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  • 1.
    Broman, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hägglund, Maria
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A study of dechlorination of organic matter in forest soil using 36Cl as a tracer2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the Fukushima Daiichi power plant incident sea water was used in an attempt to cool reactor Unit 3. Since sea water contains an excessive amount of chloride, 36Cl has likely been formed and spread in the environment. Because of the long residence time and the presumed high mobility in water there is an increased interest to learn more about the biogeochemical cycle of chlorine from a radiation risk assessment perspective. Chlorine occurs in inorganic form as chloride (Clin) or bound to organic matter as organic chlorine (Clorg) and is commonly found in the environment due to both anthropogenic and natural processes. Though there are still uncertainties regarding all of the components of the chlorine cycle in soil, the chlorination of organic matter has been exemplified by research. The reverse process, Clorg mineralizing into Clin, has however not been thoroughly investigated. For this study the objective was to observe at what rate Clorg mineralizes into Clin, this by using 36Cl as a tracer in forest soil. 36Cl was added to the soil and 36Clorg was formed over a period of approximately 100 days. After chlorination the samples were incubated in different conditions and the amount of 36Clorg was observed over a period of time (180 days). The result showed no evident dechlorination during the experiment period which indicates that Clorg can be stable in the organic horizon in forest soil.

  • 2.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kliniskt datainsamlingssystem med beslutsstöd - Användarutredning och gränssnitt för Sahlgrenskas akutintag2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Extra high requirements are made on all systems in health care that they are functional and usable,´something, however, that is not always the case. At Emergency Admissions at Sahlgrenska University´Hospital many systems are in use at the same time and it happens that much overhead is caused by having to fill in the same information in different places. In addition, data that is gathered is to a large extent saved in free text format, which means that it cannot be used in a larger context such as research, quality control or for decision support. Data is saved in the patient file only for the treatment process of the individual patient.

    A data collecting system with decision support functionality could be a first step towards reducing Emergency Admissions’ costs and patients’ waiting times by providing a structured method of data collection. It is also possible that it could contribute to safer care for patients as the system could warn the staff on occasions where there may be a risk of a patient suffering from a serious, acute illness that might be difficult to diagnose.

    An analysis has been performed at Emergency Admissions at Sahlgrenska to distinguish possible users of a new system for collecting data with decision support. The results showed that the nurses in reception were the most suitable target group.

    A prototype of a user interface for gathering initial patient data at reception has been made at Emergency Admissions at Sahlgrenska. This prototype has decision support functionality for ranking the most probable diagnoses as well as providing advice on suitable tests and examinations to perform. The focus has been on usability and on adapting the system to the needs of the users.

    It is highly important that future users, the staff at Emergency Admissions, continue to participate in the future further development of the data gathering system so that their needs and requirements are not overshadowed by the new technology.

  • 3.
    Bertling, Natalie
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Unga och arbetslösa: En diskursanalys av talet rörande unga arbetslösa2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I am using a critical discourse analysis a la Fairclough to examin how various actors talk about the group of unemployed youths in the 52 articles from Dagens Nyheter and Svenska Dagbladet. What’s written in media often portrays different ideas that individuals use in social practice. My theoretical points are social constructivism, risk-, expert-, and media society. Four themes crystallized in the analysis; young and unemployed, education, jobbgaratin and youth and labor market. The results portray a picture of the young people particularly vulnerable to a changing and tough labor market where there is more competition than before. Youth unemployment area is described as a complex in which several aspects such as socio-economic equity, education and skills considered to determine the establishment potential of young people. The youth are described both as responsible for their employability as well as victims of a society that lacks effort to get young people into work. What follows from the results is that the image of the young unemployed is multifaceted, but it seems to be a notion of social practice which different agents assume when they talk about young people.

  • 4.
    Subedi, Yuba Raj
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The response of ecosystems to an increasingly variable climate2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of ecological communities ranging from polar terrestrial to tropical marine environments are affectedby global climate change. Over the last century, atmospheric temperature has increased by an average of 0. 60 C andis expected to rise by 1.1- 6.40C over the next 100 years. This rising temperature has increased the intensity andfrequency of weather extremes due to which a large number of species are facing risk of extinction. Studies haveshown that species existing on lower latitude are more sensitive to temperature variability compared to speciesexisting on higher latitude but temperature is increasing rapidly in higher latitude compare to lower latitude. Thisuneven distribution of temperature sensitive species and warming rate has highlighted the need for combined studiesof temperature variability and sensitiveness of species to predict how the ecosystems will respond to increasinglyvariable climate. Using a generalized Rosenzweig-MacArthur model, I explored how temperature variability andsensitivity of species will affect the extinction risks of species and how the connectance and species-richness ofecological communities will govern this response. This study showed that the risk of extinction of species mostlydepends on their sensitivity to temperature deviation from the optimum value and level of temperature variability.Among these two, sensitivity of species to temperature deviation was most prominent factor affecting extinction risk.In this study, connectance did not show any effect on mean extinction risk and time taken by a certain proportion ofspecies to reach pre-defined extinction thresholds. But, species-richness showed some effect on mean extinction riskof species. It was found that risk of extinction of species in species-rich communities was higher compared tospecies-poor communities. Species-rich communities also took shorter time before they lost 1/6 of the species. Thepresent study also suggests a possible tipping point due to increasing temperature variability in near future. In furtherstudies, different sensitivity of species at different trophic levels and the possible evolution of sensitivity of speciesshould also be consider while predicting how ecological communities will respond to changing climate in the longrun.

  • 5.
    Mattsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Driving and its related driving behaviour as viewed by Sensation Seeking and Locus of Control when regarding ADAS2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Driving is a high-risk adventure and a highly complex task; yet anyone with a driver's licence might perform daily. The driving task is characterised by requiring competence and control to cope with the continuous changing risky driving environment. Driving is a complex task, some think of it as strenuous whereas others think of it as quite effortless and fun.

    The task of driving is affected by the driver's driving behaviour, which in turn is affected by the driver's personality. Since the early 1950s, researchers have been interested in how driver's driving personality affects the driver's driving behaviour and thus driving performance. Attitudes such as risk perception and trust towards driving are only a few of a myriad of personality attitudes that could affect the driving performance. Two psychological traits can be used to quantify the driver's driving behaviour in form of propensity for risk taking and trust in driving: Sensation Seeking and Locus of Control. Both traits can be used as a small step to give an explanation as to why drivers do as they do in the driving environment.

    Traffic works as it works with a steady flow of things. Sometimes the flow is disturbed and traffic-related accidents occur. One type of accidents is rear-end collision, when the driver collides with the rear part of the car in front. In order to reduce the amount of such accidents, various forms of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, ADAS, are introduced to aid drivers in their driving. There are many forms of ADAS, but they all share a common base in that they all aim to make the driver aware of the risks in her driving. The ADAS specific for rear-end collisions all aim to reduce the number of rear-end collisions that occurs annually in the traffic, which can be done by making the driver aware of the risks in her current driving performance.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Josephina
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Oro för framtiden: En diskursanalys om samhällsutveckling i relation till lågkonjunktur2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tänk dig att du plockar upp en tidning på vägen hem, tidningen har slående rubriker vilka tilltalar dig och du väljer att fördjupa dig och eventuellt ta till dig det som lyfts fram i artikeln.

    Det som den här i studien uppmärksammar är att konjunkturer spelar roll, och synen på konjunkturernas inverkan på samhället och individen lyfts fram i tidningsartiklarna. Det är en bild av en orolig framtid som lyfts fram i media och framtiden kan till och med uppfattas som hotfull genom exemplet lågkonjunktur.

    Lågkonjunkturen för med sig en samhällsförändring som uppmärksammas av media och genom att belysa denna samhällsförändring via diskursanalys och utvalda teoretiska utgångspunkter om risksamhället och om samhället som socialt konstruerat vilka lyfter fram föreställningarna kring lågkonjunkturen i relation till samhällets utveckling.

  • 7.
    Håkansson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Åberg, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Measuring Interest Rate Risk in the Treasury Operations of an International Industrial Company Group: A Case Study of Toyota Industries Finance International2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The volatility in the interest rate market have increased during the last decade and this have made interest rate risk management more important for  both financial institutions and non-financial companies with short- and long term financial commitments.

    Objective: The main objective of this thesis is to analyze different ways of measuring interest rate risk in the treasury operations an international industrial company group. Further, the study will also examine the way treasury departments of international industrial company group’s measure interest rate risk and explain why this method have been chosen.

    Method: The research method of the thesis is a case study and a mix of both quantitative and qualitative data has been used to conduct it. The quantitative data have been secondary data received from TIFI’s treasury management software and the qualitative data have been collected through a survey with eight treasury managers from other international industrial company groups.

    Conclusion: The repricing model is suitable because it is straight forward, fairly easy to communicate to management and it focuses on the book value. However, defining relevant time buckets might be difficult. The duration model is a good measurement tool because it can be used in a variety of ways, but a disadvantage is that it focuses on the market value, which might not be appropriate for treasury departments. Stress testing captures the true change in market value, but demands forecasts about future interest rate movements and lacks tools to manage the interest rate risk.

    Treasury departments of international industrial company groups use a variety of measurement methods. The most frequently used methods are duration-, maturity- and Value at Risk models and different kinds of stress tests. The method should not only measure the interest rate risk in a correct way but it should also be easily explained to management and other executives in the company that might not have knowledge about financial economics.

    The main difference between treasury departments and commercial banks is that commercial banks try to earn money on interest rate fluctuations, whereas treasury departments want to minimize the impact of interest rate fluctuations in order to support the company group’s core business.

  • 8.
    Åman, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Joakim, Behrendtz
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Anestesipersonalens peri-operativa omvårdnad av överviktiga och obesa barn2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children are a group of patients that require special knowledge from the anesthesia staff, both general and specific. Theoretical knowledge and practical experience is necessary to adequately care for the child as it anatomically, physiologically and mentally may differ from adult patients.

