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  • 1.
    Ahmed Aamir, Syed
    et al.
    University of Bielefeld, Germany .
    Angelov, Pavel
    AnaCatum Design AB, Linkoping, Sweden .
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    1.2-V Analog Interface for a 300-MSps HD Video Digitizer in Core 65-nm CMOS2014In: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (vlsi) Systems, ISSN 1063-8210, Vol. 22, no 4, 888-898 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the front-end of a fully integrated analog interface for 300 MSps, high-definition video digitizers in a system on-chip environment. The analog interface is implemented in a 1.2 V, 65-nm digital CMOS process and the design minimizes the number of power domains using core transistors only. Each analog video receiver channel contains an integrated multiplexer with a current-mode dc-clamp, a programmable gain amplifier (PGA) and a pseudo second-order RC low-pass filter. The digital charge-pump clamp is integrated with low-voltage bootstrapped tee-switches inside the multiplexer, while restoring the dc component of ac-coupled inputs. The PGA contains a four-stage fully symmetric pseudo-differential amplifier with common-mode feedforward and inherent common-mode feedback, utilized in a closed loop capacitive feedback configuration. The amplifier features offset cancellation during the horizontal blanking. The video interface is evaluated using a unique test signal over a range of video formats for INL+/DNL+, INL-/DNL-. The 0.07-0.39 mV INL, 2-70 mu V DNL, and 66-74 dB of SFDR, enable us to target various formats for 9-12 bit Low-voltage digitizers.

  • 2.
    Kallstrom, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    Helsingborg Hospital.
    Salme, Rebecka
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ryden, Lisa
    Lund University.
    Nordenskjöld, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Jonsson, Per-Ebbe
    Helsingborg Hospital.
    Stål, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    17 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 as predictor of tamoxifen response in premenopausal breast cancer2010In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER, ISSN 0959-8049, Vol. 46, no 5, 892-900 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    17 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17HSDs) are involved in the local regulation of sex steroids. 17HSD1 converts oestrone (El) to the more potent oestradiol (E2) and 17HSD2 catalyses the reverse reaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of these enzymes in premenopausal breast cancers and to analyse if they have any prognostic or tamoxifen predictive value. Premenopausal patients with invasive breast cancer, stage II (UICC), were randomised to either 2 years of adjuvant tamoxifen (n = 276) or no tamoxifen (n = 288). The median follow-up was 13.9 years (range 10.5-17.5). The expression of 17HSD1 and 17HSD2 was analysed with immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. The enzyme expression level (-/+/++/+++) was successfully determined in 396 and 373 tumours, respectively. Women with hormone-receptor positive tumours, with low levels (-/+/++) of 17HSD1, had a 43% reduced risk of recurrence, when treated with tamoxifen (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.86; p = 0.0086). On the other hand high expression (+++) of 17HSD1 was associated with no significant difference between the two treatment arms (HR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.43-1.95; p = 0.82). The interaction between 17HSD1 and tamoxifen was significant during the first 5 years of follow-up (p = 0.023). In the cohort of systemically untreated patients no prognostic importance was observed for 17HSD1. We found no predictive or prognostic value for 17HSD2. This is the first report of 17HSD1 in a cohort of premenopausal women with breast cancer randomised to tamoxifen. Our data suggest that 17HSD1 might be a predictive factor in this group of patients.

  • 3.
    Erni, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Smedberg, Kåre
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    2011 års uppdatering av Skuldsaneringslagen (2006:548): En granskning av hur uppdateringen påverkat enskilda näringsidkare och borgenärer2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Government considered despite the introduction of the 1994 debt rescheduling act (1994:334) that a solution was needed to the problem that individual traders neither could be granted debt relief or corporate restructuring to thus be able to continue operations if they got into financial insolvency. Therefore in 2007 a special investigator was added to investigate and make proposals for debt relief for individual traders. This study was the basis for the Government bill that the Parliament in October 2010 decided upon.

    The main issue

    What impact has the new debt rescheduling act meant for traders as well as creditors?

    Purpose

    Our purpose of the bachelor thesis is to explore if the new debt rescheduling act (2006:548) has achieved the expected goals, the study will also investigate if the new debt rescheduling act has resulted in any other effects.

    Method

    The study's purpose is answered by a personal interview and several questionnaires that have been collected for the empirical material. The processing of the empirical material was made by a qualitative method. Referrals and propositions have also been used to help answer the bachelor thesis purpose, when the reference frame and the conclusion were set against each other.

    Conclusion

    The actual impact of the new debt rescheduling act (2006:548) is that individual traders can get debt relief if the insolvency was because the trader could not work for a long period of time and therefore ended up in financial trouble. In an insolvency situation the age of the debts are not considered in the same way as before, which meant that a debtor can apply for debt relief in an earlier stage. That this would contribute to deterioration in payment behavior and elevated interest rates appears unchanged. At the change of a criterion such as the age of the debt, a clear effect on the number of debt applications can be seen.

  • 4.
    Bengtson, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    2.5 Gb/s, 72 dBΩ transimpedance amplifier in 0.35 μm CMOS2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A differential transimpedance amplifier in a 3.3 V 0.35 μm CMOS process with an fT of 17 GHz is presented. Measurements demonstrate a transimpedance gain of 72 dBΩ and 1.4 GHz bandwidth. Eye diagrams at a data rate of 2.5 Gb/s show a dynamic range of more than 60 dB. The performance is reached with a three-stage transimpedance amplifier, utilizing differential high-speed stages and carefully chosen peaking frequencies.

