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  • 1.
    Kohn, Christofer
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A shipper perspective on intermodal transport: Exploring the role of rail-truck intermodal transport in three shippers’ logistics systems2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the public debate on companies’ impact on the environment, the negative impact of transport is often put forward as an area in which companies need to find new solutions in order to decrease the amount of emissions incurred by transport. One possible way of achieving such a shift is through intermodal transport, but even though such solutions are often advocated they are not employed that extensively in industry. One reason for this could be the fact that decisions influencing logistics and transport are made by multiple stakeholders with diverging perspectives and decision scopes. For instance, whereas public authorities make decisions with respect to e.g. a country’s transport policy decisions regarding logistics from a company perspective are made with reference to the overall goal of achieving cost efficient customer service.

    The paper has an explorative approach and presents empirical studies of three companies that have employed or are about to employ an intermodal transport solution that combines rail and truck transport. The purpose is to illustrate how these companies have incorporated intermodal transport into their logistics systems and what experiences they have from using this type of transport solution. The findings show that transport quality is an issue, but this is weighed against the cost advantage that this transport solution provides. Also, the companies are very conscious with regards to for what part of their respective logistics systems they can use intermodal transport without jeopardising the overall performance of the system. It is the perception of inferior quality that keeps these companies from transferring more transport tonnage from truck to a rail-truck combination. If intermodal transport is to be used by shippers more extensively than current practice reveals then there is a need to congregate the objectives of the multiple stakeholders discussed above.

  • 2.
    Lammgård, Catrin
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Industriell och Finansiell ekonomi & logistik, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Mats
    Institutionen för teknikens ekonomi och organisation, Logistik och transport, Chalmers, Göteborg.
    Environmental considerations when buying transport services - a review of empirical evidence2013In: Proceedings of the 22nd IPSERA Conference, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of environmental considerations when purchasing transport services is increasing on the shippers’ agenda. Our study aims at investigating to what extent shippers focus on the environmental aspects and if they follow up the demands placed. Further it is explored what attitudes the decision-makers, mainly the logistics managers, have towards different environmental measures for reducing the environmental impact of their transports. Different methods have been applied during more than ten years in our studies. As a result, this paper is a review of evidence from various studies, complementing each other.

  • 3.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linnaues University.
    The inclusion of environmental performance in transport contracts2013In: Management of environmental quality, ISSN 1477-7835, E-ISSN 1758-6119, Vol. 24, no 2, 214-227 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inclusion of environmental performance in transport contracts, and to study whether differences in inclusion can be explained by managerial involvement.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on a survey of shippers and logistics service providers in Sweden. Regression and cluster analysis were used to link managerial involvement to inclusion of environmental performance.

    Findings – Companies that include environmental performance in transport contracts do not necessarily consider how to measure the environmental performance and how to handle non-compliance. The most common performance metrics to include are CO2 emissions and energy use. A higher degree of managerial involvement is related to larger inclusion of environmental performance. Findings also indicate that transportation managers play a very central role for inclusion of environmental performance in contracts.

    Research limitations/implications – The paper offers a theoretical contribution to transport contract and performance management theory by expanding it to encompass environmental performance. The authors provide some descriptive and explanatory results in a Swedish context.

    Practical implications – The managerial contribution is to show practices and provide an understanding of the use of contracts for environmental performance, which in analogy with previous research can lead to environmental performance improvements.

    Originality/value – Few identified studies focus on regulating environmental performance in transport contracts.

  • 4.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Study of Environmental and Other Sustainable Activities in supply Chain Relationships at Clas Ohlson2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a case study conducted at the Swedish retail company Clas Ohlson. The study has been conducted as one step in the PhD process of the author of this report and is financed by the Swedish Energy Agency (Energimyndigheten). In this first chapter, some background information to the case study is given: the aim of the study, the rationale behind choosing Clas Ohlson as the case company and data collection methods. Finally, the structure of the remaining parts of the report is presented.

    The aim of this case study is to illustrate how environmental work can be conducted in different types of supply chain relationships, seen from the perspective of one focal shipper in a supply chain. The relationships include both upstream (such as suppliers and inbound logistics service providers) and downstream (such as outbound logistics service providers and stores in a city logistics context) parts of the supply chain. As these examples illustrate, the supply chain relationships can include shippers as well as logistics service providers (LSPs).

  • 5.
    Rogerson, Sara
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Sallnäs, Uni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Internal coordination to enable high load factorIn: The International Journal of Logistics Management, ISSN 0957-4903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to clarify how activities may be coordinated within shippers’ organisations to enable high load factor (a key aspect of transport efficiency).

     

    Design/methodology/approach – A multiple-case study involving three shippers was conducted, in which the logistics or transport managers of each company were interviewed. The cases were analysed according to (1) which activities were coordinated to achieve high load factor, (2) interdependencies between the activities, and (3) the coordination mechanisms that shippers adopted.

     

    Findings – A matrix is developed to show the differences in applying various coordination mechanisms in eight categories, according to (1) intrafunctional or interfunctional coordination, (2) sequential or reciprocal interdependencies, and (3) the number of activities (dyadic or multiple). For example, coordination mechanisms aimed at exerting control are more suitable for intrafunctional than interfunctional interaction; interfunctional coordination relies more on mechanisms that aim to increase the understanding of transport-related issues among non-logistics activities.

     

    Research limitations/implications – The study is based on data from three Swedish companies.

     

    Practical implications – Managers are provided with suggestions for coordinating activities when their goal is to improve load factor. These findings are of interest for reducing costs and emissions.

     

    Social implications

     

    Originality/value – In response to suggestions in the earlier literature that shippers could improve their internal coordination to improve their load factor, this paper articulates several mechanisms for performing such coordination in eight situations.

  • 6.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental Work in Relationships between Logistics Service providers and Shippers2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report comprises a description of a case study which includes four dyadic relationships between logistics service providers (LSPs) and shippers. The case study has been conducted during the Vinnova‐financed research project “Competitive Business Models to meet Future Demands on Sustainable Logistics Systems” and focus in the report is on environmental (or green) work in relationships between LSPs and shippers. More specifically, the purpose of the report is to increase the understanding of such work in relationships between LSPs and shippers. Before the cases are described, the process of selecting the cases as well as collecting the data will be elaborated on.

  • 7.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management.
    Case report: Environmental work in relationships between logistics service providers and shippers2013Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Sallnäs, Uni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Coordination to manage dependencies between logistics service providers and shippers: An environmental perspective2016In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, ISSN 0960-0035, Vol. 46, no 3, 316-340 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Although it has been suggested that shippers’ demands regarding environmental practices appear to have an impact on the environmental work of LSPs, limited attention has been given to environmental practices in the relationships between LSPs and shippers. The purpose of this paper is to explore how dependencies between LSPs and shippers can influence the way in which environmental practices are coordinated in the relationships between them.

    Design/methodology/approach: Four dyadic case studies, each consisting of one LSP and one shipper, provide the empirical basis for this paper.

    Findings: Two types of dependencies are suggested as having an influence over the coordination of environmental practices in LSP-shipper relationships: dependence between LSPs and shippers as such; and dependence with regard to specific environmental practices. In addition, the environmental ambition of the actors is found to be of relevance when LSPs and shippers coordinate environmental practices between them. Based on these parameters, different coordination mechanisms for environmental practices in LSP-shipper relationships are discussed.

