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  • 1.
    Huq, Md. Nazmul
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The genetic basis of a domestication trait in the chicken: mapping quantitative trait loci for plumage colour2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication is the process by which animals become adapted to the environment provided by humans. The process of domestication has let to a number of correlated behavioural, morphological and physiological changes among many domesticated animal species. An example is the changes of plumage colour in the chicken. Plumage colour is one of the most readily observable traits that make distinction between breeds as well as between strains within a breed. Understanding the genetic architecture of pigmentation traits or indeed any trait is always a great challenge in evolutionary biology. The main aim of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting the red and metallic green coloration in the chicken plumage. In this study, a total of 572 F8 intercross chickens between Red Junglefowl and White Leghorn were used. Phenotypic measurements were done using a combination of digital photography and photography manipulating software. Moreover, all birds were genotyped with 657 molecular markers, covering 30 autosomes. The total map distance covered was 11228 cM and the average interval distance was 17 cM. In this analysis, a total of six QTLs (4 for red and 2 for metallic green colour) were detected on four different chromosomes: 2, 3 11 and 14. For red colour, the most significant QTL was detected on chromosome 2 at 165 cM. An additional QTL was also detected on the same chromosome at 540 cM. Two more QTLs were detected on chromosomes 11 and 14 at 24 and 203 cM respectively. Additionally, two epistatic pairs of QTLs were also detected. The identified four QTLs together can explain approximately 36% of the phenotypic variance in this trait. In addition, for metallic green colour, one significant and one suggestive QTLs were detected on chromosomes 2 and 3 at 399 and 247 cM respectively. Moreover, significant epistatic interactions between these two QTLs were detected. Furthermore, these two QTLs together can explain approximately 24% of the phenotypic variance in this trait. These findings suggest that the expression of pigmentation in the chicken plumage is highly influenced by both the epistatic actions and pleiotropic effects of different QTLs located on different chromosomes.

  • 2.
    Yang, Jian
    et al.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Nanjing Technical University, Peoples R China.
    Naguib, Michael
    Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37381 USA.
    Ghidiu, Michael
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA;.
    Pan, Li-Mei
    Nanjing Technical University, Peoples R China.
    Gu, Jian
    Nanjing Technical University, Peoples R China.
    Nanda, Jagjit
    Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37381 USA.
    Halim, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Gogotsi, Yury
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Barsoum, Michel W.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Two-Dimensional Nb-Based M4C3 Solid Solutions (MXenes)2016In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 99, no 2, 660-666 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, two new two-dimensional Nb4C3-based solid solutions (MXenes), (Nb-0.8,Ti-0.2)(4)C3Tx and (Nb-0.8,Zr-0.2)(4)C3Tx (where T is a surface termination) were synthesizedas confirmed by X-ray diffractionfrom their corresponding MAX phase precursors (Nb-0.8,Ti-0.2)(4)AlC3 and (Nb-0.8,Zr-0.2)(4)AlC3. This is the first report on a Zr-containing MXene. Intercalation of Li ions into these two compositions, and Nb4C3Tx was studied to determine the potential of those materials for energy storage applications. Lithiation and delithiation peaks at 2.26 and 2.35 V, respectively, appeared in the case of Nb4C3Tx, but were not present in Nb2CTx. After 20 cycles at a rate of C/4, the specific capacities of (Nb-0.8,Ti-0.2)(4)C3Tx and (Nb-0.8,Zr-0.2)(4)C3Tx were 158 and 132 mAh/g, respectively, both slightly lower than the capacity of Nb4C3Tx.

  • 3.
    Gheorghiade, Mihai
    et al.
    Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, USA.
    Greene, Stephen J
    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
    Butler, Javed
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA.
    Filippatos, Gerasimos
    Athens University Hospital Attikon and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Lam, Carolyn S P
    National Health Center, Singapore and Duke, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Maggioni, Aldo P
    Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri Research Center, Florence, Italy.
    Ponikowski, Piotr
    Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Shah, Sanjiv J
    Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, USA.
    Solomon, Scott D
    Brigham and Women's Hospital Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth
    Charite University Medicine Berlin-Campus Virchow Klinikum, Berlin, Germany.
    Samano, Eliana T
    Bayer, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Müller, Katharina
    Bauer Pharma, Wuppertal, Germany.
    Roessig, Lothar
    Bauer Pharma, Wuppertal, Germany.
    Burkert, Pieske
    Charité University Medicine Berlin–Campus Virchow Klinikum and German Heart Center Berlin, Germany.
    Effect of Vericiguat, a Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator, on Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients With Worsening Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: The SOCRATES-REDUCED Randomized Trial.2015In: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), ISSN 0098-7484, E-ISSN 1538-3598, Vol. 314, no 21, 2251-2262 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE: Worsening chronic heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal dose and tolerability of vericiguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in patients with worsening chronic HF and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Dose-finding phase 2 study that randomized 456 patients across Europe, North America, and Asia between November 2013 and January 2015, with follow-up ending June 2015. Patients were clinically stable with LVEF less than 45% within 4 weeks of a worsening chronic HF event, defined as worsening signs and symptoms of congestion and elevated natriuretic peptide level requiring hospitalization or outpatient intravenous diuretic.

    INTERVENTIONS: Placebo (n = 92) or 1 of 4 daily target doses of oral vericiguat (1.25 mg [n = 91], 2.5 mg [n = 91], 5 mg [n = 91], 10 mg [n = 91]) for 12 weeks.

    MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary end point was change from baseline to week 12 in log-transformed level of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The primary analysis specified pooled comparison of the 3 highest-dose vericiguat groups with placebo, and secondary analysis evaluated a dose-response relationship with vericiguat and the primary end point.

    RESULTS: Overall, 351 patients (77.0%) completed treatment with the study drug with valid 12-week NT-proBNP levels and no major protocol deviation and were eligible for primary end point evaluation. In primary analysis, change in log-transformed NT-proBNP levels from baseline to week 12 was not significantly different between the pooled vericiguat group (log-transformed: baseline, 7.969; 12 weeks, 7.567; difference, -0.402; geometric means: baseline, 2890 pg/mL; 12 weeks, 1932 pg/mL) and placebo (log-transformed: baseline, 8.283; 12 weeks, 8.002; difference, -0.280; geometric means: baseline, 3955 pg/mL; 12 weeks, 2988 pg/mL) (difference of means, -0.122; 90% CI, -0.32 to 0.07; ratio of geometric means, 0.885, 90% CI, 0.73-1.08; P = .15). The exploratory secondary analysis suggested a dose-response relationship whereby higher vericiguat doses were associated with greater reductions in NT-proBNP level (P < .02). Rates of any adverse event were 77.2% and 71.4% among the placebo and 10-mg vericiguat groups, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among patients with worsening chronic HF and reduced LVEF, compared with placebo, vericiguat did not have a statistically significant effect on change in NT-proBNP level at 12 weeks but was well-tolerated. Further clinical trials of vericiguat based on the dose-response relationship in this study are needed to determine the potential role of this drug for patients with worsening chronic HF.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT01951625.

  • 4.
    Galiè, Nazzareno
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Barberà, Joan A
    University of Barcelona and Biomedical Research Networking Center on Respiratory Diseases, Madrid, Spain.
    Frost, Adaani E
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA.
    Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir
    University of Giessen and Marbury Lung Center, Giessen, Germany.
    Hoeper, Marius M
    Hanover Medical School and German Center of Lung Research, Hanover, Germany.
    McLaughlin, Vallerie V
    University of Michigan, USA.
    Peacock, Andrew J
    Regional Heart and Lung Center, Glasgow, Scotland.
    Simonneau, Gérald
    University Paris-Sud, Paris, France.
    Vachiery, Jean-Luc
    Hospital Erasme, Brussels, Belgium.
    Grünig, Ekkehard
    University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Oudiz, Ronald J
    UCLA Medical Center, Torrance,USA.
    Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton
    University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    White, R James
    University of Rochester, NY, USA.
    Blair, Christiana
    Gilead Sciences, Foster City.
    Gillies, Hunter
    Gilead Sciences, Foster City.
    Miller, Karen L
    Gilead Sciences, Foster City.
    Harris, Julia H N
    GlaxoSmith Kline, Uxbridge, UK.
    Langley, Jonathan
    GlaxoSmith Kline, Uxbridge, UK.
    Rubin, Lewis J
    University of California at San Diego, USA.
    Initial Use of Ambrisentan plus Tadalafil in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension2015In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 373, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Data on the effect of initial combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil on long-term outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension are scarce.

    METHODS: In this event-driven, double-blind study, we randomly assigned, in a 2:1:1 ratio, participants with World Health Organization functional class II or III symptoms of pulmonary arterial hypertension who had not previously received treatment to receive initial combination therapy with 10 mg of ambrisentan plus 40 mg of tadalafil (combination-therapy group), 10 mg of ambrisentan plus placebo (ambrisentan-monotherapy group), or 40 mg of tadalafil plus placebo (tadalafil-monotherapy group), all administered once daily. The primary end point in a time-to-event analysis was the first event of clinical failure, which was defined as the first occurrence of a composite of death, hospitalization for worsening pulmonary arterial hypertension, disease progression, or unsatisfactory long-term clinical response.

    RESULTS: The primary analysis included 500 participants; 253 were assigned to the combination-therapy group, 126 to the ambrisentan-monotherapy group, and 121 to the tadalafil-monotherapy group. A primary end-point event occurred in 18%, 34%, and 28% of the participants in these groups, respectively, and in 31% of the pooled-monotherapy group (the two monotherapy groups combined). The hazard ratio for the primary end point in the combination-therapy group versus the pooled-monotherapy group was 0.50 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.72; P<0.001). At week 24, the combination-therapy group had greater reductions from baseline in N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels than did the pooled-monotherapy group (mean change, -67.2% vs. -50.4%; P<0.001), as well as a higher percentage of patients with a satisfactory clinical response (39% vs. 29%; odds ratio, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.05 to 2.32]; P=0.03) and a greater improvement in the 6-minute walk distance (median change from baseline, 48.98 m vs. 23.80 m; P<0.001). The adverse events that occurred more frequently in the combination-therapy group than in either monotherapy group included peripheral edema, headache, nasal congestion, and anemia.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among participants with pulmonary arterial hypertension who had not received previous treatment, initial combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil resulted in a significantly lower risk of clinical-failure events than the risk with ambrisentan or tadalafil monotherapy. (Funded by Gilead Sciences and GlaxoSmithKline; AMBITION number, NCT01178073.).