  • 5.
    Waernér, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D Graphics Technologies for Web Applications: An Evaluation from the Perspective of a Real World Application2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Web applications are becoming increasingly sophisticated and functionality that was once exclusive to regular desktop applications can now be found in web applications as well. One of the more recent advances in this field is the ability for web applications to render 3D graphics. Coupled with the growing number of devices with graphics processors and the ability of web applications to run on many different platforms using a single code base, this represents an exciting new possibility for developers of 3D graphics applications.

    This thesis aims to explore and evaluate the technologies for 3D graphics that can be used in web applications, with the final goal of using one of them in a prototype application. This prototype will serve as a foundation for an application to be included in a commercial product. The evaluation is performed using general criteria so as to be useful for other applications as well, with one part presenting the available technologies and another part evaluating the three most promising technologies more in-depth using test programs.

    The results show that, although some technologies are not production-ready, there are a few which can be used in commercial software, including the three chosen for further evaluation; WebGL, the Java library JOGL and Stage 3D for Flash. Among these, there is no clear winner and it is up to the application requirements to decide which to use. The thesis demonstrates an application built with WebGL and shows that fairly demanding 3D graphics web applications can be built. Also included are the lessons learned during the development and thoughts on the future of 3D graphics in web applications.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    3D Reconstruction of Human Faces from Reflectance Fields2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human viewers are extremely sensitive to the appearanceof peoples faces, which makes the rendering of realistic human faces a challenging problem. Techniques for doing this have continuously been invented and evolved since more than thirty years.

    This thesis makes use of recent methods within the area of image based rendering, namely the acquisition of reflectance fields from human faces. The reflectance fields are used to synthesize and realistically render models of human faces.

    A shape from shading technique, assuming that human skin adheres to the Phong model, has been used to estimate surface normals. Belief propagation in graphs has then been used to enforce integrability before reconstructing the surfaces. Finally, the additivity of light has been used to realistically render the models.

    The resulting models closely resemble the subjects from which they were created, and can realistically be rendered from novel directions in any illumination environment.

  • 7.
    Bengtson, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3V CMOS 0.35 u transimpedance receiver for optical applications2001In: The 2001 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2001: ISCAS 2001, Piscataway: IEEE , 2001, Vol. 4, 69-71 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new class of receivers for optical applications is described. The novelty of the design is the high speed stage. The receiver is designed for low noise, high bandwidth and high transimpedance-bandwidth product. The receiver is driving a 50 Ω load. Post simulations on chip with all capacitance parasitics and a 0.5 pF diode capacitance, gives a 1.3 GHz bandwidth. For an input diode current of 1 uA=zero and 10 uA=one, the output signal is 0.15 V peak to peak and the output SNR is 23 dB

  • 8.
    Baron, Ralf
    et al.
    University Klinikum Schleswig Holstein.
    Mayoral, Victor
    Hospital Llobregat.
    Leijon, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Binder, Andreas
    University Klinikum Schleswig Holstein.
    Steigerwald, Ilona
    Grunenthal GmbH.
    Serpell, Michael
    University of Glasgow.
    5% lidocaine medicated plaster versus pregabalin in post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic polyneuropathy: an open-label, non-inferiority two-stage RCT study2009In: CURRENT MEDICAL RESEARCH AND OPINION, ISSN 0300-7995, Vol. 25, no 7, 1663-1676 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare efficacy and safety of 5% lidocaine medicated plaster with pregabalin in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) or painful diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). Study design and methods: This was a two-stage adaptive, randomized, open-label, multicentre, non-inferiority study. Data are reported from the initial 4-week comparative phase, in which adults with PHN or painful DPN received either topical 5% lidocaine medicated plaster applied to the most painful skin area or twice-daily pregabalin capsules titrated to effect according to the Summary of Product Characteristics. The primary endpoint was response rate at 4 weeks, defined as reduction averaged over the last three days from baseline of greater than= 2 points or an absolute value of less than= 4 points on the 11-point Numerical Rating Scale (NRS-3). Secondary endpoints included 30% and 50% reductions in NRS-3 scores; change in allodynia severity rating; quality of life (QoL) parameters EQ-5D, CGIC, and PGIC; patient satisfaction with treatment; and evaluation of safety (laboratory parameters, vital signs, physical examinations, adverse events [AEs], drug-related AEs [DRAEs], and withdrawal due to AEs). Results: Ninety-six patients with PHN and 204 with painful DPN were analysed (full analysis set, FAS). Overall, 66.4% of patients treated with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster and 61.5% receiving pregabalin were considered responders (cor-responding numbers for the per protocol set, PPS: 65.3% vs. 62.0%). In PHN more patients responded to 5% lidocaine medicated plaster treatment than to pregabalin (PPS: 62.2% vs. 46.5%), while response was comparable for patients with painful DPN (PPS: 66.7% vs 69.1%). 30% and 50% reductions in NRS-3 scores were greater with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster than with pregabalin. Both treatments reduced allodynia severity. 5% lidocaine medicated plaster showed greater improvements in QoL based on EQ-5D in both PHN and DPN. PGIC and CGIC scores indicated greater improvement for 5% lidocaine medicated plaster treated patients with PHN. Improvements were comparable between treatments in painful DPN. Fewer patients administering 5% lidocaine medicated plaster experienced AEs (safety set, SAF: 18.7% vs. 46.4%), DRAEs (5.8% vs. 41.2%) and related discontinuations compared to patients taking pregabalin. Conclusion: 5% lidocaine medicated plaster showed better efficacy compared with pregabalin in patients with PHN. Within DPN, efficacy was comparable for both treatments. 5% lidocaine medicated plaster showed a favourable efficacy/safety profile with greater improvements in patient satisfaction and QoL compared with pregabalin for both indications, supporting its first line position in the treatment of localized neuropathic pain.

