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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Johansson, GA
    Hertz, HM
    Gullikson, EM
    Kreissig, U
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window2003In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 28, no 24, 2494-2496 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr/Sc multilayer mirrors, synthesized by ion-assisted magnetron sputter deposition, are proved to have a high near-normal reflectivity of R = 14.5% at a grazing angle of 87.5degrees measured at the wavelength A = 3.11 nm, which is an improvement of more than 31% compared with previously published results. Elastic recoil detection analyses show that the mirrors contained as much as 15 at. % of N and traces of C and O. Soft x-ray reflectivity simulations reveal interface widths of sigma = 0.34 nm and an exceptionally small layer thickness drift of similar to1.6 X 10(-5) nm/multilayer period throughout the stack. Simulations show that a reflectivity of R = 25.6% is attainable if impurities and layer thickness drift can be eliminated. The abrupt interfaces are achieved with ion assistance with a low ion energy of 24 eV and high ion-to-metal flux ratios of 7.1 and 23.1 during Cr and Se sputter deposition, respectively. In addition, a near-normal incidence reflectivity of 5.5% for the C VI emission line (lambda = 3.374 nm) from a laser plasma source was verified. (C) 2003 Optical Society of America.

  • 2.
    Holmbom, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Giske, Christian G.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.; Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Claesson, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lennart E
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    14-Year Survey in a Swedish County Reveals a Pronounced Increase in Bloodstream Infections (BSI). Comorbidity: An Independent Risk Factor for Both BSI and Mortality2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: we assessed the incidence, risk factors and outcome of BSI over a 14-year period (2000-2013) in a Swedish county.

    Methods: retrospective cohort study on culture confirmed BSI among patients in the county of Östergötland, Sweden, with approximately 440,000 inhabitants. A BSI was defined as either community-onset BSI (CO-BSI) or hospital-acquired BSI (HA-BSI).

    Results: of a total of 11,480 BSIs, 67% were CO-BSI and 33% HA-BSI. The incidence of BSI increased by 64% from 945 to 1,546 per 100,000 hospital admissions per year during the study period. The most prominent increase, 83% was observed within the CO-BSI cohort whilst HA-BSI increased by 32%. Prescriptions of antibiotics in outpatient care decreased with 24% from 422 to 322 prescriptions dispensed/1,000 inhabitants/year, whereas antibiotics prescribed in hospital increased by 67% (from 424 to 709 DDD per 1,000 days of care). The overall 30-day mortality for HA-BSIs was 17.2%, compared to 10.6% for CO-BSIs, with an average yearly increase per 100,000 hospital admissions of 2 and 5% respectively. The proportion of patients with one or more comorbidities, increased from 20.8 to 55.3%. In multivariate analyses, risk factors for mortality within 30 days were: HA-BSI (2.22); two or more comorbidities (1.89); single comorbidity (1.56); CO-BSI (1.21); male (1.05); and high age (1.04).

    Conclusion: this survey revealed an alarming increase in the incidence of BSI over the 14-year study period. Interventions to decrease BSI in general should be considered together with robust antibiotic stewardship programmes to avoid both over- and underuse of antibiotics.

  • 3.
    Kallstrom, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Helsingborg Hospital.
    Salme, Rebecka
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ryden, Lisa
    Lund University.
    Nordenskjöld, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Jonsson, Per-Ebbe
    Helsingborg Hospital.
    Stål, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    17 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 as predictor of tamoxifen response in premenopausal breast cancer2010In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER, ISSN 0959-8049, Vol. 46, no 5, 892-900 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    17 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17HSDs) are involved in the local regulation of sex steroids. 17HSD1 converts oestrone (El) to the more potent oestradiol (E2) and 17HSD2 catalyses the reverse reaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of these enzymes in premenopausal breast cancers and to analyse if they have any prognostic or tamoxifen predictive value. Premenopausal patients with invasive breast cancer, stage II (UICC), were randomised to either 2 years of adjuvant tamoxifen (n = 276) or no tamoxifen (n = 288). The median follow-up was 13.9 years (range 10.5-17.5). The expression of 17HSD1 and 17HSD2 was analysed with immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. The enzyme expression level (-/+/++/+++) was successfully determined in 396 and 373 tumours, respectively. Women with hormone-receptor positive tumours, with low levels (-/+/++) of 17HSD1, had a 43% reduced risk of recurrence, when treated with tamoxifen (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.86; p = 0.0086). On the other hand high expression (+++) of 17HSD1 was associated with no significant difference between the two treatment arms (HR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.43-1.95; p = 0.82). The interaction between 17HSD1 and tamoxifen was significant during the first 5 years of follow-up (p = 0.023). In the cohort of systemically untreated patients no prognostic importance was observed for 17HSD1. We found no predictive or prognostic value for 17HSD2. This is the first report of 17HSD1 in a cohort of premenopausal women with breast cancer randomised to tamoxifen. Our data suggest that 17HSD1 might be a predictive factor in this group of patients.

  • 4.
    Zhang, Xuanjun
    et al.
    Structure Research Laboratory and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China.
    Xie, Yi
    Structure Research Laboratory and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China.
    Zhao, Qingrui
    Structure Research Laboratory and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China.
    Tian, Yupeng
    Department of Chemistry, Anhui University, China.
    1-D coordination polymer template approach to CdS and HgS aligned-nanowire bundles2003In: New Journal of Chemistry, ISSN 1144-0546, E-ISSN 1369-9261, Vol. 27, no 5, 827-830 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 1D inorganic coordination polymer template route was firstly developed to synthesize metal sulfide aligned-nanowire bundles. Based on this strategy, CdS and HgS aligned-nanowire bundles with high yields were successfully prepared in a water system at room temperature using KCd(NCS)3 as a soft template. The results revealed that the morphologies of the MS (M=Cd, Hg) aligned-nanowire bundles were uniform with lengths of several microns and the diameters of each single wire were ca. 10–30 nm and 60–80 nm for CdS and HgS, respectively.

  • 5.
    Markström, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D Position Estimation of a Person of Interest in Multiple Video Sequences: People Detection2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In most cases today when a specific person's whereabouts is monitored through video surveillance it is done manually and his or her location when not seen is based on assumptions on how fast he or she can move. Since humans are good at recognizing people this can be done accurately, given good video data, but the time needed to go through all data is extensive and therefore expensive. Because of the rapid technical development computers are getting cheaper to use and therefore more interesting to use for tedious work.

    This thesis is a part of a larger project that aims to see to what extent it is possible to estimate a person of interest's time dependent 3D position, when seen in surveillance videos. The surveillance videos are recorded with non overlapping monocular cameras. Furthermore the project aims to see if the person of interest's movement, when position data is unavailable, could be predicted. The outcome of the project is a software capable of following a person of interest's movement with an error estimate visualized as an area indicating where the person of interest might be at a specific time.

    This thesis main focus is to implement and evaluate a people detector meant to be used in the project, reduce noise in position measurement, predict the position when the person of interest's location is unknown, and to evaluate the complete project.

    The project combines known methods in computer vision and signal processing and the outcome is a software that can be used on a normal PC running on a Windows operating system. The software implemented in the thesis use a Hough transform based people detector and a Kalman filter for one step ahead prediction. The detector is evaluated with known methods such as Miss-rate vs. False Positives per Window or Image (FPPW and FPPI respectively) and Recall vs. 1-Precision.

    The results indicate that it is possible to estimate a person of interest's 3D position with single monocular cameras. It is also possible to follow the movement, to some extent, were position data are unavailable. However the software needs more work in order to be robust enough to handle the diversity that may appear in different environments and to handle large scale sensor networks.

  • 6.
    Fredriksson, Alexandru G
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV.
    Zajac, Jakub
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV.
    Eriksson, Jonatan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiology.
    Dyverfeldt, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology UHL. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV.
    Bolger, Ann F
    University of California San Francisco.
    Ebbers, Tino
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology UHL. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.
    Carlhäll, Carljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology UHL. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, CMIV.
    4-D blood flow in the human right ventricle2011In: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, ISSN 0363-6135, E-ISSN 1522-1539, Vol. 301, no 6, H2344-H2350 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Right ventricular (RV) function is a powerful prognostic indicator in many forms of heart disease, but its assessment remains challenging and inexact. RV dysfunction may alter the normal patterns of RV blood flow, but those patterns have been incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that, based on anatomic differences, the proportions and energetics of RV flow components would differ from those identified in the left ventricle (LV) and that the portion of the RV inflow passing directly to outflow (Direct Flow) would be prepared for effective systolic ejection as a result of preserved kinetic energy (KE) compared with other RV flow components. Three-dimensional, time-resolved phase-contrast velocity, and balanced steady-state free-precession morphological data were acquired in 10 healthy subjects using MRI. A previously validated method was used to separate the RV and LV end-diastolic volumes into four flow components and measure their volume and KE over the cardiac cycle. The RV Direct Flow: 1) followed a smoothly curving route that did not extend into the apical region of the ventricle; 2) had a larger volume and possessed a larger presystolic KE (0.4 +/- 0.3 mJ) than the other flow components (P andlt; 0.001 and P andlt; 0.01, respectively); and 3) represented a larger part of the end-diastolic blood volume compared with the LV Direct Flow (P andlt; 0.01). These findings suggest that diastolic flow patterns distinct to the normal RV create favorable conditions for ensuing systolic ejection of the Direct Flow component. These flow-specific aspects of RV diastolic-systolic coupling provide novel perspectives on RV physiology and may add to the understanding of RV pathophysiology.