  • 5.
    Evangeliou, Antonios
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies.
    Economic inequalities between countries and the impact on youth and elderly respectively: a comparative case study focusing on Greece and Sweden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis attempts to throw light on the underlying reasons behind the economic ambivalence between EU countries. In this sense, Greece and Sweden will be posted at the center of my research interest. For this purpose, Intersectionality theory as well as Neo liberalism and Neoclassical economics will be used in such a way that will assist me to disclose the deep causes of this inequality and to further examine how intersections of gender, age/generation and class are intertwined and affect the youth and elderly in both countries. Furthermore, both qualitative and quantitative data will be applied in a way that will enable me to compare and contrast the two social groups chosen. Having demonstrated that, I will move a step forward by narrowing down my research focus on how the youth in both countries react against this kind of social exclusion.

  • 6.
    Tipping-Ball, Bethany-Alicia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Everyday Life on Planet Jedward: Thinking of John and Edward Grimes.  On Everyday Life as a Jedward fan.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Identical twins John and Edward Grimes (artist name "Jedward") have been active for six years and have a heterogeneous following of fans. This thesis aims to investigate how and in which situations fans think about Jedward as part of their everyday life. Each of the three informants, plus the author, kept diaries recording the above for the course of one week. The diaries were subsequently coded into the groups Traditional Fandom, Social Media, Music, Places, Family & Friends, Interests & Hobbies, Studies, Film & TV and Food & Drink respectively. Auto-ethnographic method was implemented and combined with work within the spheres of fandom and music. At a later date informants were asked if there are any products or causes that they associate with John and Edward; in lieu of comprehensive answers, the author compiled such a list. For the fours fans taking part, John and Edward are experienced as being close to them in many different situations during their day-to-day lives, in much the same way as a close friend or loved one. The conclusion is that through aiming to portray my own interpretation of fandom, it has been possible to see just how creative and imaginative fans are, an enlightening reflection contrary to those which in many cases have been none too positive.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modelling of Cranking Behaviour in Heavy Duty Truck Engines2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In modern heavy duty trucks the battery is a central component. Its traditional role as an energy source for engine cranking has been extended to include powering a number of elec- trical components on the truck, both during driving and during standstill. As a consequence of this it is important to know how much a battery in use has aged and lost in terms of ca- pacity and power output. The difficulty in measuring these factors on a battery in use causes problem, since heavy duty truck batteries are often replaced too early or too late, leading to unnecessary high replacement costs or truck standstill respectively.

    The overall goal of the effort, of which this thesis is a part, is to use a model of the cranking behaviour of a heavy duty truck engine, which depends on the battery condition, to estimate the ageing and wear of a heavy duty truck battery. This thesis proposes a modelling approach to model the components involved in engine cranking.

    In the thesis work, system identification is made of the systems forming part of the cranking of a heavy duty truck engine. These components are the starter battery, the starter motor and its electrical circuit and the internal combustion engine. Measurement data has been provided by Scania AB for the evaluation of the models. The data has been collected from crankings of a heavy duty diesel engine at different temperatures and battery charge levels. For every cranking lapse the battery voltage and current have been measured as well as the engine rotational speed.

    A starter battery model is developed and evaluated. The resulting battery model is then incorporated into two different engine cranking models, Model 1 and Model 2, including a starter motor model and an internal combustion engine model apart form the battery model. The two cranking models differ in several aspects and their differences and resulting evalu- ations are discussed.

    The battery model is concluded to be sufficiently accurate during model verification, however the two cranking models are not. Model 2 is verified as more correct in in its output than Model 1, but neither is sufficiently accurate for their purpose. The conclusion is drawn that the modelling approach is sound but development of Model 2 is needed before the model can be used in model-based condition estimation. 

  • 8.
    Hongxing, Li
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Dentistry – Prosthodontics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    List, Thomas
    Orofacial pain and Jaw Function, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ing-Marie
    Specialist Center for Oral Rehabilitation, Norrköping, Sweden .
    Johansson, Anders
    Department of Clinical Dentistry – Prosthodontics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Nordrehaug Astrom, Anne
    Department of Clinical Dentistry – Community Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Validity and reliability of OIDP and OHIP-14: a survey of Chinese high school students2014In: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 14, no 158, 1-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To determine the impact of oral diseases on everyday life, measures of oral quality of life are needed. In complementing traditional disease-based measures, they assess the need for oral care to evaluate oral health care programs and management of treatment. To assess the reliability and validity of the Oral Impact of Daily Performance (OIDP) and the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) among high school students in Xian, the capital of Shanxi province, China. Methods: Cross-sectional one-stage stratified random cluster sample using high schools as the primary sampling unit. Students completed self-administered questionnaires at school. The survey included the OHIP-14 and OIDP inventories, translated and culturally adapted for China, and global oral health and socio-behavioral measures. Results: A total of 5,608 students participated in the study, with a 93% response rate (mean age 17.2, SD 0.8, 52% females, 45.3% urban residents). The proportion experiencing at least one impact (at any frequency) during the previous six months was 62.9% for the OHIP-14 and 45.8% for the OIDP. Cronbachs alpha measured internal consistency at 0.85 for OHIP-14 and 0.75 for OIDP while Cohens kappa varied between 0.27 and 0.58 for OHIP-14 items and between 0.23 and 0.65 for OIDP items. Kappa scores for the OHIP-14 and OIDP additive scores were 0.52 and 0.66, respectively. Both measures varied systematically and in the expected direction, with global oral health measures showing criterion validity. The correlation between OIDP and OHIP-14 was r(s) + 0.65. That both measures varied systematically with socio-behavioral factors indicates construct validity. Conclusion: Both the OIDP and OHIP-14 inventories had reasonable reliability and construct validity in relation to subjective global oral health indicators among adolescents attending high schools in China and thus appear to be useful oral health -related quality of life measures in this context. Overall, the OHIP-14 and OIDP performed equally well, although OHIP-14 had superior content validity due to its sensitivity towards less severe impacts.

  • 9.
    Larsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Department for Orofacial Pain and Jawfunction, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    John, M. T.
    Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, Department of Diagnostic and Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
    Hakeberg, M.
    Department of Behavioral and Community Dentistry, Institute of Odontology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg,.
    Nilner, K.
    Department of Oral Prosthetics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    List, T.
    Department for Orofacial Pain and Jawfunction, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    General population norms of the Swedish short forms of Oral Health Impact Profile2014In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 41, no 4, 275-281 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We reported the development and psychometric evaluation of a Swedish 14-item and a five-item short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile. The 14-item version was derived from the English-language short form developed by Slade in1997. The five-item version was derived from the German-language short form developed by John etal. in 2006. Validity, reliability and normative values for the two short form summary scores were determined in a random sample of the adult Swedish population (response rate: 46%, N=1366 subjects). Subjects with sufficient OHRQoL information to calculate a summary score (N=1309) were on average 50 center dot 1 +/- 17 center dot 4years old, and 54% were women. Short form summary scores correlated highly with the 49-item OHIP-S (r greater than= 0 center dot 97 for OHIP-S14, r greater than= 0 center dot 92 for OHIP-S5) and with self-report of oral health (r greater than= 0 center dot 41). Reliability, measured with Cronbachs alpha (0 center dot 91 for OHIP-S14, 0 center dot 77 for OHIP-S5), was sufficient. In the general population, 50% of the subjects had greater than= 2 OHIP-S14 score points and 10% had greater than= 11 points, respectively. Among subjects with their own teeth only and/or fixed dental prostheses and with partial removable dental prostheses, 50% of the population had greater than= 2 OHIP-S14 score points, and 10% had greater than= 11 points. For subjects with complete dentures, the corresponding figures were 3 and 24 points. OHIP-S5 medians for subjects in the three population groups were 1, 1 and 2 points. Swedish 14-item and 5-item short forms of the OHIP have sufficient psychometric properties and provide a detailed overview about impaired OHRQoL in Sweden. The norms will serve as reference values for future studies.

  • 10.
    Carlsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Boxing for biodiversity: a long-term follow up of an artificial dead wood environment2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today many saproxylic species are threatened because of habitat decline in Europe. Hollow trees represent a great part of the habitats that saproxylic species use. Since hollows takes a long time to develop, management actions are needed to prevent the extinction of saproxylic species. The aim of this study was to investigate the succession of saproxylic beetle species in artificial habitats in the form of wooden boxes. Wooden boxes were filled with a potential substrate and placed at different distances (0-1800 m) from oak hollow hot spots. In addition to the start mixture, four different additional substrates were added. In total, 4510 specimens of 114 saproxylic beetle species were sampled in 43 boxes over ten years. The specimens of tree-hollow species, wood rot species and nest species increased with 38% from the fourth to the final year but species richness decline from 47 to 29, respectively. A dead hen had a tendency for attracting more species but the small effect of different added substrates diminished over the years and had no significant effect on species richness after ten years. There was a higher similarity in species richness after ten years between the boxes and real hollow oaks. In conclusion, the artificial habitat developed into a more hollow like environment, with fewer but more abundant wood mould specialists, during ten years. This study clearly shows that the wooden boxes are used as habitats for saproxylic species as the boxes seems to develop into a more hollow-like habitat with time.

  • 11.
    Brown, Philip
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Identification of Chlorinated Fatty Acids in Standard Samples and Fish Lipids: Verification and Validation of Extraction, Transesterification and GC-MS/XSD2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorine gas bleaching was a common method used in pulp industries. As a consequence, significant amounts of chlorine were discharged into surrounding aquatic ecosystems, affecting the biota. Chlorinated organic pollutants are formed when chlorine react with organic material.

    Octadecanoic acid (stearic acid) is one of the most common saturated fatty acids in aquatic biota. In a naturally occurring process two and four chlorine atoms, respectively, are added over the unsaturated bonds, forming 9,10-dichloro octadecanoic acid and 9,10,12,13-tetrachloro octadecanoic acid. These are the chlorinated fatty acids (ClFA) under investigation in this Bachelor’s Thesis.

