentioned papers were designed and simulated. From the samemodeling papers some veriloga models were written as well. Unfortunately, due to some limitation of thedesign tool, some of the models failed to provide the expected results, but still the functioning modelsshow satisfactory results that can be used in the circuit simulations of memristors.

  • 15.
    Viktorsson Blom, Linnéa
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    “It could just as well be my body”: A posthumanist and phenomenological study of the becomings of an embodied female subject and her experiences of fitting and misfitting in relation to cosmetic body modifications2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a phenomenological study that has been carried out via two semi-structured interviews with an -  in conventional ways of categorising - 22 years old white, heterosexual, and middleclass Swedish woman, referred to as “Andrea”. The thesis aims to explore the becomings of Andrea in connection with cosmetic body modifications and her experiences in relation to this of fitting and misfitting, which are related to the dis/ability system. The aim of this thesis has also been to situate her as an embodied female subject in an intersectional context, in addition to her own experiences, as multiple social categorizations intra-act in the creation of dis/ability. The thesis takes its point of departure in Rosi Braidotti’s theorization of nomadic subjectivity and employs her notion of subjectivity as a negotiation between desire and power, with the goal of analysing the affirmative potential of cosmetic body modifications, as well as being critical towards them and their effects. Rosemarie Garland-Thomson’s concepts of fitting/misfitting are used in order to analyse the intra-actions between body and environment as well as how cosmetic body modifications affect the fit and/or misfit of Andrea.  Sara Ahmed’s notion of orientation has been employed in relation to this, with the aim of showing how beauty, whiteness, femininity, and economic wealth are produced and sustained. In the thesis it is analysed how Andrea, in complex ways desires molarity at the same time as she actively resists “fixed” positionings of her. Andrea contributes to a deconstruction of the fixity of molar identity as her resistance disrupts the flow of expected behaviors - something which creates moments of imperceptibility. The thesis furthermore argues that Andrea uses cosmetic body modifications as an affirmative deconstruction of power in addition to it being a force that drives her towards the desired molarity.

  • 16.
    Khajavizadeh, Lida
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth and structural characterization of ScN/CrN periodic and quasi-periodic superlattices for thermoelectric application2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this diploma work is the deposition and characterization of ScN/CrN superlattices with both periodic and quasi-periodic structures. ScN as semiconductor material with (2eV) band gap energy was selected due to its thermal and mechanical stability and its hardness. High resistivity against oxidation and high wear resistance were the reasons for choosing CrN as another candidate for the superlattices. The Rudin Shapiro structure was selected as quasi-periodic structure because of its more random structure.

    In this research both periodic and Rudin Shapiro as quasi-periodic structures have been deposited and investigated. The best optimized temperature for the deposition was 835°C and the selected periodic thickness was 6 nm for periodic structure with each ScN and CrN layers having each a thickness of 3 nm. The material ratio of Rudin Shapiro superlattices was kept the same as periodic samples. Evaluation of quasi-periodic and periodic superlattices was performed by X-ray diffraction measurements. Five peaks were recorded for superlattices measurement of periodic structure by diffraction. The envelope of the diffraction pattern represents two separated peaks in investigation of Rudin Shapiro investigation.

    The results of the X-ay measurements showed low quality of the superlattices for both deposited structures which suggest the need for further optimization of the deposition process or the use of other materials of superlattices.

  • 17.
    Kalldin, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lamination of Organic Solar Modules2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the Worlds energy demand is increasing we need more of our energy to be generated from resources that affect the climate as little as possible. Solar power could be the solution if there were solar panels with a less energy demanding production than the established silicon based solar modules.

    Printable organic solar cells will enable a cheap production process, thus they are mainly made out of polymers in solution. However, to be able to decrease the total cost of the solar modules the commonly used indium tin oxide (ITO) for the transparent electrode needs to be replaced by a less expensive material. If the cheap, high conductive and transparent polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) could replace ITO the cost of organic solar modules would significantly decrease.

    For PEDOT:PSS to be able to replace ITO there are requirements that have to be met. The transparent electrode needs to be apart from transparent, highly conductive, have a low contact resistance to the other materials in the organic solar cell and be printable.

    In this study it has been shown that the PEDOT:PSS film with Zonyl and Diethylene Glycol (DEG) as an secondary dopant, is capable of laminating to thin films made out of PEDOT:PSS, metal or a polymer fullerene blend. The contact resistances between two PEDOT:PSS films and PEDOT:PSS film and a metal film proved to be low. When laminating to a metal film an interlayer of Silver Nano Wires (AgNW) was needed to achieve a low contact resistance.

  • 18.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics.
    SMART THERAGNOSIS:MULTI DRUG RESISTANCE CANCER PERSPECTIVE2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Göransson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    What do upper secondary students learn about evolution from an animation of antibiotic resistance?2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biological evolution can be described as a unifying concept in biology. A thorough understanding of evolution is thus important to fully understand different areas of biology. However, learning the concepts of evolution has proven difficult, both to students and teachers. During the last decade, the notion of threshold concepts in learning has emerged. Passing the threshold or grasping the threshold concept is a transformative process, thought to be irreversible and has been described as passing a portal to new areas of understanding. Threshold concepts of importance to understanding evolution has been suggested to be time, spatial scale, complexity, randomness and probability. A hypothesis is therefore that facilitating understanding of those threshold concepts also will lead to a greater understanding of evolutionary mechanisms.

    Visualisations in science communication and learning has gained increased interest and animations as a form of visualisations has proven to facilitate learning in some situations. Since many (threshoid) concepts in evolution are untangible, such as deep time, small scale (micro and sub micro scale) animations could be a way to make those concepts more tangible for learners. In order to explore the potential for animations in learning evolution by making threshold concepts more tangible an interactive animation was designed and tested with upper secondary students in the course Biology 1. The subject of the animation was development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

    Learning effect was measured as differences in pre and post test scores on a selection of previously used concept questions from the literature, the concept inventory of natural selection (CINS). Open ended questions were also used as well as interview sessions, to gain more insight to the eventual effects of the animation. No statiscally significant improvement in the CINS scores could be observed in total, however improvement on a specific question category (biotic potential) could be observed. The number of misconceptions on evolution seemed unaffected after animation. Indications of conceptual conflicts could also be observed after the animation, indicating a potential for conceptual change with future revisions of the animation. 