  • 7.
    Casas Garcia, Belén
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lantz, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dyverfeldt, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    Ebbers, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    4D Flow MRI-Based Pressure Loss Estimation in Stenotic Flows: Evaluation Using Numerical Simulations2016In: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, ISSN 0740-3194, E-ISSN 1522-2594, Vol. 75, no 4, 1808-1821 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To assess how 4D flow MRI-based pressure and energy loss estimates correspond to net transstenotic pressure gradients (TPG(net)) and their dependence on spatial resolution. Methods: Numerical velocity data of stenotic flow were obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in geometries with varying stenosis degrees, poststenotic diameters and flow rates. MRI measurements were simulated at different spatial resolutions. The simplified and extended Bernoulli equations, Pressure-Poisson equation (PPE), and integration of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and viscous dissipation were compared against the true TPG(net). Results: The simplified Bernoulli equation overestimated the true TPG(net) (8.74 +/- 0.67 versus 6.76 +/- 0.54 mmHg). The extended Bernoulli equation performed better (6.57 +/- 0.53 mmHg), although errors remained at low TPG(net). TPG(net) estimations using the PPE were always close to zero. Total TKE and viscous dissipation correlated strongly with TPG(net) for each geometry (r(2) > 0.93) and moderately considering all geometries (r(2) = 0.756 and r(2) = 0.776, respectively). TKE estimates were accurate and minorly impacted by resolution. Viscous dissipation was overall underestimated and resolution dependent. Conclusion: Several parameters overestimate or are not linearly related to TPG(net) and/or depend on spatial resolution. Considering idealized axisymmetric geometries and in absence of noise, TPG(net) was best estimated using the extended Bernoulli equation. (C) 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance.

  • 8.
    Arshad, Sana
    et al.
    NED University of Engn and Technology, Pakistan.
    Ramzan, Rashad
    United Arab Emirates University, U Arab Emirates.
    Wahab, Qamar-ul
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    50-830 MHz noise and distortion canceling CMOS low noise amplifier2018In: Integration, ISSN 0167-9260, E-ISSN 1872-7522, Vol. 60, 63-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a modified resistive shunt feedback topology is proposed that performs noise cancelation and serves as an opposite polarity non-linearity generator to cancel the distortion produced by the main stage. The proposed topology has a bandwidth similar to a resistive shunt feedback LNA, but with a superior noise figure (NF) and linearity. The proposed wideband LNA is fabricated in 130 nm CMOS technology and occupies an area of 0.5 mm(2). Measured results depict 3-dB bandwidth from 50 to 830 MHz. The measured gain and NF at 420 MHz are 17 dB and 2.2 dB, respectively. The high value of the 1/f noise is one of the key problems in low frequency CMOS designs. The proposed topology also addresses this challenge and a low NF is attained at low frequencies. Measured 811 and S22 are better than -8.9 dB and -8.5 dB, respectively within the 0.05-1 GHz band. The 1-dB compression point is -11.5 dBm at 700 MHz, while the IIP3 is -6.3 dBm. The forward core consumes 14 mW from a 1.8 V supply. This LNA is suitable for VHF and UHF SDR communication receivers.

  • 9.
    Hemdan, Tammer
    et al.
    University Hospital Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Robert
    Umeå University Hospital, Sweden.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Hellström, Pekka
    University Central Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
    Tasdemir, Ilker
    Central Hospital of Rogaland, Stavanger, Norway.
    Malmström, Per-Uno
    University Hospital Uppsala, Sweden.
    5-Year Outcome of a Randomized Prospective Study Comparing bacillus Calmette-Guerin with Epirubicin and Interferon-alpha 2b in Patients with T1 Bladder Cancer2014In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, E-ISSN 1527-3792, Vol. 191, no 5, 1244-1249 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In a multicenter, prospectively randomized study we evaluated the 5-year outcomes of bacillus Calmette-Guerin alone compared to a combination of epirubicin and interferon-alpha 2b in the treatment of patients with T1 bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: Transurethral resection was followed by a second resection and bladder mapping. Stratification was for grade and carcinoma in situ. Followup entailed regular cystoscopy and cytology during the first 5 years. The end points assessed in this analysis were recurrence-free survival, time to treatment failure and progression, cancer specific survival and prognostic factors. Results: The study recruited 250 eligible patients. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 38% in the combination arm and 59% in the bacillus Calmette-Guerin arm (p = 0.001). The corresponding rates for the other end points were not significantly different, as free of progression 78% and 77%, treatment failure 75% and 75%, and cancer specific survival 90% and 92%, respectively. The type of treatment, tumor size and tumor status at second resection were independent variables associated with recurrence. Concomitant carcinoma in situ was not predictive of failure of bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy. An independent factor for treatment failure was remaining T1 stage at second resection. Conclusions: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin was more effective than the tested combination therapy. The currently recommended management with second resection and 3-week maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guerin entails a low risk of cancer specific death. More aggressive treatment in patients with infiltrative tumors at second resection might improve these results. In particular, concomitant carcinoma in situ was not a predictive factor for poor outcome after bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy.

  • 10.
    Harikumar, Prakash
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A 0.4 V, sub-nW, 8-bit 1 kS/s SAR ADC in 65 nm CMOS for Wireless Sensor Applications2016In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II - Express Briefs, ISSN 1549-7747, E-ISSN 1558-3791, Vol. 63, no 8, 743-747 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This brief presents an 8-bit 1-kS/s successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is targeted at distributed wireless sensor networks powered by energy harvesting. For such energy-constrained applications, it is imperative that the ADC employs ultralow supply voltages and minimizes power consumption. The 8-bit 1-kS/s ADC was designed and fabricated in 65-nm CMOS and uses a supply voltage of 0.4 V. In order to achieve sufficient linearity, a two-stage charge pump was implemented to boost the gate voltage of the sampling switches. A custom-designed unit capacitor of 1.9 fF was used to realize the capacitive digital-to-analog converters. The ADC achieves an effective number of bits of 7.81 bits while consuming 717 pW and attains a figure of merit of 3.19 fJ/conversion-step. The differential nonlinearity and the integral nonlinearity are 0.35 and 0.36 LSB, respectively. The core area occupied by the ADC is only 0.0126 mm2.

  • 11.
    Ahsan, Naveed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ramzan, Rashad
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dąbrowski, Jerzy
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ouacha, Aziz
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Samuelsson, Carl
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), P.O. Box 1165, SE-581 11 Linköping, Sweden.
    A 1.1V 6.2mW, Highly Linear Wideband RF Front-end for Multi-Standard Receivers in 90nm CMOS2012In: Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, ISSN 0925-1030, E-ISSN 1573-1979, Vol. 70, no 1, 79-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a low power, highly linear, wideband RF front-end in 90nm CMOS. The architecture consists of an inverter-like common gate low noise amplifier followed by a passive ring mixer. The proposed architecture achieves high linearity in a wide band (0.5-6GHz) at very low power. Therefore, it is a suitable choice for software defined radio (SDR) receivers. The chip measurement results indicate that the inverter-like common gate input stage has a broadband input match achieving S11 below -8.8dB up to 6GHz. The measured single sideband noise figure at an LO frequency of 2GHz and an IF of 10MHz is 6.25dB. The front-end achieves a voltage conversion gain of 4.5dB at 1GHz with 3dB bandwidth of more than 6GHz. The measured input referred 1dB compression point is +1.5dBm while the IIP3 is +11.73dBm and the IIP2 is +26.23dBm respectively at an LO frequency of 2GHz. The RF front-end consumes 6.2mW from a 1.1V supply with an active chip area of 0.0856mm2.

  • 12.
    Kjellman, Görel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A 12-year follow-up of subjects initially sicklisted with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses2001In: Physiotherapy Research International, ISSN 1358-2267, E-ISSN 1471-2865, Vol. 6, no 1, 52-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose Neck/shoulder and low back pain are common in the Western world and can cause great personal and economic consequences, but so far there are few long term follow-up studies of the consequences of back pain, especially studies that separate the location of back pain. More knowledge is needed about different patterns of risk factors and prognoses for neck/shoulder and low back pain, respectively, and they should not be treated as similar conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible long-term differences in neck/shoulder and low back symptoms, experienced over a 12-year period, with regard to work status, present health, discomfort and influence on daily activities.

    Method A retrospective cohort study of individuals sicklisted with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses 12 years ago was undertaken. Included were all 213 people who, in 1985, lived in the municipality of Linköping, Sweden, were aged 25–34 years and who had taken at least one new period of sickleave lasting >28 days with a neck/shoulder or low back diagnosis. In 1996, a questionnaire was mailed to the 204 people who were still resident in Sweden (response rate 73%).

    Results Those initially absent with neck/shoulder diagnoses rated their present state of discomfort as worse than those sicklisted with low back diagnoses. Only 4% of the neck/shoulder group reported no present discomfort compared with 25% of the low back group. Notably, both groups reported the same duration of low back discomfort during the last year, which may indicate a higher risk for symptoms in more than one location for subjects with neck/shoulder problems.

    Conclusions Individuals with sickness absence of more than 28 days with neck/shoulder or low back diagnoses appear to be at high risk of developing long-standing symptoms, significantly more so for those initially having neck/shoulder diagnoses.

  • 13.
    Sundström, Timmy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices.
    A 2.4 GS/s, 4.9 ENOB at Nyquist, single-channel pipeline ADC in 65nm CMOS2010In: IEEE European Solid-State Circuits Conference, Seville: IEEE , 2010, 370-373 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a high-speed single channel pipeline analog-to-digital converter sampling at 2.4 GS/s which, to the authors' best knowledge, is the fastest reported for pipeline converters. The use of a time-borrowing clocking scheme eliminates the comparator latency from the critical path and together with the use of fast open-loop current-mode amplifiers the high sample rate is achieved. Implemented in a 65nm general purpose CMOS technology the effective number of bits is above 4.7 in the Nyquist band, being 5.4 and 4.9 at DC and Nyquist respectively. This shows that very fast pipeline ADCs are possible to implement as key building blocks in interleaved structures.