    The methodological framework for measuring ClFA is investigated in this essay. The scope is to evaluate the method of isolating and quantifying the compounds as described in Åkesson-Nilsson’s (2004) dissertation. The method includes: extraction of the lipid, transesterification (where the fatty acids, including the ClFAs, are separated from the lipids and transformed into their respective methyl esters through two methods, acidic catalysis with BF3 or H2SO4), separation (by solid phase extraction) and determination of ClFA concentration with a halogen specific detector (GC-XSD/MS). Furthermore, the scope is to investigate collected fish samples (from Norrsundet) with the abovementioned method.

    By making a dilution series with known concentrations it was possible to establish calibration curves, to give in an indication of the effectiveness of the method. BF3 is in need of updating due to being experienced as slower and less stable than the H2SO4-method. However, it was concluded that the H2SO4-method was more effective on the standard samples and that the BF3-method was more effective on the fish lipid samples.

    In one of the lipid samples (lavaret transesterified with BF3) a detectable concentration of 9,10,12,13-tetrachloro octadecanoic acid was discovered. Therefore, we question SEPAs decision to cancel investigations in Norrsundet. Our results could indicate that ClFAs are still an issue that could affect the ecosystem’s biota. 

  • 12.
    Nord, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hjärt-lungräddningsutbildning i årskurs 7. Instruktörsledd eller filmbaserad, vilken pedagogisk metod är effektivast?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To compare students’ practical CPR skills and attitude to perform bystander CPR after instructor-led versus DVD-based training.

    Method:  Data was collected through a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. CPR skills were assessed of 80 seventh grade students during a three minutes practical test, directly after training and at three months follow up by using a PC Skill Reporting System. For CPR skills a total score, 12-48 points, was calculated.  A hypothesis is that there is no difference between training methods regarding students' total score, which means that the DVD-based method is more efficient when performed with the whole class. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted immediately after the training to investigate students' motivation to make a life-saving effort.

    Result: There were no significant differences between the instructor-led or the DVD-based group regarding CPR skills, a total score of 33 points versus 34 points directly after training and 31 points versus 30 points at three months, respectively.Most students felt spontaneously that they had enough knowledge to make a life-saving effort, but the follow-up questions showed that the majority of the responders, felt worry and fear of lack of sufficient knowledge, to harm the victim or to make mistakes in a life-saving situation. Some students described that feedback after the practical test, helped to strengthen the student's self-esteem, which can be difficult to find time for when training in large groups.One possible conclusion is that the DVD-based method is more efficient in number of participants trained, but with support of the socio-cultural theory, it should in future trainings aside more time for joint learning, valorization of issues and deposition of time for individual and collective reflection.

  • 13.
    Elwin, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att lita på andras blodgåva: Åsikter om att homosexuella män i praktiken nekas donera blod2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor Thesis investigates the perceptions nurses and homosexual men, respectively, have concerning the rules for blood donation, focusing on the fact that homosexual men in practice aren't able to donate blood. The study was conducted using qualitative interviews.

    The results emphasise that my informants classify blood and people differently, where both foreign and Swedish blood are rated on potential risk of infection. Nurses and homosexual men also handle the various rules differently, the nurses placing greater focus on protecting receivers of blood. At the same time nurses, like the homosexual men, find the rules discriminatory and based on the prejudice that homosexual men have a riskier lifestyle than others relating to infection. In reality, there can be no certainty in knowing if someone is honest when answering the health declaration which is meant to help the blood bank weed out unsuitable donors.

    The issue of blood donation by homosexual men can be approached from different angles and is therefore a complex topic without an easy solution, especially since current testing cannot detect the HIV virus immediately after transmission. In contrast, my informants emphasise that everyone should be judged on individual behaviour instead of collectively; for example, homosexual men in monogamous relationships should also be able to donate blood.

  • 14. Kato, Naoko
    et al.
    Kinugawa, Koichiro
    Ito, Naomi
    Yao, Atsushi
    Watanabe, Masafumi
    Imai, Yasushi
    Takeda, Norihiko
    Hatano, Masaru
    Kazuma, Keiko
    Adherence to self-care behavior and factors related to this behavior among patients with heart failure in Japan2009In: Heart & Lung, ISSN 0147-9563, E-ISSN 1527-3288, Vol. 38, no 5, 398-409 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adherence to self-care behavior is important for patients with heart failure (HF) to prevent exacerbation of HF. The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence, identify associated factors, and clarify the impact of previous HF hospitalizations on adherence in outpatients with HF. METHODS: A total of 116 outpatients completed a questionnaire, including the Japanese version of the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale, to assess adherence. RESULTS: Regardless of previous hospitalizations, adherence to seek help if HF worsened was poor. Multivariate analysis adjusted for age and brain natriuretic peptide showed that diabetes mellitus and being employed were independent predictors of poorer adherence to self-care behavior (P = .03, P = .02, respectively), but the experience of previous HF hospitalizations was not a predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Self-care strategies for HF should target patients with diabetes mellitus and employed patients. Further study is necessary to develop effective programs for such patients.

  • 15.
    Nelson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Barn som upplevt familjevåld. Kunskapsläge, bedömning och behandling av legitimerade familjeterapeuter på BUP2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how registered family Therapists in child and youth psychiatry (in Swedish BUP) perceives their own and their workplace knowledge of children who have experienced family violence. The aim was to look at how registered family Therapists conducts assessments and treatments on BUP when they meet a child who may have experienced or who have experienced family violence. Questions have been how registered family Therapists perceive their own respectively their workplace knowledge of children who have experienced family violence? Additional research questions have been how assessments are made and what kind of treatment that are offered by registered family Therapists on BUP? In the study, 38 registered family Therapists, have responded to a questionnaire with fixed answers. The questionnaire study has also been supplemented by 13 telephone interviews with semi-structured questions designed to make respondents share their views more freely. The results show that registered family Therapists experience their own competence to work therapeutically with the children who have experienced family violence as good. Nevertheless, there are obvious flaws in how assessments are conducted to ensure that these children get the correct diagnoses and are offered effective treatments. The result also shows that registered family Therapists, in treatment activities, put most focus on stabilization work with a focus on improving communication and interaction, but fails to assess, discuss and deal with any trauma as a result of family violence.

  • 16.
    Sulyman, Areen
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Theories of Identity Formation among Immigrants: Examples from People with an Iraqi Kurdish Background in Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay portrays the formation and construction of the identity development of immigrants through their cultural encounter with a new society. It is an attempt to give voice to four Iraqi Kurds, who came to Sweden at the age of six months, nine years, twenty-two and twenty-seven years respectively, in order to interpret issues about their identity construction and belonging. What does it mean for them to be Kurds in Sweden and live between two different cultures? How is their identity formulated and where do they belong as Kurds, Swedes, in-between or both? The individuals‘ identity changes when encountering a society that is completely different from their country of origin because ―[…] the nature of the individual depends upon the society in which he or she lives‖ (Burke and Stets 2009: 4). Moreover, the first generation includes those immigrants who arrived at a very young age and thus grew up and were raised in diaspora, lived between two different cultures, and are ―confronted with two motherlands‖ (Jodeyr 2003). One is their country of origin and the other one is the host country that they migrated to. The host country is considered the real home country for those who arrived at a very young age according to some of my informants. Therefore, the narratives my informants tell about their identity are the result of their relationship as individuals with the Swedish society.

  • 17.
    Mällbin, Christina Kicki
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Introducing Intersectional Theory to Activists: Challenging the theory/practice divide in a Swedish folkbildning context2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores how introducing intersectional theory to self-identified activists in a Swedish folkbildning context challenges the theory/practice-divide. The study has been carried out through thematically structured discussions with students and teachers at Kvinnofolkhögskolan, Gothenburg, Sweden. In this thesis I argue that the deconstruction of the theory/practice-divide is dependent on perceptions of what theory and practice entails, students’ expectations of Swedish folkbildning in general and Kvinnofolkhögskolan in particular and pedagogical considerations on how to teach intersectionality intersectionally.Additionally, the thesis addresses issues of institutionalization, feminist pedagogy and the broadening of intersectional theory. Finally, the thesis highlights the need for extensively addressing the issue of the theory/practice divide in the curriculum, for students and teachers to discuss what is perceived as theory and practice respectively and for teachers to consider time and place as part of an intersectionally aware pedagogical practice.

  • 18.
    Lin, Keng-Yu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thin films for thermoeletric applications2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming and developments of alternative energy technologies have become important issues nowadays. Subsequently, the concept of energy harvesting is rising because of its ability of transferring waste energy into usable energy. Thermoelectric devices play a role in this field since there is tremendous waste heat existing in our lives, such as heat from engines, generators, stoves, computers, etc. Thermoelectric devices can extract the waste heat and turn them into electricity. Moreover, the reverse thermoelectric phenomenon has the function of cooling which can be applied to refrigerator or heat dissipation for electronic devices. However, the energy conversion efficiency is still low comparing to other energy technologies. The efficiency is judged by thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT), defined by Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity. In order to improve ZT, thin film materials are good candidates because of their structural effects on altering ZT. 


    Ca3Co4O9 thin films grown by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering followed by post-annealing process is studied in this thesis. Structural properties of the films with the evolution of elemental ratio (Ca/Co) of calcium and cobalt have been investigated. For the investigations, three samples having elemental ratio 0.82, 0.72, and 0.66 for sample CCO1, CCO2 and COO3, respectively, have been prepared. Structural properties of the films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) θ-2θ and pole figure analyses. Surface morphology of the films has been investigated by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analyses. The highly oriented and phase pure epitaxial Ca3Co4O9 thin films were obtained in the end.


    Mixing of ScN and CrN to obtain ScxCr1-xN solid solution thin films by DC magnetron sputtering is the other task in this thesis. Growth of ScN and CrN thin films were studied first in order to get the best mixed growth conditions. The phase shifts between ScN (111) and CrN (111) peaks were observed in mixed growth films by XRD θ-2θ measurements, indicating the formation of ScxCr1-xN. Surface morphology of the films were investigated by SEM. The (111)-oriented ScxCr1-xN thin films with decent surface smoothness grown by DC magnetron sputtering at 600 °C in pure nitrogen with bias were developed. 