    Research limitations/implications: The research is limited to four cases in a Swedish context. Additional cases might provide other insights into LSP-shipper relationships and thereby lead to modifications of the proposed conceptual framework.

    Practical implications: The results can help both LSPs and shippers improve their work with environmental practices through the use of the appropriate coordination mechanisms in their inter-organisational relationships.

    Originality/value: Contrary to previous research, which mainly takes one party’s perspective, this paper takes a dyadic approach and thereby adds valuable knowledge to the inter-organisational aspects of LSPs’ environmental work.

  • 9.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards unearthing environmental activities in the interface between logistics service providers and shippersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper: The importance of environmental consideration for companies is mounting. This applies particularly well to logistics service providers (LSPs) who will have a possibility to compete by being greener than their competitors by offering services that include different environmental activities. As their customers play a vital role with regard to the extent to which LSPs can include environmental activities in their business, the interface between these actors is of interest. The purpose of this article is to describe how environmental logistics activities are offered and required on the logistics market, and how the green logistics exchange that becomes part of a business deal can relate to the scope of activities.

    Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review of what has been published on environmental activities as parts of offerings and requirements was complemented by a wider literature review. Empirical data was collected through a homepage scan and a case study of four LSPshipper dyads. The analysis was performed stepwise, where the empirical data sets complemented and refined the initial findings from the literature review.

    Findings: The paper identifies a range of environmental activities that can be included as parts of offerings of LSPs or requirements of shippers, as well as parts of the green exchange in business deals between these two types of actors. Further, a classification of environmental activities is proposed based on their role in the business between LSPs and shippers.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable): The article is mainly based on companies’ activities in Sweden and thereby provides a possibility to extend the research into other countries as well. By taking two perspectives, the findings from this research can have implications both for purchasing and marketing of logistic services.

    Practical implications (if applicable): The paper suggests which environmental activities that LSPs and shippers can include in different stages of their business relationships.

    What is original/value of paper: The dual perspective of LSPs and shippers taken in this paper offers novel insight into how various environmental activities can be included at different stages of LSP-shipper relationships.

  • 10.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    De-greening of logistics through provider-shipper interaction2013In: The 29th Annual IMP Conference: Building and Managing Relationships in a Global Network: Challenges and Necessary Capabilities / [ed] Johnston, Weslsy, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the paper

    In contrast to the general perception of logistics service providers, recent research suggests that logistics service providers can be considered as more open to developing green services than their customers are to require them. The purpose of this paper is to explain how green efforts and ambitions are transformed when logistics service providers co-operate with their customers.

    Research method

    The paper is based on a multiple case study of two networks, symmetrically composed of two relationships each with an LSP as the common actor. The networks are analysed first on a dyad level, which is the basis for a network analysis of the cases. The two cases are finally compared in order to identify patterns between the cases.

    Research findings

    The findings suggest that even though the logistics service providers display a certain level of greenness in their own appearance, the level of greenness decreases to different extent in the interaction with the shippers. The attitude among the shippers is an important reason to how the green efforts are transformed in the relationships, as they are in overall control of the relationships. In addition, even if the shipper is positive and contributes to a positive development the shipper’s customers can constitute a barrier in the LSP-shipper interaction. On the other hand, a mutually positive attitude may impose synergetic effects in the dyad.

    Contribution

    The paper applies the concept of network paradoxes to greening logistics in LSP-shipper dyads, and increases the understanding of why the green efforts among logistics service providers are not directly transferred to the surrounding network of shippers/customers. This contributes to the small but emerging body of literature on the greening of industrial networks, but also to a further understanding of the role of inter-organisational relationships in literature on green supply chain management and green logistics. 

  • 11.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental practices as offerings and requirements in the logistics market2014In: Logistics Research, ISSN 1865-0368, Vol. 7, no 115, 1-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of environmental consider- ation for companies is mounting. This applies particularly well to logistics service providers (LSPs) who will have a possibility to compete by being greener than their com- petitors by offering services that include different green practices. As their customers play a vital role with regard to the extent to which LSPs can include environmental practices in their business, the interface between these actors is of interest. The purpose of this article is to describe and explain how environmental practices are reflected in offerings and requirements on the logistics market. A systematic literature review of what has been published on environmental practices as parts of offerings and requirements was complemented by a wider literature review. Empirical data were collected through a home page scan and a case study of four LSP–shipper dyads. With a starting point in stakeholder theory, the different data sets were analysed separately as well as combined, and similarities and differences were discussed. The findings point to differences in the way that LSPs and shippers offer and require environmental practices on their home pages and reasons for this are suggested to be due to their different types of stakeholders. Further, the environmental practices in relationships between LSP and shippers are often more relationship specific than practices on home pages. Based on the combined findings of the data sets, a classification of environmental practices as reflected in offerings and requirements on the logistics market is proposed. The article is mainly based on com- panies’ practices in Sweden and thereby provides a pos- sibility to extend the research into other countries as well. By taking two perspectives, the findings from this research can have implications both for purchasing and marketing of logistic services. The paper suggests which environ- mental practices that LSPs and shippers can offer or require in different stages of their business relationships. Contrary to most research within green logistics, this paper takes a business perspective on environmental practices. Further, the dual perspective of LSPs and shippers taken in this paper offers novel insight into how environmental practices can be included at different stages of LSP–shipper relationships. 

  • 12.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Matches and Gaps in the Green Logistics market2012In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, Vol. 42, no 6, 562-583 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The management of interfaces is central in supply chain management (SCM) and logistics. An important part of SCM is coordination and collaboration with different partners such as suppliers, intermediaries, third party service providers and customers (CSCMP, 2010). Collaboration between parties in the supply chain is generally believed to decrease costs and increase efficiency as well as service. Moreover, the success of a firm is dependent on its managerial ability to integrate and coordinate the business relationships among the supply chain members (Lambert and Cooper, 2000). The supply chain linkage ought to be so tight that separate organizational units share the same purpose and suppliers and customers help each other to achieve mutually beneficial objectives (Seth et al., 2006).

    In the SCM literature interfaces seldom include the logistics service provider (hereafter labelled LSP). Instead, most interfaces discussed are those between a shipper and the receiver of the goods (Skjoett-Larsen et al., 2003; Stefanson, 2006). One reason for this could be that logistics firms are the least integrated link in supply chains (Lemoine and Skjoett-larsen, 2004) or that, as noted by Fabbe-Costes et al. (2009), LSPs seem to be the forgotten actors of supply chain integration. Furthermore, LSPs are often merely seen as actors that supports other members of the supply chain, providing resources, knowledge, utilities or assets for the primary members (Spens and Bask, 2002). Several logistics related trends, such as the shift towards outsourcing and increased globalisation, increase the need for strong relationships between LSPs and supplychains (Seth et al., 2006).

    Most of the research conducted on LSPs applies either a shipper or an LSP perspective, instead of a dyad perspective. Literature in the context of service quality in supply chains also commonly considers only one directional view (Seth et al., 2006). Knemeyer and Murphy (2005) mean that there is a need to simultaneously consider both shipper and LSP perspectives in order to decrease the risk of key perceptual differences (gaps) that can negatively influence the logistics service quality.

    Shippers and LSPs face an emerging and considerable challenge because of the large negative impact transports have on the natural environment and, as stated by for example the EEA (2007) and Roth and Kåberger (2002), the environmental performance of the transport sector is an increasing problem. Because of growing freight transport it is not surprising that both shippers and LSPs are pressured from different stakeholders, such as governments and customers, to lower their environmental impact from transports (McKinnon, 2003; McKinnon and Piecyk, 2009; Wolf and Seuring, 2010). This creates an opportunity for LSPs to be proactive and meet these demands by considering environmental issues in their business models and as a value adding service offering.