  • 14.
    Sundström, Timmy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 2.4 GS/s, Single-channel, 31.3 dB SNDR at Nyquist, 8-bit Pipeline ADC in 65nm CMOS2011In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, ISSN 0018-9200, E-ISSN 1558-173X, Vol. 46, no 7, 1575-1584 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a high-speed single-channel pipeline analog-to-digital converter sampling at 2.4 GS/s. The high sample-rate is achieved through the use of fast openloop current-mode amplifiers and the early comparison scheme. The bounds on the sub-ADC sampling instance are analyzed based on sufficient settling for a decision as well as metastability. Implemented in a 65nm general purpose CMOS technology the SNDR is above 30.1 dB in the Nyquist band, being 34.1 and 31.3 dB at low frequency and Nyquist, respectively. This shows that multi-GS/s pipeline ADCs are feasible as key building blocks in interleaved structures.

  • 15.
    Mesgarzadeh, Behzad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 2-GHz 7-mW Digital DLL-Based Frequency Multiplier in 90-nm CMOS2008In: ESSCIRC 2008 - Proceedings of the 34th European Solid-State Circuits Conference, Bristol, UK: IOP Institute of Physics , 2008, 86-89 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a low-power low-jitter digital DLL-based frequency multiplier in 90-nm CMOS. In order to reduce the jitter and power consumption due to dithering in the lock condition, digital DLL operates in the open-loop mode after locking. To keep track of any potential phase error introduced by the environmental variations, a compensation mechanism is employed. The proposed frequency multiplier operates at 2-GHz utilizing a 1-V supply. It occupies 0.037 mm2 of active area and dissipates 7-mW power at 2-GHz. The measured peak-to-peak and rms clock jitter at the output of the frequency multiplier are 9.5 ps and 1.6 ps, respectively.   

  • 16.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A +32dBm 1.85GHz Class-D Outphasing RF PA in 130nm CMOS for WCDMA/LTE2011In: Proceedings of the IEEE European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC), IEEE , 2011, 127-130 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a Class-D outphasing RF Power Amplifier (PA) which can operate at a 5.5V supply and deliver +32dBm at 1.85 GHz in a standard 130nm CMOS technology. The PA utilizes four on-chip transformers to combine the outputs of eight Class-D stages. The Class-D stages utilize a cascode configuration, driven by an AC-coupled low-voltage driver, to allow a 5.5 V supply in the 1.2/2.5 V 130nm process without excessive device voltage stress. Spectral and modulation requirements were met when a WCDMA and an LTE signal (20 MHz, 16-QAM) were applied to the outphasing PA. At +28.0 dBm channel power for the WCDMA signal, the measured ACLR at 5 MHz and 10 MHz offset were −38.7 dBc and −47.0 dBc, respectively. At +24.9 dBm channel power for the LTE signal, the measured ACLR at 20MHz offset was −34.9 dBc. To the authors' best knowledge, the PA presented in this work has a 3.9 dB higher output power compared to published CMOS Class-D RF PAs.

  • 17.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 3.3 V 72.2 Mbit/s 802.11n WLAN transformer-based power amplifier in 65 nm CMOS2010In: Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, ISSN 0925-1030, E-ISSN 1573-1979, Vol. 64, no 3, 241-247 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design of a power amplifier (PA) for 802.11n WLAN fabricated in 65 nm CMOS technology. The PA utilizes 3.3 V thick gate oxide (5.2 nm) transistors and a two-stage differential configuration with integrated transformers for input and interstage matching. A methodology used to extract the layout parasitics from electromagnetic (EM) simulations is described. For a 72.2 Mbit/s, 64-QAM, 802.11n OFDM signal at an average and peak output power of 11.6 and 19.6 dBm, respectively, the measured EVM is 3.8%. The PA meets the spectral mask up to an average output power of 17 dBm.

  • 18.
    Zhang, Dai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices.
    A 3-nW 9.1-ENOB SAR ADC at 0.7 V and 1 kS/s2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a 10-bit SAR ADC in 65 nm CMOS for medical implant applications. The ADC consumes 3-nW power and achieves 9.1 ENOB at 1 kS/s. The ultra-low-power consumption is achieved by using an ADC architecture with maximal simplicity, a small split-array capacitive DAC, a bottom-plate sampling approach reducing charge injection error and allowing full-range input sampling without extra voltage sources, and a latch-based SAR control logic resulting in reduced power and low transistor count. Furthermore, a multi-Vt circuit design approach allows the ADC to meet the target performance with a single supply voltage of 0.7 V. The ADC achieves a FOM of 5.5 fJ/conversion-step. The INL and DNL errors are 0.61 LSB and 0.55 LSB, respectively.

  • 19.
    Zhang, Dai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 3-nW 9.1-ENOB SAR ADC at 0.7 V and 1 kS/s2012In: ESSCIRC, 2012, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers , 2012, 369-372 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a 10-bit SAR ADC in 65 nm CMOS for medical implant applications. The ADC consumes 3-nW power and achieves 9.1 ENOB at 1 kS/s. The ultra-low-power consumption is achieved by using an ADC architecture with maximal simplicity, a small split-array capacitive DAC, a bottom-plate sampling approach reducing charge injection error and allowing full-range input sampling without extra voltage sources, and a latch-based SAR control logic resulting in reduced power and low transistor count. Furthermore, a multi-Vt circuit design approach allows the ADC to meet the target performance with a single supply voltage of 0.7 V. The ADC achieves a FOM of 5.5 fJ/conversion-step. The INL and DNL errors are 0.61 LSB and 0.55 LSB, respectively.

  • 20.
    Lindgren, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Mordenfeld, Arne
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Gävle, County Hospital, Sweden/Dept of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Johansson, CB
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hallman, Mats
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Gävle, County Hospital, Sweden/Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Umeå University, Umeå Sweden and Center for Research and Development, Uppsala University/Gävleborg County Council, Sweden.
    A 3-year clinical follow-up of implants placed in 2 differentbiomaterials used for sinus augmentationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aims of the present study were to compare a novel biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) used for maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA) in a split mouth design, and to perform a clinical follow-up of placed dental implants.

    Material and Methods: Nine completely edentulous patients and two partially edentulous patients with a mean age of 67 years requiring bilateral sinus augmentation were included in the study. The patients were randomized for augmentation with BCP (test) and DBB (control) in the contralateral side. After 8 months of graft healing, 62 implants with an SLActive® surface (Strauman®, Basel, Switzerland) were placed. After 3 years of graft healing core biopsies were obtained from the grafted areas for histological and histomorphometrical analysis. After 3 years of functional implant loading, implant survival/success rate, clinical indexes, radiographical examination and resonance frequency analysis (RFA) wereperformed.

    Results: The mean values of the area of newly formed bone in the biopsies was 29% ±14.3% and 32% ± 18.0% for BCP and DBB respectively and graft particles in contact with bone in the BCP group was 38% ± 10.9% compared to 44% ± 12.1% for the DBB group, showing no significant differences between the groups. The mean values of the area of BCP particles and DBB particles were 20% ± 7.5% and 24% ± 13.5% respectively (non-significant).

    Irrespective of particles used, one dental implant was lost from each group, giving an overall implant survival rate of 96.8% after 3-years of loading. Conclusion: The results of this prospective 3-year clinical and histological follow up demonstrated a similar amount of newly formed bone irrespectively of the used biomaterial. The choice of biomaterial does not seem to influence the survival rates of the implants.

  • 21.
    Lindgren, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Mordenfeld, Arne
    Gävle County Hospital, Sweden Gothenburg University, Sweden .
    Johansson, Carina B
    University of Örebro, Sweden .
    Hallman, Mats
    Gävle County Hospital, Sweden Umeå University, Sweden Uppsala University, Sweden .
    A 3-Year Clinical Follow-up of Implants Placed in Two Different Biomaterials Used for Sinus Augmentation2012In: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, ISSN 0882-2786, E-ISSN 1942-4434, Vol. 27, no 5, 1151-1162 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aims of the present study were to compare a novel biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) for maxillary sinus floor augmentation in a split-mouth design and to perform a clinical follow-up of dental implants placed in the augmented sinuses. Materials and Methods: Partially or completely edentulous patients requiring bilateral sinus augmentation were included in the study. The patients were randomized for augmentation with BCP (test) and DBB (control) in the contralateral side. Eight months after grafting, dental implants were placed. After 3 years of graft healing, core biopsy specimens were obtained from the grafted areas for histologic and histomorphometric analyses. After 3 years of functional implant loading, implant survival/success rates and clinical indices were assessed and radiographic examination and resonance frequency analysis were performed. Results: Nine completely edentulous patients and two partially edentulous patients (mean age, 67 years) who required bilateral sinus augmentation were included in the study, and 62 implants were placed. The mean values for the area of newly formed bone in the retrieved specimens were 29% +/- 14.3% and 32% +/- 18.0% for BCP and DBB, respectively; the percentage of graft particles in contact with bone was 38% +/- 10.9% in the BCP group and 44% +/- 12.1% in the DBB group (no statistical significant differences between groups). The mean values for the area of BCP particles and DBB particles were 20% +/- 7.5% and 24% +/- 13.5%, respectively (difference not significant). One dental implant was lost from each group, resulting in an overall implant survival rate of 96.8% after 3 years of loading. Conclusion: After 3 years, a similar amount of newly formed bone was present regardless of the biomaterial used. The choice of biomaterial did not seem to influence implant survival rates.