  • 9.
    Hemdan, Tammer
    et al.
    University Hospital Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Robert
    Umeå University Hospital, Sweden.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Hellström, Pekka
    University Central Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
    Tasdemir, Ilker
    Central Hospital of Rogaland, Stavanger, Norway.
    Malmström, Per-Uno
    University Hospital Uppsala, Sweden.
    5-Year Outcome of a Randomized Prospective Study Comparing bacillus Calmette-Guerin with Epirubicin and Interferon-alpha 2b in Patients with T1 Bladder Cancer2014In: Journal of Urology, ISSN 0022-5347, E-ISSN 1527-3792, Vol. 191, no 5, 1244-1249 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In a multicenter, prospectively randomized study we evaluated the 5-year outcomes of bacillus Calmette-Guerin alone compared to a combination of epirubicin and interferon-alpha 2b in the treatment of patients with T1 bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: Transurethral resection was followed by a second resection and bladder mapping. Stratification was for grade and carcinoma in situ. Followup entailed regular cystoscopy and cytology during the first 5 years. The end points assessed in this analysis were recurrence-free survival, time to treatment failure and progression, cancer specific survival and prognostic factors. Results: The study recruited 250 eligible patients. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 38% in the combination arm and 59% in the bacillus Calmette-Guerin arm (p = 0.001). The corresponding rates for the other end points were not significantly different, as free of progression 78% and 77%, treatment failure 75% and 75%, and cancer specific survival 90% and 92%, respectively. The type of treatment, tumor size and tumor status at second resection were independent variables associated with recurrence. Concomitant carcinoma in situ was not predictive of failure of bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy. An independent factor for treatment failure was remaining T1 stage at second resection. Conclusions: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin was more effective than the tested combination therapy. The currently recommended management with second resection and 3-week maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guerin entails a low risk of cancer specific death. More aggressive treatment in patients with infiltrative tumors at second resection might improve these results. In particular, concomitant carcinoma in situ was not a predictive factor for poor outcome after bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy.

  • 10.
    Al Faisal, Muhammad Saud
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    6-9 GHz UWB Antenna-Low-Noise Amplifier Co-design2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    6 - 9 GHz antenna-low-noise amplifier co-design is a demanding task. Higher frequency band has new techniques for circuit design and matching. The usual lumped component matching technique is not an appropriate solution for High Frequency (HF) broad band. The new broad band demands transmission line matching. The low-power and high-data rate Ultra Wide Band (UWB) uses large portion of the communication radio-spectrum and wireless communication. The principal axis of this thesis is co-design in the frequency band of 6 - 9 GHz. The thesis has been divided in two parts, where first part includes implementation and evaluation of individual RF-circuits of circular monopole antenna, a band pass (BP) filter and a low-noise amplifier (LNA), while second part unite all three RF circuits and presents the co-design.

    Microstrip monopole antennas get more and more popular due to rapid change in the wireless communication. Higher datarate and even higher bandwidth demands a simple and compact ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna. Two monopole antennas circular and rectangular monopole antennas were designed. Simulated and experimental results of modified design indicate that antenna was achieved a VSWR of 1.2, with input reflection less then - 10 dB in 4 - 12 GHz band. These characteristic make the designed antenna suitable for various UWB application.

     The broad band matching and the flat gain are the two important factors for the UWB circuits. The co-design of antenna-low-noise amplifier utilizes a inter stage matching technique with a simple band pass filter, a third-order passive Chebychev filter is proposed as an input matching network. The filter achieves forward transmission less the - 0.8 dB and a return loss - 20 dB in 6 - 9 GHz band.

    Low-noise amplifier is the key RF circuit; minimal Noise Figure (NF) and the lower power consumption are desired parameters. The implemented low-noise amplifier (LNA) is the combination of bias network and ultra-wide band radio frequency (RF) choke. AVAGO Technologies pseudmorphic-high-electron-mobility transistor (PHEMT) with (SC-70) plastic package with nominal 0.2 µm gate length is used in amplifier. Passive distributed components of microstrip transmission line were used for matching, simulated results demonstrate maximum power gain of 12.74 dB and minimum noise figure (NFmin) of 1 dB is obtained.

    Finally all three individual RF circuits antenna, filter and low-noise amplifier are integrated into co-design and analyzed for 6 - 9 GHz band. Later on two more new designs are added. This co-design has large potential in Direct-broadcast-satellite (DBS) TV system, X-band radar detector, automotive radar, remote sensors, and Multichannel-multipoint-distribution-systems (MMDS). 