  • 20.
    Oliynyk, Igor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Varelogianni, Georgia
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Schalling, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenkvist Asplund, Monika
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Roomans, Godfres M
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Marie
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Azithromycin increases chloride efflux from cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells2009In: Experimental Lung Research, ISSN 0190-2148, E-ISSN 1521-0499, Vol. 35, no 3, 210-221 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It was investigated whether azithromycin (AZM) stimulates chloride (Cl-) efflux from cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF airway epithelial cells, possibly secondary to up-regulation of the multidrug resistance protein (MDR). CF and non-CF human airway epithelial cell lines (CFBE and 16HBE) were treated with 0.4, 4, and 40 microg/mL AZM for 4 days. Cl- efflux was explored in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors of CFTR and alternative Cl- channels. Six CF patients received AZM (500 mg daily) for 6 months. The percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%), forced expiratory volume (FEV1%), and the number of acute exacerbations were compared before and after treatment. Nasal biopsies were taken before and after treatment, and mRNA expression of MDR and CFTR was determined by in situ hybridization. A significant dose-dependent increase of Cl- efflux from CFBE cells (but not from 16HBE cells) was observed after AZM treatment. A CFTR inhibitor significantly reduced AZM-stimulated Cl- efflux from CFBE cells. A significant improvement in FEV1%, and fewer exacerbations were observed. AZM treatment did not affect mRNA expression of MDR and CFTR. The stimulation of Cl- efflux could be part of the explanation for the clinical improvement seen among the patients.

  • 21.
    Arbring, Theresia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The impact of geometrical variations on the transport properties of organic electronic ion pumps2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) is an electrically controlled polymer-based device that has the capability to interact with biological systems down to a single cell level by mimicking neural signalling. This is accomplished by translation of an electrical signal into a chemical output, such as ions and neurotransmitters. Because of the combined spatial and temporal precision, this is a technology with a promising future as an advanced therapeutic device. Depending on the application, the OEIP requires different geometries. Implants that will be used to control on a single cell level require very small dimensions, while for example extracorporeal mounted OIEPs, with only the delivery channel penetrating the skin, require much longer channels. Despite the application, it is necessary to have a good knowledge about the transport and delivery properties and how they change due to the geometry. These properties have been observed as very varying and unstable in early unpublished results, and these findings motivate this project. This project includes photolithographic fabrication and investigation of transport and delivery properties such as effective resistance, efficiency and stability of OEIPs with varying delivery channel lengths and widths. Shorter delivery channels show a consistent but relatively low efficiency. Delamination between different layers of the device is suspected as the cause. Initially, the longer delivery channels show a low functionality, most probably due to poor encapsulation. It is suggested that a soft, water-permeable plastic best encapsulates OEIPs that will be used as a medical implant, while a material impermeable to water, for example a metal, could successfully encapsulate OEIPs operating in air.

  • 22.
    Pettersson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Bogne, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Jag vill inte!: En fallstudie om emotionell respons, vid IT-systemuppgradering, hos personer med kort erfarenhet i det gamla systemet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis aims to examine the emotional response during a period of change related to the IT-systems in use, which involves individuals with little experience in the old system, in order to highlight reactions and experiences from a humanistic perspective and to examine whether or not resistance to the change has occurred. Interviews are performed with three individuals, who all work part time with scheduling and room reservations at Linkoping University, where an extensive system upgrade of the reservation system has taken place in early 2013. A conversation is also had with professor Alf Westelius of Linkoping University, in order to inspire the collection of theories and to be used in the analysis of the empirical material.

    The focal conclusion derived from the study is that resistance to change must not always occur, but if it occurs, there is no simple answer as to why; resistance to change can in many ways be mitigated through organizational awareness and mindfulness; if the organization, in which change occurs, adapts the view that change is a constant, not something extraordinary and if the organization prioritizes solving the individual’s worries with regards to the change at hand, on a personal level, instead of generalizing and stereotyping.

  • 23.
    Heverius, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strengthening of Concrete Beams and Slabs using Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites for strengthening existing concrete structures has in recent years increased within the Swedish construction business. The main advantage of CFRP composites is their high strength compared to their weight, which enable thin layers of composites attached to the existing structure to increase its load capacity significantly. Good corrosion resistance, ease fore site handling due to their light weight and the opportunity to design the material for special needs are other benefits.

    Despite the obvious advantages there are still few structural designers in Sweden who possess the knowledge to use CFRP composites. The aim of this thesis is therefore to give an introduction to this area. Hereat is the scope limited to flexural strengthening of concrete beams and slabs from the designer’s point of view.

    The introductory chapter is followed by a general description of CFRP composites. Then different strengthening methods as well as suppliers, contractor and products within the Swedish market are described.

    Regarding the design process it becomes clear in this thesis that the quality of the concrete and fire protection is crucial factors. It is also clear that due to the unhealthy properties of the epoxy resins the working environment has to be taken under certain consideration already in the design process.

    Besides a general description of CFRP composites and some advices regarding the design process this thesis have resulted in wide-ranging step-by-step design guidelines for calculation. Furthermore the calculation process is shown in two examples. These examples will also give an idea of the quantity CFRP composites required for flexural strengthening.

  • 24.
    Rundquist, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Påverkar variationer i promotorn till VRN1 frostresistens i vete (Triticum aestivum) från Nordeuropa?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bread wheat, Triticum aestivum is an important crop. As history has progressed the species has been forced to adapt to different environments. In Northern Europe, frost resistance has been especially paramount. An important gene for frost resistance is VRN1 that controls vernalization, i.e. the transition from vegetative state to active state during spring. Different variants of this gene confer differences in frost resistance during spring. In this study I examined how the promotor region of VRN1A affects frost resistance in accessions of landraces of wheat from Northern Europe. All accessions from which the promotor region could be sequenced shared the same promotor sequence even though they had very varied frost resistance. This could be because the expression of VRN1 is not only affected by the promotor. Variations in intron one is also important, and so it is reasonable to assume that the variation between these landraces lies there instead. The variations could also be on one of the other genomes, because bread wheat is hexaploid. The fact that all the accessions shared the same promotor sequence indicates that a selective sweep has taken place. This selective sweep could have occurred before bread wheat arrived in Northern Europe because landraces from Germany and France shares the same promotor as Nordic Landraces.