    The correspondence between customer needs and the service offerings is essential in order to succeed with the service concept (Edvardsson, 1997). However, that does not necessarily mean that supply and demand always match. For example, Wolf and Seuring (2010) found that the LSPs seem to be ahead of their customers when it comes to environmental issues, but state this with caution and call for further research in this area. With the aim to learn more about the interface between LSPs and shippers and how environmental issues are taken into account, the purpose of this paper is:

    To develop and apply a tool for the identification of matches and gaps in the interface between LSPs’ green offerings and shippers’ green demands.

    There are many ways to label the actor responsible for the supply of logistics services. In this paper, the term logistics service providers (LSPs) is applied and, inspired by Fabbe-Costes et al. (2009) and Forslund (2010), includes actors such as carriers, forwarding companies, transport(ation) companies, third party logistics providers/partners and logistics service companies/providers/suppliers.

    This paper is divided into five main parts. After the introduction, a literature section on the greening of the LSP-Shipper interface will be presented. This is followed by a gap section, ending with the developed gap model. Next, the survey study is explained, after which findings from the application of the model are presented. The paper ends with conclusions and future research suggestions.

  • 13.
    Forslund, Helena
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The purpose and focus of environmental performance measurement systems in logistics2013In: International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, ISSN 1741-0401, E-ISSN 1758-6658, Vol. 62, no 3, 230-249 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Environmental performance measurement systems (EPMS) in supply chains are increasingly important. The aim of this paper is to investigate the purposes of having an EPMS in logistics and in what ways the purpose of an EPMS can influence its focus in the supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on a survey of shippers and logistics service providers in Sweden. Exploratory factor analysis grouped the EPMS purposes. Regression analysis investigated the relation between EPMS purpose and supply chain focus. Findings: Those companies that had an EPMS had several purposes. The most common EPMS purpose was target setting. The seven purposes could be grouped into one external demand and one internal management factor. The most common focus was company-internal, and the least common was to have a downstream focus. Significant relationships were verified between EPMS purpose and supply chain focus; companies seem to design their EPMS mainly out of internal management purposes. Research limitations/implications: The study contributed to theory on performance measurement in logistics by expanding it to include environmental performance. The richest theoretical contribution is related to the descriptive first research question, which provided theoretical structures and empirical knowledge on EPMS, which to the best of our knowledge has not been published before. Logical, valid and reliable factors or scales for measuring the purpose of EPMS were provided. The conceptualized relation between EPMS purpose and focus is an additional theoretical contribution. Practical implications: Managers are provided with descriptions, structure and input to EPMS design. This paper has increased the understanding on EPMS design, related both to the own company's and other supply chain actors' EPMS. It indicates the complex practices of having many purposes for the EPMS and offers explanation to why companies may be reluctant to expand EPMS beyond their company boundaries. Originality/value: Despite the increasing importance of environmental performance, few studies on EPMS are conducted. This study expands performance measurement knowledge by providing empirical evidence in a Swedish context.

  • 14.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards greener supply chains: Inclusion of environmental activities in relationships between logistics service providers and shippers2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-recognised that companies are under pressure to take responsibility for the environmental impact of their operations. Logistics service providers (LSPs), who through their transport and logistics operations have a large negative impact on the environment, are one type of supply chain actor that is under such pressure. However, in order for LSPs to be able to lower their environmental impact sufficiently, their customers, the shippers, also need to take responsibility. This thesis takes its starting point in the relationships between LSPs and shippers and argues that in order for LSPs’ environmental activities to reach their full potential, the shippers must be included in the activities.

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe and explain how supply chain actors, with a specific focus on logistics service providers and shippers, can include environmental activities in their relationships with each other. This comprises identifying those environmental activities that are relevant for relationships between LSPs and shippers, as well as describing the extent to which environmental activities are included in such relationships. By means of the theoretical perspective of power between supply chain actors, the thesis also sets out to further understand how power balances between LSPs and shippers can influence the extent to which they include environmental activities in their relationships with each other. Finally, the use of the theoretical perspective of coordination aims, through the analysis of coordination mechanisms, to shed light on how environmental activities are included in LSP-shipper relationships.

    The research in this thesis has mainly descriptive and explanatory aims, although due to the novelty of research into LSPshipper relationships in an environmental context, the research process as such is mainly exploratory. Following an abductive approach, the insights from literature are combined with empirical data from two cases studies, a homepage scan, a survey and a study of city logistics projects. Most of the applied research methods take a dual perspective of relationships between supply chain actors and thus include both LSPs and shippers.

    One conclusion from the research conducted for this thesis comprises the identification of environmental activities as well as a suggestion for a classification based on the activities’ role in the business between LSPs and shippers. With a starting point in the identified activities, a comparison of a market perspective and a relationship perspective of environmental activities in LSP-shipper relationships indicates that LSPs are able to fulfil the requirements set by shippers and that shippers’ requirement thus are met. The research does, however, point to a passiveness among LSPs in their relationships with shippers, who in turn would like the LSPs to be more proactive.

    Further, based on an analysis of power balances in LSP-shipper relationships, it is suggested that in an LSP-shipper relationship in which the shipper has a power advantage, the shipper’s environmental ambitions for logistics sets the agenda for the environmental activities in that relationship.

    An analysis of coordination of environmental activities in LSP-shipper relationships indicates that the mechanisms of direct supervision, which is when one actor tells the other actor in the relationship what to do, and mutual adjustment can be chosen to be used in order to include environmental activities in LSP-shipper relationships. While direct supervision is suggested to be a coordination mechanism that is easy for shippers to apply, mutual adjustment appears to hold greater potential for the development of environmental activities.

    Finally, these findings in combination are suggested to have implications for the coordination of environmental activities in LSP-shipper relationships. More specifically, this thesis offers a categorisation of different types of LSP-shipper relationships and the involved actors’ environmental ambition. Depending on whether the environmental ambition of the LSP and shipper in a specific relationship is high or low appears to have implications for the possibility to work towards greener supply chains for each type of relationship.

    List of papers
    1. Towards unearthing environmental activities in the interface between logistics service providers and shippers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards unearthing environmental activities in the interface between logistics service providers and shippers
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper: The importance of environmental consideration for companies is mounting. This applies particularly well to logistics service providers (LSPs) who will have a possibility to compete by being greener than their competitors by offering services that include different environmental activities. As their customers play a vital role with regard to the extent to which LSPs can include environmental activities in their business, the interface between these actors is of interest. The purpose of this article is to describe how environmental logistics activities are offered and required on the logistics market, and how the green logistics exchange that becomes part of a business deal can relate to the scope of activities.

    Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review of what has been published on environmental activities as parts of offerings and requirements was complemented by a wider literature review. Empirical data was collected through a homepage scan and a case study of four LSPshipper dyads. The analysis was performed stepwise, where the empirical data sets complemented and refined the initial findings from the literature review.

    Findings: The paper identifies a range of environmental activities that can be included as parts of offerings of LSPs or requirements of shippers, as well as parts of the green exchange in business deals between these two types of actors. Further, a classification of environmental activities is proposed based on their role in the business between LSPs and shippers.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable): The article is mainly based on companies’ activities in Sweden and thereby provides a possibility to extend the research into other countries as well. By taking two perspectives, the findings from this research can have implications both for purchasing and marketing of logistic services.