  • 11.
    Harikumar, Prakash
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A 0.4 V, sub-nW, 8-bit 1 kS/s SAR ADC in 65 nm CMOS for Wireless Sensor Applications2016In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II - Express Briefs, ISSN 1549-7747, E-ISSN 1558-3791, Vol. 63, no 8, 743-747 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This brief presents an 8-bit 1-kS/s successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is targeted at distributed wireless sensor networks powered by energy harvesting. For such energy-constrained applications, it is imperative that the ADC employs ultralow supply voltages and minimizes power consumption. The 8-bit 1-kS/s ADC was designed and fabricated in 65-nm CMOS and uses a supply voltage of 0.4 V. In order to achieve sufficient linearity, a two-stage charge pump was implemented to boost the gate voltage of the sampling switches. A custom-designed unit capacitor of 1.9 fF was used to realize the capacitive digital-to-analog converters. The ADC achieves an effective number of bits of 7.81 bits while consuming 717 pW and attains a figure of merit of 3.19 fJ/conversion-step. The differential nonlinearity and the integral nonlinearity are 0.35 and 0.36 LSB, respectively. The core area occupied by the ADC is only 0.0126 mm2.

  • 12.
    Ramzan, Rashad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahsan, Naveed
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dabrowski, Jerzy
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 0.5-6 GHz Low Gain RF Front-End for Low-IF Over-Sampling Receivers in 90nm CMOS2009Manuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The software defined radio concept has emerged as a feasible solution for future multigand and multistandard receivers. The proposed software defined radio architecture needs a front-end with moderate or low gain, high linearity, and low noise figure. This paper presents the design and measurement results of low gain RF front-end in 90nm CMOS covering the frequency range of 0.5-6GHz. The front-end is a modified form of a balanced active mixer to enhance its gain and achieve wideband input matching. The transcjonductance stage of a mixer is split into NMOS-PMOS inverter pair for better linearity and partial noise cancellation. The inverter stage with common drain feedback achieves wideband input impedance match getter than -8dB up to 8GHz. The front-end achieves voltage conversion gain of 5dB at 6GHz with 3dB bandwidth of more than 5.5GHz. The measured single side band noise figure at LO frequency of 1.5GHz and IF of 30MHz is 7dB. The measured 1dB compression point is -17dBm at 2.4GHz at 1GHz. The complete front-end consumers 23mW with active chip area of only 0.048mm2.

  • 13.
    Ramzan, Rashad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices.
    Ahsan, Naveed
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices.
    Dabrowski, Jerzy
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices.
    A 0.5–6GHz low gain linear RF front-end in 90nm CMOS2010In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, Warsaw: IEEE , 2010, 168-171 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and measurement results of low gain RF front-end manufactured in 90nm CMOS covering the frequency range of 0.5-6GHz. The front-end is a modified form of a balanced active mixer to enhance its gain and achieve wideband input matching. The transconductance stage of a mixer is split into NMOS-PMOS inverter pair for better linearity and partial noise cancellation. The inverter stage with common drain feedback achieves wideband input impedance match better than -8dB up to 8GHz. The voltage conversion gain is 5dB at 6GHz with 3dB bandwidth of more than 5.5GHz. The measured single side band noise figure at LO frequency of 1.5GHz and IF of 30MHz is 7dB. The measured 1dB compression point is -17dBm at 2.4GHz. Similarly, measured IIP3 is 2.5dBm and IIP2 is 40dBm at 1GHz. The complete front-end consumes 23mW with active chip area of only 0.048mm2.

  • 14.
    Fazli Yeknami, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 0.5-V 250-nW 65-dB SNDR Passive ΔΣ Modulator for Medical Implant Devices2013In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Beijing, China, 19-23 May, 2013, 2013, 2010-2013 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A  0.5-V  ultra-low-power  second-order  DT  DS  modulator  is  presented  in  this  paper  for  medical  implant  devices.  The  modulator  employs  2nd-order  passive  low-pass filter  and  ultra-low-voltage  building  blocks,  including preamplifier, regenerative comparator, and clock controller, in order  to enable operation near 0.5 V supply. A  low-noise and gain-enhanced  single-stage  preamplifier  is  developed  using  a body-driven technique. Passive filter is gain boosted by power-efficient charge-redistribution amplification  scheme. Designed in  a  65nm CMOS  technology,  the modulator  achieves  65  dB peak SNDR over a 500 Hz signal bandwidth, while it consumes 250 nW  from  a  0.5 V  supply. The modulator  is  functional  at 0.45V and obtains 52 dB SNR, while consuming 200 nW.

  • 15.
    Fazli Yeknami, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 0.7-V 400-nW Fourth-Order Active-Passive Delta-Sigma Modulator with One Active Stage2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 0.7 V 400 nW fourth-order active-passive ΔΣ modulator with one active stage is presented in this paper using standard CMOS 65 nm technology. The modulator achieves 84 dB SNR and 80.3 dB SNDR in a signal bandwidth of 500 Hz with a sampling frequency of 256 kHz. The input-feedforward architecture is used to improve the voltage swing before the comparator of the traditional passive modulators, which enables simpler comparator design with no preamplifier as well as cascading three successive power-efficient passive filters. The first active stage is used to reduce the comparator's noise and offset and to minimize the capacitive area. The modulator achieves a high power-efficiency (47 fJ/step) in terms of widely used figure of merit.