  • 22.
    Engquist, Markus
    et al.
    Ryhov Hospital, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Ryhov Hospital, Sweden.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Holtz, Anders
    University of Uppsala Hospital, Sweden.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Vavruch, Ludek
    Ryhov Hospital, Sweden.
    Lind, Bengt
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Spine Centre Göteborg, Sweden.
    A 5-to 8-year randomized study on the treatment of cervical radiculopathy: anterior cervical decompression and fusion plus physiotherapy versus physiotherapy alone2017In: JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY-SPINE, ISSN 1547-5654, Vol. 26, no 1, 19-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the 5- to 8-year outcome of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) combined with a structured physiotherapy program as compared with that following the same physiotherapy program alone in patients with cervical radiculopathy. No previous prospective randomized studies with a follow-up of more than 2 years have compared outcomes of surgical versus nonsurgical intervention for cervical radiculopathy. METHODS Fifty-nine patients were randomized to ACDF surgery with postoperative physiotherapy (30 patients) or to structured physiotherapy alone (29 patients). The physiotherapy program included general and specific exercises as well as pain coping strategies. Outcome measures included neck disability (Neck Disability Index [NDI]), neck and arm pain intensity (visual analog scale [VAS]), health state (EQ-5D questionnaire), and a patient global assessment. Patients were followed up for 5-8 years. RESULTS After 5-8 years, the NDI was reduced by a mean score% of 21 (95% CI 14-28) in the surgical group and 11% (95% CI 4%-18%) in the nonsurgical group (p = 0.03). Neck pain was reduced by a mean score of 39 mm (95% CI 26-53 mm) compared with 19 mm (95% CI 7-30 mm; p = 0.01), and arm pain was reduced by a mean score of 33 mm (95% CI 18-49 mm) compared with 19 mm (95% CI 7-32 mm; p = 0.1), respectively. The EQ-5D had a mean respective increase of 0.29 (95% CI 0.13-0.45) compared with 0.14 (95% CI 0.01-0.27; p = 0.12). Ninety-three percent of patients in the surgical group rated their symptoms as "better" or "much better" compared with 62% in the nonsurgical group (p = 0.005). Both treatment groups experienced significant improvement over baseline for all outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS In this prospective randomized study of 5- to 8-year outcomes of surgical versus nonsurgical treatment in patients with cervical radiculopathy, ACDF combined with physiotherapy reduced neck disability and neck pain more effectively than physiotherapy alone. Self-rating by patients as regards treatment outcome was also superior in the surgery group. No significant differences were seen between the 2 patient groups as regards arm pain and health outcome.

  • 23.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Ted
    Infineon Technologies Nordic AB Isafjordsgatan 16, SE-164 81 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 72.2Mbit/s LC-Based Power Amplifier in 65nm CMOS for 2.4GHz 802.11n WLAN2008In: Proceedings of the 15th Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (MIXDES) Conference, IEEE , 2008, 155-158 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a power amplifier (PA) for WLAN 802.11n in 65nm CMOS technology. The PA utilizes 3.3V thick-gate oxide (5.2nm) transistors and a two-stage differential configuration with two integrated inductors for input and interstage matching. For a 72.2Mbit/s, 64-QAM 802.11n OFDM signal at an average and peak output power of 9.4dBm and 17.4dBm, respectively, the measured EVM is 3.8%. The PA meets the spectral mask up to an average output power of 14dBm.

  • 24.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 72.2Mbit/s Transformer-Based Power Amplifier in 65nm CMOS for 2.4GHz 802.11n WLAN2008In: Proceedings of 26th IEEE NORCHIP Conference, IEEE , 2008, 54-56 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design of a power amplifier (PA) for WLAN 802.11n fabricated in 65 nm CMOS technology. The PA utilizes 3.3 V thick-gate oxide (5.2 nm) transistors and a two-stage differential configuration with two integrated transformers for input and interstage matching. For a 72.2 Mbit/s, 64-QAM, 802.11n OFDM signal at an average and peak output power of 11.6 dBm and 19.6 dBm, respectively, the measured EVM is 3.8%. The PA meets the spectral mask up to an average output power of 17 dBm.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 750 MHz to 3 GHz Tunable Narrowband Low-Noise Amplifier2005In: Proceedings of the Norchip 2005 Conference, Oulu, Finland, 2005, 8-11 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An active recursive filter approach is proposed for the implementation of an inductorless, tunable LNA in CMOS. A test circuit was designed and manufactured in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The feasibility of this type of LNA was demonstrated in both simulations and measurements and reasonably good performance was obtained. The measurements show a center frequency tuning range from 0.75-3 GHz and a minimum noise figure of 4.8 dB. Gain and Q value are also tunable in a wide range. Measured IIP-3 and 1-dB compression point is -24 dBm and -29.5 dBm respectively, measured at the center frequency 1.7 GHz and with 21 dB gain.

  • 26.
    Jonsson, Jerker
    et al.
    Public Health Agency Sweden, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Westman, Anna
    Danderyd Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital Lab, Sweden.
    Bruchfeld, Judith
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Sweden.
    Sturegard, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gaines, Hans
    Public Health Agency Sweden, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Sweden.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    A borderline range for Quantiferon Gold In-Tube results2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 11, e0187313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Interferon gamma release assays like Quantiferon Gold In-Tube (QFT) are used to identify individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A dichotomous cut-off (0.35 IU/ml) defines a positive QFT without considering test variability. Our objective was to evaluate the introduction of a borderline range under routine conditions. Methods Results of routine QFT samples from Sweden (2009-2014) were collected. A borderline range (0.20-0.99 IU/ml) was introduced in 2010 recommending a follow-up sample. The association between borderline results and incident active TB within 3 to 24 months was investigated through linkage with the national TB-register. Results Using the recommended QFT cut-off, 75.1 % tests were negative, 21.4% positive and 3.5% indeterminate. In total, 9% (3656/40773) were within the borderline range. In follow-up samples, individuals with initial results between 0.20-0.34 IU/ml and 0.35-0.99 IU/ml displayed negative results below the borderline range (amp;lt;0.20 IU/ml) in 66.1% (230/348) and 42.5% (285/671) respectively, and none developed incident TB. Among 6712 individuals with a positive initial test amp;gt;0.99 IU/ml, 65 (0.97%) developed incident TB within 3-24 months. Conclusions We recommend retesting of subjects with QFT results in the range 0.20-0.99 IU/ml to enhance reliability and validity of the test. Half of the subjects in the borderline range will be negative at a levelamp;lt;0.20 IU/ml when retested and have a very low risk of developing incident active TB.

  • 27.
    Jonsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Brief History of the Masses: Three Revolutions2008Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stefan Jonsson uses three monumental works of art to build a provocative history of popular revolt: Jacques-Louis David's The Tennis Court Oath (1791), James Ensor's Christ's Entry into Brussels in 1889 (1888), and Alfredo Jaar's They Loved It So Much, the Revolution (1989). Addressing, respectively, the French Revolution of 1789, Belgium's proletarian messianism in the 1880s, and the worldwide rebellions and revolutions of 1968, these canonical images not only depict an alternative view of history but offer a new understanding of the relationship between art and politics and the revolutionary nature of true democracy.

    Drawing on examples from literature, politics, philosophy, and other works of art, Jonsson carefully constructs his portrait, revealing surprising parallels between the political representation of "the people" in government and their aesthetic representation in painting. Both essentially "frame" the people, Jonsson argues, defining them as elites or masses, responsible citizens or angry mobs. Yet in the aesthetic fantasies of David, Ensor, and Jaar, Jonsson finds a different understanding of democracy-one in which human collectives break the frame and enter the picture.

    Connecting the achievements and failures of past revolutions to current political issues, Jonsson then situates our present moment in a long historical drama of popular unrest, making his book both a cultural history and a contemporary discussion about the fate of democracy in our globalized world.

  • 28.
    Rattfält, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berglin, Lena
    The Swedish School of Textiles, University College of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Lindén, Maria
    Dept. of Computer Science and Electronics, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Hult, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ask, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Dept. of Biomedical Engineering & Informatics, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    A Canonical correlation approach to heart beat detection in textile ECG measurements2006In: IET 3rd International Conference On Advances in Medical, Signal and Information Processing, 2006. MEDSIP 2006, IEEE , 2006, 1-4 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in textile sensors has lead to new ways to measure electrocardiograms (ECG). However, additional disturbances from e.g. muscular noise and high skin-electrode impedances often result in poor signal quality. The paper contains a simple application of canonical correlation analysis (CCA) on multi channel ECG signals recorded with textile electrodes. Using CCA to solve the blind source separation (BSS) problem, we intend to separate the ECG signal from the various noise sources. The method (CCABSS) was compared to simple averaging of the ECG channels and to the independent component analysis method (ICA). A heart beat detector was used to evaluate the signal quality. Results show that the signal was completely lost while simulating various noise in 33%, 17% and 7% of the cases for averaging, ICA and CCA, respectively.