    Practical implications (if applicable): The paper suggests which environmental activities that LSPs and shippers can include in different stages of their business relationships.

    What is original/value of paper: The dual perspective of LSPs and shippers taken in this paper offers novel insight into how various environmental activities can be included at different stages of LSP-shipper relationships.

    Keyword
    Logistics service provider, green logistics, offering, environmental activity, data triangulation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102560 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-12-13 Created: 2013-12-13 Last updated: 2016-11-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Performance Measurements in the Greening of Supply Chains
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Measurements in the Greening of Supply Chains
    2012 (English)In: Supply chain management, ISSN 1359-8546, E-ISSN 1758-6852, Vol. 17, no 1, 29-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In response to increasing demands on improved environmental performance, companies need to develop their capabilities in assessing the environmental performance of their operations. Knowledge among practitioners as well as solid research results in this area lacks. This paper aims to present a framework of dimensions important to consider regarding environmental measurement in supply chain management. The paper also aims to present a practical example on how environmental performance measurements can be a success by applying these dimensions.

    Design/methodology/approach: Literature regarding logistics management and performance measurement is coupled with theories regarding environmental logistics and green supply chain management. A framework is developed. A case study based on four actors in a reverse supply chain is used to illustrate the framework.

    Findings: The paper outlines important aspects to consider in the design of environmental performance measurements in supply chain management and identifies shortcomings in existing research. The case presents successful examples of how environmental performance measurements can be applied across managerial levels as well as company borders in a supply chain.

    Practical implications: The literature review shows shortcomings in the measuring tools applied today. The case provides examples of how these shortcomings can be addressed.

    Originality/value: This paper addresses the intersection between environmental logistics and performance measurements. The case shows how environmental performance measurements can be applied over a single company’s borders by including four different actors in the supply chain.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012
    Keyword
    Environmental logistics, Logistics measurement and performance, Green performance measurement, Supply chain management.
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68842 (URN)10.1108/13598541211212186 (DOI)000301694700004 ()
    Projects
    Konkurrenskraftiga affärsmodeller för att möta framtidens krav på hållbara logistiksystem
    Available from: 2011-06-08 Created: 2011-06-08 Last updated: 2016-11-30
    3. The importance of stakeholder relationships in city logistics projects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The importance of stakeholder relationships in city logistics projects
    2012 (English)In: NoFoMa Conference, Book of proceedings / [ed] Juuso Töyli, Laura Johansson, Harri Lorentz, Lauri Ojala and Sini Laari, Naantali, Finland., 2012, 602-617 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper: As a result of the negative impact of freight transport on the environment, logistics solutions in city centres have recently attracted increasing attention. In order to succeed with city logistics projects, collaboration between various stakeholders such as local authorities, logistics companies, retailers and property owners is essential, which is one reason why the interdependence among the stakeholders is a crucial aspect in relation to the projects. The purpose of this paper is to explore city logistics projects based on stakeholders’ cooperative relationships and to suggest how the nature of dependence between the stakeholders can affect the project.

    Design/methodology/approach: A wide range of documented city logistics projects is narrowed down in an iterative process, and three projects where relationships are described are analysed, supported by literature on interorganisational relationships. The analysis is based on the official documentation of city logistics projects.

    Findings: This paper illustrates how dependence between stakeholders in city logistics solutions can affect the project. The local authorities’ dependence on the commercial stakeholders is a common pattern, while the residents/consumers are those most often neglected. Although local authorities apply different strategies to involve various stakeholder groups, the poor documentation of stakeholder relationships suggests that this issue has been given limited attention in city logistics projects.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable): Because of the impact of stakeholder relationships on city logistics projects, it is suggested that future projects would benefit from increased attention being paid to such relationships.

    Practical implications (if applicable): The notion of how various dependencies between actors may affect the projects can be beneficial for local authorities as it leads to a better understanding of their dependence on other stakeholders.

    Originality/value: With support from literature on inter-organisational relationships, this research addresses the often omitted aspects of stakeholder collaboration and, specifically, the impact of stakeholder dependence in city logistics projects.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Naantali, Finland.: , 2012
    Keyword
    City logistics, stakeholders, inter-organisational relationships, stakeholder dependence
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79645 (URN)978-952-249-204-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    NoFoMa Conference 2012, 24th NOFOMA Conference, 7-8 June, Turku, Finland
    Available from: 2012-08-13 Created: 2012-08-13 Last updated: 2016-11-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Matches and Gaps in the Green Logistics market
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Matches and Gaps in the Green Logistics market
    2012 (English)In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, Vol. 42, no 6, 562-583 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The management of interfaces is central in supply chain management (SCM) and logistics. An important part of SCM is coordination and collaboration with different partners such as suppliers, intermediaries, third party service providers and customers (CSCMP, 2010). Collaboration between parties in the supply chain is generally believed to decrease costs and increase efficiency as well as service. Moreover, the success of a firm is dependent on its managerial ability to integrate and coordinate the business relationships among the supply chain members (Lambert and Cooper, 2000). The supply chain linkage ought to be so tight that separate organizational units share the same purpose and suppliers and customers help each other to achieve mutually beneficial objectives (Seth et al., 2006).

    In the SCM literature interfaces seldom include the logistics service provider (hereafter labelled LSP). Instead, most interfaces discussed are those between a shipper and the receiver of the goods (Skjoett-Larsen et al., 2003; Stefanson, 2006). One reason for this could be that logistics firms are the least integrated link in supply chains (Lemoine and Skjoett-larsen, 2004) or that, as noted by Fabbe-Costes et al. (2009), LSPs seem to be the forgotten actors of supply chain integration. Furthermore, LSPs are often merely seen as actors that supports other members of the supply chain, providing resources, knowledge, utilities or assets for the primary members (Spens and Bask, 2002). Several logistics related trends, such as the shift towards outsourcing and increased globalisation, increase the need for strong relationships between LSPs and supplychains (Seth et al., 2006).

    Most of the research conducted on LSPs applies either a shipper or an LSP perspective, instead of a dyad perspective. Literature in the context of service quality in supply chains also commonly considers only one directional view (Seth et al., 2006). Knemeyer and Murphy (2005) mean that there is a need to simultaneously consider both shipper and LSP perspectives in order to decrease the risk of key perceptual differences (gaps) that can negatively influence the logistics service quality.

    Shippers and LSPs face an emerging and considerable challenge because of the large negative impact transports have on the natural environment and, as stated by for example the EEA (2007) and Roth and Kåberger (2002), the environmental performance of the transport sector is an increasing problem. Because of growing freight transport it is not surprising that both shippers and LSPs are pressured from different stakeholders, such as governments and customers, to lower their environmental impact from transports (McKinnon, 2003; McKinnon and Piecyk, 2009; Wolf and Seuring, 2010). This creates an opportunity for LSPs to be proactive and meet these demands by considering environmental issues in their business models and as a value adding service offering.

    The correspondence between customer needs and the service offerings is essential in order to succeed with the service concept (Edvardsson, 1997). However, that does not necessarily mean that supply and demand always match. For example, Wolf and Seuring (2010) found that the LSPs seem to be ahead of their customers when it comes to environmental issues, but state this with caution and call for further research in this area. With the aim to learn more about the interface between LSPs and shippers and how environmental issues are taken into account, the purpose of this paper is:

    To develop and apply a tool for the identification of matches and gaps in the interface between LSPs’ green offerings and shippers’ green demands.