    A growing problem in the pediatric population is overweight and obesity. From a stagnation in the early 2000s the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in the world are again increasing.The purpose of this study was to examine peri-operative care of overweight and obese children.

    Systematic searches were done in PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus. After the quality audit according to SBU, twelve articles were included for analysis.

    Results suggest that overweight and obese children have a higher risk of respiratory peri-operative complications. The risk of hospital admission after outpatient surgery was also greater in this group as well as higher costs for health care.

    Overweight and obese children are complex subjects with more frequent peri-operative risk factors than normal-weight children. This group requires special knowledge of the anesthesia staff. More studies are required to secure evidence in anesthetic care for overweight and obese children.

  • 9.
    Alvestrand, Erika
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Offentliggörande av regelbunden finansiell information hos svenska aktiemarknadsbolag: Kvartalsrapportens betydelse för en ändamålsenlig reglering2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska regleringen av regelbunden finansiell information återfinns i form av lag och självreglering och syftar till att säkerställa lika information till alla, ökat förtroende, ökad handelsaktivitet, ökad likviditet och långsiktig tillväxt på värdepappersmarknaden. Därtill syftar reglerna till en harmonisering på värdepappersområdet inom EU. På grund av de kostnader och den administrativa börda som kvartalsrapporter anses medföra för framförallt mindre företag, och på grund av de kortsiktiga investeringsstrategier rapporterna anses ge incitament till, har kraven på kvartalsrapporter i den svenska regleringen på senare år minskat. I förevarande uppsats besvaras frågan om ett avskaffat krav på kvartalsrapporter är ändamålsenligt utifrån ett samhällsekonomiskt nyttoperspektiv. Frågan besvaras genom analys av den svenska regleringen av offentliggörande av regelbunden finansiell information och av vilka konsekvenser ett avskaffat krav på kvartalsrapporter kan medföra. Vidare förs ett resonemang de lege ferenda om en ändamålsenlig reglerings utformning och innehåll. För att kunna dra slutsatser om hur företags rapportering påverkas av minskade krav på kvartalsrapporter genomförs dessutom en kvantitativ undersökning av kvartalrapporteringstrender och en kvalitativ undersökning av inställningen till kvartalsrapporter hos företag på Nasdaq Stockholm.

    Utifrån olika ekonomiska teorier om i vilken grad informationsgivning utjämnar informationsasymmetrier på värdepappersmarknaden, kan slutsatser dras om med vilken frekvens regelbunden finansiell information bör offentliggöras och hur omfattande informationen bör vara. Trots investerares oförmåga att processa information och handla rationellt, finns mycket som talar för att informationsgivning i form av kvartalsrapporter utjämnar informationsasymmetrier i viss mån. Kvartalsrapporter är vidare av betydelse på grund av den trygghet offentliggörandet ger investerare. En känsla av trygghet ökar förtroendet för marknaden, vilket är positivt för marknadens kvalité och likviditet. Därtill finns en risk för att ett avskaffat krav på kvartalsrapporter minskar informationsgivningen från svenska aktiemarknadsbolag, vilket kan påverka effektiviteten på värdepappersmarknaden övervägande negativt. Denna risk tillsammans med kvartalsrapporters betydelse för en fungerande värdepappersmarknad, medför att ett avskaffat krav på kvartalsrapporter inte är ändamålsenligt.

    Resultaten av, de för uppsatsen genomförda undersökningarna, visar dock att företagen anser att dagens krav på kvartalsrapporters innehåll är för detaljerade för framförallt mindre företag och med hänsyn till investerares oförmåga att processa information. Krav på innehållet i kvartalsrapporter bör sålunda ställas relativt lågt för alla företag för att informationsgivningen ska kunna anpassas till företagens unika förutsättningar. Resultaten av undersökningarna visar även att det finns en vilja att fortsätta offentliggöra kvartalsrapporter, även i avsaknad av reglerade krav, vilket talar för att det inte är nödvändigt att ställa höga krav på innehållet i kvartalsrapporter. Regleringen bör fokusera på kvalité snarare än kvantitet.

    För att säkerställa tillräcklig information, förutsebarhet och objektivitet bör en reglering av offentliggörande av regelbunden finansiell information ha utgångspunkt i en allmänt utformad lag, där generella krav på regelbunden finansiell information stadgas. Krav på kvartalsrapporter och dess innehåll bör regleras av självreglering för att på bästa sätt kunna ändras i takt med den snabba utvecklingen på värdepappersområdet.

  • 10.
    Jansson, Nils-Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Winberg, Madelene
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Aktiv eller inte aktiv i PPM – Får du betalt för din risk? En teoriprövande analys genom Markowitz moderna portföljteori2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish premium pension reform at the turn of the century resulted in a greater responsibility for the individual saver. The decision concerning how the premium pension should be invested now lies with the investor. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze whether it had been profitable for a saver to achieve a higher risk-adjusted return for its premium pension money contributions by making an active choice by a self-composed portfolio, rather than to allow the State to invest the capital in the Seventh AP Fund (AP7 Såfa) which is the default option.

    The analysis is based on Harry Markowitz’s established Modern Portfolio Theory by which he drew attention to how investors through diversification can reduce risk in its investment by choosing assets that are not fully correlated. By using the available data of the funds that were selectable in the Swedish Premium Pension system by the time period 2000 – 2014, we have calculated the optimized portfolios with the same risk level as the default option. Subsequently, a comparison of these optimized portfolios and the default option are made in terms of risk and return. Furthermore, three theoretical portfolios are put together over a period of ten years and are invested as these optimized portfolios and reallocated after Markowitz's recommendation to review their savings once a year.

    The analysis shows that it has been possible to achieve higher risk-adjusted returns by making an active choice of portfolio. The problem though is that it is difficult to identify these portfolios in advance. The three theoretical portfolios have all generated a lower return than the default option did during the same period.

    The result shows that the default option is not fully risk-adjusted. Nonetheless, we conclude that the default fund is a good alternative.

  • 11.
    Galiè, Nazzareno
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Barberà, Joan A
    University of Barcelona and Biomedical Research Networking Center on Respiratory Diseases, Madrid, Spain.
    Frost, Adaani E
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USA.
    Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir
    University of Giessen and Marbury Lung Center, Giessen, Germany.
    Hoeper, Marius M
    Hanover Medical School and German Center of Lung Research, Hanover, Germany.
    McLaughlin, Vallerie V
    University of Michigan, USA.
    Peacock, Andrew J
    Regional Heart and Lung Center, Glasgow, Scotland.
    Simonneau, Gérald
    University Paris-Sud, Paris, France.
    Vachiery, Jean-Luc
    Hospital Erasme, Brussels, Belgium.
    Grünig, Ekkehard
    University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Oudiz, Ronald J
    UCLA Medical Center, Torrance,USA.
    Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton
    University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    White, R James
    University of Rochester, NY, USA.
    Blair, Christiana
    Gilead Sciences, Foster City.
    Gillies, Hunter
    Gilead Sciences, Foster City.
    Miller, Karen L
    Gilead Sciences, Foster City.
    Harris, Julia H N
    GlaxoSmith Kline, Uxbridge, UK.
    Langley, Jonathan
    GlaxoSmith Kline, Uxbridge, UK.
    Rubin, Lewis J
    University of California at San Diego, USA.
    Initial Use of Ambrisentan plus Tadalafil in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension2015In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 373, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Data on the effect of initial combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil on long-term outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension are scarce.

    METHODS: In this event-driven, double-blind study, we randomly assigned, in a 2:1:1 ratio, participants with World Health Organization functional class II or III symptoms of pulmonary arterial hypertension who had not previously received treatment to receive initial combination therapy with 10 mg of ambrisentan plus 40 mg of tadalafil (combination-therapy group), 10 mg of ambrisentan plus placebo (ambrisentan-monotherapy group), or 40 mg of tadalafil plus placebo (tadalafil-monotherapy group), all administered once daily. The primary end point in a time-to-event analysis was the first event of clinical failure, which was defined as the first occurrence of a composite of death, hospitalization for worsening pulmonary arterial hypertension, disease progression, or unsatisfactory long-term clinical response.

    RESULTS: The primary analysis included 500 participants; 253 were assigned to the combination-therapy group, 126 to the ambrisentan-monotherapy group, and 121 to the tadalafil-monotherapy group. A primary end-point event occurred in 18%, 34%, and 28% of the participants in these groups, respectively, and in 31% of the pooled-monotherapy group (the two monotherapy groups combined). The hazard ratio for the primary end point in the combination-therapy group versus the pooled-monotherapy group was 0.50 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.72; P<0.001). At week 24, the combination-therapy group had greater reductions from baseline in N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels than did the pooled-monotherapy group (mean change, -67.2% vs. -50.4%; P<0.001), as well as a higher percentage of patients with a satisfactory clinical response (39% vs. 29%; odds ratio, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.05 to 2.32]; P=0.03) and a greater improvement in the 6-minute walk distance (median change from baseline, 48.98 m vs. 23.80 m; P<0.001). The adverse events that occurred more frequently in the combination-therapy group than in either monotherapy group included peripheral edema, headache, nasal congestion, and anemia.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among participants with pulmonary arterial hypertension who had not received previous treatment, initial combination therapy with ambrisentan and tadalafil resulted in a significantly lower risk of clinical-failure events than the risk with ambrisentan or tadalafil monotherapy. (Funded by Gilead Sciences and GlaxoSmithKline; AMBITION ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01178073.).

  • 12.
    Ryngmark, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities.
    "Ingen får noblepris av forskning på kvinnokroppen!": En studie om hur unga kvinnor bli bemötta i vården2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att unga kvinnor idag är den grupp som löper störst risk att utsättas för ett negativt bemötande när de söker vård. Detta påverkas utifrån tre faktorer, kön, ålder och symptombild. Kvinnan underprioriteras i forskningsstudier möts av långa vårdköer, kortare rehabiliteringstider och billigare mediciner. Vårdpersonalen bidrar till att skapa och reproducera bilden om den ”värkande kvinnan”. Kvinnors smärta normaliseras vilket leder till att det blir en normal uppfattning att kvinnor har ont. Kvinnor förväntas därför klara av att hantera sin smärta, ofta samtidigt som hon förväntas uppfylla samhällets andra kvinnoideal.