  • 29.
    Palfi, Miodrag
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Transfusion Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Hildén, Jan-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Transfusion Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Matthiesen, Leif
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Selbing, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Berlin, Gösta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Transfusion Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    A case of severe Rh (D) alloimmunization treated by intensive plasma exchange and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin2006In: Transfusion and apheresis science, ISSN 1473-0502, E-ISSN 1878-1683, Vol. 35, no 2, 131-136 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In extremely severe Rh (D) alloimmunization, during pregnancy, early diagnosis and treatment is essential to avoid hydrops fetalis. Intrauterine transfusion (IUT) is of utmost importance in the prevention of fetal anemia but it is usually feasible only after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Therefore, additional treatment options in early pregnancy are needed. Study design and methods: A 27-year-old severely D + C immunized woman was admitted at 8 weeks of gestation in her fifth pregnancy with an extremely high concentration of anti-D. Her first pregnancy was uneventful but resulted in D + C alloimmunization. The next two pregnancies were unsuccessful, because of hydrops fetalis resulting in fetal death in pregnancy week 20 and 24, respectively, despite treatment with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and IUT treatment. A fourth pregnancy was terminated with legal abortion. The patient was eager and persistent to accomplish a successful pregnancy. Therefore, a combination of treatments consisting of plasma exchange (PE) three times/week and IVIG 100 g/week was started in pregnancy week 12. PE was performed 53 times and totally 159 L of plasma was exchanged. Results: The anti-D concentration was 12 μg/mL (IAT titer 2000) before start of treatment by PE and IVIG in pregnancy week 12. The concentration of anti-D was gradually reduced to approximately 3 μg/mL after only two weeks of treatment and was maintained at that level until pregnancy week 22. In pregnancy week 26 and 27, signs of hydrops were detected by ultrasonography and IUT were performed at each occasion. Sectio was inevitable at pregnancy week 28 + 1 and a male baby was born: Hb 58 g/L (cord sample) and 68 g/L (venous sample), weight 1385 g, Apgar score = 4-5-7, Bilirubin 56-150 mmol/L (4 h). Exchange transfusion was performed on day two and day five. Phototherapy was also implemented for eight days. The newborn's recovery thereafter was uneventful and complete. Conclusion: A combination of PE and IVIG may be an efficient treatment possible to start in early pregnancy in patients with extremely severe Rh (D) alloimmunization, with a history of hydrops fetalis in previous pregnancies. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    La Fleur, Linnea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Ann-Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roberg, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    A CD44(high)/EGFR(low) Subpopulation within Head and Neck Cancer Cell Lines Shows an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype and Resistance to Treatment2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mortality in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is high due to emergence of therapy resistance which results in local and regional recurrences that may have their origin in resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) or cells with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. In the present study, we investigate the possibility of using the cell surface expression of CD44 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), both of which have been used as stem cell markers, to identify subpopulations within HNSCC cell lines that differ with respect to phenotype and treatment sensitivity. Three subpopulations, consisting of CD44(high)/EGFR(low), CD44(high)/EGFR(high) and CD44(low) cells, respectively, were collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The CD44(high)/EGFR(low) population showed a spindle-shaped EMT-like morphology, while the CD44(low) population was dominated by cobblestone-shaped cells. The CD44(high)/EGFR(low) population was enriched with cells in G0/G1 and showed a relatively low proliferation rate and a high plating efficiency. Using a real time PCR array, 27 genes, of which 14 were related to an EMT phenotype and two with stemness, were found to be differentially expressed in CD44(high)/EGFR(low) cells in comparison to CD44(low) cells. Moreover, CD44(high)/EGFR(low) cells showed a low sensitivity to radiation, cisplatin, cetuximab and gefitinib, and a high sensitivity to dasatinib relative to its CD44(high)/EGFR(high) and CD44(low) counterparts. In conclusion, our results show that the combination of CD44 (high) and EGFR (low) cell surface expression can be used to identify a treatment resistant subpopulation with an EMT phenotype in HNSCC cell lines.

  • 31.
    Fritzsche, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Carlsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A cell-based sensor system for toxicity testing using multiwavelength fluorescence spectroscopy2009In: ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY, ISSN 0003-2697, Vol. 387, no 2, 271-275 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel cell-based fluorometric sensor system for toxicity monitoring is described, which uses functional spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes (HL-1 cell line) as the biological recognition element. Based on these highly specialized cells, it has the potential of providing a sensitive and relevant analytical in vitro toxicity testing method. The system was configured by propagating the surface-attaching HL-1 cardiomyocytes in the wells of a 96-well microtiter plate and connecting the plate via an optical fiber to a fluorescence spectrometer capable of excitation-emission matrix scanning. The fluorescence data were analyzed using a conventional spectral analysis software program. The performance of the system for detection of general cytotoxicity to the cells was evaluated using three well-known drugs: verapamil, quinidine, and acetaminophen. The dose-response curves were assessed and the EC50 values were determined (0.10 +/- 0.007, 0.23 +/- 0.025, and 12.32 +/- 2.40 mM, respectively). Comparison with in vitro and in vivo reference data for the drugs showed good correlations, suggesting that this cell-based sensor system Could be a useful tool in pharmacological in vitro drug testing.

  • 32.
    Löwenborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Wanhammar, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
    A class of two-channel hybrid analog/digital filter banks1999In: Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems,1999, 1999, 14-17 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a class of hybrid analog/digital filter banks with approximately perfect magnitude reconstruction. The filter bank consists of analog analysis and digital synthesis filter banks. The analog analysis filters are formed as a sum and difference of two allpass subfilters, respectively, resulting in filters with low orders and few free parameters, which is advantageous from implementation and design points of view. The digital synthesis filters are odd-order linear-phase FIR filters with symmetric and anti-symmetric impulse responses, respectively. The filter design is performed by first optimizing the analog analysis filters. Then, with the analog filters fixed, optimum digital synthesis filters, in the minimax sense, are obtained with the aid of linear programming

  • 33.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mesgarzadeh, Behzad
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Class-D Stage with Harmonic Suppression and DLL-Based Phase Generation2012In: 2012 IEEE 55TH INTERNATIONAL MIDWEST SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (MWSCAS), Lida Ray Technologies Inc., , 2012, 45-48 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a Class-D stage with 3rd harmonic suppression operating at 2V(DD) (i.e., twice the nominal supply voltage). A DLL-based phase generator is used to generate the phases of the driving signals and by modifying the driver stage 5th harmonic suppression is also possible. The output stage and drivers are based on inverters only, where the short-circuit current is eliminated in the output stage. Operating at 1 GHz, the simulated output power is +19.4 dBm utilizing a 1-V supply and a 5-Omega load, with Drain Efficiency (DE) and Power-Added Efficiency (PAE) of 72% and 52%, respectively, including power dissipation in the DLL-based phase generator and drivers. The 3rd harmonic is suppressed 23 dB (-33 dBc) compared to a conventional Class-D stage.

  • 34.
    Olafsdottir, Arndis F.
    et al.
    NU Hospital Grp, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Attvall, Stig
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandgren, Ulrika
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Dahlqvist, Sofia
    NU Hospital Group, Uddevalla, Sweden.
    Pivodic, Aldina
    Statistiska Konsultgruppen, Sweden.
    Skrtic, Stanko
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; AstraZeneca Rand D, Sweden.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Lind, Marcus
    NU Hospital Grp, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A Clinical Trial of the Accuracy and Treatment Experience of the Flash Glucose Monitor FreeStyle Libre in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes2017In: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, ISSN 1520-9156, E-ISSN 1557-8593, Vol. 19, no 3, 164-172 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, FreeStyle Libre a flash glucose monitoring system came onto the market in 2014 as a complement to self-monitoring of blood glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and treatment experience of the FreeStyle Libre system. Methods: Fifty-eight adults with type 1 diabetes used FreeStyle Libre for 10-14 days and measured capillary blood glucose levels with the HemoCue blood glucose measurement system at least six times a day simultaneously. Results: For the entire study period, the mean absolute relative difference (MARD) was 13.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.0%-14.4%). MARD was 13.6% (95% CI 12.1%-15.4%) during week 1 and 12.7% (95% CI 11.5%-13.9%) during week 2. The mean absolute difference (MAD) for the whole study period was 19.8mg/dL (1.1mmol/L) (95% CI 17.8-21.8 mg/dL), including 20.5 mg/dL (1.14 mmol/L) during week 1 and 19.0 mg/dL (1.05 mmol/L) during week 2. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.96. For glucose values amp;lt; 72, 72-180, and amp;gt; 180mg/dL (amp;lt; 4, 4-10, and amp;gt; 10 mmol/L), the MARD was 20.3% (95% CI 17.7%-23.1%), 14.7% (95% CI 13.4%-16%), and 9.6% (95% CI 8.5%-10.8%), respectively, and respective MAD values were 12.3, 17.8, and 23.6 mg/dL (0.69, 0.99, and 1.31mmol/L). Using the 10-item visual analog scale, patients rated their experience with FreeStyle Libre as generally positive, with mean values ranging from 8.22 to 9.8. Conclusions: FreeStyle Libre had a similar overall MARD as continuous blood glucose monitoring systems in earlier studies when studied in similar at-home conditions. The overall patient satisfaction was high.

  • 35.
    Eriksson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    A CLP(FD)-based model checker for CTL2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Model checking is a formal verification method where one tries to prove or disprove properties of a formal system. Typical systems one might want to prove properties within are network protocols and digital circuits. Typical properties to check for are safety (nothing bad ever happens) and liveness (something good eventually happens).

    This thesis describes an implementation of a sound and complete model checker for Computation Tree Logic (CTL) using Constraint Logic Programming over Finite Domains (CLP(FD)). The implementation described uses tabled resolution to remember earlier computations, is parameterised by choices of computation strategies and can with slight modification support different constraint domains. Soundness under negation is maintained through a restricted form of constructive negation.

    The computation process amounts to a fixpoint search, where a fixpoint is reached when no more extension operations has any effect. As results show, the choice of strategies does influence the efficiency of the computation. Soundness and completeness are of course independent of the choice of strategies. Strategies include how to choose the extension operation for the next step and whether to perform global or local rule instantiations, resulting in bottom-up or top-down computations respectively.