  • 25.
    Svensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design of a general interface of a driving simulator cockpit2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has covered the design, implementation and evaluation of a new hardware interface for an automobile simulator cockpit - the front end of a SAAB 9-3. Two circuit boards were produced, one for analog and one for digital signals. The boards were manufactured at ITN’s PCB lab at Campus Norrköping. Both boards were equipped with terminal blocks, enabling easy connection of input signals. The analog signals were of such configuration that voltage division was to be

    used. I therefore had 32 potentiometers of different resistance intervals soldered to the analog board. These potentiometers, along with the ones in the cockpit (mounted by the manufacturer), provided fixed analog output levels. The digital board did not have any signal processing but for every signal a LED was soldered to the board. This was done to make trouble-shooting easier. As an interface to the simulator itself, two I/O boards and two PCI-cards with both analog and digital inputs were used. The I/O boards were situated close to the analog and digital boards to which they were connected via planar cable. Two SCSI cables then transmitted the information to the PCI-cards, 5 m away. Installation of the boards went smoothly. The interface then underwent and passed a test to everyone’s satisfaction.

    Furthermore, Controller Area Network (CAN) has been examined in order to determine its implementability in simulator applications. First, the protocol and specification of CAN was examined. The next step was to investigate its general implementation in automobiles. This proved to be a difficult task since there is no general way of implementing it which is used by every car manufacturer. I was therefore forced to make individual contact with manufacturers and it became apparent that such information was not something they were keen on sharing. These contacts were still of use because none of them recommended CAN to be implemented in a simulator. The reasons mentioned for this was that because of its asynchronous protocol, CAN is not suited for message transmission which must be sent instantly. When that was the case, an implementation of CAN would mean that other protocols would have to be used as well in order to transmit all signals. Because of that, my conclusion was that CAN is not a feasible solution in simulator applications.

  • 26.
    Balasubramanian, Manikandan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vijayanathan, Saravana Prabhu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design of a DCO for an All Digital PLL for the 60 GHz Band: Design of a DCO for an All Digital PLL for the 60 GHz Band2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work was based on digitally controlled oscillator for an all-digital PLL in 65nm process. Phase locked loop’s were used in most of the application for clock generation and recovery as well. As the technology grows faster in the existinggeneration, there has to be quick development with the technique. In such case ananalog PLL which was used earlier gradually getting converted to digital circuit.All-digital PLL blocks does the same work as an analog PLL blocks, but thecircuits and other control circuitry designed were completely in digital form, becausedigital circuit has many advantages over analog counterpart when they arecompared with each other. Digital circuit could be scaled down or scaled up evenafter the circuits were designed. It could be designed for low power supply voltageand easy to construct in a 65 nm process. The digital circuit was widely chosento make life easier.

    In most of the application PLL’s were used for clock and data recovery purpose,from that perspective jitter will stand as a huge problem for the designers. Themain aim of this thesis was to design a DCO that should bring down the jitter asdown as possible which was designed as standalone, the designed DCO would belater placed in an all-digital PLL. To understand the concept and problem aboutjitter at the early stage of the project, an analog PLL was designed in block leveland tested for different types of jitter and then design of a DCO was started.

    This document was about the design of a digitally controlled oscillator whichoperates with the center frequency of 2.145 GHz. In the first stage of the projectthe LC tank with NMOS structure was built and tested. In the latter stage the LCtank was optimized by using PMOS structure as negative resistance and eventuallyended up with NMOS and PMOS cross coupled structure. Tuning banks were oneof the main design in this project which plays a key role in locking the system ifthe DCO is placed in an all-digital PLL system. So, three types of tuning bankswere introduced to make the system lock more precisely. The control circuits andthe varactors built were all digital and hence it is called as digitally controlledoscillator. Digital control circuits, other sub-blocks like differential to single endedand simple buffers were also designed to optimize the signal and the results wereshown.DCO and tuning banks were tested using different types of simulation and were tested for different jitter qualities and analysis. The simulation results are shownin the final chapter simulation and results.

  • 27.
    Sunnerstam, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Modern Languages. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Un penchant pour l'opacité : de l'identité rhizomatique à la résistance langagière et narrative dans Solibo Magnifique et Traversée de la mangrove2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses two novels taking place in the Caribbean context, Traversée de la mangrove (1989), written by Maryse Condé, and Solibo Magnifique (1988), written by Patrick Chamoiseau. Focus is on the themes of identity and resistance and how these themes are represented and problematised in the novels. Some narrative aspects are also given attention, such as how the use of different narrative techniques mirrors the themes in the novels. Objecting to the French/European obsession with rationality, transparency and linearity, the novels propose other ways of expressing identity as well as writing literature. The French language, associated with Western and colonial discourses and with the ideals of Enlightenment, is used as a tool to dominate and suppress others. Identity is described in terms of rhizomatic relationships and diversity, rather than as stable entities. Opacity is a way of resisting the violence of rational descriptions and the linear, causal narrations. By refusing to tell all, and by claiming that certain things cannot be explained in rational ways, the novels problematise the act of representing and insist upon complexity. The penchant for opacity is reflected in the narration for example in the tendency to pose questions rather than provide answers for the reader. 

  • 28.
    Lind, Tore
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Kärnsjukhuset, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mégraud, Francis
    Laboratoire de Bactériologie, Hôpital Pellegrin, Bordeaux, France.
    Unge, Peter
    Department of Internal Medicine, Sandvikens Hospital, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Bayerdörffer, Ekkehard
    Medizinische Klinik I–Gastroenterologie, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany.
    O'Morain, Colm
    Department of Gastroenterology, Meath/Adelaide Hospital, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    Spiller, Robin
    Division of Gastroenterology, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, England.
    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander
    Department of Medicine, Queen Elisabeth II Hospital, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
    Dev Bardhan, Karna
    Rotherham General Hospitals, Rotherham, England.
    Hellblom, Magnus
    Department of Medicine, Lasarettet, Östersund, Sweden.
    Wrangstadh, Lars
    Astra Hässle, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Zeijlon, Lars
    Astra Hässle, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Cederberg, Christer
    Astra Hässle, Mölndal, Sweden.
    The MACH2 study: Role of omeprazole in eradication of Helicobacter pylori with 1-week triple therapies1999In: Gastroenterology, ISSN 0016-5085, Vol. 116, no 2, 248-253 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & Aims: The role of omeprazole in triple therapy and the impact of Helicobacter pylori resistance on treatment outcome are not established. This study investigated the role of omeprazole and influence of primary H. pylori resistance on eradication and development of secondary resistance.