  • 13.
    Müller-Wieland, Dirk
    et al.
    Asklepios Clinic St Georg, Hamburg, Germany .
    Assmann, Gerd
    Assmann-Foundation for Prevention, Münster, Germany.
    Carmena, Rafael
    University, Valencia, Spain .
    Davignon, Jean
    Faculty of Medicine at the Université de Montréal, Canada.
    von Eckardstein, Arnold
    University Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Farinaro, Eduardo
    Medical School University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Greten, Heiner
    Asklepios Clinic St Georg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Olsson, Anders G
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology. Stockholm Heart Centre, Sweden.
    Riesen, Walter F
    Institute for Laboratory Medicine, St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Shlyakhto, Evgenyi
    Russian Federation Agency of Health and Social Development, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Treat-to-target versus dose-adapted statin treatment of cholesterol to reduce cardiovascular risk.2016In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 23, no 3, 275-281 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical guidelines should be based on the best available evidence and are of great importance for patient care and disease prevention. In this respect, the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association report is highly appreciated and well-recognized. The report included critical questions concerning hypercholesterolaemia, but its translation into a clinical guideline initiated intense debate worldwide because of the recommendation to switch from a treat-to-target approach for low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol to a statin dose-based strategy.

  • 14.
    Nilson, Andrés
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Matter of Form: investigating a theory of design through a bench concept2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report explains my Bachelor thesis, a bench system for public spaces. The work was done in collaboration with Lammhults möbel AB. The examproject is a journey that describes my designprocess which was guided by a very detailed briefing. The report describes my work that was very closely linked with the Lammhults product development team and the challenge was to design a commercial product that can be put into production. Another part of my degreeproject was to do form studies. The form study I did through formexperiments mixed with formtheory. In the experiments, I used my final shape of the bench as a bas. The formstudies is done to gain my deeper knowledge and understanding of the form field. This will work as a base to my more theoretical and analytical part of analyze form. My cooperation with Lammhults extends for a year, so probability risk is that the prototype I will show here unfortunately, not are the final productionready prototype.

  • 15.
    Silwer, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tornberg, Katinka
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tyst samordning inom Europeiska unionens konkurrensrätt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De konkurrensrättsliga reglerna finns till för att skydda konsumenter och företag mot förfaranden som snedvrider konkurrensen på en marknad. Det finns många olika typer av marknader, på vilka det föreligger stor risk att det uppstår begränsningar i konkurrensen, varav en är oligopolmarknad. Oligopol föreligger när ett fåtal stora aktörer gemensamt har en dominerande ställning som försvagar konkurrensen för de andra aktörerna på marknaden.

    Gemensam dominans kan uppstå genom parallellt uppträdande, som är ett naturligt beteende, eller samordnat förfarande, som är ett förbjudet förfarande. Tyst samordning är något som inträder däremellan, möjligtvis som ett medvetet framkallat förfarande i avsikt att få förfarandet att likna ett naturligt beteende.

    I vår uppsats har vi utifrån artikel 101 och 102 i fördraget om Europeiska unionens funktionssätt (FEUF) samt praxis och doktrin granskat begreppet tyst samordning och dess påverkan på den fria konkurrensen. Vi har granskat två EU-rättsliga fall, Airtours mot Kommissionen och P, Bertelsmann AG och Sony Corporation of America mot Impala, där begreppet tyst samordning har behandlats. Under uppsatsen gång har vi fått erfara att tyst samordning är ett diffust begrepp. De få gånger begreppet tyst samordning diskuterats i praxis har det aldrig varit del av huvuddiskussionen. I uppsatsen utreds och redogörs för de rekvisit som krävs för att tyst samordning ska föreligga.

  • 16.
    Rauhala, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gaze control for detail and overview in image exploration2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking technology has made it possible to accurately and consistently track a users gaze position on a screen. The human eyes center of focus, where it can see the most detailed information, is quite small at a given moment. The peripheral vision of humans have a much lower level of details than the center of gaze. Knowing this, it is possible to display a view that increases the level of resolution at the position of the users gaze point on the screen, while the rest of the screen keeps a lower resolution. An implementation of such a system can generate a representation of data with both detail and overview. The results indicate that even with simple gaze data processing it is possible to use gaze control to help explore details of a high resolution image. Gaze data processing often involve a compromise between stability, responsiveness and latency. A low latency, highly responsive gaze data filter would increase the risk for lens oscillation, and demand a higher concentration level from the viewer then a slower filter would. Applying a gaze data filter that allowed for smooth and stable lens movement for small saccades and responsive movements for large saccades proved successfully. With the uses of gaze control the user might be able to use a gaze aware application more efficient since gaze precedes actions. Gaze control would also reduce the need for hand motions which could provide a improved work environment for people interacting with computer.

  • 17.
    Bostedt, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bitcoin & valutakonkurrens: En jämförande nyttoanalys2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the fulfillment of utility in the currency Bitcoin in relation to the Swedish krona in general andthe macroeconomic consequences of such fulfillment of utility in particular. The paper starts with the assumption thatthe utility generated by money is deduced from its qualities, mainly the quality in storage of value and the currency´spossibilities of generating low transaction costs. The investigation finds that there are possibilities that Bitcoin maygenerate a higher utility for its users than the Swedish krona under some circumstances. This mainly from Bitcoinsqualities in storage of value due to its predetermined change in money supply and in times when the Swedish krona´smonetary base is expanded by monetary policy and its subsequent inflation. In such periods when monetary expansionis undergoing in the Swedish krona, the investigation finds that the expected higher utility in Bitcoin in relation to theSwedish krona may cause a change of individuals incentives for currency, away from the Swedish krona and towardsBitcoin, if the profit gained from such change for an individual is great enough. From this, the central analysis ofBitcoins consequences on macroeconomic level follows. If there is an opportunity to change currency, which causesutility profits for individuals, there is also risk that the stimulus in monetary policy fails. This due to the decrease ofpurchasing power in the Swedish krona due to the lower demand of the currency in question subsequent to its loss init’s quality of storage of value. The analysis finds that depending on which theoretical perspective that is used, systemicrisks stemming from Bitcoin usage can be found in an analysis made with the Keynesian perspective. This while theopposite, that the systemic risks are introduced in the economy with the Swedish krona, is the result of an analysis madewith the Austrian theory of business cycle. Even with the systemic risks identified in the Keynesian analysis, reformsare suggested so that Bitcoin is able to co-exist with Keynesian monetary institutions to be able to take care of the utilitygained on the microeconomic, individual level that may result from Bitcoins usage as means of trade.

  • 18.
    Fredriksson, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Minskar handel den ekonomiska ojämlikheten i utvecklingsländer?: En studie över tidigare europeiska kolonier med kust2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The impacts of trade on the society are a common subject of debate, both in the research field of economics and in the political debate. The lack of consensus poses a risk in political decision-making. New trade agreements are being implemented while the role of developing countries is growing on the global market. Hence, there is an increasing importance of examining the actual impacts of trade. This study, therefore, analyses the impact of trade on the economic inequality in developing countries. This study hypothesizes that trade decreases inequality, which is in accordance with classical economic theory. Using a panel data regression on 41 countries over 23 years, this study examines how Gini index interacts as the dependent variable with trade flow and seven control variables. The countries studied are mainly limited to former European colonies with coastal lines to reduce the risk of heterogeneity within the sample. This study finds that trade reduces inequality, although the result should be interpreted with care due to statistically insignificant effects. This study also finds that presence of corruption is of importance when the relationship between trade and inequality is examined.

  • 19.
    Lindholm Pirttilä, Christopher
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordh, Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Relativvärderingsbaserade investeringar. Hur väl fungerar de i olika branscher?: En studie över samtliga företag noterade i Norden mellan åren 2005–20142015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This thesis has been executed in order to bring clarity into the matter whether relative valuation works as an investment strategy in the Nordic region between the years 2005 and 2014. Whether the strategy performs differently if the markets are sorted by sector affiliation, as well as if previously commonly used key ratios can generate different returns in different sectors is an unexplored area. Previous studies have focused on examining entire markets or specific industries where the results partially have been interpreted with behavioral finance.Aim: The aim of the thesis is to analyze whether there are any differences in how well relative valuation works as an investment method in different sectors, in order to generate excess return; as well as if it is statistically possible to find a connection between sectors and key ratios.Completion: A quantitative approach is used where the stocks are sorted into quartile portfolios in accordance with their sector affiliation and based on their valuation relative to sector competitors. The portfolios are then rebalanced on a yearly basis and returns are calculated on monthly and cumulative basis. Furthermore the portfolios are evaluated using risk measures, a diversification process and behavioural finance.Results: Relative valuation can be used to generate excess return in all sectors except in the energy sector. A discrepancy in returns is shown, depending on which sector, quartile and key ratio that is used for the investment. Moreover, diversification effectively lowers the risk without lowering the return at the same pace. Behavioural finance can only partially explain the differences in return between the portfolios.

  • 20.
    Petersson Lantz, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alvarsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Creating access control maps and defining a security policy for a healthcare communication system2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report handles the creation of an access control map and the dening of asecurity policy for a healthcare communication system. An access control mapis a graphical way to describe the access controls of the subjects and objects ina system. We use a three step method to produce a graphical overview of theparts in the system, the interactions between them and the permissions of thesubjects. Regarding the security policy we create a read up and read down policylike the so called Ring policy, but adapt a write sideways approach. We alsoapply a mandatory access control which has a centralized authority that denesthe permissions of the subjects. Attribute restrictions is also included to thesecurity levels, to set an under limit for reading permissions.