  • 16.
    Ahsan, Naveed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ramzan, Rashad
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dąbrowski, Jerzy
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ouacha, Aziz
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Samuelsson, Carl
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), P.O. Box 1165, SE-581 11 Linköping, Sweden.
    A 1.1V 6.2mW, Highly Linear Wideband RF Front-end for Multi-Standard Receivers in 90nm CMOS2012In: Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, ISSN 0925-1030, E-ISSN 1573-1979, Vol. 70, no 1, 79-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a low power, highly linear, wideband RF front-end in 90nm CMOS. The architecture consists of an inverter-like common gate low noise amplifier followed by a passive ring mixer. The proposed architecture achieves high linearity in a wide band (0.5-6GHz) at very low power. Therefore, it is a suitable choice for software defined radio (SDR) receivers. The chip measurement results indicate that the inverter-like common gate input stage has a broadband input match achieving S11 below -8.8dB up to 6GHz. The measured single sideband noise figure at an LO frequency of 2GHz and an IF of 10MHz is 6.25dB. The front-end achieves a voltage conversion gain of 4.5dB at 1GHz with 3dB bandwidth of more than 6GHz. The measured input referred 1dB compression point is +1.5dBm while the IIP3 is +11.73dBm and the IIP2 is +26.23dBm respectively at an LO frequency of 2GHz. The RF front-end consumes 6.2mW from a 1.1V supply with an active chip area of 0.0856mm2.

  • 17.
    Aamir, Syed Ahmed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wikner, J Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 1.2-V pseudo-differential OTA with common-mode feedforward in 65-nm CMOS2010In: 17th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits, and Systems., www.ieee.org , 2010, 29-32 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we describe the implementation of a 1. 2-V pseudo-differential operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) with common-mode feedforward (CMFF) and inher­ent common-mode feedback (CMFB) in a 65-nm, digital CMOS process. The OTA architecture provides an inher­ent CMFB when cascaded OTA structures are utilized andthis work has studied a cascaded amplifier consisting of fourstages. Due to the low-gain using core 65-nm circuit de­vices, the overall gain must be distributed on all four stages to acquire a gain of more than 60 dB, while maintaining a-3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz. To achieve high gain, we propose using a modified, positive-feedback, cross-coupled input differential stage. The modified OTA achieves a high output swing of ± 0.85 V due to only two stacked transistors, 88 dB DC gain and a third-order harmonic of -60 dB for 800 mVpp at 30 MHz. Further on, in a capacitive buffer configuration, we achieve a high slew rate of 1240 V/µS, -3-dB bandwidth of 509 MHz, signal-to-noise ratio of 63 dB while consuming 10.4 mW power.

  • 18.
    Fazli Yeknami, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 2.1 mu W 80 dB SNR DT Delta I pound modulator for medical implant devices in 65 nm CMOS2013In: Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, ISSN 0925-1030, E-ISSN 1573-1979, Vol. 77, no 1, 69-78 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a simple and robust low-power Delta I pound modulator for accurate ADCs in implantable cardiac rhythm management devices such as pacemakers. Taking advantage of the very low signal bandwidth of 500 Hz which enables high oversampling ratio, the objective is to obtain high SNDR and low power consumption, while limiting the complexity of the modulator to a second-order architecture. Significant power reduction is achieved by utilizing a two-stage load-compensated OTA as well as the low-V-T devices in analog circuits and switches, allowing the modulator to operate at 0.9 V supply. Fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS technology, the modulator achieves 80 dB peak SNR and 76 dB peak SNDR over a 500 Hz signal bandwidth. With a power consumption of 2.1 mu W, the modulator obtains 0.4 pJ/step FOM. To the authors knowledge, this is the lowest reported FOM, compared to the previously reported second-order modulators for such low-speed applications. The achieved FOM is also comparable to the best reported results from the higher-order Delta I pound modulators.

  • 19.
    Yeknami, Ali Fazli
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 2.1 uW 76 dB SNDR DT-ΔΣ Modulator for Medical Implant Devices2012In: NORCHIP 2012, IEEE , 2012, 1-4 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a low-power 2nd-order discrete-time (DT) ΔΣ analog-to-digital converter (ADC) aimed for medical implant devices. The designed ΔΣ modulator with two active integrators (filters) employs power-efficient two-stage load-compensated OTAs with minimal load and rail-to-rail output swing, which provides higher power-efficiency than the two-stage Miller OTA. The modulator, implemented in a 65nm CMOS technology with a core area of 0.033 mm2, achieves 76-dB peak SNDR over a 500 Hz signal bandwidth, while consuming 2.1 µW from a 0.9 V supply voltage. Compared to previously reported modulators for such signal bandwidths, the achieved performance (FOM of 0.4 pJ/step) make the presented modulator one of the best among sub-1-V modulators in term of most commonly used figure of merit.