  • 36.
    Murphy, Robin
    et al.
    Texas A&M University.
    Kleiner, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, KPLAB - Knowledge Processing Lab. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Community-Driven Roadmap for the Adoption of Safety Security and Rescue Robots2013In: Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics (SSRR), 2013 IEEE International Symposium on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 1-5 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEEE Safety, Security, and Rescue Robotics community has created a roadmap for producing unmanned systems that could be adopted by the Public Safety sector within 10 years, given appropriate R&D investment especially in human-robot interaction and perception. The five applications expected to be of highest value to the Public Safety community, highest value first, are: assisting with routine inspection of the critical infrastructure, “chronic emergencies” such as firefighting, hazardous material spills, port inspection, and damage estimation after a disaster. The technical feasibility of the applications were ranked, with the most attractive scenario, infrastructure inspection, rated as the second easiest scenario; this suggests the maturity of robotics technology is beginning to match stakeholder needs. Each of the five applications were discussed in terms of the six broad enabling technology areas specified in the current National Robotics Initiative Roadmap (perception, human-robot interaction, mechanisms, modeling and simulation, control and planning, and testing and evaluation) and nine specific capabilities identified by the community as being essential to commercialization (communication, alerting, localization, fault tolerance, mapping, manpower needs, plug and play capabilities, multiple users, and multiple robots). The community believes that perception and human-robot interaction are the two biggest barriers to adoption, and require more research, given that their low technical maturity (3rd and 6th rank respectively). However, each of the specific capabilities needed for commercialization are being addressed by current research and could be achieved within 10 years with sustained funding. 

  • 37.
    Edberg, Andreas
    et al.
    Central Hospital, Karlstad.
    Jurstrand, Margaretha
    University Hospital, Örebro.
    Johansson, Eva
    Central Hospital, Karlstad.
    Wikander, Elisabeth
    Central Hospital, Karlstad.
    Höög, Anna
    Central Hospital, Karlstad.
    Ahlqvist, Thomas
    Central Hospital, Karlstad.
    Falk, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skov Jensen, Jørgen
    Statens Serum Institute, Denmark.
    Fredlund, Hans
    University Hospital, Örebro.
    A comparative study of three different PCR assays for detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in urogenital specimens from men and women2008In: Journal of Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0022-2615, E-ISSN 1473-5644, Vol. 57, 304-309 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare conventional 16S rRNA gene PCR, real-time 16S rRNA gene PCR and real-time Mycoplasma genitalium adhesin protein (MgPa) gene PCR as detection methods for M. genitalium infection. The study also determined the prevalence of M. genitalium in male and female patients attending a sexually transmitted infections clinic in a rural area in the west of Sweden. First void urine (FVU) and/or urethral swabs were collected from 381 men, and FVU and/or cervical swabs and/or urethral swabs were collected from 298 women. A total of 213 specimens were used in the PCR comparative study: 98 consecutively sampled specimens from patients enrolled in the prevalence study, 36 consecutively sampled specimens from patients with symptoms of urethritis and 79 specimens from patients positive for M. genitalium by real-time MgPa gene PCR in the prevalence study. A true-positive M. genitalium DNA specimen was defined as either a specimen positive in any two PCR assays or a specimen whose PCR product was verified by DNA sequencing. The prevalence of M. genitalium infection in men and women was 27/381 (7.1 %) and 23/298 (7.7 %), respectively. In the PCR comparative study, M. genitalium DNA was detected in 61/76 (80.3 %) of true-positive specimens by conventional 16S rRNA gene PCR, in 52/76 (68.4 %) by real-time 16S rRNA gene PCR and in 74/76 (97.4 %) by real-time MgPa gene PCR. Real-time MgPa gene PCR thus had higher sensitivity compared with conventional 16S rRNA gene PCR and had considerably increased sensitivity compared with real-time 16S rRNA gene PCR for detection of M. genitalium DNA. Real-time MgPa gene PCR is well suited for the clinical diagnosis of M. genitalium.

  • 38.
    Welin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    A Comparison between the Swedish 3G Beauty Contest and the UK 3G Auction2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis compares the two different version of public franchise bidding for awarding 3G licenses used in Sweden and the UK, respectively a beauty contest and an auction. The fact is that the Swedish beauty contest has failed to tackle many of the problems discussed in connection with public franchise bidding in an effective way. Sweden has first of all had problems with enforcing the ambitious coverage criteria. The UK has on the other hand succeeded in tackling the problems and raised governmental revenue of £22.5bn through the auction.

    The conclusion is that this thesis confirms the existing literatures’ critique of the Swedish beauty contest. However, this thesis also provides a new perspective to the existing literature. The main conclusion is that the auction has locked the prices at a high level and externalised negative price and investments effects through the international operators’ behaviour onto consumers in other countries.

  • 39.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    Lindström, J. L.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    A complex defect related to the carbon vacancy in 4H and 6H SiC1999In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T79, 46-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to study defects in 4H and 6H SiC irradiated with 2.5 MeV electrons at room temperature. When the dose of irradiation reaches ~ 5 × 1017 electrons/cm2, an EPR spectrum appears. In both 4H and 6H SiC, the defect associated with this spectrum has C1h symmetry with an effective electron spin S = 1 and an isotropic g-value of 2.0063 ± 0.0002. The crystal-field parameter was determined as D = 1.65 and D = 1.67 GHz for 4H and 6H SiC, respectively. The principal crystal-field axis lies in the (11bar 20) plane and makes an angle of ~ 46° with the c-axis for both polytypes. A clear hyperfine structure from 29Si due to the interaction with four nearest silicon neighbours was observed, confirming that the defect is related to the carbon vacancy. The similarity in all respects including the annealing behaviour of the spectrum in both polytypes suggests that it belongs to the same defect. Based on the formation and its electronic structure, the defect is suggested to be a complex with one of the components being the carbon vacancy.

  • 40.
    Edlund, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Mechanics.
    Volgers, Pieter
    A composite ply failure model based on continuum damage mechanics2004In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 65, no 3-4, 347-355 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A material model including the failure behaviour is derived for a thin unidirectional (UD) composite ply. The model is derived within a thermodynamic framework and the failure behaviour is modelled using continuum damage mechanics. The following features describe the model: (i) The ply is assumed to be in a plane state of stress. (ii) Three damage variables associated with the stress in the fibre-, transverse and shear directions, respectively, are used. (iii) The plastic behaviour of the matrix material is modelled. (iv) The difference in the material response in tensile and compressive loading is modelled. (v) Rate dependent behavior of plasticity and damage (i.e. strength) is modelled.

  • 41.
    He, Qing
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Comprehensive Analysis of Optimal Link Scheduling for Emptying a Wireless Network2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communications have become an important part of modern life. The ubiquitous wireless networks and connectivities generate exponentially increasing data traffic. In view of this, wireless network optimization, which aims at utilizing the limited resource, especially spectrum and energy, as efficiently as possible from a network perspective, is essential for performance improvement and sustainable development of wireless communications.

    In the dissertation, we focus on a fundamental problem of wireless network optimization, link scheduling, as well as its subproblem, link activation. The problem type arises because of the nature of wireless media and hence it is of relevance to a wide range of networks with multiple access. We freshen these classic problems up by novel extensions incorporating new technologies of interference management or with new performance metrics. We also revisit the problems in their classic setup to gain new theoretical results and insights for problem-solving. Throughout the study, we consider the problems with a general setup, such that the insights presented in this dissertation are not constrained to a specific technology or network type. Since link activation and scheduling are key elements of access coordination in wireless communications, the study opens up new approaches that significantly improve network performance, and eventually benefit practical applications.

    The dissertation consists of five research papers. The first paper addresses maximum link activation with cooperative transmission and interference cancellation. Papers II and III investigate the minimum-time link scheduling problem in general and a particular class of networks, respectively. In Paper IV, we consider the scheduling problem of emptying a network in its broad form and provide a general optimality condition. In Paper V, we study the scheduling problem with respect to age of information.

    List of papers
    1. Maximum Link Activation with Cooperative Transmission and Interference Cancellation in Wireless Networks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maximum Link Activation with Cooperative Transmission and Interference Cancellation in Wireless Networks
    2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, ISSN 1536-1233, E-ISSN 1558-0660, Vol. 16, no 2, 408-421 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We address the maximum link activation problem in wireless networks with new features, namely when the transmitters can perform cooperative transmission, and the receivers are able to perform successive interference cancellation. In this new problem setting, which transmitters should transmit and to whom, as well as the optimal cancellation patterns at the receivers, are strongly intertwined. We present contributions along three lines. First, we provide a thorough tractability analysis, proving the NP-hardness as well as identifying tractable cases. Second, for benchmarking purposes, we deploy integer linear programming for achieving global optimum using off-theshelf optimization methods. Third, to overcome the scalability issue of integer programming, we design a sub-optimal but efficient optimization algorithm for the problem in its general form, by embedding maximum-weighted bipartite matching into local search. Numerical results are presented for performance evaluation, to validate the benefit of cooperative transmission and interference cancellation for maximum link activation and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2017
    National Category
    Communication Systems Telecommunications
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112447 (URN)10.1109/TMC.2016.2546906 (DOI)
    Conference
    2014 IEEE 25th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), September 2-5, Washington DC, DC, USA
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council; EU FP7 Marie Curie [324515, 329313]; National Science Foundation [CCF-0728966, CCF-1420651]; ONR [N000141410107]