    There are many ways to label the actor responsible for the supply of logistics services. In this paper, the term logistics service providers (LSPs) is applied and, inspired by Fabbe-Costes et al. (2009) and Forslund (2010), includes actors such as carriers, forwarding companies, transport(ation) companies, third party logistics providers/partners and logistics service companies/providers/suppliers.

    This paper is divided into five main parts. After the introduction, a literature section on the greening of the LSP-Shipper interface will be presented. This is followed by a gap section, ending with the developed gap model. Next, the survey study is explained, after which findings from the application of the model are presented. The paper ends with conclusions and future research suggestions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald, 2012
    Keyword
    Sweden, Logistics management, Environmental management, Logistics service provider, Shippers, Interface, Green logistics, Gap analysis
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68838 (URN)10.1108/09600031211250596 (DOI)000314562000004 ()
    Projects
    Konkurrenskraftiga affärsmodeller för att möta framtidens krav på hållbara logistiksystem
    Available from: 2011-06-08 Created: 2011-06-08 Last updated: 2016-11-30
    5. Coordination of environmental measures in logistics service privider-shipper relationships
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coordination of environmental measures in logistics service privider-shipper relationships
    2013 (English)In: Digital proceedings of the 25th NOFOMA Conference, 2013, 1-16 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Despite increasing research into logistics service providers’ (LSPs’) environmental measures, limited attention has been given to LSP-shipper relationships. This is surprising considering the fact that there is increasing pressure on supply chains to become greener and LSPs are important actors in these supply chains. The aim of this paper is to suggest how environmental measures can be coordinated in LSP-shipper relationships.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Four dyadic case studies, consisting of one LSP and one shipper each, provide the empirical basis for this paper. Literature on interorganisational coordination mechanisms is applied to the case findings in order to analyse how environmental measures are coordinated in the dyads. 

    Findings

    This paper identifies a number of coordination mechanisms applicable for different types of environmental measures in LSP-shipper relationships. Moreover, it is suggested that some environmental measures that can be taken in LSP-shipper relationships can be coordinated through different types of coordination mechanisms.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable)

    Although the four cases presented in this paper give suggestions of coordination of environmental measures, studies into additional dyads could give further understanding with regards to environmental coordination in LSP-shipper relationships.

    Practical implications (if applicable)

    The results of this paper can help both LSPs and shippers understand how to work with environmental measures by the use of the appropriate coordination mechanisms.

    Original/value

    Contrary to previous research, which mainly takes one party's perspective, this paper takes a dyadic approach and thereby adds valuable knowledge to the interorganisational aspects of LSPs’ environmental work.

    Keyword
    Coordination mechanism, dyads, logistics service provider, green supply chains, environmental measures, interorganisational relationships
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98701 (URN)978-91-980973-3-7 (ISBN)
    Conference
    25th NOFOMA Conference, 3-5 June 2013, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Projects
    Effektivare Citylogistik – En nödvändighet för både industri och samhälle
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2013-10-11 Created: 2013-10-11 Last updated: 2016-11-30
  • 15.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Coordination of environmental measures in logistics service privider-shipper relationships2013In: Digital proceedings of the 25th NOFOMA Conference, 2013, 1-16 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Despite increasing research into logistics service providers’ (LSPs’) environmental measures, limited attention has been given to LSP-shipper relationships. This is surprising considering the fact that there is increasing pressure on supply chains to become greener and LSPs are important actors in these supply chains. The aim of this paper is to suggest how environmental measures can be coordinated in LSP-shipper relationships.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Four dyadic case studies, consisting of one LSP and one shipper each, provide the empirical basis for this paper. Literature on interorganisational coordination mechanisms is applied to the case findings in order to analyse how environmental measures are coordinated in the dyads. 

    Findings

    This paper identifies a number of coordination mechanisms applicable for different types of environmental measures in LSP-shipper relationships. Moreover, it is suggested that some environmental measures that can be taken in LSP-shipper relationships can be coordinated through different types of coordination mechanisms.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable)

    Although the four cases presented in this paper give suggestions of coordination of environmental measures, studies into additional dyads could give further understanding with regards to environmental coordination in LSP-shipper relationships.

    Practical implications (if applicable)

    The results of this paper can help both LSPs and shippers understand how to work with environmental measures by the use of the appropriate coordination mechanisms.

    Original/value

    Contrary to previous research, which mainly takes one party's perspective, this paper takes a dyadic approach and thereby adds valuable knowledge to the interorganisational aspects of LSPs’ environmental work.

  • 16.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The inclusion of green dimensions in the logistics market: A relationship approach2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Despite the fact that cooperation is commonly mentioned as important in the greening of supply chains, interaction between logistics service providers and shippers are rarely investigated in green logistics literature. Moreover, the knowledge of how green factors are taken into consideration in relationships on the logistics market appears to be very limited. The purpose of this paper is therefore to analyse how green factors are taken into account in relationships between logistics service providers and shippers.

    Research approach:

    This paper is based on a multiple case study, where four dyads between logistics service providers and shippers are researched. Logistics service providers as well as shippers are selected based on their environmental ambitions in logistics as well as in a more general sense. Both a single-case analysis and a cross-case analysis are conducted, based on evidence primarily from interviews with employees that are involved in the specific studied relationships. Relationship dimensions are investigated in order to analyse similarities and differences in matches and gaps of various green categories in the relationships.

    Findings and Originality:

    Contrary to previous research, this paper sheds light on how green factors can be taken into account in specific relationships between logistics service providers and shippers. Matches and gaps between green offerings and green demands are identified and explained by relationship characteristics that appear in these specific company interactions. Four propositions are developed and it is suggested that the closeness of a business relationship has an impact on the inclusion of green factors in that relationship.

    Research impact:

    This research provides a first indication that relational factors are of importance for the success of “green relationships”. It would be fruitful to extend the research to cover a longer period of time to understand how the inclusion of green factors in logistics market relationship changes over time. Moreover, given that the case studies provide a description of relationships on a national logistics market, it would be beneficial to study other countries’ logistics market as well.

    Practical impact:

    The findings of this paper apply to both logistics service providers and shippers who have an ambition to green their logistics operations. Both actors can benefit from knowledge about which relationship dimensions that may be of importance in order to succeed with the greening of logistics service provider-shipper relationships.

  • 17.
    Martinsen, Uni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greening the offerings of logistics service providers2010In: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual NOFOMA Conference: Logistics and Supply Chain Management in a Globalised Economy / [ed] Arlbjørn Stentoft, Kolding, 2010, 969-984 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper: The importance of green aspects for companies is increasing. Therefore logistics service providers have a possibility to compete by being greener than their competitors. One possibility is to offer services that include different green aspects. The purpose of this paper is to develop a description of possible green categories of a logistics offering, based on a combination of customer and logistics service provider perspectives.

    Design/methodology/approach: A structured literature review showed what has been published on offerings and requirements regarding green logistics. Empirical data was collected in two steps. A survey was sent out to both shippers and logistics service providers and selected company homepages were scanned.

    Findings: The paper identifies a range of green categories as well as more specific aspects that can be a part of logistics service providers’ offerings. The findings consist of views from shippers as well as logistics service providers.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable): The paper is mainly based on Swedish companies only and thereby provides a possibility to extend the research into other countries as well. Specific research on logistics companies’ green offerings is still scarce and a multidisciplinary approach is recommended for future research.