  • 20.
    Fazli Yeknami, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 270-mV  ΔΣ Modulator Using Gain-Enhanced, Inverter-Based Amplifier2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An ultra-low-voltage low-power switched-capacitor ΔΣ modulator running at a supply voltage as low as 270 mV is presented for medical implant devices. To reduce the supply voltage and power consumption, an inverter-based amplifier is used in the integrator, whose DC-gain and gain-bandwidth (GBW) are boosted by a simple current-mirror output stage. The full feedforward loop topology offers low integrators internal swing, supporting ultra-low-voltage operation. The entire modulator operates at 270 mV supply only, while the switches are driven by charge pump clock doubler. Designed in 65 nm CMOS and clocked at 256 kHz, the simulation results show that the converter achieves 64.4 dB signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and 61 dB signal-to-noise-and-distortionratio (SNDR) in 1 kHz bandwidth while consuming 0.85 "W power.

  • 21.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 3.3 V 72.2 Mbit/s 802.11n WLAN transformer-based power amplifier in 65 nm CMOS2010In: Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, ISSN 0925-1030, E-ISSN 1573-1979, Vol. 64, no 3, 241-247 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design of a power amplifier (PA) for 802.11n WLAN fabricated in 65 nm CMOS technology. The PA utilizes 3.3 V thick gate oxide (5.2 nm) transistors and a two-stage differential configuration with integrated transformers for input and interstage matching. A methodology used to extract the layout parasitics from electromagnetic (EM) simulations is described. For a 72.2 Mbit/s, 64-QAM, 802.11n OFDM signal at an average and peak output power of 11.6 and 19.6 dBm, respectively, the measured EVM is 3.8%. The PA meets the spectral mask up to an average output power of 17 dBm.

  • 22.
    Aamir, Syed Ahmed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wikner, J Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 500-MHz low-voltage programmable gain amplifier for HD video in 65-nm CMOS2010In: Proceedings of 28th IEEE Norchip Conference., NORCHIP'10, Tampere: www.ieee.org , 2010, 1-4 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes the implementation of a 1.2-V programmable gain amplifier (PGA) for high-definition (HD) video digitizers in a 65-nm digital CMOS process. The “pseudo” switched-capacitor (SC) PGA architecture buffers the video signal, without switching, during the active video. The SC circuitry is used for setup of DC operating point during horizontal and vertical blanking periods. Additionally, it compensates for the `sync-tip' of analog video signals to an equal blanking level for increased dynamic range to the digitizer following the PGA. The operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) employed as main amplifier in the PGA is a pseudo-differential, positive-feedback input stage architecture with a common-mode feedforward (CMFF) technique. The common-mode feedback (CMFB) is provided once two OTAs are cascaded. Schematic-level simulation results show that the OTA maintains a -3-dB bandwidth of 550 MHz, while keeping the distortion HD3 at -60 dB for a 30-MHz, 850 mVpp high definition video signal. The 88 dB DC gain is distributed among four OTA stages and the overall, combined PGA achieves a signal-to-noise ratio of 63 dB. Due to only two stacked transistors, it achieves high output swing of ±0.85 V, 1240 V/μs slew rate while consuming 10.4 mW power.

  • 23. Dieperink, Willem
    et al.
    van der Horst, Iwan C C
    Nannenberg-Koops, Jaqueline W
    Brouwer, Henk W
    Jaarsma, T
    Nieuwland, Wybe
    Zijlstra, Felix
    Nijsten, Maarten W N
    A 64-year old man who sustained many episodes of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema successfully treated with Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure: a case report.2007In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 119, no 2, 268-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is standard treatment for patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. We describe a patient who had 21 episodes of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema due to very poor patient compliance. This 64-year old man had end-stage congestive heart failure based on systolic left ventricular dysfunction following two myocardial infarctions. In addition to routine medical treatment 15 episodes of pulmonary edema were successfully treated with Boussignac continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP). The BCPAP system is a simple, disposable, FDA-approved device that delivers positive pressure without a ventilator. This extraordinary case underscores the utility of the BCPAP system to avoid repeated intubation and mechanical ventilation in patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

  • 24.
    Aamir, Syed Ahmed
    Linköping University. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    A 65nm, Low Voltage, Fully Differential, SC Programmable Gain Amplifier for Video AFE2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to rapid growth of home entertainment consumer market, video technology has been continuously pushed to deliver sharper pictures with higher resolution. This has brought about stringent requirements on the video analog front end, which often coupled with the low power and low voltage regulations had to deal with short channel effects of the deep submicron CMOS processes.

    This thesis presents the design of a fully differential programmable gain amplifier, as a subcircuit of a larger video digitizing IC designed at division of Electronic Systems. The switched capacitor architecture of the PGA does not only buffer the signal, but performs compensation for the sync-tip of analog video signal.

    The pseudo differential OTA eliminates tail current source and maintains high signal swing and has efficient common mode feedforward mechanism. When coupled with a similar stage provides inherent common moode feedback without using an additional SC-CMFB block.

    The PGA has been implemented using a 65 nm digital CMOS process. Expected difficulties in a 1.2 V OTA design make themselves evident in 65 nm, which is why cascaded OTA structures were inevitable for attaining gain specification of 60 dB. Nested Miller compensation with a pole shifting source follower, stabilizes the multipole system. The final circuit attains up to 200 MHz bandwidth and maintains high output swing of 0.85 V. High slew rate and good common mode and power supply rejection are observed. Noise requirements require careful design of input differential stage. Although output source follower stabilized the system, it reduces significant bandwidth and adds to second order non-linearity.