  • 19.
    Kyriakou, Aristea
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schoolisizing our Schoolyards: from a space to our place2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been conducted in the context of the master program in Outdoor Environmental Education and Outdoor Life, of Linköping University. It aspires to investigate a specific part of outdoor environments: the schoolyards. Particularly, the aim of the study is to investigate how the use of the school grounds as an educational resource is influenced by their environments -rural or urban. The research compares the school communities’ (principals’, teachers’ and students’) perceptions about the use of their school grounds during the educational process. The research sample consists of 10 Swedish elementary schools, from which the five are in rural and five are in urban environments. The participants are in total 10 principals, 51 teachers and 295 students. Alongside, an observation recorded in a list and photographs enhance the comparison between the rural and urban schools’ infrastructures. From the 1268 photos taken, a selection is included in the study and constitutes the observation part.

    The study negotiates four controversial issues about school grounds’ capacities: space or place; good or bad; rural or urban; grounds of a school or grounds of a curriculum. The results, after all, reject the contradictions and the sections become respectively: a place for all seasons; neither good nor bad, just unique! ; Ideality stands for ideas; grounds for cooperation. It also becomes visible that even though the analysis of the responses confirms that the urban teachers hold the stereotypical idea that there are differences between rural and urban environments; the infrastructures of both environments do not appear different. However, the teachers’ different opinions and beliefs have a significant impact on the students’ responses. Specifically, significant differences are reported by students which align with the teachers’ differences. The rural and urban principals do not report significant differences, and in the great majority their opinions also align with their teachers’ opinions.

    Finally, a model which is unfolded through this study has central role, namely the schoolyard circle. This model aims to facilitate a process that I introduce as schoolisization, in which school grounds are used to extend the stereotypical learning environment by adapting the curriculum to a school’s needs. Consequently, the schoolyards’ transformation from a space to our place can be finally proved an outdoor education approach that “bridges contradictions” and promises better educational results.

  • 20.
    Norberg, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory-related behaviors in the South American Coati (Nasua nasua)2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the use and behavioural relevance of the different senses in the South American Coati is limited. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the use of the sense of smell in this species. Twenty-five captive coatis were observed at the zoo of La Paz for a total of 120 hours to collect data on olfactory-related behaviors. The coatis frequently performed behaviors in response to the detection of odors such as sniffing on the ground, on objects, on food, on conspecifics, or in the air. In contrast, they did not display many odor depositing behaviors such as urinating, defecating, or scent-marking. The most frequently performed olfactory-related behavior was “sniffing on ground” which accounted for an average of 40 % of all recorded behaviors. In general, both adult males and non-males (here defined as adult females, as well as sub-adults and juveniles of both sexes) performed olfactory-related behaviors at similar frequencies. However, a few frequency differences for certain behaviors were found in the morning and in the afternoon, and in food or no food conditions, respectively. When food was present, for example, the coatis spent less time on olfactory-related foraging behaviors like “sniffing on ground” and “nose-digging” compared to when food was not present. The finding that scent-marking was rare in this captive group, indicates little need for territorial marking or communication of reproductive state under these circumstances. Findings from this study support the idea that Nasua nasua use their sense of smell in a variety of different contexts, and further studies are needed to extend the results.

  • 21.
    Landin, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Torbacke, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    My, Carlsson
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Är borderline personlighetsstörning en kvinnlig diagnos?: En kvalitativ studie om borderline personlighetsstörning och könsskillnader2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to investigate how clinicians in psychiatric care for adults consider borderline personality disorder to be manifested in men and women, respectively. Could there be a tendency to over-diagnose women and under-diagnose men? In addition, the purpose of the study is to bring clarity to the reasons for gender differences within borderline personality as perceived by the clinicians. The study is based on an inductive approach, in which interviews have been conducted with twelve clinicians working with borderline personality disorders to gain a deeper understanding of how the clinicians consider the manifestations of gender differences.

    The clinicians described tendencies for women to deliberate self-harm, have mood swings and problems in relations. Men with borderline personality disorders are described as having a higher degree of e.g. aggressiveness, addiction and criminal behaviour than women with the same diagnosis. Half of the informants think men are under- diagnosed for borderline personality disorders. This may indicate that other diagnoses are given to men instead or that men end up in other treatments. Possible explanations to the gender differences are discussed, such as societal factors, gender roles or criteria for diagnosis based on gender.

  • 22.
    Chen, Yi-Ching
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Co-design of Fault-Tolerant Systems with Imperfect Fault Detection2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, transient faults have become a critical issue in modernelectronic devices. Therefore, many fault-tolerant techniques have been proposedto increase system reliability, such as active redundancy, which can beimplemented in both space and time dimensions. The main challenge of activeredundancy is to introduce the minimal overhead of redundancy and to schedulethe tasks. In many pervious works, perfect fault detectors are assumed to simplifythe problem. However, the induced resource and time overheads of suchfault detectors make them impractical to be implemented. In order to tacklethe problem, an alternative approach was proposed based on imperfect faultdetectors.

    So far, only software implementation is studied for the proposed imperfectfault detection approach. In this thesis, we take hardware-acceleration intoconsideration. Field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to accommodatetasks in hardware. In order to utilize the FPGA resources efficiently, themapping and the selection of fault detectors for each task replica have to be carefullydecided. In this work, we present two optimization approaches consideringtwo FPGA technologies, namely, statically reconfigurable FPGA and dynamicallyreconfigurable FPGA respectively. Both approaches are evaluated andcompared with the proposed software-only approach by extensive experiments.

  • 23.
    Boddu, Srinivas Reddy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    What is the relationship between task-based and open-ended usability testing, in terms of measuring satisfaction?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Usability is one of the most important aspects of Information Technology. Usability plays a vital role in this industry, where organizations thrive to ensure utmost satisfaction of their end-users in regard to the experience of using their product. The systems may be a website or a software application. To measure user satisfaction, the method of usability testing can be performed. Performing usability testing gives a clear picture of difficulties that would be faced by potential target users. There are different types of usability testing such as Task-based usability testing, open ended usability testing, remote usability testing etc. The important point here is about deciding upon the most appropriate type of testing technique to get the accurate user satisfaction level.

    This study is mainly focused to answer the following research question: What is the relationship between the task-based and open ended usability testing, in terms of measuring satisfaction? System Usability Scale (SUS) has been used to measure the satisfaction of the users in this study. For this we used two websites performing task-based usability testing and open ended usability testing respectively.

    This study had involved twenty eight different participants. Participants are divided into two groups, one group to perform open ended usability testing and another for task-based usability testing for both the websites. This study has produced following results; Open-ended testing tended to produce higher SUS-ratings for the tested system. The results in this study showed that users performing open-ended usability testing gave positive responses for both the websites in terms of user satisfaction. Open-ended usability testing is an exploratory testing, where the testing is based on different aspects such as user interface of the system, design etc. Task-based usability testing is goal based where users have to complete the given task without fail. This method drew lower scores when compared to open-ended usability testing for the tested systems from the attained results. Nevertheless that task-based testing attained lower SUS scores, it is fairly straight forward than open-ended testing to measure efficiency and effectiveness. The above results have been discussed in detail. This study has finally concluded that to measure the usability of a system it is recommended to practice both the open-ended and task-based usability testing techniques.

  • 24.
    Demircioglu, Sevilay
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Chenchen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perspectives of Suppliers on Corporate Social Responsibility in Emerging Economies: China and Turkey2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate Social Responsibility is attracting more public attention in business world nowadays. It has evolved well in developed countries while there still remains some CSR issues in emerging economies such as China and Turkey. Thus, when some multi- national enterprises select suppliers in China and Turkey they come with CSR requirements and pressure. In this supplier-buyer context, less study has been carried out from suppliers’ perspective on how they implement the CSR pressure and whether it has positive or negative impact on their relationship with the buyer and impact on themselves.

    In addressing this problem in this particular supplier-buyer environment, the purpose of this study is to explore the perspectives and practices of suppliers regarding CSR in emerging economies like China and Turkey with strong export relationships to companies in developed countries. In order to achieve this purpose, this thesis presents a qualitative study supported by primary data gathered by interviews and secondary data gathered by examining company documents. One Chinese supplier and one Turkish supplier were chosen as two cases in this study. Both have supplier-buyer relationships with the same buyer which has a large role in the textile industry. Interviews were conducted with two suppliers respectively to gain research data.

    The result of the study shows that: (1) CSR is perceived differently by Turkish and Chinese supplier. The Chinese supplier emphasizes their CSR perspectives on only economic and philanthropic levels while the Turkish supplier includes also ethical and legal levels. (2) In supply chains, both suppliers comply with codes of conduct from the buyer and additionally conduct CSR activities voluntarily. Both suppliers focus on philanthropy and community contribution but the Turkish supplier work on environmental friendly products. (3) There is no direct positive impact linked with CSR compliance in terms of supplier-buyer relationship for both suppliers. In other words, requirements on CSR from the buyer do not contribute much to their supply chain relationships. (4) CSR practices bring competitive advantages for both suppliers. Those competitive advantages include innovation capability and positive corporate reputation.

  • 25.
    Karlsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Electronic Data Capture for Injury and Illness Surveillance: A usability study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the development of injury surveillance systems for use at large multi sportsevents (Junge 2008), their implementation is still methodologically and practicallychallenging. Edouard (2013) and Engebretsen (2013) have pointed out that thecontext of athletics championships feature unique constraints, such as a limiteddata-collection window and large amounts of data to be recorded and rapidlyvalidated. To manage these logistical issues, Electronic Data Capture (EDC) methodshave been proposed (Bjorneboe 2009, Alonso 2012, Edouard 2013). EDC systemshave successfully been used for surveillance during multi-sport events Derman et al(2013) and its potential for surveillance studies during athletics championships istherefore interesting. The focus for surveillance during athletics championships hasthis far been on injury and illness data collected from team medical staff in directassociation to the competitions. But the most common injury and illness problems inathletics are overuse syndromes (Alonso 2009, Edouard 2012, Jacobsson 2013) andknowledge of risk factors associated to these problems is also relevant in associationto championships. A desirable next step to extend the surveillance routines istherefore to include also pre-participation risk factors. For surveillance of overusesyndromes, online systems for athlete self-report of data on pain and othersymptoms have been reported superior to reports from coaches (Shiff 2010). EDCsystems have also been applied for athlete self-report of exposure and injury data inathletics and other individual sports and have been found to be well accepted with agood efficiency (Jacobsson 2013, Clarsen 2013). There are thus reasons forinvestigating EDC system use by both athletes and team medical staff during athleticchampionships.This thesis used a cross-sectional design to collect qualitative data from athletes andteam medical staff using interviews and “think-aloud” usability evaluation methods(Ericsson 1993; Kuusela 2000). It was performed over 3 days during the 2013European Athletics Indoor Championships in Gothenburg, Sweden. Online EDCsystems for collection of data from athletes and team medical staff, respectively,were prepared for the study. The system for use by team medical staff was intendedto collect data on injuries and illnesses sustained during the championship and thesystem for athletes to collect data on risk factors.This study does not provide a solution in how an EDC effort should be implementedduring athletics championships. It does however points towards usability factorsthat needs to be taken into consideration if taking such an approach.