    Practical implications (if applicable): The paper provides insight into which green aspects logistics service providers can include in their offerings, as well as what customers could demand from logistics service providers.

    What is original/value of paper: This paper illustrates both theoretically and empirically which green aspects that can be included in offerings and thereby providing logistics service providers with increased competitiveness alongside increased sustainability.

  • 18.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Green Supply and Demand on the Logistics Market2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-known concept, both in practice and in literature is the logistics market. This market is a place where shippers’ demand for logistics services meets Logistics Service Providers’ (LSPs’) supply of such services. Although this market has been given much attention in previous research, focus has been on shippers, while the LSP perspective has to a large extent been neglected. Several logistics related trends indicate that there is an increasing need for strong relationships between LSPs and supply chains, and one such trend is the “greening” of companies and supply chains. Although it is widely recognised that transports and  logistics are a major cause of greenhouse gas emissions, environmental logistics literature has only focused on the interaction between LSPs and their customers to a very limited extent. This is despite the fact that LSPs could include so-called green categories in their offerings, just as shippers could include green categories in their demands and that this interaction could in turn contribute to a decrease of greenhouse gas emissions.

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe the extent to which green categories are taken into account in the logistics market and suggest explanations. This includes identifying those green categories that are relevant for the logistics market, as well as a description of matches and mismatches with regard to these green categories. The matches and mismatches are studied from both a general market perspective and a relationship perspective. Initial explanations for the matches and mismatches in the relationship perspective contribute to the final part of the purpose.

    There are two basic theoretical starting-points in this thesis. Firstly, it is recognised that the logistics market is important to the purpose and different ways to view this market are therefore discussed. Secondly, general environmental logistics literature provides a basis for the research into green categories that can be offered or demanded on the logistics market. In the exploratoryresearch conducted for the thesis, the insights from literature are combined with empirical datafrom a survey, a homepage scan and four case studies of buyer-supplier relationships.

    One main contribution of this thesis is the large number of green categories that are identified as relevant for LSPs and shippers on the logistics market. These green categories range from environmental management systems, vehicle technologies and CO2 reports, to reviews of sustainability reports, relationship specific green projects and general desires among shippers to decrease CO2 emissions.

    A comparison of the supply of and demand for the green categories indicates that from a general market perspective, there appear to be clear mismatches between green supply and green demand. The same comparison made from a relationship perspective also indicates severalmismatches between green supply and green demand, but the buyer-supplier relationships studied show matches between green offerings and green demands to a greater extent than the market perspective does. Interestingly, the LSPs seem to include more in their offerings than the shippers appear to include in their demands for almost all mismatches in both the market perspective and the relationship perspective.

    Seven propositions are made to account for the matches and mismatches between green categories in buyer-supplier relationships. Three of these propositions are related to the characteristics of those green categories that are found in the relationships. It is suggested that the tangibility level of green categories influences the occurrence of matches and mismatches in the relationships and the more tangible a green category is, the higher is the likelihood of a match between supply and demand in that relationship. The opposite is also suggested, as well as the idea that the more relationship specific green categories are, the fewer the mismatches that appear in that relationship.

    The remaining four propositions relate to the potential connection between the type of relationship between LSPs and shippers and green matches and mismatches in their relationships. It is suggested that the closer a business relationship is, 1) the greater the number of green categories it has 2) the better green categories are communicated 3) the greater the number of matches compared to mismatches of green categories and 4) the higher the level of green category collaboration is.

    List of papers
    1. Greening the offerings of logistics service providers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greening the offerings of logistics service providers
    2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual NOFOMA Conference: Logistics and Supply Chain Management in a Globalised Economy / [ed] Arlbjørn Stentoft, Kolding, 2010, 969-984 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper: The importance of green aspects for companies is increasing. Therefore logistics service providers have a possibility to compete by being greener than their competitors. One possibility is to offer services that include different green aspects. The purpose of this paper is to develop a description of possible green categories of a logistics offering, based on a combination of customer and logistics service provider perspectives.

    Design/methodology/approach: A structured literature review showed what has been published on offerings and requirements regarding green logistics. Empirical data was collected in two steps. A survey was sent out to both shippers and logistics service providers and selected company homepages were scanned.

    Findings: The paper identifies a range of green categories as well as more specific aspects that can be a part of logistics service providers’ offerings. The findings consist of views from shippers as well as logistics service providers.

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable): The paper is mainly based on Swedish companies only and thereby provides a possibility to extend the research into other countries as well. Specific research on logistics companies’ green offerings is still scarce and a multidisciplinary approach is recommended for future research.

    Practical implications (if applicable): The paper provides insight into which green aspects logistics service providers can include in their offerings, as well as what customers could demand from logistics service providers.

    What is original/value of paper: This paper illustrates both theoretically and empirically which green aspects that can be included in offerings and thereby providing logistics service providers with increased competitiveness alongside increased sustainability.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Kolding: , 2010
    Keyword
    Logistics service provider, green logistics, offering, customer demands, survey
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-62708 (URN)978-87-92471-05-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    The 22nd Annual NOFOMA Conference, June 10-11, Kolding, Denmark
    Projects
    Konkurrenskraftiga affärsmodeller för att möta framtidens krav på hållbara logistiksystem
    Available from: 2010-12-02 Created: 2010-12-02 Last updated: 2016-11-30
    2. Matches and Gaps in the Green Logistics market
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Matches and Gaps in the Green Logistics market
    2012 (English)In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, Vol. 42, no 6, 562-583 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The management of interfaces is central in supply chain management (SCM) and logistics. An important part of SCM is coordination and collaboration with different partners such as suppliers, intermediaries, third party service providers and customers (CSCMP, 2010). Collaboration between parties in the supply chain is generally believed to decrease costs and increase efficiency as well as service. Moreover, the success of a firm is dependent on its managerial ability to integrate and coordinate the business relationships among the supply chain members (Lambert and Cooper, 2000). The supply chain linkage ought to be so tight that separate organizational units share the same purpose and suppliers and customers help each other to achieve mutually beneficial objectives (Seth et al., 2006).

    In the SCM literature interfaces seldom include the logistics service provider (hereafter labelled LSP). Instead, most interfaces discussed are those between a shipper and the receiver of the goods (Skjoett-Larsen et al., 2003; Stefanson, 2006). One reason for this could be that logistics firms are the least integrated link in supply chains (Lemoine and Skjoett-larsen, 2004) or that, as noted by Fabbe-Costes et al. (2009), LSPs seem to be the forgotten actors of supply chain integration. Furthermore, LSPs are often merely seen as actors that supports other members of the supply chain, providing resources, knowledge, utilities or assets for the primary members (Spens and Bask, 2002). Several logistics related trends, such as the shift towards outsourcing and increased globalisation, increase the need for strong relationships between LSPs and supplychains (Seth et al., 2006).

    Most of the research conducted on LSPs applies either a shipper or an LSP perspective, instead of a dyad perspective. Literature in the context of service quality in supply chains also commonly considers only one directional view (Seth et al., 2006). Knemeyer and Murphy (2005) mean that there is a need to simultaneously consider both shipper and LSP perspectives in order to decrease the risk of key perceptual differences (gaps) that can negatively influence the logistics service quality.