    Methods: Patients (n = 539) with a history of duodenal ulcer and a positive H. pylori screening test result were randomized into 4 groups. OAC group received 20 mg omeprazole, 1000 mg amoxicillin, and 500 mg clarithromycin; OMC group received 20 mg omeprazole, 400 mg metronidazole, and 250 mg clarithromycin; and AC (amoxicillin, 1000 mg, and clarithromycin, 500 mg) and MC (metronidazole, 400 mg, and clarithromycin, 250 mg) groups received no omeprazole. All doses were administered twice daily for 1 week. H. pylori status was assessed before and after therapy by 13C-urea breath test. Susceptibility testing was performed at entry and in patients with persistent infection after therapy.

    Results: Eradication (intention to treat [n = 514]/per protocol [n = 449]) was 94%/95% for OAC, 26%/25% for AC (P < 0.001), 87%/91% for OMC, and 69%/72% for MC (P < 0.001). Primary resistance was 27% for metronidazole, 3% for clarithromycin, and 0% for amoxicillin. Eradication in primary metronidazole-susceptible/-resistant strains was 95%/76% for OMC and 86%/43% for MC. Secondary metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance each developed in 12 patients: 8 treated with omeprazole and 16 without omeprazole.

    Conclusions: Addition of omeprazole achieves high eradication rates, reduces the impact of primary resistance, and may decrease the risk of secondary resistance compared with regimens containing only two antibiotics.

  • 29.
    Westling, Suzette
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Wind Power Controversies: A Case Study in Ödeshög, Sweden2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in further expansion of wind power has increased significantly during the last decades, as it is an environmentally and financially competitive energy source. Wind power is an important part of achieving energy goals and climate commitments in several countries, not least in Sweden. The localisation of the wind turbines has, however, appeared to be controversial and local resistance occurs more frequently as the energy source expands. This creates a complex environmental conflict where various actors struggle to obtain differing goal settings. Such a situation occurred in Ödeshög municipality, when wind power entrepreneurs expressed their interests in establish wind turbines in forest and transition areas of the municipality. This thesis aims to emphasise how wind power expansion became such a controversial environmental conflict in Ödeshög. To be able to do this, the conflict is analysed from an Actor-Network Theory perspective. This theoretical framework has been used with the ambition to describe how the involved actors strategically have acted to possibly influence the outcome of the conflict. The situation in Ödeshög have much to say about how these conflicts occur and by learning from this situation several similar conflicts may be avoided.

  • 30.
    Tsung, Chang Che
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigation on a change in response direction of Ga doped ZnO nanoparticles resistive sensors on exposure to NO2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Semiconductor-based gas sensors have been used for a wide range of applications over the last few decades. In this thesis, sensing properties of pure ZnO and Ga doped ZnO are investigated. There are three types of tested gas species, H2, O2 and NO, and three test temperatures, 300oC, 400oC and 500oC. After measurements of response to exposure to H2 and O2, it is concluded that Ga doped ZnO and ZnO are both n-type metal oxides.

    In measurements of NO, two test conditions were considered, the case with background O2 (10%) in the gas flow and the case without background O2. NO can be oxidized to NO2 or reduced to N2 and O2. The resistance of Ga doped ZnO and ZnO sensors always decreases for all exposures to NO except for the case in which the Ga doped ZnO sensor was exposed to NO in a background of O2 at 500 oC. In this special case, the resistance of Ga doped ZnO actually increases during exposure to low concentrations of NO (< 30 ppm). It is not clear whether the change in response direction is due to an n-p transition or different reactions between gas molecules and Ga doped ZnO. Work function measurements were therefore conducted to understand more about the electron transfer during gas exposure. The work function measurements suggest that there are probably several stages of interactions between gas molecules and Ga doped ZnO during each gas pulse exposure.

  • 31.
    Hammerman, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Protein Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Oxidative Stress and Protein Acetylation in Adipocytes2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is an increasing health problem which is causally associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress, i.e. overproduction of reactive oxygen species, is associated with insulin resistance and obesity and may be a major risk factor in the onset and progression of diabetes. Bernlohr Lab at University of Minnesota have study oxidative stress in adipocytes by silencing the enzyme glutathione S-transferase A-4 (GSTA4), an enzyme detoxifying 4-hydroxynonenal formed during oxidative stress. Their results indicate that lysine acetylation, an important post-translational modification, may be involved during oxidative stress. In this study lysine acetylation has been investigated in condition of oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and subcutaneous adipose tissue from mice using SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and western blot. Lysine acetylation was analyzed in different compartments of the cell such as in cytoplasm, mitochondria as well as in whole cell extracts. Silencing of GSTA4 and stimulation by TNF-α in 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in an increase of lysine acetylation in cytoplasm. Furthermore, stimulation by IL-6 did not have any effect on lysine acetylation. Surprisingly, subcutaneous adipose tissue from mice fed on a high-fat diet showed a decrease of lysine acetylation in cytoplasm compare to mice fed on a chow diet. In conclusion, lysine acetylation seems to change during oxidative stress and may be an important factor during insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Therefore, studying lysine acetylation and enzymes modulating acetylation may potentially increase our understanding of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and obesity and could lead to new therapies.

  • 32.
    Tarar, Mohsin Mumtaz
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design and Implementation of as Asymmetric Doherty Power Amplifier at 2.65 GHz in GaN HEMT Technology2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Power amplifiers are an indispensible part of the wireless communication systems. Conventional PAs provide peak efficiency at peak output power which is obtained at a certain fixed optimum resistance. These kind of amplifiers are normally called switched-mode power amplifiers (SMPAs) and are used for constant envelope signals. However, there is low efficiency at low output power which is the linear operation of a PA and is used for the amplification of non-constant envelope signals. For an optimum PA design, linearity and efficiency are the requirements. There are efficiency  enhancement techniques and Doherty architecture is one such approach.

    Classical Doherty (symmetric) approach entertains the signals that have peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of 6 dB. Applications like Long Term Evolution (LTE) having high PAPR of nearly 9 dB demand efficiency throughout the back-off range. Therefore the challenge is to design and implement an asymmetric Doherty power amplifier that ensures high efficiency in the back-off range greater than 6 dB.