  • 26.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Kircher, Albert
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    Dahlgren, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lutzhoft, Margareta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barnett, Mike
    Southampton Solent University, UK.
    Kecklund, Goran
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Sleep, Sleepiness, and Neurobehavioral Performance While on Watch in a Simulated 4 Hours on/8 Hours off Maritime Watch System2013In: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 30, no 9, 1108-1115 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafarer sleepiness jeopardizes safety at sea and has been documented as a direct or contributing factor in many maritime accidents. This study investigates sleep, sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance in a simulated 4 h on/8 h off watch system as well as the effects of a single free watch disturbance, simulating a condition of overtime work, resulting in 16 h of work in a row and a missed sleep opportunity. Thirty bridge officers (age 30 +/- 6 yrs; 29 men) participated in bridge simulator trials on an identical 1-wk voyage in the North Sea and English Channel. The three watch teams started respectively with the 00-04, the 04-08, and the 08-12 watches. Participants rated their sleepiness every hour (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale [KSS]) and carried out a 5-min psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) test at the start and end of every watch. Polysomnography (PSG) was recorded during 6 watches in the first and the second half of the week. KSS was higher during the first (mean +/- SD: 4.0 +/- 0.2) compared with the second (3.3 +/- 0.2) watch of the day (p andlt; 0.001). In addition, it increased with hours on watch (p andlt; 0.001), peaking at the end of watch (4.1 +/- 0.2). The free watch disturbance increased KSS profoundly (p andlt; 0.001): from 4.2 +/- 0.2 to 6.5 +/- 0.3. PVT reaction times were slower during the first (290 +/- 6 ms) compared with the second (280 +/- 6 ms) watch of the day (p andlt; 0.001) as well as at the end of the watch (289 +/- 6 ms) compared with the start (281 +/- 6 ms; p = 0.001). The free watch disturbance increased reaction times (p andlt; 0.001) from 283 +/- 5 to 306 +/- 7 ms. Similar effects were observed for PVT lapses. One third of all participants slept during at least one of the PSG watches. Sleep on watch was most abundant in the team working 00-04 and it increased following the free watch disturbance. This study reveals that-within a 4 h on/8 h off shift system-subjective and objective sleepiness peak during the night and early morning watches, coinciding with a time frame in which relatively many maritime accidents occur. In addition, we showed that overtime work strongly increases sleepiness. Finally, a striking amount of participants fell asleep while on duty.

  • 27.
    Rahman, Masiur
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Miniaturized quadrature hybrid and rat race coupler utilizing coupled lines for LTE frequency bands2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, demands for fully integrated and miniaturized RFIC (Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits) have increased in wireless microwave communication system. Passive components such as coupler, divider and filters are always fabricated in outside of ICs due to their bulky sizes, which have been a great barrier to a realization of a fully integrated design. To solve this problem, miniaturization of passive components is one of the big issues at the present time. This paper shows the development of two important microwave passive components, quadrature hybrid and rat-race couplers for LTE lower (698 -960 MHz) and higher (1.71 - 2.70 GHz) frequency bands, which are obtained by replacing quarter-wave (λ/4) transmission line of a conventional coupler by their equivalent coupled line, resulting in significant size reduction. The miniaturized quadrature and rat race couplers are designed and fabricated with a Rogers 4360 substrate as a platform in producing significantly reduction. The design is validated by electromagnetic simulation and measurement. The size of the implemented quadrature hybrid coupler is 30 × 26.8 mm^2 and 14.9 × 12.5 mm^2, which are 82.60 % and 69.03% compared to the conventional couplers for lower and higher frequency band respectively. And, 55.5 × 27.9 mm^2 and 19.2 × 14.8 mm^2 for rat race coupler, which are 79.69 % and 62.35 % compared to the conventional coupler for lower and higher frequency band, respectively. Also, the reflection coefficient and the isolation are as good as conventional one and coupling procedure is similar or better than it.

  • 28.
    Momeninasab, Leila
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design and Implementation of a Name Matching Algorithm for Persian Language2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Name matching plays a vital and crucial role in many applications. They are for example used in information retrieval or deduplication systems to do comparisons among names to match them together or to find the names that refer to identical objects, persons, or companies. Since names in each application are subject to variations and errors that are unavoidable in any system and because of the importance of name matching, so far many algorithms have been developed to handle matching of names. These algorithms consider the name variations that may happen because of spelling, pattern or phonetic modifications. However most existing methods were developed for use with the English language and so cover the characteristics of this language. Up to now no specific one has been designed and implemented for the Persian language. The purpose of this thesis is to present a name matching algorithm for Persian. In this project, after consideration of all major algorithms in this area, we selected one of the basic methods for name matching that we then expanded to make it work particularly well for Persian names. This proposed algorithm, called Persian Edit Distance Algorithm or shortly PEDA, was built based on the characteristics of the Persian language and it compares Persian names with each other on three levels: phonetic similarity, character form similarity and keyboard distance, in order to give more accurate results for Persian names. The algorithm gets Persian names as its input and determines their similarity as a percentage in the output. In this thesis three series of experiments have been accomplished in order to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The f-measure average shows a value of 0.86 for the first series and a value of 0.80 for the second series results. The first series of experiments have been repeated with Levenshtein as well, and have 33.9% false negatives on average while PEDA has a false negative average of 6.4%. The third series of experiments shows that PEDA works well for one edit, two edits and three edits with true positive average values of 99%, 81%, and 69% respectively. 

  • 29.
    Fors, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fredholm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effektivare transporter med samdistribution2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Growing cities are increasing the demand for well functioning goods carrying traffic together with the other traffic. The number of zones for unloading goods in the centre of Linköping is small compared to the number of delivery addresses and the number of goods distributors.

    The attendant phenomena are congestion and costs of congestion. Therefore the local network for freight forwarders in Linköping has taken the initiative to the SAMLIC project. SAMLIC stands for Coordinated Retail Distribution in Linköping City. The aim of SAMLIC is to create an economically and logistically efficient system for goods distribution that is persistent and friendly to the environment. The participants in the project are the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, the network for freight forwarders in Linköping city, the association for cooperation in the city of Linköping, the working team for inner-city transports, Swedish Biogas and Linköping University.

    The aim of this report is to elaborate a proposal to a functional system for coordinated retail distribution in the centre of Linköping both in the short- and long-term perspectives. Focus is put on analysis of efficiency and potential with coordinated distribution concerning terminal handling, vehicle utilisation and unloading at the consignees.

    A trial project with coordinated distribution called PILOT has been carried out during the spring of 2004. The aim of the trial project was to give good quantitative information of possible benefits with coordinated distribution that can be used for further estimations of the potential of a larger system. From the gathered information analyses will be done to see if the vehicle load factor has increased and if the vehicle movements have decreased.

    The PILOT that was carried out included only general cargo and three freight forwarders. A summation of the amount of goods during the trial project does not give a complete image of the total amount of goods that is delivered to the centre of Linköping. Therefore a complementary investigation has been carried out with the main purpose to estimate the magnitude of the total volume of goods. The report also discusses methods for calculation of the number of vehicle movements in coordinated and ordinary distribution respectively and methods for calculation of vehicle load factor.

    The calculations show that the total time for deliveries with coordinated distribution is reduced with 14 % compared to if the same amount of goods would be distributed the conventional way. As a result of coordinated distribution, every fourth vehicle involved in the deliveries can be excluded from city traffic and used for other assignments, due to the fact that the load factor expressed as the number of kilograms per pallet space has increased with approximately 50 %. A reduced number of vehicle movements have the effect of decreasing pollution, disturbing noise, less accidents and less congestion.

    Economic profitability is important to accomplish for a successful system with a joint venture in coordinated distribution. No matter which form the coordinated distribution takes, the savings for the freight forwarders must be of such a dimension that they find it profitable to join instead of delivering the goods by themselves.

  • 30.
    Nasef, Hany
    et al.
    Universitat Rovira i Virgili.
    Beni, Valerio
    Universitat Rovira i Virgili.
    O´Sullivan, Ciara K.
    Universitat Rovira i Virgili.
    Electrochemical melting-curve analysis.2010In: Electrochemistry communications, ISSN 1388-2481, E-ISSN 1873-1902, Vol. 12, 1030-1033 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genotyping technologies need to tackle issues of cost-effectiveness, flexibility, and mutiplexability to meetthe ever-increasing demands for clinical diagnostics, addressing the future medical paradigm. Here wereport on a facile method for the rapid detection of mutations using electrochemical melting-curve analysis.The concept is based on the use of an immobilised probe hybridised to the mutant region of a ferrocenelabelled amplicon. Following hybridisation, the temperature is ramped and the dissociation of the ferrocenelabelled DNA from the electrode surface is monitored using differential pulse voltammetry. Using a modelsystem consisting of short probe and target, the proposed approach was demonstrated to clearlydiscriminate between complementary and mismatch duplexes. The melting temperature of the surfaceconfined DNA duplex was observed to be markedly lower than that obtained in solution, with meltingtemperatures of 38 and 59 °C, observed, respectively. The approach can be extended to array based meltingcurveanalysis, allowing the simultaneous detection of multiple mutations, as well as for genosensor design.