    Shippers and LSPs face an emerging and considerable challenge because of the large negative impact transports have on the natural environment and, as stated by for example the EEA (2007) and Roth and Kåberger (2002), the environmental performance of the transport sector is an increasing problem. Because of growing freight transport it is not surprising that both shippers and LSPs are pressured from different stakeholders, such as governments and customers, to lower their environmental impact from transports (McKinnon, 2003; McKinnon and Piecyk, 2009; Wolf and Seuring, 2010). This creates an opportunity for LSPs to be proactive and meet these demands by considering environmental issues in their business models and as a value adding service offering.

    The correspondence between customer needs and the service offerings is essential in order to succeed with the service concept (Edvardsson, 1997). However, that does not necessarily mean that supply and demand always match. For example, Wolf and Seuring (2010) found that the LSPs seem to be ahead of their customers when it comes to environmental issues, but state this with caution and call for further research in this area. With the aim to learn more about the interface between LSPs and shippers and how environmental issues are taken into account, the purpose of this paper is:

    To develop and apply a tool for the identification of matches and gaps in the interface between LSPs’ green offerings and shippers’ green demands.

    There are many ways to label the actor responsible for the supply of logistics services. In this paper, the term logistics service providers (LSPs) is applied and, inspired by Fabbe-Costes et al. (2009) and Forslund (2010), includes actors such as carriers, forwarding companies, transport(ation) companies, third party logistics providers/partners and logistics service companies/providers/suppliers.

    This paper is divided into five main parts. After the introduction, a literature section on the greening of the LSP-Shipper interface will be presented. This is followed by a gap section, ending with the developed gap model. Next, the survey study is explained, after which findings from the application of the model are presented. The paper ends with conclusions and future research suggestions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald, 2012
    Keyword
    Sweden, Logistics management, Environmental management, Logistics service provider, Shippers, Interface, Green logistics, Gap analysis
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68838 (URN)10.1108/09600031211250596 (DOI)000314562000004 ()
    Projects
    Konkurrenskraftiga affärsmodeller för att möta framtidens krav på hållbara logistiksystem
    Available from: 2011-06-08 Created: 2011-06-08 Last updated: 2016-11-30
    3. Performance Measurements in the Greening of Supply Chains
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Measurements in the Greening of Supply Chains
    2012 (English)In: Supply chain management, ISSN 1359-8546, E-ISSN 1758-6852, Vol. 17, no 1, 29-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In response to increasing demands on improved environmental performance, companies need to develop their capabilities in assessing the environmental performance of their operations. Knowledge among practitioners as well as solid research results in this area lacks. This paper aims to present a framework of dimensions important to consider regarding environmental measurement in supply chain management. The paper also aims to present a practical example on how environmental performance measurements can be a success by applying these dimensions.

    Design/methodology/approach: Literature regarding logistics management and performance measurement is coupled with theories regarding environmental logistics and green supply chain management. A framework is developed. A case study based on four actors in a reverse supply chain is used to illustrate the framework.

    Findings: The paper outlines important aspects to consider in the design of environmental performance measurements in supply chain management and identifies shortcomings in existing research. The case presents successful examples of how environmental performance measurements can be applied across managerial levels as well as company borders in a supply chain.

    Practical implications: The literature review shows shortcomings in the measuring tools applied today. The case provides examples of how these shortcomings can be addressed.

    Originality/value: This paper addresses the intersection between environmental logistics and performance measurements. The case shows how environmental performance measurements can be applied over a single company’s borders by including four different actors in the supply chain.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012
    Keyword
    Environmental logistics, Logistics measurement and performance, Green performance measurement, Supply chain management.
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-68842 (URN)10.1108/13598541211212186 (DOI)000301694700004 ()
    Projects
    Konkurrenskraftiga affärsmodeller för att möta framtidens krav på hållbara logistiksystem
    Available from: 2011-06-08 Created: 2011-06-08 Last updated: 2016-11-30
  • 19.
    Björklund, Maria
    Department of Industrial Management and Logistics Engineering Logistics, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sweden.
    Purchasing Practices of Environmentally Preferable Transport Services: Guidance to increased shipper considerations2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The logistical activity of transport is one of the largest contributors to several environmental problems. One efficient and effective way to decrease the environmental impact from transports is to implement changes in the logistically related strategies and activities applied, such as the selection of transport suppliers. Consideration of the environmental aspect when purchasing transport services is still quite an unexplored area, and the need for guidance is large and desired by many firms. The objective of this study is to provide guidance about how shippers can increase their environmental concern when purchasing transport services. Theory regarding purchasing of environmentally preferable transport services is very limited. As a result, an elaborated frame of reference has been built on the basis of related areas, such as transport, purchasing and environmental practices. A survey study of 50 shippers operating within either the food or forestry sectors in Sweden showed that most respondents take the environmental aspects into consideration to a greater extent than required by law when purchasing transport services. Furthermore, most respondents had increased their environmental consideration when purchasing transport services during the last five years. There exist many practices that can be applied when purchasing environmentally preferable transport services. One common denominator of these practices is that they can be seen as parts of an environmentally preferable purchasing process developed in the present study. An analysis based on the survey study findings and the theoretical frame of reference shows that all survey study respondents can increase the environmental ambition of the practices applied. A further analysis of these potentials to improve the environmental ambition resulted in eight guiding principles. A tool was also developed which can provide guidance as to how shippers in a structural, efficient and effective way can address the first four of these principles. The eight guiding principles that my study suggests are important for shippers to look into are: -To see the environmentally preferable purchasing process for transport services as a whole. -To strive to apply a more uniform level of environmental ambition in the practices. ?To know the strengths and weaknesses of the environmentally preferable purchasing practices applied. ? To strive to apply similar practices within the company. -To initiate change, if needed and possible, in the internal conditions. -To continuously improve the practices applied. -To be as clear as possible in all communication. -To increase the information exchange with internal and external actors.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Dan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Logistics Alliances and Structural Change1995Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of why and in what way shippers outsource logistics operations into partnerships with logistics service providers. These relationships are called "operational alliances in logistics" (OALs). Furthermore the effects of the OALs have been studied from a shipper's point of view.

    In previous research the focus has been on analysing the shippers' attitudes towards outsourcing of logistics. In this study, I have tried to go one step further and document and analyse results of actual OALs. The focus is on the materials flow from the shipper via a logistics service provider to the customer.

    The logistics service provider could be a transport operator, forwarder, public warehousing company etc .. A quarter of the shippers were from the consumer package goods sector and the rest of the companies were distributed over various industry sectors.

    The research methodology used in this study is an integration of a quantitati ve anda qualitative approach, based on a combination of a European survey of 47 shippers in five countries and a multiple case studies of four Swedish companies. The survey gave answers to quantifiable questions like "what", and "how much" etc .. The case studies were used to explain some of the results from the survey, e.g. the interrelationship between structural changes and operational alliances in logistics.

    The study identifies three major groups of driving forces for the set-up of an operational alliance in logistics, from the shipper's point of view:

    • reduction of costs/investments and improvement of service
    • improved strategic flexibility
    • need for structural change

    According to this study cost as a driving force has not the dorninating role as indicated by previous studies. All case companies were involved in structural changes, and the OAL was considered to be a tool to change distribution structures and change them fast, as well as reduce  investment needs.

    According to the survey most of the barriers to an OAL are related to the service provider, e.g. "inadequate knowledge by the provider of the shipper's business particulars", "inadequate IT systems" and the risk of having "all eggs in one basket".