    This work presents the design and implementation of an Asymmetric Doherty Power Amplifier (ADPA) for 12 dB back-off at 2.65 GHz in Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) technology. The carrier and peaking amplifiers are biased in class-B and C mode of operations, respectively. A branchline coupler is used to divide the input signal equally to amplifiers input. A 10 W GaN HEMT transistor is used as an active device for both amplifiers. The design has been implemented with ideal transmission lines and then shifted to microstrip lines using 508 um substrate. The measurement results of the ADPA prototype, when drain of carrier and peaking devices are biased at 24 V and 28 respectively, showed an input power back of (IPBO) of 9.68 dB with almost same power added efficiency (PAE) of 44% throughout the entire back-off range. The simulations are done with Agilent ADS and Momentum is used for Electromagnetic (EM) simulation.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Franzén, Karolina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Från Häst Till Kund: Flyinge AB – Ett empiriskt exempel på utvecklande av dynamiska färdigheter2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In recent years many business environments have been characterized by a fast and advanced technical development, change in demands and increased competition. The market conditions are constantly changing and because of that organizations have to find new ways to compete. This can be realized through adjustments and restructurings of the firm’s resources portfolio and it is also called dynamic capabilities. Key Words in this process are timing, speed and flexibility. Nevertheless, these elements can be hard to attain since many organizations have an internal inertia that will restrict their agility.

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to analyze how an organization can develop dynamic capabilities and in the same time reduce its internal inertia.

    Method: To answer the above reasoning a case study has been realized at a Swedish company within the sector of horse-breeding. The stud farm Flyinge AB was chosen and five different interviews were conducted. An additional interview was conducted at Hästak AB with the purpose to get a better understanding of the horse-breeding industry.

    Result: Change can be seen as a complex process with many different factors that affect the outcome. A dynamic capability is a process of change and it can be either episodic or continuous. The ideal form of change is continuous since it has a low level of internal inertia. The resistance to change can be seen in organizational structure and culture. To eliminate these obstacles the leader has an important role. The leader should identify the problem, come up with a strategy, communicate the new strategy/change, find acceptance for it and finally implement it. In the change process balanced scorecard can be used as an instrument for communications.

  • 34.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lind, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Belönande Projekt eller Projektbelöningar?: En studie om projektovana medarbetares motivation i projekt2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: What would you say if your boss one day told you that you were going to be part of a project? Projects have for the last 20 years become increasingly popular. Many different companies are using projects as a way to promote and drive change in their respective organization. Change however is not always easy and companies may face resistance even from their own workers who are not motivated or committed to change. Thus it has become important to know what motivates employees with low project familiarity that join a project for the first time.

    Aim: The purpose of this thesis is to examine what motivates project members with low project familiarity when it comes to joining and participating in projects. We also want to understand what parts of the transition from line to project as well as during the project that it is important to handle from a motivation standpoint.

    Completion: The study has been done as a single-case study based on qualitative interviews. The authors have interviewed 12 project members with low project familiarity all working at Toyota Material Handling Europe.

    Results: Our study has shown that expectations play a big role in whether a project member with low project familiarity is motivated both in transition to, as well as work in, a project. Project members with low project familiarity create their expectations before the project has started. These expectations include primarily what the project will mean for them in terms of learning and personal development, but also in terms of career advancement. These initial expectations follow the project member through the entire project. It has also become evident that people with a strong growth needs have found the way of work in the project to be very rewarding compared to their former workplace. The lack of knowledge on projects has meant that these expectations have not been based in reality and many project members have been surprised by the work load in the project. Companies must address these expectations and inform the prospective project members of what the project will mean for them.

  • 35.
    Imam, Hasan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effects of protein kinase inhibitors on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    B cell Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is a neoplastic disorder characterized by accumulation of B lymphocytes due to uncontrolled growth and resistance to apoptosis. Src family kinases (SFKs) are non receptor tyrosine kinases present in the cytosol, which couple with downstream B cell receptor signaling and thus mediate growth, survival, proliferation and antiapoptosis. In CLL cells SFKs are remarkably overexpressed, especially Lyn kinase. This gives the rational to use SFKs inhibitor to treat CLL.

    Addition of the specific pharmacological inhibitors of SFKs, bosutinib and saracatinib, inhibited the global tyrosine phosphorylation as well as the basal auto-phosphorylation of SFKs. Mechanistically, inhibition of SFKs is coupled to apoptosis induction via decreased protein levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and survivin, which were demonstrated by Western blotting. To assess apoptosis induction, annexin V binding to freshly isolated CLL cells with or without treatment with kinase inhibitors was measured flow cytometrically. Using the inhibitors at a concentration of 10 μM the average percentages of annexin V-positive, apoptotic cells in 11 CLL samples increased from 24 % in untreated controls to 55 %, 45 % and 37 % after treatment with bosutinib, saracatinib and dasatinib, respectively. The response to each of the inhibitors showed a high but comparable degree of variation among the investigated CLL samples. On the average bosutinib induced apoptosis with significantly higher efficiency than dasatinib, which calls for further investigation of its pre-clinical potential for treatment of CLL.

  • 36.
    Alriksson, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Höns återhämtning efter stress samt domesticeringens effekter: En biologisk studie med ett lärarperspektiv2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The biological study has shown that behaviour of laying hens has changed through domestication and the hens have adapted to live with humans. They have developed less fear of humans and more resistance to stress. In this study hens’ recovery after a stressful experience has been studied. A comparison between the breeds White Leghorn and red junglefowl has been made to see how the domestication has affected the recovery. The questions of this study are therefore: How long does it take for hens’ to recover their natural behaviour, not stressrelated, after a stressful experience? Are there any differences in recovery between the different breeds White Leghorn and red junglefowl? The results did not show a specific time for recovery, but a distinct recovery was noticed in Relaxed Behaviour, Comfort Behaviour, Perch, Vocalisation and Stand Alert. This beacause of the behaviours differed significantly with time. Also significant differences existed between the breeds, both in behaviours that showed recovery and in behavious that did not. A conclusion of what breed that recovered fastest was difficult to make. This because of the differences of behaviour showed different tendencies in recovery. The differences in recovery between the sexes showed tendencies that the males recovered fastest. The domestication has also been studied from a teacherperspective. The study showed that domestication can be a part of biologyeducation in the fields of evolution and genetics in the grades 7-9.

  • 37.
    Carlsson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Hierarchical Micro- and Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces to Reduce Fibrous Encapsulation of Pacemaker Leads: Nanotechnology in Practical Applications2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this master’s thesis was to, by the use of nanotechnology, improve material properties of the biomedical polymer Optim™, used as the insulation of pacemaker leads. Improved material properties are required to reduce the extent of fibrous encapsulation of the leads. Today, laser ablation is used to be able to remove the pacemaker lead because of the fibrous tissue, which can cause the lead to adhere to vascular structures. Consequently, the laser ablation results in risks of damaging cardiovascular structures. Moreover, improved material properties are needed to reduce the friction at the surface and enhance the wear resistance. Large wearing occurs between the lead and the titanium pacemaker shell as well as lead against lead and the wearing can result in a damaged insulation, which in turn might result in removal of the device.