  • 31.
    Siegl, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of an on-ramp model for use in microscopic traffic simulation models2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic simulation models have become more and more important for the traffic industry over the past few years. This thesis enables the microscopic traffic simulation model of Johan Olstam to include merging areas in its simulation runs and thereby takes the model one step further on its way to realistically simulate vehicles in all kinds of traffic situations.

    A state-of-the-art literature review as well as an analysis of Olstam’s model are used for identifying possible weaknesses of the current merging behaviour model. Based on this knowledge, an improved merging behaviour model is developed. This model has to perform merging manoeuvres as realistically as possible since the microscopic model’s purpose is to simulate surrounding vehicles in driving simulators.

    By implementing new concepts in the gap selection, gap acceptance, calculation of the merge acceleration and courtesy deceleration as well as adding new functions allowing cooperative lane changes and merge anticipation, the original merging behaviour model has been improved significantly. The enhanced model is analysed and verified by comparing its results to real world data and data of the original model, respectively, as well as by studying simulated vehicle trajectories.

  • 32.
    Lindahl, Emmie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundqvist, John
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Green Worksite - in theory and practice2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project is made in concordance with Skanska Hus Eastern Region situated in Linköping. Its aim is to be the leading company within its field. Main issues discussed within the company are: quality, environmentally adjusted construction, working environment and ethics.

    The aim of the report was to analyze Skanska’s ne west concept named Green Worksite. In order to achieve this goal a thorough examination of its environmental work has been performed. Leading figures within the company have described their environmental work to be “light green” at the moment but are aimin g to convert it to “dark green” in future. In concordance with this the work at Skanska is directed to become more environmentally friendly in the years to come.

    Green Worksite uses a point-based system, which strictly requires the workplaces to receive a certain score. In addition seven compulsory criteria have to be acquired for the concerns to be authorized.

    The degree project was divided into two parts. First we received five construction sites that we were to help in their process being authorized Green Worksites. Regarding construction sites, the focus was on the projection-, production- and establishment phase respectively. This generated collaboration between us and the local managers at each construction sites. The aim was to develop a project plan describing how the new requirements would be met.

    Since May 2010 all five construction sites included in the degree project are authorized Green Worksites. A customer survey is delivered to Skanska regarding their client´s view on the concept Green Worksite.

    At the same time science consistently indicates that we need to protect the natural resources and decrease energy consumption. One way to improve the situation is by reducing consumption and reusing old materials. We consider Green Worksite to be a good initiative with great potential to develop even further. Right now the criteria the concerns have to acquire to be authorized are easily passed and cannot be seen as a real challenge. But since the launching of the concept Green Worksite is still in its infancy it is a good way to get their employees both involved and engaged in these important environmental issues.

  • 33.
    Turk, Ana
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Warranty claims analysis for household appliances produced by ASKO Appliances AB2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The input collected from warranty claims data links customer feedback with product quality. Results from warranty claim analysis can potentially improve product quality, customer relationships and positively affect business. However working on warranty claims data holds many challenges that requires a significant share of time devoted to data cleaning and data processing.

    The purpose of warranty claims analysis is to get the comprehensive overview of the reliability, costs and quality of household appliances produced by ASKO. While there are different ways to approach this problem, we will focus on non-parametric and semi-parametric methods, by using Kaplan-Meier estimators and Cox proportional hazard model respectively. These kinds of models are time dependent and therefore used for prediction of household appliance reliability. Even though non-parametric models are quite informative they cannot handle additional characteristics about observable product hence the semi-parametric Cox proportional hazard model was proposed. Apart from the reliability analysis, we will also predict warranty costs with probit model and observe inequality in household appliances part failures as a part of quality control analysis. Described methods were selected due to the fact that the warranty claims analysis will be practiced in future by ASKO’s quality department and therefore straight forward methods with very informative results are needed.

  • 34.
    Bäcklund, Jimmy Ulf Anti-Krister
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities.
    Reciprok egoism, skeptisk empirism och modern fysikalism: Titelförslag på några principer och diskurs kring dessas korrelation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains an ontological and epistemic analysis of the implication of a consistently physicalist view of reality. This in polemic contrast with transcendentalist positions as that of T. M. Scanlon. I follow along the lines of a sceptical empiricism that I ascribe to Hume and from which, I argue, consistently follows guidelines as set by for example J. L. Mackie and Galen Strawson on topics of self-referential altruism and realistic physicalism respectively.

  • 35.
    Eriksson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A new synthesis of nanoparticles designed for Biomedical Imaging. A pilot study.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a new procedure for synthesizing nanoparticles with fluorescent and MRI contrast enhancement properties. The produced nanoparticles consist of mixtures between two well-known materials; zinc oxide and gadolinium oxide. Zinc oxide is a well-known semiconductor with visible fluorescence and gadolinium oxide is a paramagnetic material exhibiting excellent magnetic properties for enhancing contrast in MRI. 

    The presented synthesis is based on a recently published protocol by Zhang et al [1], for synthesis of pure zinc oxide nanoparticles. The procedure includes a precursor synthesis where respectively metal is dissolved in a solution of water and methacrylic acid. Thereafter the precursors are mixed and dissolved in TEG for a combined nucleation and in-situ polymerization step.

    The work in this thesis is multidisciplinary involving molecular design, chemical synthesis, nanoparticle preparation, purification, characterization and also biological applications. The first rounds of nanoparticles were readily dispersible in water, had adequate fluorescent properties, were in a size range suited for in vivo applications and had better relaxivity properties compared to commonly used contrast agent. These results motivate future work including further optimizations of the protocol. This new nanomaterial has high potential as contrast agent for biomedical imaging.

  • 36.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Förändringen av tall- och granbestånden i eklandskapet söder om Linköping, 1927 jämfört med 20132013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to compare how the population of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) have changed between 1927 and 2013 in the oak landscape south of Linköping. A field study was carried out in 22 two kilometre lines which also had been studied in 1927. In these lines, which where ten meters broad and had a direction from west to east, the pines and spruces were counted, measured and classified by steam diameter. The obtained result was that the basal steam area (m²/ha) had increased for pine (44%) and spruce (57%) between 1927 and 2013. The amount of trees had increased in all diameter classes except thinner pine and spruce with a diameter of 5-10cm. The increase for pine in the three largest diameters (35-40cm, 40-45cm and >45cm) was 34%, 96% and 297%, respectively, and for spruce 221%, 508% och 400%. The reason why young pine had decreased since 1927 can be increased browsing by moose (Alces alces), a decline in natural rejuvenation, or the large-scale change in forest management since 1927.

  • 37.
    Abdul Aziz Hasan Ali, Aamir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shahzad, Muhammad Adil
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Joint Subcarrier/Power allocation Scheme for OFDMA-based Cellular Networks2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The assignment of this master thesis consists of initiating power, subcarrier allocation in a dynamic FFR based scheme designed for multi-cell OFDMA networks and to enhance the throughput of all center users in bandwidth hungry borrower cells (overloaded cells) which was previously degraded by original FFR3 scheme as a result of partitioning of system bandwidth into center and edge bands respectively. The method uses band borrowing to compensate center user’s throughput loss in a semi and fully overloaded system. The scheme uses dynamic programming method (0/1 knapsack problem) to bargain an edge band on various power levels and tends to check the best combination (power and sub-carrier) which the system can utilize while still maintaining acceptable throughput loss for the users at the edge of the neighboring cell (lender cell).

    The algorithm consists of generating a borrowing request to neighboring cells for utilizing their edge bands by the overloaded borrower cell if their average center user throughput reaches below a minimum threshold value set in the system. The borrowing method uses 0/1 knapsack problem to capture an edge band based on limiting factors of total cost in average throughput losses by neighbors (Ci) and Un (tolerable mean user edge user throughput loss by lending cell). While solving knapsack problem the lender (neighbors) will check Ci and Un before granting the right to use its edge band. The later stage requires reducing subcarrier power level in order to utilize the lenders edge band using "soft borrower" mode. The borrowed sub-carriers will be activated take power from the original center band sub-carriers of the overloaded cell by taking into account the interference between the lender and the borrower. In case of negative (0) reply from the lender cell after the first request, multiple requests are generated at reduce power level at every step to order to acquire more bands. If a neighbor has band borrowing requests from multiple overloaded base stations, the band will be granted to the one which gives minimal loss in terms of throughput to the lender cell.

    The simulation results are analyzed w.r.t reuse-1 and FFR3 scheme of a multi cell regular and irregular scenarios comprising of lightly to heavily overloaded cells with various subcarrier allocation patterns. An overhead and time assessment is also presented between borrower and lender cells. Simulation results show an increase of 60% in center user’s throughput w.r.t original FFR3 scheme with an acceptable loss of 18% at the edges in complex overloaded scenarios while the overall system throughout increases by 35%.

  • 38.
    Gürlüler, Merve
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Quantitative Tissue Classification via Dual Energy Computed Tomography for Brachytherapy Treatment Planning: Accuracy of the Three Material Decomposition Method2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) is an emerging technique that offers new possibilities to determine composition of tissues in clinical applications. Accurate knowledge of tissue composition is important for instance for brachytherapy (BT) treatment planning. However, the accuracy of CT numbers measured with contemporary clinical CT scanners is relatively low since CT numbers are affected by image artifacts. The aim of this work was to estimate the accuracy of CT numbers measured with the Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash DECT scanner and the accuracy of the resulting volume or mass fractions calculated via the three material decomposition method.

    CT numbers of water, gelatin and a 3rd component (salt, hydroxyapatite or protein powder) mixtures were measured using Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash DECT scanner. The accuracy of CT numbers was determined by (i) a comparison with theoretical (true) values and (ii) using different measurement conditions (configurations) and assessing the resulting variations in CT numbers. The accuracy of mass fractions determined via the three material decomposition method was estimated by a comparison with mass fractions measured with calibrated scales. The latter method was assumed to provide highly accurate results.

    It was found that (i) axial scanning biased CT numbers for some detector rows. (ii) large volume of air surrounding the measured region shifted CT numbers compared to a configuration where the region was surrounded by water. (iii) highly attenuating object shifted CT numbers of surrounding voxels. (iv) some image kernels caused overshooting and undershooting of CT numbers close to edges. The three material decomposition method produced mass fractions differing from true values by 8% and 15% for the salt and hydroxyapatite mixtures respectively. In this case, the analyzed CT numbers were averaged over a volumetric region. For individual voxels, the volume fractions were affected by statistical noise. The method failed when statistical noise was high or CT numbers of the decomposition triplet were similar.