  • 21.
    Haile, Henok Debessai
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Sustainable Phosphorus Management in Sweden: A study of phosphorus recycling from wastewater sludge in several municipalities of the Östergötland County2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Environmental Agency (SEPA) proposed a national target to increase the rate of phosphorus recycling from wastewater sludge in 2013. Reusing phosphorus from wastewater sludge by spreading it on arable lands raises the risk of contamination and substance deposition in soils. In addition to quantifying the targeted rate of recycling, the proposal has also introduced new thresholds that limit the concentrations of undesired substances in wastewater sludge. This thesis assesses the potential challenges and opportunities in implementing the proposed measure in the Swedish municipality settings. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been gathered from three selected mid-sized Swedish municipalities in the Östergötland County and other data sources. The analytical framework of the thesis is based on the Systems Framework for Phosphorus Recovery and Reuse. Several discrepancies between the national goal to increase phosphorus recycling and local circumstances that affect local decision-making have been identified in this thesis. Reducing the flow of undesired substances into the wastewater stream raises goal conflict and is an enormous challenge which requires regulating the way chemicals are consumed in society. From the policy perspective, the national environmental objectives framework is ambiguous with regards to how local decisions should be directed in line with the national goals. The proposed measure should hierarchically be unequivocal and its implementation needs to be coordinated across all geographical scales. The thesis also highlights that there are significant local opportunities for addressing other sustainability goals through phosphorus recycling measures. Sweden’s commitment to creating a resource-efficient phosphorus cycle affirms that the key for a sustainable phosphorus management is the transformation of path-dependent social and technical systems.

  • 22.
    Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna
    et al.
    Center for Public Health Genomics, Univ Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Chen, Wei-Min
    Center for Public Health Genomics, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Burren, Oliver
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Cooper, Nick J
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Quinlan, Aaron R
    Center for Public Health Genomics, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Mychaleckyj, Josyf C
    Center for Public Health Genomics, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Farber, Emily
    Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Bonnie, Jessica K
    Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Szpak, Michal
    Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Schofield, Ellen
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Achuthan, Premanand
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Guo, Hui
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Fortune, Mary D
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Stevens, Helen
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Walker, Neil M
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Ward, Lucas D
    Department of Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Kundaje, Anshul
    Department of Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA / Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA / Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Kellis, Manolis
    Department of Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Daly, Mark J
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Barrett, Jeffrey C
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK.
    Cooper, Jason D
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Deloukas, Panos
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK.
    Todd, John A
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Wallace, Chris
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Medical Research Council (MRC) Biostatistics Unit, Institute of Public Health, University Forvie Site, Cambridge, UK.
    Concannon, Patrick
    Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Rich, Stephen S
    Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Fine mapping of type 1 diabetes susceptibility loci and evidence for colocalization of causal variants with lymphoid gene enhancers.2015In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 47, no 4, 381-386 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic studies of type 1 diabetes (T1D) have identified 50 susceptibility regions, finding major pathways contributing to risk, with some loci shared across immune disorders. To make genetic comparisons across autoimmune disorders as informative as possible, a dense genotyping array, the Immunochip, was developed, from which we identified four new T1D-associated regions (P < 5 × 10(-8)). A comparative analysis with 15 immune diseases showed that T1D is more similar genetically to other autoantibody-positive diseases, significantly most similar to juvenile idiopathic arthritis and significantly least similar to ulcerative colitis, and provided support for three additional new T1D risk loci. Using a Bayesian approach, we defined credible sets for the T1D-associated SNPs. The associated SNPs localized to enhancer sequences active in thymus, T and B cells, and CD34(+) stem cells. Enhancer-promoter interactions can now be analyzed in these cell types to identify which particular genes and regulatory sequences are causal.

  • 23.
    Odenryd, Theo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hassan, Mohamed
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kapitalstruktur i kris – anpassning eller överlevnad?: En studie om skuldsättning i de Large Cap-noterade svenska industriföretagen under åren 2006-20092015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Regardless of the economy, a company must finance its operations with capital. Capital structure is a controversial area of research without any general applicable theory for the majority of companies. This, together with the relatively unexplored area of capital structure in economic turnarounds enables an interesting contribution to knowledge. The fact that companies within the same industry has proven greater similarities in capital structure raises a delimitation into a specific sector. How was Sweden’s largest export sector, industrial companies, affected by the major economic downturn that prevailed during the years 2006–2009, considering their relatively high leverage ratio?

    Purpose: The aim is to analyse the management of, and what affected the indebtedness in the Swedish industrial companies during the economic downturn the years 2006– 2009.

    Completion: In order to analyse the indebtedness during an economic downturn the study used a quantitative approach based on financial ratios and valuation multiples as explanatory variables. Interviews were conducted in order to make the study more reality-based regarding management of capital structure over time. Previous research in capital structure, together with the empirical results, has been the basis for analysis and comparisons to the economic downturn during 2006–2009.

    Results: Most correlations, which affected the indebtedness during 2006–2009, prevails regardless of the economic climate. However, there is a greater impact by the economic downturn when analysing the explanations of the correlations whereby profitability, growth and risk are seen as contributing factors. Furthermore, industrial companies make no direct adaption in structure at economic turnarounds since they are considered “survivors” in their strategy based on their business and flexibility in the composition of capital structure. 

  • 24.
    Fernlund, Eva
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Lund University, Sweden.
    Schlegel, Todd T.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Platonov, Pyotr G.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlson, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Liuba, Petru
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Peripheral microvascular function is altered in young individuals at risk for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and correlates with myocardial diastolic function2015In: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, ISSN 0363-6135, E-ISSN 1522-1539, Vol. 308, no 11, H1351-H1358 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a major cause of sudden cardiac death in the young. Based on previous reports of functional abnormalities in not only coronary but also peripheral vessels in adults with HCM, we aimed to assess both peripheral vascular and myocardial diastolic function in young individuals with an early stage of HCM and in individuals at risk for HCM. Children, adolescents, and young adults (mean age: 12 yr) with a family history of HCM who either had (HCM group; n = 36) or did not have (HCM-risk group; n = 30) echocardiography-documented left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy as well as healthy matched controls (n = 85) and healthy young athletes (n = 12) were included in the study. All underwent assessment with 12-lead electrocardiography, two-dimensional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging and laser Doppler with transdermal iontophoresis of ACh and sodium nitroprusside. LV thickness and mass were increased in HCM and athlete groups compared with control and HCM-risk groups. The mitral E-to-e ratio, measured via tissue Doppler, was increased in HCM (P less than 0.0001) and HCM-risk (P less than 0.01) groups compared with control and athlete groups, as were microvascular responses to ACh (HCM group: P less than 0.045 and HCM- risk group: P less than 0.02). Responses to ACh correlated with the E-to-e ratio (r = 0.5, P = 0.001). Microvascular responses to sodium nitroprusside were similar in all groups (P = 0.2). HCM-causing mutations or its familial history are associated with changes in cardiac diastolic function and peripheral microvascular function even before the onset of myocardial hypertrophy. Tissue Doppler can be used to differentiate HCM from physiological LV hypertrophy in young athletes.

  • 25.
    Booson, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Swahn, Lowe
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Popularitet på aktiemarknaden: En undersökning av aktiers popularitets effekt på risk och avkastning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the past few decades it has been generally accepted that market premiums come with an associated level of risk. Even the most widely used pricing model today, CAPM, leans on this assumption. In an article written by Ibbotson and Idzorek (2014) this assumption is challenged as the main driver of market premiums and returns. The article contains evidence that relatively high returns have been earned through buying less  popular stocks on the U.S. stock market. Surprisingly the risk-return dimension exhibited an inverse relationship. This evidence from the U.S. stock market motivates us to investigate to what extent this effect can also be seen on the Swedish stock market.

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to identify and analyze the effect of a stock`s popularity on the risk and return.

    Completion: In this quantitative study, share turnover and market capitalization have been used as approximations for popularity. The effects of stocks popularity on risk and return have been are examined by evaluating the performance of portfolios when categorizing the stocks by share turnover and market capitalization. The statistical relationship between popularity and return is analyzed using regression analysis. This study has both studied the effect of last year's popularity, as well as the effect of the popularity of the same year.

    Conclusion: When various approximations for the popularity dimension are studied and compared, this study shows no marked effect of stock`s popularity from the previous year on risk and return. The study finds no statistically significant relationship between the previous year ́s popularity and return. However, there is a positive statistically correlation between popularity and return when measured during the same year as when the popularity was measured. In addition, the results establish evidence for the stock turnover as a good measure of popularity.

  • 26.
    Vroegop, John
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, National Centre for Outdoor Education (NCU).
    Nature Connectedness & Winter Camping: A Combination of Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A growing body of research indicates that nature connectedness should be an important component of environmental education programs as emerging empirical evidence shows a correlation between connectedness to nature and environmentally responsible behaviour. Despite an increased interest in further examination of the human-nature relationship, research is lacking in terms of specific factors or conditions that influence nature connectedness. In this study, a mixed methods approach was employed to quantitatively assess the impact winter camping had on nature connectedness and then qualitatively determine specific components of the camp experience that influenced this sense of nature connectedness. Nineteen scouts participated on a three day winter camp at Manning Park in British Columba, Canada, where they experienced many challenges such as sleeping in quinzees (snow caves) and learned new skills such as snowshoeing. The Nature Relatedness Scale was used to assess nature connectedness in this study. A pre-test was administered a few days before the winter camp and the post-test two days afterwards. The results from the paired sample T-test show that there was a statistically significant improvement in nature connectedness following the winter camp experience. Eleven scouts were then selected to participate in semi-structured interviews with the aim of gaining insight to the specific conditions of winter camping that influenced nature connectedness. The results indicate that the location of the camp, the condition of being immersed in nature, interacting with wildlife, the positive experience of challenges, the presence of risk, and freedom from technology are all contributing factors that influenced a sense o f nature connectedness. An increased environmental awareness was also a prevalent theme which supports research suggesting that there is a positive relationship between nature connectedness and pro-environmental behaviour. It is recommended that programs with the aim of promoting nature connectedness or environmental awareness should include as many of these components as possible. Further research should alsobe conducted to confirm that these results apply also to other populations as these results cannot be generalized with a sample size of nineteen.