    To achieve these improved material properties a hierarchically micro- and nanostructured and superhydrophobic surface was fabricated and to enhance the wear resistance, nanocomposites with 1 wt % and 5 wt % added hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were fabricated. The surface structures were fabricated via hot embossing and plasma treatment and were characterised with atomic force microscopy, environment scanning electron microscopy and with contact angle measurements. To evaluate the biological response to the surfaces, adsorption of radioisotope labelled human serum albumin proteins and adhesion of the human fibroblast cell line MRC-5 were studied.

    The results show that a superhydrophobic surface, with contact angle as high as 170.0 ± 0.4 °, can be fabricated via hierarchically micro- and nanostructures on an Optim™ surface. The fabricated surface is more protein resistant and cell resistant compared to a smooth surface. The nanocomposites fabricated, especially the one with 5 wt % nanoparticles added, show an enhanced abrasive wear resistance compared to Optim™ without added nanoparticles. In conclusion, a hierarchically micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surface of the pacemaker lead seems promising for reducing the extent of fibrous encapsulation and by fabricating a nanocomposite, the abrasive wear damage of the lead insulation can be reduced.

  • 38.
    Molin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control.
    Gustafsson, Moa
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control.
    Skattning av fordonsmassa med driftstatistik2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the automatic manual transmission system, Opticruise, the choice of gear is based on several parameters such as road incline, driving resistance and vehicle mass. Many different mass estimations are made during driving. A final vehicle mass is then used to determine the current gear. Construction vehicles are often not equipped with air suspension and can therefore not estimate the vehicle mass when standing still. If that sort of vehicle is reloaded while standing still an incorrect mass estimation will be used and as an effect of that also a wrong gear. The solution of this problem is divided into two parts: first to detect the reload and then to estimate the new mass. An accelerometer will be used to detect a reload before start, because it reacts on the gradient change of the vehicle. A force equation will also be used to detect a reload, but only after the start, because it needs access to the vehicle acceleration to make the calculation. After a reload has been detected a new mass can be estimated. The estimation is based on previous vehicle mass estimated during driving. The new mass will be reasonable, if the assumption that the vehicle is mostly driving empty or fully loaded is true, and if it is possible to determine whether the vehicle becomes lighter or heavier at the reload.

  • 39.
    Ahlberg, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Blomquist, Esbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems.
    Online Identification of Running Resistance and Available Adhesion of Trains2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two important physical aspects that determine the performance of a running train are the total running resistance that acts on the whole train moving forward, and the available adhesion (utilizable wheel-rail-friction) for propulsion and breaking. Using the measured and available signals, online identification of the current running resistance and available adhesion and also prediction of future values for a distance ahead of the train, is desired. With the aim to enhance the precision of those calculations, this thesis investigates the potential of online identification and prediction utilizing the Extended Kalman Filter.

    The conclusions are that problems with observability and sensitivity arise, which result in a need for sophisticated methods to numerically derive the acceleration from the velocity signal. The smoothing spline approximation is shown to provide the best results for this numerical differentiation. Sensitivity and its need for high accuracy, especially in the acceleration signal, results in a demand of higher sample frequency. A desire for other profound ways of collecting further information, or to enhance the models, arises with possibilities of future work in the field.

  • 40.
    Karlsson (Sunnerstam), Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Une identité de fracture: Une étude de Garçon manqué et Je ne parle pas la langue de mon père2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har som syfte att studera hur identitet skildras i de självbiografiska romanerna Garçon manqué (2000), skriven av Nina Bouraoui och Je ne parle pas la langue de mon père (2003), skriven av Leïla Sebbar. Utifrån postkoloniala och feministiska perspektiv visar jag hur romanerna, skrivna av fransk-algeriska, kvinnliga författare, gestaltar erfarenheter av splittrad identitet och utanförskap. Dessa erfarenheter lyfts fram som resultatet av bland annat nationalistiska och misogyna diskurser. Minnena av våldet i de koloniala relationerna mellan Frankrike och Algeriet lever starkt kvar i protagonisternas medvetanden. På så sätt länkas deras personliga upplevelser av våld till en kollektiv historia. Samtidigt artikulerar romanerna motstånd mot de diskurser som genom sina ansatser att bemäktiga sig subjektet påminner om en kolonial logik. 

  • 41.
    Faghani, Farshad
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    Thermal conductivity Measurement of PEDOT:PSS by 3-omega Technique2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymers (CP) have received great attention in both academic and industrial areas in recent years. They exhibit unique characteristics (electrical conductivity, solution processability, light weight and flexibility) which make them promising candidates for being used in many electronic applications. Recently, there is a renewed interest to consider those materials for thermoelectric generators that is for energy harvesting purposes. Therefore, it is of great importance to have in depth understanding of their thermal and electrical characteristics. In this diploma work, the thermal conductivity of PEDOT:PSS is investigated by applying 3-omega technique which is accounted for a transient method of measuring thermal conductivity and specific heat.

    To validate the measurement setup, two benchmark substrates with known properties are explored and the results for thermal conductivity are nicely in agreement with their actual values with a reasonable error percentage. All measurements are carried out inside a Cryogenic probe station with vacuum condition. Then a bulk scale of PEDOT:PSS with sufficient thickness is made and investigated. Although, it is a great challenge to make a thick layer of this polymer since it needs to be both solid state and has as smooth surface as possible for further gold deposition.

    The results display a thermal conductivity range between 0.20 and 0.25 (W.m-1.K-1) at room temperature which is a nice approximation of what has been reported so far. The discrepancy is mainly due to some uncertainty about the exact value of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the heater and also heat losses especially in case of heaters with larger surface area. Moreover, thermal conductivity of PEDOT:PSS is studied over a wide temperature band ranging from 223 - 373 K.

  • 42.
    Frid, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    Security Critical Systems in Software2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sectra Communications is today developing cryptographic products for high assurance environments with rigorous requirements on separation between encrypted and un-encrypted data. This separation has traditionally been achieved through the use of physically distinct hardware components, leading to larger products which require more power and cost more to produce compared to systems where lower assurance is required.