  • 25.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Ted
    Infineon Technologies Nordic AB Isafjordsgatan 16, SE-164 81 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 72.2Mbit/s LC-Based Power Amplifier in 65nm CMOS for 2.4GHz 802.11n WLAN2008In: Proceedings of the 15th Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (MIXDES) Conference, IEEE , 2008, 155-158 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a power amplifier (PA) for WLAN 802.11n in 65nm CMOS technology. The PA utilizes 3.3V thick-gate oxide (5.2nm) transistors and a two-stage differential configuration with two integrated inductors for input and interstage matching. For a 72.2Mbit/s, 64-QAM 802.11n OFDM signal at an average and peak output power of 9.4dBm and 17.4dBm, respectively, the measured EVM is 3.8%. The PA meets the spectral mask up to an average output power of 14dBm.

  • 26.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 72.2Mbit/s Transformer-Based Power Amplifier in 65nm CMOS for 2.4GHz 802.11n WLAN2008In: Proceedings of 26th IEEE NORCHIP Conference, IEEE , 2008, 54-56 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design of a power amplifier (PA) for WLAN 802.11n fabricated in 65 nm CMOS technology. The PA utilizes 3.3 V thick-gate oxide (5.2 nm) transistors and a two-stage differential configuration with two integrated transformers for input and interstage matching. For a 72.2 Mbit/s, 64-QAM, 802.11n OFDM signal at an average and peak output power of 11.6 dBm and 19.6 dBm, respectively, the measured EVM is 3.8%. The PA meets the spectral mask up to an average output power of 17 dBm.

  • 27.
    Sundström, Timmy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 7.5 ENOB, 1.0 GS/s, 73 mW Pipeline ADC in 65nm CMOSManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a pipeline analog-to-digital converter achieving 7.5 ENOB at 1.0 GS/s. A single-stage inverter-based amplifier is used and by individually biasing the pMOS and nMOS, symmetrical layout as well as transconductance can be achieved, resulting in increased closed-loop linearity and a THD of -52 dB. With the amplifier in a switched-capacitor configuration, the optimal bias point can be maintained throughout the input range, which minimizes the power overhead of the MDAC. Calibration of the stage gain is digitally controlled through binary weighted capacitors, which removes the need for digital background calibration. With a power dissipation of 73 mW and an FoM of 0.4 pJ/conv-step, high sample-rate is achieved in a medium resolution pipeline ADC without compromising the energy efficiency.

  • 28.
    Eghbali, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A class of reconfigurable and low-complexity two-stage Nyquist filters2014In: Signal Processing, ISSN 0165-1684, E-ISSN 1872-7557, Vol. 96, 164-172 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a class of reconfigurable two-stage Nyquist filters where the Farrow structure realizes the polyphase components of linear-phase finite-length impulse response (FIR) filters. By adjusting the variable predetermined multipliers of the Farrow structure, various linear-phase FIR Nyquist filters and integer interpolation/decimation structures are obtained, online. However, the filter design problem is solved only once, offline. Design examples, based on the reweighted l(1)-norm minimization, illustrate the proposed method. Savings in the arithmetic complexity are obtained when compared to the reconfigurable single-stage structures.

  • 29.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Class-D outphasing RF amplifier with harmonic suppression in 90nm CMOS2010In: Proceedings of the ESSCIRC, 2010, Seville: IEEE , 2010, 310-313 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a low-power Class-D stage featuring a new harmonic reduction technique, which cancels the 3rd harmonic and reduces the 5th harmonic. The technique creates a voltage level of VDD/2 from a single supply voltage to shape the drain voltage, uses only digital circuits and eliminates the short-circuit current present in inverter-based Class-D stages. From a single Class-D stage operating at 900MHz, the measured output power is +5.1dBm with Drain Efficiency (DE) and Power-Added Efficiency (PAE) of 73% and 59% for a 1.2V supply, while 2nd to 4th harmonics are measured to be -37dBc without any filtering. Connecting two Class-D stages to a PCB-mounted transformer in an outphasing configuration, the overall amplifier is linear enough to amplify EDGE 8-PSK and WCDMA modulated signals at 900MHz without pre-distortion of the input signals or any other linearization technique.

  • 30.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mesgarzadeh, Behzad
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Class-D Stage with Harmonic Suppression and DLL-Based Phase Generation2012In: 2012 IEEE 55TH INTERNATIONAL MIDWEST SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS (MWSCAS), Lida Ray Technologies Inc., , 2012, 45-48 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a Class-D stage with 3rd harmonic suppression operating at 2V(DD) (i.e., twice the nominal supply voltage). A DLL-based phase generator is used to generate the phases of the driving signals and by modifying the driver stage 5th harmonic suppression is also possible. The output stage and drivers are based on inverters only, where the short-circuit current is eliminated in the output stage. Operating at 1 GHz, the simulated output power is +19.4 dBm utilizing a 1-V supply and a 5-Omega load, with Drain Efficiency (DE) and Power-Added Efficiency (PAE) of 72% and 52%, respectively, including power dissipation in the DLL-based phase generator and drivers. The 3rd harmonic is suppressed 23 dB (-33 dBc) compared to a conventional Class-D stage.