  • 27.
    Danielsson Piazze, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Abelsson, Fanny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Riskhantering och styrningsaspekter vid tidsrelaterade orderförändringar i företag som levererar till projekt2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Uncertainty and risk are often present during construction projects, which can create problems for several parties involved in the process. This could amount to an order change in terms of delivery time. When it is of importance to satisfy the needs of the client concerning correct delivery time, the delay in a construction project can mean that the supplier of the project has to delay its products to achieve customer satisfaction. This draws attention towards the organizations internal behavior and flexibility among its employees to manage the risks that occurs. To make employees act in a way that is in the organizations best interest, management control systems can be used. By applying risk management on companies that deliver to a construction project, uncertainty can be acknowledged and described as well as highlight the difficulties this can create for employees.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to describe and partly chart uncertainty in regard of delivery time, and the management of it concerning customer specific deliveries with special attention to the interaction between different departments.

    Methodology: By using a qualitative method the study wants to, with the help of a multiple case study, compare how two companies manage uncertainty that occurs during customer specific deliveries. This was carried out by interviewing departments concerned with time related order changes at both companies.

    Conclusion: The study concludes that companies delivering to projects are exposed to predictable uncertainty and can handle this by either focus on following established rules or customer satisfaction. Following rules means that there is a predetermined answer on how to handle the uncertainty within the company. Customer satisfaction, on the other hand, means that results control and making the employees feel motivated is in focus. This means that risk management and management control systems are working together to manage uncertainty.

    Keywords: uncertainty, risk management, management control system, time related order changes, delivery

  • 28.
    Bjarnle, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmström, Elias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Implementation and Evaluation of Historical Consistent Neural Networks Using Parallel Computing2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Forecasting the stock market is well-known to be a very complex and difficult task, and even by many considered to be impossible. The new model, emph{Historical Consistent Neural Networks} (HCNN), has recently been successfully applied for prediction and risk estimation on the energy markets. HCNN is developed by Dr. Hans Georg Zimmermann, Siemens AG, Corporate Technology Dpt., Munich, and implemented in the SENN (Simulation Environment for Neural Network) package, distributed by Siemens. The evalution is made by tests on a large database of historical price data for global indicies, currencies, commodities and interest rates. Tests have been done, using the Linux version of the SENN package, provided by Dr. Zimmermann and his research team. This thesis takes on the task given by Eturn Fonder AB, to develop a sound basis for evaluating and using HCNN, in a fast and easy manner. An important part of our work has been to develop a rapid and improved implementation of HCNN, as an interactive software package. Our approach has been to take advantage of the parallelization capabilities of the graphics card, using the CUDA library together with an intuitive and flexible interface for HCNN built in MATLAB. We can show that the computational power of our CUDA implementation (using a cheap graphics device), compared to SENN, is about 33 times faster. With our new optimized implementation of HCNN, we have been able to test the model on large data sets, consisting of multidimensional financial time series. We present the results with respect to some common statistical measures, evaluates the prediction qualities and performance of HCNN, and give our analysis of how to move forward and do further testing.

  • 29.
    Forsberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dimensioning of concrete walls against cleavage under concentrated loads2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sprickor i betongkonstruktioner kan ha en förödande effekt på konstruktioners säkerhet och stabilitet, men kan även göra att det blir en oangenäm syn att kolla på. Dessa sprickor orsakas utav dragspänningar i betongen som kan uppkomma som konsekvenser från olika typer av laster. Denna rapport fokuserar på spänningar orsakade utav en koncentrerad belastning på betongväggar. Syftet är att se hur spjälksprickor uppkommer och vilka åtgärder man kan göra mot detta med hjälp av armeringsbyglar eller armeringsstegar i betongväggar. Detta gör att målet blir att skapa en smidig beräkningsgång för att undersöka hur mycket armering som krävs och även se hur armeringsstegar kan användas för detta ändamål. För att ställa upp beräkningar så har fackverksanalogin använts och kraftspridningen har grund i kraftlinjemetoden för att denna metod ger en bra spegling av hur krafterna kommer att spridas i konstruktionens diskontinuitetszoner. Resultatet är en beräkningsgång av kontroller om det finns risk för att spjälkning och prägling förekommer och framtagandet av den erforderliga spjälkarmeringarea som behövs vid en koncentrerad last och hur denna ska placeras när risken finns. Armeringsstegar i skalväggar är inte att rekommendera för att de har en liten diameter och utbredningshöjden gör att det krävs många stegar för att klara av krafterna.

  • 30.
    Sparrefors, John
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fjellström, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Made in Sweden: Små teknikintensiva tjänsteföretags val av etableringsform vid internationalisering2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Small enterprises have become increasingly important in the Swedish business world. Among other things, 60 percent of the contribution to the country’s economy comes from small businesses. To support future growth and development it is important for companies to venture onto the international markets. This is a big step for small enterprises with constrained capital and guidance on the internationalization process and choice of entry mode is needed. Research on these two factors are limited in relation to small technology-focused enterprises in the service sector, which is the most rapidly growing sector in the Swedish economy.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to analyze the internationalization process and the choice of entry mode for small and technology-focused enterprises in the Swedish service sector.

    Methodology: The study has a qualitative research strategy and a deductive research approach. It is based on semi-structured interviews with three small technology-focused enterprises in the Swedish service sector and can be classified as a comparative case study.

    Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is that the most essential tool, for small technology-focused enterprises in the Swedish service sector when going abroad, is a distinct network of contacts. The study also reveals that the technical aspect of these types of companies implies that collaboration is the least risk and capital-intensive choice of entry mode at the beginning of a foreign establishment, which challenges the current research on the topic.

  • 31.
    Asp, Filip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krispinsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Distributed certificates in ad hoc networks2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report an ad hoc system is defined with the capabilities to validate the integrity ofevery node in the network without a third party, as long as every node has possession of acertificate. The system is developed to function in an ad hoc network with many externalthreats. The main target group would be the military and first responders. There are manydifferent problems with such a network, and many parts have been researched, but few fullsystems have been developed. This report defines a hierarchical system where nodes cancommunicate in an encrypted way, with the help of certificates. In a military situation therisk for compromised nodes must be considered. Therefore, the system can both detectand handle compromised nodes by revocation certificates. The proposed system is alsodetecting and handling partitions. The system has been put together by first making aliterature study to find existing solutions to different problems, then making a synthesisof those solutions. We also came up with new solutions where the three cornerstones ofsecurity: availability, confidentiality and integrity were in focus. To make the solutionmore trustworthy a risk analysis on the resulting system was made, which defined theweak points of the system.

  • 32.
    Berg, Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergström, Alfred
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Överreaktion på Stockholmsbörsen: Bevis från Sverige2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the 1960’s, when psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahnemancompared their cognitive models of decision-making under risk anduncertainty with economic models of rational behavior a new field withinmodern financial economics was born. Theories within behaviouralfinance have since tried to explain financial anomalies that pointedtowards inefficient markets. One such anomaly is the overreactionhypothesis and was first proposed by De Bondt & Thaler in 1985. Itstates that investors overreact to new information and that security priceswill therefore “overshoot” their fundamental values. An extreme rise ordrop in price is followed by a reversal in the opposite direction.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether an overreaction effectcan be observed on the entirety of the Stockholm stock exchange andwhat causes it.

    Completion: For each week in the years 2003-2014 the 5 stocks with the highest(lowest) return on the Stockholm stock exchange have been placed inwinner (loser) portfolios to be evaluated the succeeding 10 weeks. A significant difference between abnormal returns (ACARlosers - ACARwinners>0) is seen as support for the overreaction hypothesis.

    Conclusion: The results show that the winner and loser portfolios show proof of anoverreaction effect the first week in the evaluation period. This effect,however, disappears completely when the portfolios are value-weighted,indicating signs of a small-firms effect rather than an overreaction effect.

  • 33.
    Seidu, Mohammed Nazib
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Predicting Bankruptcy Risk: A Gaussian Process Classifciation Model2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis develops a Gaussian processes model for bankruptcy risk classification and prediction in a Bayesian framework. Gaussian processes and linear logistic models are discriminative methods used for classification and prediction purposes. The Gaussian processes model is a much more flexible model than the linear logistic model with smoothness encoded in the kernel with the potential to improve the modeling of the highly nonlinear relationships between accounting ratios and bankruptcy risk.

    We compare the linear logistic regression with the Gaussian process classification model in the context of bankruptcy prediction. The posterior distributions of the GPs are non-Gaussian, and we investigate the effectiveness of the Laplace approximation and the expectation propagation approximation across several different kernels for the Gaussian process. The approximate methods are compared to the gold standard of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling from the posterior.

    The dataset is an unbalanced panel consisting of 21846 yearly observations for about 2000 corporate firms in Sweden recorded between 1991−2008. We used 5000 observations to train the models and the rest for evaluating the predictions. We find that the choice of covariance kernel affects the GP model’s performance and we find support for the squared exponential covariance function (SEXP) as an optimal kernel.

    The empirical evidence suggests that a multivariate Gaussian processes classifier with squared exponential kernel can effectively improve bankruptcy risk prediction with high accuracy (90.19 percent) compared to the linear logistic model (83.25 percent).

  • 34.
    Chaulagai, Som
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Understanding Childhood- Everyday Life and Welfare System, from the point of view of Childcare Workers in Finland.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study carried out in one children’s home in Finland. This study aims to understand how the caregivers collectively perceive their work to secure and construct the childhood of the children living in the children’s home. Furthermore, the study mainly includes caregiver’s perceptions and practices of upbringing of children in the children’s home, which have been thoroughly analysed in the study. The study follows carefully designed two qualitative research methods: focus group interview and text for data collection. The data comprise one focus group interview of seven child care workers that includes five discussion questions about children’s home, listening to the children, importance of rules, regulations and daily routines, children’s future and difficulties in the work. References have been given to the ‘text’, i.e. institution’s policy documents- rules and regulations and the Finnish Child Welfare Act for the analysis of the data. However, the study does not include the analysis of the ‘text’ itself. Moreover, thematic analysis is used for data analysis.