    An alternative to hardware separation has emerged thanks to a new class of operating systems based on the "separation kernel" concept, which offers verifiable separation between software components running on the same processor comparable to that of physical separation. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the feasibility in developing a product based on a separation kernel and which possibilities and problems with security evaluation would arise.

    In the thesis, a literature study was performed covering publications on the separation kernel from a historical and technical perspective, and the development and current status on the subject of software evaluation. Additionally, a software crypto demonstrator was partly implemented in the separation kernel based Green Hills Integrity operating system.

    The thesis shows that the separation kernel concept has matured significantly and it is indeed feasible to begin using this class of operating systems within a near future. Aside from the obvious advantages with smaller amounts of hardware, it would give greater flexibility in development and potential for more fine-grained division of functions. On the other hand, it puts new demands on developers and there is also a need for additional research about some evaluation aspects, failure resistance and performance.

  • 43.
    Guinart Trayter, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems .
    Orpella Aceret, Jordi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems .
    Hydraulic Regenerative System for a Light Vehicle2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is based in a constructed light vehicle that must be improved by adding a hydraulic energy recovery system. This vehicle named as TrecoLiTH, participated in the Formula Electric and Hybrid competition (Formula EHI) 2009 in Italy -Rome- and won several awards.

    This system consists in two hydraulic motors hub mounted which are used to store fluid at high pressure in an accumulator when braking. Through a valve the pressure will flow from the high pressure accumulator to the low pressure one, and consequently the vehicle will get extra acceleration.

    This thesis consists in finishing the assembly and testing it, as the main idea was already thought and some of the necessary parts were acquired before. Firstly, a quick overview of the bike is done and the current state of it at the end of the thesis is discussed. After that, the mechanism used to actuate the system is developed and explained, with which some CAD software was used to design and make some FEA. Straight afterwards the work focused on the tests and its development. A quick discussion about what tests should be done, the preparations and also the way that some measurements were done is commented. In order to do these measurements a data acquisition device and some software to deal with it was used.

    Thereupon, calculations to know if the system auto-compensates the weight added, causing more rolling resistance, and the oil frictions are done. In this part the performance and reliability of the system is discussed, as well as the feelings of the driver. Finally, improvements and possible modifications are listed with the aim of upgrade the vehicle, the system and the way of work.

  • 44.
    Aslan, Selcuk
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular genetics.
    The molecular genotyping of flower development genes and allelic variations in ‘historic’ barley accessions2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 25 credits / 37,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a genetic study of flowering time in cultivated barley with the aim to identify the alleles contributing to rapid flowering and frost resistance. We have genotyped a collection of 23 historic barley varieties for the crucial genes [VRN-1, VRN-2, VRN-3 (HvFT), Ppd-H1, CO, and Vrs1]. We have amplified the polymorphic mutations by PCR-based methods, and sequenced them to identify possible haplotype groups. The row type was not determined of all accessions, but all the Scandinavian varieties were found to carry mutant alleles of Vrs1, that indicates them to be six-row barleys. The deletion of the crucial segment of VRN-1 vernalization contributes dominant spring growth habit. We found haplotype groups 2 and 4 to be dominant in Northern barleys whereas haplotype groups 1 and 5 dominated in south. The presence of dominant allele VRN-2 gene is addressed to floral repression until plants get vernalized. Most of the 23 varieties were found to have deleted allele of VRN-2, which is connected with a spring growth habit. The only four of the accessions that have the dominant allele of Ppd-H1 that contribute flowering are generally from the south of Europe. HvFT and CO genes CO-interact to influence flowering time. CO haplotype grouping suggest a geographical distribution of different alleles but needs more disseminations. Certain HvFT alleles cause extremely early flowering during apex development in the varieties that have deletion of VRN-2 alleles under long days. VRN-3 alleles of 14 varieties were identified.

  • 45.
    Sánchez Reátegui, Rafael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Porphyrins based detection of NH3 and CO, using field effect grid gate devices2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Porphyrins consist of twenty-atom rings containing four nitrogen atoms and can be used as sensor to detect odours and gases.

    This thesis investigates whether or not porphyrins can be used as functional materials on grid gate devices.  Drops of PVC embedded porphyrins were deposited on the surface of a grid gate which is a Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) capacitor. In order to detect the gas sensing properties of the porphyrins a light addressable method called Scanning Light Pulse Technique (SLPT) has been used.

    Drops of porphyrins were deposited with a stretched capillary tube (1 mm diameter).

    The MOS capacitor has been exposed to nitrogen atmosphere as reference environment, while the target gases were carbon monoxide (100 ppm) and ammonia (500 ppm).

    The result from the eight porphyrins is that one of them [Pt(II) TPP] has a response for both gases, ammonia induces a change in both the work function and surface resistance, while the carbon monoxide induces only a change in the surface resistance.

  • 46.
    Berg, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Wannes, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    ROT-avdrag ur ett småföretagarperspektiv: en studie av hur de nya reglerna med fakturamodellen uppfattas2010Student paper other, 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem discussion: For the purpose of this study, “ROT-avdrag” is translated into Renovation deduction. It is a tax reduction for individuals of up to 50 % of the cost of labour for repair and maintenance, and renovation and expansion costs. This system has been in use at several occasions, undergoing some changes. The new invoice system was introduced 1st of July 2009 which means that the customer deducts the tax at the point of purchase of the service. In other words, the costumer will only pay half the cost of labour to the seller. Consequently, it is now the seller who is required to request the outstanding sum straight from the Tax Office. The new model and its system has been a hot topic of whether it affects societal actors positively or negatively. Small businesses have highlighted several risks and problems with the new rules.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to examine how the invoice system is perceived by small businesses. It also aims to find out how small businesses perceive that the invoice system relates to the Government’s target of reducing the administrative burden on small businesses, and also to see how the invoice system complies with the target of the Renovation deduction, which is to reduce illegal employment and increase demand in the construction sector.

    Method: This essay is based on a qualitative approach in which interviews have been a central part. Of a total of seven completed interviews, five have been made with small businesses in the construction industry. One interview has been conducted with an accounting consultant and one interview with a legal expert from the Tax Office.

    Results: The result indicates that small businesses´ administrative burden has increased substantially since the invoice system was introduced. Furthermore, different industries are differently affected by the system. The Government´s target with the Renovation deduction has been benefited by the invoice system sinces illegal employment has been reduced and demand for services has increased. The introduction of the invoice system, however, could have been better; the study indicates that the information have been inadequate.