    Available from: 2014-11-27 Created: 2014-11-27 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Minimum-Time Link Scheduling for Emptying Wireless Systems: Solution Characterization and Algorithmic Framework
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minimum-Time Link Scheduling for Emptying Wireless Systems: Solution Characterization and Algorithmic Framework
    2014 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ISSN 0018-9448, E-ISSN 1557-9654, Vol. 60, no 2, 1083-1100 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a set of transmitter-receiver pairs, or links, that share a wireless medium and address the problem of emptying backlogged queues with given initial size at the transmitters in minimum time. The problem amounts to determining activation subsets of links, and their time durations, to form a minimum-time schedule. Scheduling in wireless networks has been studied under various formulations before. In this paper, we present fundamental insights and solution characterizations that include: 1) showing that the complexity of the problem remains high for any continuous and increasing rate function; 2) formulating and proving sufficient and necessary optimality conditions of two baseline scheduling strategies that correspond to emptying the queues using one-at-a-time or all-at-once strategies; and 3) presenting and proving the tractability of the special case in which the transmission rates are functions only of the cardinality of the link activation sets. These results are independent of physical-layer system specifications and are valid for any form of rate function. We then develop an algorithmic framework for the solution to this problem. The framework encompasses exact as well as sub-optimal, but fast, scheduling algorithms, all under a unified principle design. Through computational experiments, we finally investigate the performance of several specific algorithms from this framework.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2014
    Keyword
    Algorithm; optimality; scheduling; wireless networks
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104836 (URN)10.1109/TIT.2013.2292065 (DOI)000330286100022 ()
    Available from: 2014-02-28 Created: 2014-02-28 Last updated: 2017-12-05
    3. Polynomial Complexity Minimum-Time Scheduling in a Class of Wireless Networks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polynomial Complexity Minimum-Time Scheduling in a Class of Wireless Networks
    2015 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems, ISSN 2325-5870, Vol. 3, no 3, 322-331 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a wireless network with a set of transmitter-receiver pairs, or links, that share a common channel, and address the problem of emptying finite traffic volume from the transmitters in minimum time. This, so called, minimum-time scheduling problem has been proved to be NP-hard in general. In this paper, we study a class of minimum-time scheduling problems in which the link rates have a particular structure. We show that global optimality can be reached in polynomial time and derive optimality conditions. Then we consider a more general case in which we apply the same approach and obtain an approximation as well as lower and upper bounds to the optimal solution. Simulation results confirm and validate our approach.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015
    Keyword
    algorithm, interference, optimality, scheduling, wireless networks
    National Category
    Communication Systems Telecommunications
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112446 (URN)10.1109/TCNS.2015.2512678 (DOI)
    Note

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    Available from: 2014-11-27 Created: 2014-11-27 Last updated: 2016-11-25Bibliographically approved
    4. A general optimality condition of link scheduling for emptying a wireless network
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A general optimality condition of link scheduling for emptying a wireless network
    2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INFORMATION THEORY, IEEE , 2016, 1446-1450 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider link scheduling in wireless networks for emptying the queues of the source nodes, and provide a unified mathematical formulation that accommodates all meaningful settings of link transmission rates and network configurations. We prove that, any scheduling problem is equivalent to solving a convex problem defined over the convex hull of the rate region. Based on the fundamental insight, a general optimality condition is derived, that yields a unified treatment of optimal scheduling. Furthermore, we demonstrate the implications and usefulness of the result. Specifically, by applying the theoretical insight to optimality characterization and complexity analysis of scheduling problems, we can both unify and extend previously obtained results.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2016
    Series
    IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory. Proceedings, ISSN 2157-8095, E-ISSN 2157-8117
    Keyword
    convex programming;radio links;radio networks;telecommunication scheduling;convex hull;convex problem;general optimality condition;link scheduling;link transmission rates;network configurations;optimal scheduling;source nodes;wireless network;Complexity theory;Information theory;Interference;Optimal scheduling;Processor scheduling;Scheduling;Wireless networks;complexity;optimality;scheduling;wireless networks
    National Category
    Computer Engineering Information Systems Software Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131357 (URN)10.1109/ISIT.2016.7541538 (DOI)000390098701102 ()
    Conference
    IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), 2016, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain, July l0-l5, 2016
    Available from: 2016-09-15 Created: 2016-09-15 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
  • 42.
    Petersson, Ulla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Motala.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, University Hospital, Malmö , Sweden.
    A consultation-based method is equal to SCORE and an extensive laboratory-based method in predicting risk of future cardiovascular disease2009In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1741-8267, E-ISSN 1741-8275, Vol. 16, no 5, 536-540 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the most common causes of mortality worldwide, much interest has been focused on reliable methods to predict cardiovascular risk.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional, population-based screening study with 17-year follow-up in Southern Sweden.

    METHODS: We compared a non-laboratory, consultation-based risk assessment method comprising age, sex, present smoking, prevalent diabetes or hypertension at baseline, blood pressure (systolic >/=140 or diastolic >/=90), waist/height ratio and family history of CVD to Systemic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) and a third model including several laboratory analyses, respectively, in predicting CVD risk. The study included clinical baseline data on 689 participants aged 40-59 years without CVD. Blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose, serum lipids, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, C-reactive protein, asymmetric dimethyl arginine and symmetric dimethyl arginine. During 17 years, the incidence of total CVD (first event) and death was registered.

    RESULTS: A non-laboratory-based risk assessment model, including variables easily obtained during one consultation visit to a general practitioner, predicted cardiovascular events as accurately [hazard ratio (HR): 2.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.18-3.39, P<0.001] as the established SCORE algorithm (HR: 2.73; 95% CI: 2.10-3.55, P<0.001), which requires laboratory testing. Furthermore, adding a combination of sophisticated laboratory measurements covering lipids, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, did not confer any additional value to the prediction of CVD risk (HR: 2.72; 95% CI: 2.19-3.37, P<0.001). The c-statistics for the consultation model (0.794; 95% CI: 0.762-0.823) was not significantly different from SCORE (0.767; 95% CI: 0.733-0.798, P=0.12) or the extended model (0.806; 95% CI: 0.774-0.835, P=0.55).

    CONCLUSION: A risk algorithm based on non-laboratory data from a single primary care consultation predicted long-term cardiovascular risk as accurately as either SCORE or an elaborate laboratory-based method in a defined middle-aged population.

  • 43.
    Chhetri, Dhurv
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Manyam, Venkata Narasimha
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Continuous-Time ADC and DSP for Smart Dust2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, smart dust or wireless sensor networks are gaining more attention.These autonomous, ultra-low power sensor-based electronic devices sense and process burst-type environmental variations and pass the data from one node (mote) to another in an ad-hoc network. Subsystems for smart dust are typically the analog interface (AI), analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital signal processor (DSP), digital-to-analog converter (DAC), power management, and transceiver for communication.

    This thesis project describes an event-driven (ED) digital signal processing system (ADC, DSP and DAC) operating in continuous-time (CT) with smart dust as the target application. The benefits of the CT system compared to its conventional counterpart are lower in-band quantization noise and no requirement of a clock generator and anti-aliasing filter, which makes it suitable for processing burst-type data signals.

    A clockless EDADC system based on a CT delta modulation (DM) technique is presented. The ADC output is digital data, continuous in time, known as “data token”. The ADC employs an unbuffered, area efficient, segmented resistor-string (R-string) feedback DAC. A study of different segmented R-string DAC architectures is presented. A comparison in component reduction with prior art shows nearly 87.5% reduction of resistors and switches in the DAC and the D flip-flops in the bidirectional shift registers for an 8-bit ADC, utilizing the proposed segmented DAC architecture. The obtained SNDR for the 3-bit, 4-bit and 8-bit ADC system is 22.696 dB, 30.435 dB and 55.73 dB, respectively, with the band of interest as 220.5 kHz.

    The CTDSP operates asynchronously and process the data token obtained from the EDADC. A clockless transversal direct-form finite impulse response (FIR) low-pass filter (LPF) is designed.

    Systematic top-down test-driven methodology is employed through out the project. Initially, MATLAB models are used to compare the CT systems with the sampled systems. The complete CTDSP system is implemented in Cadence design environment.

    The thesis has resulted in two conference contributions. One for the 20th European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design, ECCTD’11 and the other for the 19th IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration, VLSI-SoC’11. We obtained the second-best student paper award at the ECCTD.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Construct Tools PC AB, Sweden.
    Nordin, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Borrvall, Thomas
    DYNAmore Nordic AB, Brigadgatan 5, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hilding, Daniel
    DYNAmore Nordic AB, Brigadgatan 5, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Schill, Mikael
    DYNAmore Nordic AB, Brigadgatan 5, S-58758 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leidermark, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A co-simulation method for system-level simulation of fluid-structure couplings in hydraulic percussion units2017In: Engineering with Computers, ISSN 0177-0667, E-ISSN 1435-5663, Vol. 33, no 2, 317-333 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses a co-simulation method for fluid power driven machinery equipment, i.e. oil hydraulic machinery. In these types of machinery, the fluid-structure interaction affects the end-product performance to a large extent, hence an efficient co-simulation method is of high importance. The proposed method is based on a 1D system model representing the fluid components of the hydraulic machinery, within which structural 3D Finite Element (FE) models can be incorporated for detailed simulation of specific sub-models or complete structural assemblies. This means that the fluid system simulation will get a more accurate structural response, and that the structural simulation will get more correct fluid loads at every time step, compared to decoupled analysis. Global system parameters such as fluid flow, performance and efficiency can be evaluated from the 1D system model simulation results. From the 3D FE-models, it is possible to evaluate displacements, stresses and strains to be used in stress analysis, fatigue evaluation, acoustic analysis, etc. The method has been implemented using two well-known simulation tools for fluid power system simulations and FE-simulations, respectively, where the interface between the tools is realised by use of the Functional Mock-up Interface standard. A simple but relevant model is used to validate the method.