    The study highlights that understanding childhood comprise the process of trust building between children and care workers- allowing children’s voice, agency, independence and protection respecting the child rights, personal integrity with the provision of safe home, trustable adults and permanent routines and individual child care plan. In addition, the same body ‘caregiver’ who, at the same time, allows child autonomy, agency and independence, also regulates the children’s everyday life, controls children and creates limitation, bridge trust and protect them from developing deviancy and asocial behaviours. Such process gives special consideration to the children’s psychological as well as physical incompetency such as age, immaturity and the vulnerable past in the children’s home that partly creates dilemmas/conflicts in delivering full agency to the children as mentioned in the legal frame work. The study reveals that building trust takes place through interaction between children and care workers and is a long-term process that backs up bringing corrective experiences in children. Listening to the children means helping and teaching them to recognise own feelings, emotions and stand independent and strong for oneself in the future. Likewise, respect to the child rights and organising everyday life delivers protection and safety net to the children. The study reveals, despites various difficulties at work, such as changing welfare act, complicated bureaucracy, unlimited parental rights and surprising legal interference, the child workers have the professional as well as moral obligations to protect children and provide them a safe and intact growing environment. Finally, the study reveals that future of the children is based on the personal choices they make in future and only a few of them will have relatively better life than others. However, all of the children are always under potential risk of post-traumatic collapses.

     

    Keywords: childhood, child perspective, agency, children’s voice, building trust.

     

  • 35.
    Marliden, Nina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Variability of GHG emissions from emergent aquatic macrophytes in mixed boreal and Equisetum dominated communities2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Plants (macrophytes) growing in lake and wetland sediments are known mediators of greenhouse gases (GHG), specifically methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Current studies have emphasized the potential risk of underestimation regarding emissions of plant-mediated GHGs from terrestrial systems including lakes, streams and other freshwater bodies. In order to differentiate the possible sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon and nitrogen in aquatic environments, this study aims to investigate the spatial variability of GHG fluxes in stands of common wetland macrophytes. Field samplings were carried out in the summer of 2012 where 24-hour diel measurements were conducted with the static chamber method in a boreal lake in south western Sweden. Two macrophyte communities were studied; one mixed-species stand and one species-specific stand of water horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile). Spatial variability was confirmed at several stages, both between and within stands. The species-specific stand emitted more CH4 than the mixed stand, from 0.17 to 8.99 mmol m-2 h-1, compared to 0.63 – 1.95 mmol m-2 h-1 maximum measured. Within stand variability was confirmed as variable CH4 flux per strand of E. fluviatile was established. No significant differences were observed regarding CO2 and N2O, other than weak correlation in diel patterns, e.g. daytime uptake and night time respiration/emission for both gases.

  • 36.
    Mata, Iracema
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kodväxling och intersubjektivitet  i tolkmedierade domstolsförhandligar2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reaching shared understanding during court hearings is a prerequisite to ensure a fair trial and maintaining legal certainty. Every month between 2,000 and 3,000 court hearings in Sweden make use of interpreters. Interpreter-mediated conversations involve an extra discourse compared to monolingual conversations which increases the risk of misunderstandings.

    Using methodology of conversation analysis the study explores how bilingualism is expressed during interpreter-mediated court hearings, at which occasions the Spanish-speaking laymen switch to Swedish and what function the codeswitching fulfills. The study identifies patterns in codeswitching and categorizes them into six different types. Furthermore the ideology of monolingualism in court is challenged and the advantages and disadvantages of codeswitching is discussed.

    The analysis concludes that even though certain types of codeswitching lead to delays in the conversation, the interaction is mostly favored by the Spanish-speaking party understanding some Swedish. Court proceedings would benefit from being more permissive toward bilingualism and the types of codeswitching that favor intersubjectivity.

  • 37.
    Bergvall, Jacob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Risk analysis review2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The risk analysis process is the foundation of creating secure systems. An accurate and well defined risk analysis will therefore be a big help for any company, indicating what resources are needed and where they should be put to use. It can be difficult to know which risk analysis methodology to use given a set of parameters such as available resources, time, money etc. In this review we will introduce several different risk analysis methodologies and classify them using our risk analysis classification system. Our classification points out some of the pros and cons for each method, making it easier to choose the one best suited for a specific scenario. We will also connect the presented methods with real-world usage of said methods. To do this we have conducted interviews with IT-security experts at several major companies and we will present previous documented usage of risk analysis methods. Larger companies tend to develop their own methods for risk analysis, and smaller companies that do not have enough time or resources to develop their own methods are more likely to use already existing methods. With that said we believe that anyone that works with risk analysis could have use of our review.

  • 38.
    Djerf, Frithiof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Filip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Att hantera sömmar i interaktiva system2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how seams in an interactive system should be managed. Seamsin this study refer to the boundaries that arise when users move between for example differentsoftware, products or positioning systems. These seams are a cornerstone of the relatively unexploredarea called seamful design, which is based on that users can avail highlighted seams through activeparticipation in the use of a system. To analyze this area, seamful design is applied to the developmentof an interface of a smoothie vending machine. This smoothie machine thus provides the analyzedinteractive system, which the research questions are applied to as well as answered by. The researchquestions are infused by seams and seamful design. More specifically, this paper questions how, whenand why these seams should be made visible or hidden. Another question stresses if the visualizationof seams can be applied to a smoothie machine and create distinct advantages in this system.

    To accomplish this, the project was divided in three separate phases. The first phase consisted ofexamining the conditions, environment and design of the service and the product. The second phaseconsisted of an iterative creation of concept proposals and usage of related methods. The third andfinal phase involved performing user tests, evaluating the interface and drawing conclusions about theformulated research questions.

    The project results are visualized partly by the final interface that was generated, and partly by theresults of the performed user tests during the third phase, which later came to form the basis for theconclusions that arose. The results included the understanding that the visualization of seams have thepotential to increase the task success rate, but at the same time may entail the risk of extending thetime it takes to perform a task. This was distinguished from the result of the test where the user wasgiven the task to place a cup in the machine. In one case, the seam was highlighted, while it was hiddenin the other. An additional result was that users expressed that seams could entail an advantage whenthe system was used repeatedly, while they in situations where they only used the system once, arguedthat it was beneficial to hide the seam because of lack of interest of the additional information.

    The conclusions based on this result, included both guidelines of how, when and why it is appropriateto highlight or hide seams, and also the finding that that seamful design has potential to be applied toa smoothie machine with clear benefits. The first of these guidelines implies that seams should behidden in systems which focus on performance and efficiency, as there is a risk that the usage time isprolonged when the seam is highlighted. Another guideline states that seams should be hidden whenmanipulation of the system could entail a serious risk, due to that users in most cases create a deeperunderstanding of the underlying technology when the seams are highlighted. On the contrary, insystems where possible manipulation entails no significant risk, seams may be highlighted to facilitatean individual use of the system. Furthermore, it is advantageous to highlight seams when a repeateduse of the system occurs, because of the fact that many users expressed that they pay greater attentionto seams when they have acquired some familiarity with the interface. Finally, perhaps the mostimportant aspect when a seam is about to be highlighted, is to make sure that the user physically canact and respond to the additional information that comes with the seam.

  • 39.
    Grant, Penelope
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Att undervisa i läsförståelse: En studie om lärares uppfattningar om läsförståelseutveckling och läsförståelseundervisning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att undersöka lärares uppfattningar om läsförståelseutveckling och om hur läsförståelseundervisning. Det är en kvalitativ studie inspirerad av fenomenografisk metodansats med halvstrukturerade intervjuer som datainamlingsmetod. Resultatet visar att det finns en variation i lärares uppfattningar om vad som utvecklar läsförståelse och hur läsförståelseundervisning ska genomföras. Det som framkommer i intervjuerna med pedagogerna är att de flesta vill och försöker arbeta medvetet med sin läsförståelseundervisning men att det till stor del förekommer mest implicit undervisning. Resultatet påvisar en tendens till att eleverna blir sittande att genomföra uppgifter på egen hand eller i par och pedagogen blir instruktionsgivare och kontrollant istället för undervisare och övervakare av elevernas läsning. Det finns även en risk att de läsare som inte har några svårigheter inte får möjlighet att utveckla sin läsförståelse utan att fokus endast blir på de elever som är svaga läsare.

  • 40.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hamilton, Philip
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vad bestämmer fonders prestation och avgift?: En studie på svenska aktivt förvaltade aktiefonder under perioden 2005-20142015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes 66 Swedish actively managed mutual funds investing in the Swedish stock market during the period 2005-2014. The purpose is through pooled data regressions analyze the relationship between both the mutual fund’s annual fee and risk-adjusted return to the fund’s characteristics. The characteristics of the study are the size of the fund's assets, age, if the fund is bank managed or not, Tracking Error, and standard deviation of return.By using the performance measures of CAPM, Fama and French 3-factor model, and Carhart’s 4-factor model monthly risk-adjusted returns are created for all funds over the period. Two pooled data regressions are performed with the Fixed Effect Model in which the annual fee and risk-adjusted return is set up as explanatory variables against the various characteristics.The results of the study show a clear correlation between annual fee and tracking error against the risk-adjusted return. A higher fee adds value to the investor through a higher risk-adjusted return, but will not fully compensate for the increased fee. The relationship between Tracking Error and risk-adjusted return is negative, which means that mutual funds that are distant from its benchmark perform worse than the mutual funds close to its benchmark. To explain annual fee this study finds low economic significance for the characteristics included. Although several variables show statistical significance, it is difficult to say anything about the characteristics that affect a mutual fund's annual fee due to the weak economic significance.