  • 47.
    Chang, Shih-Yen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory.
    Placement of measurement points for wear-out prediction with regard to electromigration2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, electronic systems are widely used in applications such as mobile phones, laptops, etc., but the electronic systems are not permanent and indestructible, so the reliability of an electronic system is a major concern. However, the lifetime of electronic systems are shorter than it was 40 years ago because the dimensions of wires are smaller due to the advanced manufacturing technologies.

     

    Electromigration is a wear-out mechanism which becomes an important issue, due to the fact that the reduced dimension of wires makes current density increase so that, the probability of failure due to electromigration is much higher than 40 years ago. Electromigration means the cross-section area of the wire decreases due to the movement of ions in high current density. The reduced cross-section area increases the resistance of the wire so that the delay of the wire is increasing as well. The whole system might fail when the delay is longer than the clock period.

     

    To predict electronic system failure caused by electromigration, a delay measurement circuit can be used as a predictor to give an early warning. However, the delay measurement circuit is expensive and not necessary for an electronic system to work correctly. Therefore, the purpose in this thesis is to minimize the number of measurement points. In order to minimize the number of measurement points, a method is developed to find the wear-out sensitive wires (WSWs) and determine where delay measurement circuits should be placed. Therefore, the measurement points are minimized and the cost of the system is also reduced.

  • 48.
    Hansson, Eva-Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Towards a mechanistic explanation of insulin resistance, which incorporates mTOR, autophagy, and mitochondrial dysfunction2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Type 2 diabetes is a global disease which affects an increasing number of peopleevery year. At the heart of the disease lies insulin resistance in the target tissues,primarily fat and muscle. The insulin resistance is caused by the failure of a complexsignalling network, and several mechanistic hypotheses for this failure havebeen proposed. Herein, we evaluate a hypothesis that revolves around the proteinmammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its feedback signals to insulin receptorsubstrate-1 (IRS1). In particular, we have re-examined this hypothesis andrelevant biological data using a mathematical modelling approach.

    During the course of modelling we gained several important insights. For instance,the model was unable to reproduce the relation between the EC50-valuesin the dose-response curves for IRS1 and its serine residue 312 (Ser-312). Thisimplies that the presented hypothesis, where the phosphorylation of Ser-312 liesdownstream of the tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1, is inconsistent with the provideddata, and that the hypothesis or the data might be incorrect. Similarly, wealso realized that in order to fully account for the information in the dose-responsedata, time curves needed to be incorporated into the model.

    A preliminary model is presented, which explains most of the data-sets, butstill is unable to describe all the details in the data. The originally proposed hypothesisas an explanation to the given data has been revised, and our analysisserves to exemplify that an evaluation of a mechanistic hypothesis by mere biochemicalreasoning often misses out on important details, and/or leads to incorrectconclusions. A model-based approach, on the other hand, can efficiently pin-pointsuch weaknesses, and if combined with a comprehensive understanding of biologicalvariation and generation of experimental data, mathematical modelling canprove to be a method of great potential in the search for mechanistic explanationsto the cause of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics.

  • 49.
    Sánchez Reátegui, Rafael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Porphyrins based detection of NH3 and CO, using field effect grid gate devices2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Porphyrins consist of twenty-atom rings containing four nitrogen atoms and can be used as sensor to detect odours and gases.

    This thesis investigates whether or not porphyrins can be used as functional materials on grid gate devices.  Drops of PVC embedded porphyrins were deposited on the surface of a grid gate which is a Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) capacitor. In order to detect the gas sensing properties of the porphyrins a light addressable method called Scanning Light Pulse Technique (SLPT) has been used.

    Drops of porphyrins were deposited with a stretched capillary tube (1 mm diameter).

    The MOS capacitor has been exposed to nitrogen atmosphere as reference environment, while the target gases were carbon monoxide (100 ppm) and ammonia (500 ppm).

    The result from the eight porphyrins is that one of them [Pt(II) TPP] has a response for both gases, ammonia induces a change in both the work function and surface resistance, while the carbon monoxide induces only a change in the surface resistance.

  • 50.
    Winzell, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Surface Modification of CdSe(ZnS) quantum dots for biomedical applications2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum dots are inorganic nanocrystals of semiconductor metals that have unique light emitting properties. Due to their tunable and narrow emission profile, broad absorption spectra, resistance to photobleaching and high level of brightness they have emerged as inorganic fluorophores and numerous applicabilities for in vitro, in situ as well as in vivo studies are present. The chemical nature of the quantum dot surface needs to be altered in order to make the inorganic nanoparticles applicable to biological systems. Water soluble and biocompatible particles that limit unspecific binding to proteins can be obtained through functionalization of the surface coating with appropriate molecules.

     

    In this pilot study, two surface modification strategies were performed upon two commercially available quantum dots in order to attach the zwitterionic molecules L-cysteine and thiolated sulfobetaine methacrylate, both shown to create non-fouling and biocompatible surfaces.

     

    A biphasic exchange method was successfully used to perform ligand exchange of Qdot® ITK™ Organic Quantum Dots (QD-Organic) in order to exchange the structurally unknown, native lipophilic coating to one consisting of the amino acid L-cysteine (QD-Cysteine). The quantum dots transferred from the organic to the aqueous phase after the natively hydrophobic coating was changed to the hydrophilic L-cysteine. A characteristic mass fragment of protonated trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) was found for QD-Organic, using TOF-SIMS, suggesting TOPO is a part of the native coating. Further, the mentioned mass fragment was no longer present after the exchange. The C (1s) XPS-spectrum showed a new peak for carboxylic carbon, characteristic for L-cysteine, and expected changes in elemental composition were consistent with measured changes for all relevant elements. Large amounts of buffer remained after purification, suggesting the purification protocol needs further evaluation. Traces of the native coating were found in the C (1s) XPS-spectrum for QD-Cysteine, indicating not all ligands were exchange.   

     

    Additionally, a strategy for surface functionalization of Qdot® 655 ITK™ amino (PEG) quantum dots (QD-PEG-NH2) with L-cysteine and thiolated sulfobetaine methacrylate was outlined and performed, using Michael addition and the heterobifunctional linker 3-Maleimidobenzoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Unfortunately, no indications of successful attachment of the linker to the quantum dot have been found, neither by TOF-SIMS nor XPS, and thus functionalization with L-cysteine and tSBMA was not achieved. In theory, the proposed coupling chemistry used during the pilot study is promising, but further experiments are needed to obtain a successful and optimized protocol for the functionalization.

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