    Contemporary clinical DECT scanners produced image artifacts that strongly affected the accuracy of the three material decomposition method; the Siemens’ image reconstruction algorithm is not well suited for quantitative CT. The three material decomposition method worked relatively well for averages of CT numbers taken from volumetric regions as these averages lowered statistical noise in the analyzed data. 

  • 39.
    Envall, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forsman Hedman, Martin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Constructing Politics: Discrepancy and Discourses in the E-waste Domain2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The societal benefits of new technology and electronic products can hardly be underestimated. However, new technological achievements bring problems as well since obsolete products, due to ever-growing amounts and complex composition, are difficult to handle in a sound manner. Currently electronic waste constitutes the single fastest growing waste stream in society. It is also common that e-waste is exported to low-income countries where it generally is recycled under rudimentary conditions, leading to large-scale environmental and health effects. The political handling of the issue has enjoyed moderate success internationally as well as nationally. The shaping of environmental politics is however, according to many researchers, a complex process involving many actors, something that generally is not reflected inofficial politics. The purpose of this thesis is to map out the different discourses inherent in the public debates on e-waste in Sweden and the USA respectively, and compare how they might influence the political management of the e-waste issue. A number of newspaper articles, reports and press releases from NGOs and trade organizations have been analyzed with a discourse analysis method, influenced by John Dryzek and Michel Foucault. The term “order of discourse” has been borrowed by Norman Fairclough as an analytical tool. In the U.S. material a conflictual, unclear order of discourse appeared where most of the actors were portrayed as equal political players. However there was an apparent red thread as the question was framed as an economic issue by the majority of actors. In the Swedish material a very clear order of discourse was identified, where mainly two discourses were dominant. Drawing on the analysis it could be concluded that there were several probable explanations for the contemporary political handling. The perspective of the key actors El-Kretsen and the U.S. EPA was concluded to impair the political handling, while the framing of the issue as a question for experts in the Swedish material was considered another explanation.

  • 40.
    Yavari, Sonia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linguistic Landscape and Language Policies: A Comparative Study of Linköping University and ETH Zürich2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Examining the languages in the public space i.e. the linguistic landscape is an emerging field of sociolinguistics, and research focused on the relationship between the linguistic landscape (LL) and language policy has recently garnered particular interest.

    This paper aims to study the linguistic landscapes of two different universities (Linköping University and ETH Zürich) in two different countries (Sweden and Switzerland, respectively) with rather different language policies. The aim is to ascertain some of the striking differences, as well as, the similarities between the two universities in terms of the public use of languages. Apart from the study of LL, the paper investigates the relationship between LL and language policy, and uncovers any contrasts which take place between top-down (posted by the university staff) and bottom-up (not inscribed by the university personnel) forces.

    The study of LL in these two universities is particularly interesting; since they are home to many international students; it is thus quite likely that the national languages are not the only languages found in the linguistic landscape. Furthermore, as Sweden is a monolingual country (basically Swedish), and Switzerland is a multilingual country (German, French, Italian and Romansch), comparing the two could yield insightful results regarding the public use of different languages in these different linguistic settings. Moreover, because of the influence universities have on society, studying the university space is of importance.

    This study tries to answer to the following research questions:

    1. What are the visible languages in the linguistic landscape of LiU and ETH? How are languages distributed in different areas? What is the status of English in proportion to other languages in bilingual signs? How are languages distributed in top-down and bottom-up signs? What kinds of multilingual signs are present? What is a clear classification scheme for signs found in the LL, and how are languages distributed in this scheme?
    2. What are the language policies of these two universities? Are there any policies regarding the languages written on signs? Are the language policies reflected in patterns of language use on signs, and are they reflected in top-down signs more visibly than in bottom-up signs?
  • 41.
    Kalered, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Quantum chemical studies of the chloride-based CVD process for Silicon Carbide2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report the interaction between SiH2 molecules and a SiC-4H (0001) surface and SiCl2 molecules and a SiC-4H (0001) surface is investigated. This is done using a cluster model to represent the surface. First the clusters are investigated by calculating some properties to compare with experimental data to motivate the use of the cluster model. The band gap calculated by extrapolation for an infinitely large cluster is 3.75 eV which is fairly close to the experimental value of 3.2 eV.

    Adsorption studies are performed and the main conclusion is that the SiH2 molecule adsorbs more strongly on the surface then the SiCl2 molecule, adsorption energies are calculated to approximately 200 kJ mol-1 and 100 kJ mol-1 respectively.

    At the end a few migration studies are performed with the conclusion that SiCl2 more easily can diffuse on the surface compared to the SiH2 molecule. The respective activation energies for migration on the surface are 4 kJ mol-1 for SiCl2 and 87 kJ mol-1 for SiH2.

  • 42.
    Johansson, Siri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lethagen, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fonologisk bedömning baserad på bildbenämning jämfört med spontantal av barn med fonologisk språkstörning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a phonological assessment, the aim is to obtain systematic and reliable data of a child's speech output, which can then serve as a basis for a decision on an appropriate intervention (Wolk & Meisler, 1998). Whether phonological assessment should be derived from an analysis of picture-naming or a conversation with the child, and whether the two methods for elicitation generate equivalent results, has been debated among clinicians and researchers for an extended time (Masterson, Bernhardt & Hofheintz, 2005).

    The aim of the present study was to compare two methods of speech elicitation for phonological assessment: spontaneous conversation and picture-naming, respectively. In the study, the procedures have been used when assessing children with phonological disorders as well as children with typical language development. The results are presented using two levels of phonological analysis; degree of phonological impairment, in terms of percentage of phonemes correct (PPC), and type of phonological impairment, in terms of phonological simplification processes. Eighteen (18) children participated in the study, nine (9) with phonological impairment (age 3;10 – 5;11), and nine with typical phonologic development (age 3;2 – 4;6). No significant differences were found regarding the percentage of phonemes correct between the two elicitation methods, neither for the group of children with phonological impairment, nor for the group of children with typical phonological development. Thus, the degree of speech difficulties was the same regardless of elicitation method. In assessing the type of impairment, however, a comparison between the sensitivity and the specificity obtained in the two tests indicate that there is a difference in how well the two elicitation methods intercept the phonological simplification processes. In the two elicitating methods, exactly the same processes could not be found in the speech of any child. The discussion includes the consequences of word structure, position and context of phonemes in the different speech samples. Furthermore, advantages and disadvantages of using the different elicitation methods in phonological assessment are discussed.

    The present study contributes to an increased knowledge about the ability to capture phonological problems sing picture-naming and conversational speech samples, respectively, in assessing a child’s speech. Furthermore, the study presents input to the on-going debate on phonological assessment, and may contribute to reflectance when selecting a clinical assessment tool.

  • 43.
    Nordin, Pär
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Bartelmess, P.
    Department of Surgery, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Jansson, C.
    Department of Surgery, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Svensson, C.
    Department of Surgery, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Edlund, G.
    Department of Surgery, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Randomized trial of Lichtenstein versus Shouldice hernia repair in general surgical practice2002In: British Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0007-1323, E-ISSN 1365-2168, Vol. 89, no 1, 45-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]


    The aim of the present randomized trial was to compare the Shouldice procedure and the Lichtenstein hernia repair with respect to recurrence rate, technical difficulty, convalescence and chronic pain. A further aim was to determine to what extent general surgeons in routine surgical practice were able to reproduce the excellent results reported from specialist hernia centres.


    Three hundred patients with primary inguinal hernia were randomized to either a Shouldice repair or to a tension-free Lichtenstein repair. In a pretrial training programme the five participating general surgeons were taught to perform the two techniques in a standard manner. Follow-up was performed after 8 weeks, 1 year and 3 years. The last examination was performed by an independent blinded assessor.


    There was a significant difference in operating time in favour of the Lichtenstein technique. After a follow-up of 36–77 months seven recurrences were found in the Shouldice group (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 1·3 to 8·1) and one in the mesh group (95 per cent c.i. 0·0 to 2·0). Chronic groin pain was reported by 4·2 and 5·6 per cent in the Shouldice and Lichtenstein groups respectively. It was characterized as mild or moderate in all except two patients who had the Shouldice operation.


    Lichtenstein hernia repair was easier to learn, took less time and resulted in fewer recurrences. It was possible to achieve excellent results with this technique in a general surgical unit. © 2002 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd

  • 44.
    Wang, Yu
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pretreaments of Chinese Agricultural residues to increase biogas production2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Development of biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biogas is one approach to utilize straw comprehensively. However, high lignin contents of lignocellulosic materials results in low degradation. The main aim of this study was to investigate the appropriate pre-treatment to increase biogas production from Chinese agricultural residues. In this study, Chinese corn stalk, rice plant and wheat straw were evaluated as substrates by applying three different pre-treatments. The investigated pre-treatment were mechanical pre-treatment (cut whole straw into 1-1.5cm) combination of thermal and alkali pre-treatment (1M/L NAOH, 80℃,15 hours) and biological pre-treatment(enzymes provided by Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB). Biogas production of these substrates was evaluated by batch digester; Sewage sludge from Nykvarn treatment plant and current digesters (Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB )was the co-digestive substrate which seeded in batch with straw of all pre-treatments.

    The results indicate that at least 50% of organic contents in Chinese agricultural residues could be converted to biogas by these pre-treatments. The optimizing biogas yield is achieved from Chinese corn stalk with combination of thermal and alkali pre-treatment, Chinese rice plant and wheat straw from pre-hydrolysis pre-treatment respectively .Chinese wheat straw has the most biogas potential from combination of thermal and alkali pre-treatment.