  • 41.
    Bolling, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bucan, Nikolina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Revisionsriskmodellen: En studie i hur revisorer uppfattar användandet av modellens olika delar2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Criticism has been leveled at the design of theaudit risk model, even though it is an importantpart of the assessment of audit risk in the planningphase. As a result of this, it is relevant to studyusers’, namely auditors’, approach to the audit riskmodel and its use.

    Purpose The purpose of this thesis is to explain auditors'interpretation of the use of the various risks in theaudit risk model.

    Method The study uses a quantitative approach. The datahas been collected through a survey usingSurveyMonkey and then analyzed with SPSS.

    Conclusions Our results show that the auditors who participatedin the survey felt that inherent risk was mostimportant, followed by control risk, and thereafterdetection risk. However, we see that theassessment of inherent and control risks iscombined and that they are influenced by eachother, which strengthens several previous studies.

  • 42.
    Persson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ahlström, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Går det att prediktera konkurs i svenska aktiebolag?: En kvantitativ studie om hur finansiella nyckeltal kan användas vid konkursprediktion2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From the early 1900s, banks and lending institutions have used financial ratios as an aid in the assessment and quantification of credit risk. For today's investors the economic environment is far more complicated than 40 years ago when the technology and computerization opened up the world's markets. Credit risk assessment today requires effective analysis of quantitative data and models that can predict risks with good accuracy.

    During the second half of the 20th century there was a rapid development of the tools used for bankruptcy prediction. We moved from simple univariate models to complex data mining models with thousands of observations.

    This study investigates if it’s possible to predict bankruptcy in Swedish limited companies and which variables contain information relevant for this cause. The methods used in the study are discriminant analysis, logistic regression and survival analysis on 50 active and 50 failed companies. The results indicate accuracy between 67.5 % and 75 % depending on the choice of statistical method. Regardless of the selected statistical method used, it’s possible to classify companies as bankrupt two years before the bankruptcy occurs using financial ratios which measures profitability and solvency.

    Societal costs are reduced by better bankruptcy prediction using financial ratios which contribute to increasing the ability of companies to apply financial management with relevant key ratios in the form of stock , retained earnings , net income and operating income.

  • 43.
    Karampaxoglou, Thaleia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Genetically Modified Food and Crops: Risks and Intellectual Property Rights2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts to present and analyze problems that may arise from the use of Genetically Modified (GM) products and issues raised by the Intellectual Property (IP) rights that Genetic Engineering (GE) companies have on their products. Arguments in favor and against the existence of health risks and environmental risks of GM products are presented. The European policy of the socioeconomic effects of the GM products is discussed and is proposed the application of the precautionary principle for the prevention of unintended consequences from the GM products to other than health and environmental domains. The need of IP rights is supported, but is also suggested an IP rights flexibility. Do IP rights violate the rights of all people to a nourishing life, natural resources, the right to decide about what they eat and the right to live in a viable ecosystem? Finally, I provide an analysis of the effects on the farmers due to the IP rights on GM crop for cultivation and state dependency issues that may occur.

  • 44.
    Pettersson, Marielle
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Entreprenadrätt: Riskfördelning vid okända förutsättningar och kravet på lojalitet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Entreprenadrätten bygger till största del på standardavtal, vid avsaknad av generell lagstiftning på området. AB 04 reglerar  utförandeentreprenader där beställaren av entreprenaden tillhandahåller projekteringen och har ett funktionsansvar, medan entreprenören är ansvarig för själva utförandet av entreprenaden. I en offentlig upphandling erbjuds entreprenörer, kallade anbudsgivare, att kalkylera på beställarens tillhandahållna förfrågningsunderlag. I det fall uppgifter saknas, eller är bristfälliga, ska entreprenören vid anbudsskedet anta att förhållandena är sådana som kunnat förutsättas vid en fackmässig bedömning. 1 kap. § 8 AB 04 stadgar nyss angivna reglering. Problematik har uppkommit hur begreppet fackmässig bedömning ska tolkas. Entreprenören har haft att räkna på lägsta kostnad i sin fackmässiga bedömning, och i det fall tilläggsarbeten fordrats har denne haft rätt till ersättning för dessa enligt 2 kap. § 4 AB 04. Beställare har förutsatts lämnat de uppgifter som kan erhållas vid fackmässig undersökning, enligt tredje stycket i 1 kap. § 6 AB 04, i förfrågningsunderlaget. Part som tillhandahållit uppgifterna svarar för dessa.

    Meningsskiljaktigheter har uppstått vem av parterna som står risken i det fall okända förhållanden uppkommer under entreprenadarbetets gång. Mål nr T 407-13, det så kallade Gotlandsfallet, som avgjordes den 27 januari 2015 klargjorde rättsläget. Entreprenören har att beakta, i den fackmässiga bedömningen, förhållanden som anses troliga. Vad innebörden av begreppet troliga är utgör i sig en tolkningsfråga lämnad till framtiden. Avgörandet öppnar upp för flertalet frågor. Vad uppsatsen resulterat i är att risk finns att beställaren fortsättningsvis kommer att tillhandahålla bristfälligt förfrågningsunderlag, vilket orsakar större osäkerhet för anbudsgivare vid dennes kalkylering av entreprenadarbetet. Högre krav ställs på entreprenören att vidta en utsträckt bedömning vid oklart förfrågningsunderlag. Högsta domstolen berörde inte vid bedömningen betydelsen avseende strikt ansvar för beställare vid uppgiftslämnandet, som vid en fackmässig undersökning av arbetsområdet borde ha förekommit i förfrågningsunderlaget.

    I anbudsskedet förutsätts parterna uppträda lojalt, och därefter samverka för ett väl fungerande entreprenadarbete. Prekontraktuellt ansvar torde ha uppkommit när anbudsgivare erhållit förfrågningsunderlaget. Förhandlingar har påbörjats, avsikten är ett långtgående fungerande avtalsförhållande, beställaren ska upplysa om relevanta förhållanden och anbudsgivaren har att kalkylera på entreprenadarbetet. Undgår beställare att upplysa om viktiga förhållanden innan avtalsslutet, vilseleds anbudsgivaren på oriktiga förutsättningar att göra en korrekt bedömning. Liktidigt ska anbudsgivare upplysa beställaren om tänkta arbetsmetoder och kalkyleringar för att säkra förhållandena på arbetsområdet.

  • 45.
    Romanos, J.
    et al.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, PO Box 30001, Groningen 9700 RB, Netherlands; School of Medicine, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Rosen, A.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kumar, V.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Trynka, G.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, PO Box 30001, Groningen 9700 RB, Netherlands; Division of Genetics and Division of Rheumatology, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.
    Franke, L.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Szperl, A.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Gutierrez-Achury, J.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Van, Diemen C.C.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Kanninga, R.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Jankipersadsing, S.A.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Steck, A.
    Barbara Davis Centre for Childhood Diabetes, University of of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States.
    Eisenbarth, G.
    Barbara Davis Centre for Childhood Diabetes, University of of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States.
    Van, Heel D.A.
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom.
    Cukrowska, B.
    Department of Pathology, Childrens Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland.
    Bruno, V.
    European Laboratory for Food-Induced Disease, University of of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
    Mazzilli, M.C.
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Nunez, C.
    Clinical Immunology Department, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria San Carlos IdISSC, Madrid, Spain.
    Bilbao, J.R.
    Immunogenetics Research Laboratory, Hospital de Cruces, Bizkaia, Spain.
    Mearin, M.L.
    Department of Paediatrics, Leiden University of Medical Centre, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Barisani, D.
    Department of Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of of Milano- Bicocca, Monza, Italy.
    Rewers, M.
    Barbara Davis Centre for Childhood Diabetes, University of of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States.
    Norris, J.M.
    Epidemiology Department, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, United States.
    Ivarsson, A.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Boezen, H.M.
    Department of Epidemiology, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Liu, E.
    Barbara Davis Centre for Childhood Diabetes, University of of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States.
    Wijmenga, C.
    Department of Genetics, University of of Groningen, University of Medical Centre Groningen, PO Box 30001, Groningen 9700 RB, Netherlands.
    Improving coeliac disease risk prediction by testing non-HLA variants additional to HLA variants2014In: Gut, ISSN 0017-5749, E-ISSN 1468-3288, Vol. 63, no 3, 415-422 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The majority of coeliac disease (CD) patients are not being properly diagnosed and therefore remain untreated, leading to a greater risk of developing CD-associated complications. The major genetic risk heterodimer, HLA-DQ2 and DQ8, is already used clinically to help exclude disease. However, approximately 40% of the population carry these alleles and the majority never develop CD. Objective We explored whether CD risk prediction can be improved by adding non-HLA-susceptible variants to common HLA testing. Design We developed an average weighted genetic risk score with 10, 26 and 57 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2675 cases and 2815 controls and assessed the improvement in risk prediction provided by the non-HLA SNP. Moreover, we assessed the transferability of the genetic risk model with 26 non-HLA variants to a nested case-control population (n=1709) and a prospective cohort (n=1245) and then tested how well this model predicted CD outcome for 985 independent individuals. Results Adding 57 non-HLA variants to HLA testing showed a statistically significant improvement compared to scores from models based on HLA only, HLA plus 10 SNP and HLA plus 26 SNP. With 57 non-HLA variants, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve reached 0.854 compared to 0.823 for HLA only, and 11.1% of individuals were reclassified to a more accurate risk group. We show that the risk model with HLA plus 26 SNP is useful in independent populations. Conclusions Predicting risk with 57 additional non-HLA variants improved the identification of potential CD patients. This demonstrates a possible role for combined HLA and non-HLA genetic testing in diagnostic work for CD.

  • 46.
    Odeskog, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenberg, Noomi
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Validering av föräldraskattningsformuläret SCDI-III för svenska barn i tre års ålder2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Communicative Development Inventory (SCDI-III), a parent report instrument, is a modified form of the third version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, and has been developed as a research tool for the investigation of the language ability of children aged 2;6 - 4;0 years.