  • 45.
    Arnett, Anne
    et al.
    University of Denver, USA.
    Pennington, Bruce
    University of Denver, USA.
    Willcutt, Erik
    University of Colorado, USA.
    Dmitrieva, Julia
    University of Denver, USA.
    Byrne, Brian
    University of New England, Armidale, Australia .
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Olson, Richard
    University of Colorado, USA.
    A cross-lagged model of the development of ADHD inattention symptoms and rapid naming speed2012In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 40, no 8, 1313-1326 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has identified contemporaneous associations between cognitive deficits and symptom phenotypes in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, no studies have as yet attempted to identify direction of effect. The present study used cross-lagged path modeling to examine competing hypotheses about longitudinal associations between rapid naming speed and symptoms of inattention in children. 1,506 school-age twins from Australia and the U.S. were tested for inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and rapid naming speed at three and four time points, respectively. Symptom severity of inattention from Kindergarten to fourth grade is consistently predicted by previous rapid naming, over and above auto-regressive and correlational associations in the model. Likewise, inattention symptoms have a small but significant predictive effect on subsequent rapid naming. The findings support a reciprocal relationship between naming speed and ADHD inattentive symptoms.

  • 46.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    A cross-sectional study of adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: support for a specific distress-function relationship2014In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 8, no 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This study has investigated the specific relationship between childhood adversities, individual trauma symptoms and the functions of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The aim was to examine whether different self-reported adverse experiences and trauma symptoms predict the need to engage in NSSI, either to regulate emotions or to communicate with and influence others.

    METHOD: The participants were a community sample of 816 adolescents aged 15-17 years with NSSI. Hierarchical multiple regression was used, controlling for NSSI frequency and gender. The dependent variables were the automatic and social functions of NSSI, respectively. The predictors entered in the model were several different maltreatment and adversity experiences as well as individual trauma symptoms. Mediation analyses were also performed using the bootstrapping method with bias-corrected confidence estimates.

    RESULTS: Frequency of NSSI, gender (female), emotional abuse, prolonged illness or handicap during upbringing and symptoms of depression uniquely predicted the automatic functions of NSSI in the final regression model, but not the social functions. Symptoms of anxiety uniquely predicted social but not automatic functions. Having experienced physical abuse, having made a suicide attempt and symptoms of dissociation were significant predictors in both final models. The model for automatic functions explained more of the variance (62%) than the social model (28%). The relationship between childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse and performing NSSI for automatic reasons was mediated by symptoms of depression and dissociation. The relationship between physical abuse and the social functions of NSSI was mediated by symptoms of anxiety and dissociation.

    CONCLUSIONS: It is important to understand the specific context in which NSSI has developed and is maintained. Experiences of emotional abuse and symptoms of depression could guide clinical work in the direction of emotion regulation skills since in this study these variables were uniquely associated with the need to engage in NSSI to regulate emotions, to self-punish or to generate feelings. The presence of physical abuse, a suicide attempt and symptoms of dissociation could alert clinicians to a broad treatment approach since they were associated with performing NSSI to regulate both social and automatic experiences.

  • 47.
    Zhao, Juan
    et al.
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    Han, Zhenhui
    Kaifeng Childrens Hospital, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Xi
    Kaifeng Childrens Hospital, Peoples R China.
    Du, Shuxu
    Capital Medical University, Peoples R China.
    Dong Liu, Angie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Lukas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Li, Xueying
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Jing
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    Xiong, Zhenyu
    Kaifeng Childrens Hospital, Peoples R China.
    Gai, Yong
    Kaifeng Childrens Hospital, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Jinyan
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Ping
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Chaoshu
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    Du, Junbao
    Peking University, Peoples R China; Minist Educ, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Hongfang
    Peking University, Peoples R China.
    A cross-sectional study on upright heart rate and BP changing characteristics: basic data for establishing diagnosis of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and orthostatic hypertension2015In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, no 6, e007356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We aimed to determine upright heart rate and blood pressure (BP) changes to suggest diagnostic criteria for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and orthostatic hypertension (OHT) in Chinese children. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1449 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years were randomly recruited from two cities in China, Kaifeng in Henan province and Anguo in Hebei province. They were divided into two groups: 844 children aged 6-12 years (group I) and 605 adolescents aged 13-18 years (group II). Heart rate and BP were recorded during an active standing test. Results: 95th percentile (P-95) of delta heart rate from supine to upright was 38 bpm, with a maximum upright heart rate of 130 and 124 bpm in group I and group II, respectively. P-95 of delta systolic blood pressure (SBP) increase was 18 mm Hg and P-95 of upright SBP was 132 mm Hg in group I and 138 mm Hg in group II. P-95 of delta diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increase was 24 mm Hg in group I and 21 mm Hg in group II, and P-95 of upright DBP was 89 mm Hg in group I and 91 mm Hg in group II. Conclusions: POTS is suggested when delta heart rate is greater than= 38 bpm (for easy memory, greater than= 40 bpm) from supine to upright, or maximum heart rate greater than= 130 bpm (children aged 6-12 years) and greater than= 125 bpm (adolescents aged 13-18 years), associated with orthostatic symptoms. OHT is suggested when delta SBP (increase) is greater than= 20 mm Hg, and/or delta DBP (increase) greater than= 25 mm Hg (in children aged 6-12 years) or greater than= 20 mm Hg (in adolescents aged 13-18 years) from supine to upright; or upright BP greater than= 130/90 mm Hg (in children aged 6-12 years) or greater than= 140/90 mm Hg (in adolescents aged 13-18 years).

  • 48.
    Löwenborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Wanhammar, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
    A design procedure for 2-channel mixed analog and digital filter banks for A/D conversion using minimax optimization1999In: IEEE International Conference on Electronics Circuits and Systems,1999, 1999, 1189-1192 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a design procedure for 2-channel hybrid filter banks for use in high-speed A/D converters is proposed. By using minimax optimization, A/D converting systems consisting of an analog analysis filter bank and a digital synthesis filter bank are designed with the aid of bireciprocal lattice wave digital filters. Using hybrid filter banks the requirements on the A/D converters used in each channel are reduced. The performance of the resulting system when simultaneously introducing gain and phase errors due to mismatches between the A/D converters and sample time uncertainty in the sample-and-hold circuits, respectively, is analysed by means of the expected attenuation of the resulting aliasing components

  • 49.
    Häggblad, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ilias, Michail A.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anderson, Chris D
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A diffuse reflectance spectroscopic study of UV-induced erythematous reaction across well-defined borders in human skin2010In: Skin research and technology, ISSN 0909-752X, E-ISSN 1600-0846, Vol. 16, no 3, 283-290 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The colour of tissue is often of clinicaluse in the diagnosis of tissue homeostasis andphysiological responses to various stimuli.Determining tissue colour changes and borders,however, often poses an intricate problem and visualexamination, constituting clinical praxis, does notallow them to be objectively characterized orquantified. Demands for increased inter- and intraobserverreproducibility have been incentives for theintroduction of objective methods and techniques fortissue colour (e.g. erythema) evaluation. The aim ofthe present paper was to study the border zone of anUVB provoked erythematous response of humanskin in terms of blood volume and oxygenationmeasured by means of diffuse reflectancespectroscopy using a commercial probe.

    Material and Methods A provocation model, basedon partial masking of irradiated skin areas, definestwo erythema edges at every skin site responding tothe UV irradiation. In every subject, 5 test sites wereexposed with a constant UV light irradiance (14mW/cm2), but with different exposures times (0, 3,6, 9, 12 seconds). An analysis of the spectral datameasured across the two edges was performed for every scan line. The oxygenized and deoxygenizedhemoglobin contents were estimated in everymeasurement point, using a modified Beer-Lambertmodel.

    Results The fit of the experimental data to the model derived by the modified Beer-Lambert law was excellent (R2>0.95). Analyzing data for the chromophore content showed that the erythematous response in provoked areas is dominated by the increase in oxyhemoglobin. The width for the left and right border zone was estimated to 1.81±0.93 mm and 1.90±0.88 mm respectively (M±SD). The unprovoked area between the two edges was estimated to 0.77±0.68 mm.

    Conclusion While the chosen data analysis performed satisfactory, the ability of the probe design to differentiate spatial aspects of a reaction with abrupt borders was found to be suboptimal resulting in a probable overestimation of the erythematous edge slope. Probe modification or imaging are possible solutions.

  • 50.
    Elfving, Tommy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Scientific Computing. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Skoglund, Ingegerd
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Scientific Computing. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A direct method for a regularized least-squares problem2009In: NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA WITH APPLICATIONS, ISSN 1070-5325, Vol. 16, no 8, 649-675 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a linear system of the form A(1)x(1)+A(2)X(2)+eta=b1. The vector eta consists of identically distributed random variables all with mean zero. The unknowns are split into two groups x(1) and x(2). In the model usually there are more unknowns than observations and the resulting linear system is most often consistent having an infinite number of solutions. Hence some constraint on the parameter vector x is needed. One possibility is to avoid rapid variation in, e.g. the parameters x(2). We formulate the problem as a partially regularized least-squares problem, and propose a direct solution method based on the QR decomposition of matrix blocks. Further we consider regularizing using one and two regularization parameters, respectively. We also discuss the choice of regularization parameters, and extend Reinschs method to the case with two parameters. Also the cross-validation technique is treated. We present test examples taken from an application in modelling of the substance transport in rivers.

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