  • 45.
    Gasparini, Isabella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cardiorespiratory responses upon increased metabolism in the Ornate Tinamou, Nothoprocta ornata2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Bolivian Ornate Tinamou, Nothoprocta ornata, lives higher than 3300 m above sea level and must constantly deal with a restricted availability of atmospheric oxygen, i.e., chronic hypoxia. Interestingly enough, the Ornate Tinamou has a small heart to body ratio, which implies a reduced ability in transporting oxygenated blood to the tissues. In order to increase knowledge about the cardiorespiratory response of the Ornate Tinamou, heart rate (HR) and ventilation frequency (VR) were monitored during resting at 25 °C. The values were compared with those obtained in conditions known to elevate metabolism, i.e., lowered temperature and graded exercise. This was later compared with domestic chickens, Gallus gallus. Results showed a significant increase in HR at 4 °C, 305 ±42 bpm in the Ornate Tinamou when compared with HR at 25°C, 241± 48 bpm (330 ±42bpm and 239 ±32bpm in chicken). A significant increase in VR was only observed in chicken. As expected, with a progressive increase in running speed, a significant increase in HR in both species was observed. At 1,5 km h-1, HR in the Ornate Tinamou was 327 ±5,6 bpm and 342 ±8,5 in chicken. At 3,0 km h -1 HR was 383 ±15 bpm and 404 ±7,9, respectively. However, HR was not significantly higher in the Ornate Tinamou than in chicken, indicating that there must be other physiological adaptations involved in the sufficient oxygen delivery to tissues, e.g. a high blood oxygen affinity or a preference for anaerobic metabolism due to living in a chronic hypoxic environment.

  • 46.
    Graflund, Marianne
    et al.
    Department of Gynecological Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro.
    Sorbe, B.
    Department of Gynecological Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro.
    Karlsson, M.
    Department of Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro.
    Immunohistochemical expression of p53, bcl-2, and p21WAF1/CIP1 in early cervical carcinoma: Correlation with clinical outcome2002In: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, ISSN 1048-891X, E-ISSN 1525-1438, Vol. 12, no 3, 290-298 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of p53, bcl-2, and p21WAF1/CIP1 immunoreactivity as predictors of pelvic lymph node metastases (LNM), recurrences, and death due to the disease in early stage (FIGO I-II) cervical carcinomas. FIGO stage, type of histopathology, and tumor grade were also evaluated in this series of patients treated by radical hysterectomy (Wertheim-Meigs) between 1965 and 1990. A total of 172 patients were included. A tumor was regarded as positive when more than 30% of the neoplastic cells exhibited immunoreactivity. Positive immunostaining was found in 8.9% for p53, in 43.5% for bcl-2, and in 25.0% for p21WAF1/CIP1. None of them was able to predict LNM or clinical outcome. Presence of LNM, tumor recurrence, and death from disease were significantly associated with the FIGO stage (P = 0.014, P = 0.009, and P = 0.001, respectively). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 91.6% and the overall survival rate was 90.5%. It was concluded that immunohistochemically detected p53, bcl-2, and p21WAF1/CIP1 appeared to be of no predictive value with regard to LNM, tumor recurrences, or long-term survival in early cervical carcinomas.

  • 47.
    Ribolla, Marco
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of an Image Registration Procedure: Matching of Brain MRI Data Sets2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Registration is a key process in comparing different image sets. The registered images are used by surgeons for reasons of evaluation and surveillance ( position control and particular health state evaluation). To compare images at an appropriate level of quality, it requires an understanding of how the images are related to each other and which registration basis and transformation should be chosen, to achieve the best possible registration result. The intention of this thesis is, to develop and evaluate a registration method for comparing the amount of cerebrospinal fluid, in order to apply it as a basis for the deep brain stimulation. Since the cerebrospinal fluid has an influence on the electrical current within the brain it is important, to know how much cerebrospinal fluid exists.

    Material and Methods: This thesis presents a straightforward approach, to register magnetic resonance (MR) image sets by subtracting the normalized intensities and by calculating the particular rigid transformations. Two T2 weighted image sets and two spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR) image sets were used for the registration process. Furthermore the T2 images were used for the validation of the whole registration method.

    Results: Both image set modalities, the T2 as well as the SPGR were successfully registered using the developed registration method. Therefore a translation correction of 54pixels in x-direction, respectively 65 pixels in y-direction (T2) and 7 pixels in x-direction, respectively 6 pixels in y-direction (SPGR) was necessary. The detected rotation of 1.5 °in the T2 matching set was adjusted too. The SPGR matching set showed no rotation. The median sum of squares of intensity differences resulted in a value of 6438 (T2) and25.86 (SPGR). The validation procedure constitutes an indication that the developed registration process is reliable and stable.

    Conclusion: The implemented registration procedure constitutes a straightforward, timeconsuming approach, which is useful to gain results within the same image modality. If there is any need for an inter-modality registration, the approach must be changed.

  • 48.
    Ros, Axel
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, County Hospital of Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Lennart
    Motala Hospital, Motala, Sweden.
    Krook, Hans
    Vrinnevi Hospital, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Carl-Eric
    County Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Thorell, Anders
    Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallin, Göran
    Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Erik
    Motala Hospital, Motala, Sweden.
    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus mini-laparotomy cholecystectomy: a prospective, randomized, single-blind study2001In: Annals of Surgery, ISSN 0003-4932, E-ISSN 1528-1140, Vol. 234, no 6, 741-749 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyze outcomes after open small-incision surgery (minilaparotomy) and laparoscopic surgery for gallstone disease in general surgical practice.

    Methods: This study was a randomized, single-blind, multicenter trial comparing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) to minilaparotomy cholecystectomy (MC). Both elective and acute patients were eligible for inclusion. All surgeons normally performing cholecystectomy, both trainees under supervision and consultants, operated on randomized patients. LC was a routine procedure at participating hospitals, whereas MC was introduced after a short training period. All nonrandomized cholecystectomies at participating units during the study period were also recorded to analyze the external validity of trial results. The randomization period was from March 1, 1997, to April 30, 1999.

    Results: Of 1,705 cholecystectomies performed at participating units during the randomization period, 724 entered the trial and 362 patients were randomized to each of the procedures. The groups were well matched for age and sex, but there were fewer acute operations in the LC group than the MC group. In the LC group 264 and in the MC group 150 operations were performed by surgeons who had done more than 25 operations of that type. Median operating times were 100 and 85 minutes for LC and MC, respectively. Median hospital stay was 2 days in each group, but in a nonparametric test it was significantly shorter after LC. Median sick leave and time for return to normal recreational activities were shorter after LC than MC. Intraoperative complications were less frequent in the MC group, but there was no difference in the postoperative complication rate between the groups. There was one serious bile duct injury in each group, but no deaths.

    Conclusions: Operating time was longer and convalescence was smoother for LC compared with MC. Further analyses of LC versus MC are necessary regarding surgical training, surgical outcome, and health economy.

  • 49.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth and characterization of graphene on 4H-SiC(0001)2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal annealing 4H-SiC(0001) substrates to produce epitaxial graphene on Si-terminated SiC was performed using five different procedures, i.e. direct and indirect current heating at different based pressures and a temperature of about 1300 . The aim is to study the effects of graphene growth under different conditions and also to produce large homogeneous graphene. To investigate the prepared samples, two surface analytical techniques, i.e. low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) have been used. LEEM was first used to observe the surface morphologies of the prepared samples. In combination with LEEM instrument, low energy electron diffraction (LEED) was used to verify the existence of graphene on SiC substrate. The number of graphene layer was determined by collecting electron reflectivity at different electron energies. The number of dips observed in the electron reflectivity curve corresponds to the number of graphene layer.

    The experimental results obtained from LEEM and LEED have demonstrated that a film consisting of fairly large domains of 1 and 2 monolayer (ML) graphene was obtained by direct current heating of SiC under high vacuum (HV) condition with the based pressure of 10-6 Torr. A domain size in the range of up to about 5 to 10 μm have been observed. Meanwhile another graphene film prepared by the same method and the same temperature but under ultra high vacuum (UHV) condition with the based pressure of 10-10 Torr has much smaller domain size of 1 ML graphene compared to that grown under HV condition. We therefore suggested that the based pressure during the graphene growth has a strong influence on the morphology of graphene. This is because the Si evaporation rate is suppressed when heated in a high pressure environment, which normally leads to the improvement of the surface quality. The suppression of the Si evaporation rate has also been verified by a result obtained from the other sample directly heated under much higher based pressure, i.e. in an argon (Ar) environment of 1 atm.

    In addition to LEEM and LEED, the existence of graphene on SiC substrate has also been verified by the PES measurement. The C1s spectrum of graphene sample grown on SiC(0001) substrate showed three components, i.e. bulk SiC, graphene (G) and the buffer layer (B) located at 283.7 eV, 284.5 eV and 285.1 eV, respectively. The intensity ratios of the three components in the C1s spectrum were also used to estimate the number of graphene layer. The estimated number of graphene layer corresponds to the result obtained from LEEM.

  • 50.
    Sandblom, G.
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Motala Hospital, Motala, Sweden.
    Haapaniemi, Staffan
    Department of Surgery, Vrinnevi Hospital, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, E.
    Department of Surgery, Motala Hospital, Motala, Sweden.
    Femoral hernias: a register analysis of 588 repairs1999In: Hernia, ISSN 1265-4906, E-ISSN 1248-9294, Vol. 3, no 3, 131-134 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From 1 January 1992 to 31 December 1997 18,281 inguinal hernias and 588 femoral hernias were recorded in the Swedish Hernia Register. The aim of the present study was to characterise these femoral hernias and to evaluate the reoperation rate following their repair. 64% of all femoral hernias were located in the right groin and 36% in the left groin (p < 0.001). The male to female ratio for femoral hernia was 1:1.6; mean ages of patients with femoral and inguinal hernia were 63.4 ± 17.1 and 59.1 ± 16.4 years, respectively (p < 0.001). Emergency surgery and bowel resection at emergency surgery were more common with femoral than with inguinal hernia. The rate of ambulatory surgery was lower for femoral hernia than for inguinal hernia, mainly due to the higher emergency rate for femoral hernia. At three years the cumulative incidence of reoperation was 4.6% (95% confidence interval 2.4–6.8%) for femoral hernia and 4.0% (95% confidence interval 3.6–4.4%) for inguinal hernia (p > 0.05). Male sex and postoperative complications were associated with a significantly increased risk of reoperation following femoral hernia repair. The relative risk of reoperation was not affected by patient age, elective/emergency surgery, primary/recurrent hernia or hernia side. Repair techniques using mesh were associated with a lower reoperation rate than techniques without mesh, although the difference did not reach statistical significance.

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