    It is of great importance that children who are most at risk of developing a language impairment are identified in time in order to increase the possibility to stimulate their language in favourable developmental phases. Clinicians have expressed a need for a material that can provide an overview of a child’s language ability, prior to carrying out further language assessment. The need of such material has contributed to the need for an investigation of the validity of SCDI-III, which has formed the basis for the present study. The purpose was to validate the already standardized parent estimation form SCDI-III with established language assessments to investigate whether it can be used to identify children who are at risk for language impairment.

    Forty-one children (21 girls and 20 boys) aged 3;0 - 3;11 years, with Swedish as their mother tongue, and 41 guardians participated in the study. The grammatical abilities of the children were examined using the validation tools SIT (Språkligt Impressivt Test) and Gramba (Grammatiktest för barn) and the lexical abilities were examined using BNT (Boston Naming Test) and PPVT-III (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test). The testing was performed at their respective daycare center, and the guardians filled in SCDI-III, after which the results were compared.  

    Moderate significant correlations were found between estimations in SCDI’s word production section and the children’s production on the BNT and the result of the PPVT-III, and between parents’ evaluations in the sentence construction section of the questionnaire and the test results on Gramba. No significant or strong correlations in the sentence complexity section of the SCDI-III were found on any of the four SLP assessments. In addition to these results, girls performed significantly better than boys on Gramba and the oldest children had significantly better results than the youngest on the BNT. The results of the present study suggest a need for different methods and perspectives for the assessment of children’s language abilities. SCDI-III could therefore be a complementary tool in providing a basis for discussion between practicing speech-language pathologists and guardians, but cannot be used as an assessment tool by itself. 

  • 47.
    Bjällerhag, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Behaviours and experiences as indicators for the result in a behavioural test for dogs2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2005 Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) started a breeding program of military working dogs. The dogs leave SAF’s kennel at an age of 8 weeks and live with puppy raisers. To evaluate the suitability of dogs for military work the dogs conduct a behavioural test at an age of 15-18 months. An “Index value” is extracted from this behavioural test. The puppy raisers answered a modified version of Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ) when the dogs were approximately 12 months old. Answered questionnaires and results from the behavioural test were obtained for 59 dogs. Dogs that had passed the behavioural test had tendency for higher scores for “Trainability” (p = 0.078) and “If lived with other animals” (p = 0.066). Failing dogs had significantly higher score for “Stranger Directed Fear” (p = 0.006), ”Non-Social Fear” (p = 0.005), “Dog Directed Fear” (p = 0.021), “Hours of daily activation” (p = 0.001), “Mounting objects” (p = 0.012), and a tendency for higher risk of “Urinating when home alone” (p = 0.058). In a regressions between the “Index value” and the values of the questions from C-BARQ, the “Index value” was negatively correlated to “Stranger Directed Fear” (p = 0.002), “Non-social Fear” (p = 0.003), and “Dog Directed Fear” (p = 0.006). The “Index value” was positively correlated to “Trainability” (p = 0.013), “Hours left home alone” (p=0.043), “Hyperactive” (p = 0.018), “Chases shadows/light spots” (p = 0.043), and a positive tendency for “Chewing on inappropriate objects” (p = 0.075). From a PCA at the categories in C-BARQ, 3 components were extracted. All three components had a correlation to the “Index value”. The results show that the use of C-BARQ can indicate whether the dog will pass the behavioural test or not.

  • 48.
    Jovanovic, Srdjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Magnusson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Underkastad eller överraskad: Investering som alternativ till amorteringskrav2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De svenska hushållen har idag en rekordstor skuldsättning, där bolån ofta utgör den största delen av hushållens skuld. Värdet på bostäder har ökat kraftigt sedan början på 1980--‐talet, vilket är en starkt bidragande anledning till den ökade skuldsättningen. I ett försök att kyla ner prisutvecklingen på bo--‐ städer införde finansinspektionen ett bolånetak under år 2010. Dock fick detta inte den önskade effekten utan ledde istället till att andelen blancolån ökade, medan storleken på bolån minskade. Detta har lett till att ett eventuellt amorteringskrav börjat diskuteras.

    Amorteringskravet skulle leda till att skuldsättningen minskar, men frågan är om det är det bästa sättet för hushållen att få ner sin skuldsättning. Skuldsättningsgraden kan påverkas på två sätt: antingen genom att minska hushållet skulder eller genom att öka hushållets egna kapital. Att tvinga hushållen att amortera innebär att de måsta använda sitt begränsade kapital till att betala av på sitt lån när de istället skulle kunna använda kapitalet till investeringar. Hushållen skulle på så sätt kunna skapa sig en högre nettoförmögenhet, genom till exempel investeringar på aktiemarknaden. Om man väljer att kliva ifrån amorteringskravet blir frågan för hushållen hur de ska välja att fördela sitt kapital på amortering och alternativinvestering. Hushållen står alltså inför ett portföljval där portföljen består av amortering och alternativinvestering.

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka om en investering på aktiemarknaden, historiskt sett, gett en överavkastning och högre nettoförmögenhet än amortering av ett bostadslån. Syftet är även att komma med en rekommendation på fördelning av eget kapital mellan amortering av bostadslån och investering på aktiemarknaden.

    Ett antal avgränsningar görs i studien. Dels ses inte bostaden som en tillgång i sig, detta i sin tur leder till att ingen hänsyn tas till hävstångseffekten på den del av kapitalet som är investerat i fastigheten och därigenom incitamentet att inte amortera. Dessutom görs en avgränsning i delen med risk av portföljen, då den endast kan innehålla amortering och aktier.

    Resultatet visar att en investering på aktiemarknaden gett en kraftig överavkastning och högre nettoförmögenhet än vid amortering. Vidare visar resultatet att aktiemarknaden varit väldigt mycket mer volatil än avkastningen från att amortera. Detta syns på exempelvis värdeackumulering som har gått upp och ned, medan den för amorteringen varit helt linjär. När det gäller den optimala portföljen visar resultatet att om bolåneräntan är låg och man förväntar sig en låg avkastning på aktiemarknaden så ska den absoluta majoriteten av kapitalet allokeras till amortering, men allt eftersom en av variablerna ökar bör mer och mer kapital tillföras aktiemarknaden. Dessutom visar resultatet att på grund av ränteavdraget som hushållen får genomföra i Sverige uppstår situationer när inget kapital ska fördelas till amortering. Dessa situationer uppstår när differensen mellan den riskfria räntan och bolåneräntan är mindre än 30 procent av bolåneräntan.

    Slutsatsen som dras från resultatet är att amortering bör ske när räntan är låg och förväntningarna på aktiemarknaden är låga. Detta eftersom ränteavdraget gör att avkastningen på att amortera hamnar under den riskfria räntan vid höga bolåneräntor. Hushållen bör dock ha i åtanke att amorteringen inte innebär någon tillgångsspecifik risk för värdeackumulationen, men det gör alternativinvesteringen. Hushållen bör således fundera kring sin riskaptit i sitt val av amortering eller alternativinvestering.

  • 49.
    Backlund, Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sörensson, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valuta och internationellt bistånd: Svenska biståndsorganisationers hantering av valutaköp och valutarisk2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are active in most parts of the world and are consequently exposed to foreign exchange risk. The organizations manage aid funds in both common and uncommon types of currency when they in different ways finance local cooperation partners. The amount of previous research how aid organizations handle the management of currency trade and foreign exchange risk is limited and this study aims to examine the area further.

    Aim: The study aims to analyse the complex of problems regarding exposure to foreign exchange risk for both Swedish NGOs and their cooperation partners, to do so on the basis of foreign exchange risk theory and best practice. The aim is in such a way to discuss general strategies for currency trade and foreign exchange risk management for Swedish NGOs.

    Completion: The qualitative approach consists of nine interviews that have been designed in accordance with theory and previous research. A picture of the organizational processes and needs of Swedish NGOs regarding foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management was given by five interviews with NGOs. Information concerning how foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management is utilized in practice and how experts in the field perceive current management of NGOs was gathered from four interviews with actors within foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management. The empirical data is analysed on the basis of the theoretical framework and previous research.

    Conclusion: The study shows that the complex of problems regarding foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management are not as straightforward as at first glance. It also indicates that foreign exchange risk management differs between for-profit businesses and non-profit organizations. It appears that NGOs currently transfer all foreign exchange risk exposure to its counterpart through contracts. The investigation and implementation of foreign exchange risk management is not possible for NGOs with a large ratio of restricted funds. Finally a number of strategies have been developed for a more cost-effective currency trade. 

  • 50.
    Raoufi Masouleh, Azar
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Everyday Construction of Gender Identity in a Sex-reassigned Child Negotiating Membership Categorization: A case study of an Iranian family in Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars in the field are of the opinion that the early simultaneous bilingual and bicultural exposure not only does not harm the bilinguals, but also strengthens their social and cultural foundations and keeps them from getting vulnerable to external environment (Deuchar and Quay 1999, 2000; Genesee 1989; Genesee, Nicoladis, and Paradis 1995; Holowka, Brosseau-Lapre ́, and Petitto 2002; Lanza 1992; Meisel 1989; Petitto et al. 2001). Also it has been demonstrated that bilingual children have differentiated systems to provide them with the ability to distinguish between their two input languages from the beginning of language acquisition (Petitto & Holowka, 2002). However, the driver of the children’s language preference patterns at home needs to be further explored. The present study is indeed an attempt to answer the question of why it is that some children regularly exposed to their heritage language from a very young age actually continue to actively use it, and other children involving in similar parental policy about bilingualism do not? It aims to examine the impacts of parental language strategies during the childhood on children language preference at home after they achieve the key competences in each of the two languages. The foci are parental attitudes towards the patterns of language choice and their influence on child language preference. Data are collected from two Iranian immigrant families; one has been experiencing additive bilingualism, while the other has been involved in the process of subtractive phenomenon. Some implications for parent-child closeness, heritage language and the risk of language contamination are touched on briefly.

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