    In the case studies the shippers did not indicate the same barriers, and those indicated were primarily connected to intemal problems, e.g. "loss of employment", "no acceptance by management and employees" In previous research, the barrier "loss of control" has often been indicated as the mo st important. However, in this study there was no indication  that this barrier was of any importance. Instead, the results show that an OAL leads to improved control of cost and performance.

    According to the survey the activities within an operational alliance in logistics are usually restricted to basic logistics services, such as warehousing and transport. However the shippers investigated in the casestudies, do not quite fit into this description. In all four cases the providers take care of all of the materials flow from the producer to the customer. In one case all logistics activities have been outsourced. In addition to transport and warehousing services, activities such as daily contacts with suppliers, inventory control and order processing are included.

    This study supports previous research that claims that a good shipperprovider relationship is essential for an operational alliance in logistics. In order to achieve a successful alliance there must also be good communications and exchange of information. In the companies studied the most frequent information exchange and visits take place at the operational management level. But there are also regular contacts at both logistics management level and top management level.

    OALs are almost always based on a written contract, which in general is quite flexible even though detailed specifications and performance targets are included.

    The identified effects of the OALs have been divided into four areas:

    • Cost: long term reductions but sometimes short term increases
    • Service performance: long term increase but sometimes short term decrease
    • Structural change: changed or new distribution structures
    • Control: improved control of cost and perf ormance

    The shippers assess the relative importance of the actual economic benefits expressed in reduced costs and improved service perf ormance as equal. The main reason for the cost advantages is believed to be economies of scale and scope, and the main reason for the service advantage is believed to be on-time delivery. However, in some cases the costs increased and service performance decreased during the start-up period.

    OALs improve service performance and reduce costs. At the same time OALs facilitate structural changes and this indirectly improves the overall performance of the shippers This important link between operational alliances and structural change, which is also reflected in the driving forces, is something that has largely been neglected by previous research. The total effects of an OAL should lead to improved competitiveness and even to an improved ability to handle increased globalisation.

  • 21.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Maack, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Martinsen, Uni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Back from the Future: Report on Sustainable Logistics Systems 20202009In: Proceedings from the 14th Annual Logistics Research Network Conference: Volatile and Fragile Supply Chains, Cardiff, Wales: Cardiff Business School , 2009, 117-123 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Due to the alarming reports on climate change probably caused by industrial and human activities, the awareness that “we need to do something” is growing in society. And there is not much time – in 2050 CO2-emissions need to be reduced by 80%, compared to the levels some decade ago. In this a huge challenge is to pinpoint where we want to arrive, and what an improved future forecast may look like. Gazing as far as to 2050 would be accurate, however taking such a large leap can be considered as such a large effort that it paralyses rather than encourages action. As there is a need to start acting immediately to be able to alter the development, we have chosen to, as a first step, take a look at what should and can be accomplished during a shorter period of time, and start by gazing towards 2020. The paper aims at the logistics- and transport domain.

    The purpose of the paper is to describe and discuss desirable scenarios regarding sustainable transport- and logistics systems by 2020.

    Research approach

    The basis for this paper is a series of focused group meetings in a “Think-tank” setting, where actors representing shippers, logistics- and transport providers and authorities were gathered into group discussions. The task given to the participants was to discuss what goals they perceived as both necessary to reach, and realistic to have reached, by 2020. Scenarios were built based on notes from four researchers acting “flies-on the-wall” in the Think-tank.

    Findings and Originality

    The findings of this paper are presented as a scenario, or a “report from the future”, of the situation for transport and logistics in 2020 when the development has become more sustainable. The data gathering and scenario building was initially focused on CO2-emissions, however an aspect that emerged as perhaps even more relevant was the more general discussion on resources and energy. The scenarios include innovations in product development and delivery, elaborations on the global centralisation trends, new views on delivery service aspects and collaborative initiatives.

    Research impact

    The paper takes mainly a corporate approach to transport and logistics. It provides insight into what can be realistic goals in a close future, and which changes are needed to reach these goals.

     

    Practical impact

    The paper can provide a basis for further discussions among practitioners on where to direct future actions.

  • 22.
    Lindskog, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Changing to third party logistics2003Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Third party logistics (TPL), the procurement of an integrated set of logistics services in a long-term relationship between a shipper (goods owner) and a service provider, is today a viable option for how companies carry out their logistics activities. Very little has been written on implementation or change issues in a TPL setting; these issues are identified as important, but not elaborated. There is however reason to believe that implementation of TPL arrangements, or rather establishment thereof, involves a complex change process involving substantial change for a wide range of actors in both the shipper’s and the provider’s organisation.

    When comparing literature that deals with the TPL establishment process with a stream of research that is concerned with logistics change, it comes to light that there is a discrepancy between the theoretical and methodological foundations of the former works, and what is written in these pieces regarding the process. It is concluded that recommendations for how to manage the establishment process are given without being founded in a theory of process, or research designs capable of studying process. The theoretical underpinnings of TPL literature are founded in a view of change as a matter of conducting rational analysis and conceiving the strategically wisest decisions for the logistics system as a whole. Implementation is viewed as an unproblematic exercise of issuing directives to affected actors, asserting that all actors are rational, therefore rationally conceived decisions will be accepted and implemented accordingly.

    Therefore the overarching purpose of this research is:

    To explore the change process of third party logistics establishment

    To fulfil this purpose the two streams of research mentioned above are combined. A meta-model of process consisting of the three interrelated dimensions content, context, and process forms the starting point for the study of process, but this is not sufficient for a study of change; a theory of change which is capable of capturing the mechanisms of the change process as it unfolds is also needed. Therefore the theory of change of the second stream of research mentioned above is adopted.

    The theory of change encompasses three models of change, which are archetypical representations of the mechanisms underlying change processes according to different assumptions of what change is and how change comes about. These models are denoted the linear, the processual, and the circular. One important aspect of this theory of change is that the approach to change should be aligned with the extent oflearning requirements on the actors who are affected by or involved in the change. An actors perspective is therefore called for, and adopted in this thesis.

    This thesis is the first step of a wider research effort concerned with studying the process of establishing TPL. Therefore, of the three dimensions of change, the contentdimension is excluded from study in this thesis. Governed by the meta-model of process, two research objectives are formulated:

    To explore the context within which the TPL establishment process unfolds and describe the contextual dependence of this process

    &

    To describe the change process of TPL establishment in terms of the linear, processual, and circular models of change

    The empirical investigation applied is a single-case retrospective study, in which the case is the establishment process between a Swedish company and an international TPL service provider. A total of fifteen actors have been interviewed; ten on the shipper side of the dyad, five on the provider side. Although the TPL establishment process is an interorganisational process, this thesis focuses on the intraorganisational process of the shipper, why the empirical material from the other side of the dyad is not used in this thesis, The interorganisational aspect, as well as the intraorganisational side within the provider’s organisation are nevertheless important, and will be included in future research.

    The interviews were carried out in an unstructured manner, in which the interviewees were asked to retell the story from their own perspectives. Actors from varying positions, who were involved in the process, are included in the study; in the total sample all groups who were most affected or involved are represented. The interviews rendered ten stories of the studied process.

    These stories were then analysed by means of a pattern-matching logic, in order to seek out the important contextual dependencies of the process, and to explore the mechanisms of the change process, as it evolved in context.

    After having conducted this first step of the ongoing research effort, four main conclusions can be drawn:

    - The TPL establishment process is context dependent.

    - Not only rational mechanisms are at play in the process.

    - It is important to acknowledge actors, not only systems.

    - It is important to acknowledge the process, not only the decision.

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