  • 31.
    Fritzin, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mesgarzadeh, Behzad
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alvandpour, Atila
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Class-D Stage with Third Harmonic Suppression and DLL-Based Phase Generation2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Bengtsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A clock driver with reduced EMI2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A clock driver that works on the principle of charging and discharging the clock network in a VLSI circuit in two steps is investigated in a few different configurations. The aim of the design is twofold:

    • to reduce the power consumption
    • to reduce the third harmonic of the clock signal, and thereby the EMI (electromagnetic interference) emitted by the clock network.

    The first should be possible to accomplish as the clock interconnect network gets charged by half the voltage during each rising transition, and the second should be possible to accomplish by carefully time the rising and falling transitions, so that the third Fourier coefficient of the resulting wave form cancels.

    The drivers are loaded by eight 16-bit adders. The drivers’ power consumption, and the spectrum of the output signal, are investigated under varying clock frequencies, power supply voltage, and driver architecture. The results are compared to a conventional square wave clock.

    The results are that while the third harmonics of the resulting output sees an improvement in all the investigated cases over the square wave clock, the power savings are, for higher clock frequencies, more than completely canceled by the extra power needed in the logic stage which controls these drivers. On the other hand, the power consumption of the new driver appears to drop below that of the conventional driver when the clock frequency drops below approximately 100MHz.

    A few suggestions for further investigations of new designs and clock wave forms are given.

  • 33.
    Rattfält, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    A comparative study of two structural methods for fault isolation analysis2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technical systems of today are often complex and integrated. If a fault occurs, the consequences can be disastrous both for the system itself and its surroundings. To maintain the operation and the security it is necessary to have a surveillance system which can detect a fault in an early stage.

    In this thesis two structural methods for fault isolation analysis are discussed. The result from the studied algorithms shows what fault isolation properties a diagnostic model is expected to have. If the isolability is not good enough, it also gives information on where further modelling needs to be done.

    To base a comparison of the two structural analysis algorithms on, four criteria are defined concerning for example realizability of residuals and time complexity. One interesting part of the methods is how dynamic models are handled. It is shown how differential constraints can end up in differential cycles which implies calculatory problems and what effects structural differentiation has on a system.

    The algorithms have been tested on an application from the research training network DAMADICS. The result shows how different types of input models in this case give the same result.

  • 34.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Comparison of Adolescents Engaging in Self-Injurious Behaviors With and Without Suicidal Intent: Self-Reported Experiences of Adverse Life Events and Trauma Symptoms2013In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 42, no 8, 1257-1272 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research comparing adolescents engaging in suicidal and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), both separately and in combination, is still at an early stage. The purpose of the present study was to examine overlapping and distinguishable features in groups with different types of self-injurious behaviors, using a large community sample of 2,964 (50.6 % female) Swedish adolescents aged 15-17 years. Adolescents were grouped into six categories based on self-reported lifetime prevalence of self-injurious behaviors. Of the total sample, 1,651 (55.7 %) adolescents reported no self-injurious behavior, 630 (21.2 %) reported NSSI 1-4 times, 177 (6.0 %) reported NSSI 5-10 times, 311 (10.5 %) reported NSSI a parts per thousand yen 11 times, 26 (0.9 %) reported lifetime prevalence of suicide attempt and 169 (5.7 %) adolescents reported both NSSI and suicide attempt. After controlling for gender, parental occupation and living conditions, there were significant differences between groups. Pairwise comparisons showed that adolescents with both NSSI and suicide attempt reported significantly more adverse life events and trauma symptoms than adolescents with only NSSI, regardless of NSSI frequency. The largest differences (effect sizes) were found for interpersonal negative events and for symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress. Adolescents with frequent NSSI reported more adversities and trauma symptoms than those with less frequent NSSI. There were also significant differences between all the NSSI groups and adolescents without any self-injurious behavior. These findings draw attention to the importance of considering the cumulative exposure of different types of adversities and trauma symptoms when describing self-injurious behaviors, with and without suicidal intent.

  • 35.
    Noren, H
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Svensson, P
    The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Andersson, Bertil
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A convenient and versatile hydroponic cultivation system for Arabidopsis thaliana2004In: Physiologia Plantarum: An International Journal for Plant Biology, ISSN 0031-9317, Vol. 121, no 3, 343-348 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A versatile two-step cultivation procedure for Arabidopsis thaliana is described for the production of large quantities of leaf material suitable for biochemical and biophysical analysis. The first step comprises a miniature greenhouse made out of a plastic pipette box to grow the seedlings to the six-leaf stage. For continued growth, the seedlings are transferred to hydroponic cultivation using an opaque container covered by a styrofoam lid. Transfer of the small seedlings to hydroponic culture is facilitated by growth in separate pipette tips, which protects vulnerable roots from damage. The hydroponic cultivation system is easy to scale-up and produces large amounts of relatively large leaves and roots. This hydroponic system produces enough plant material to make Arabidopsis a feasible model for biochemical and biophysical experiments, which can be combined with the available genetic information to address various aspects of plant functional genomics

  • 36.
    Eriksson Barajas, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    A discursive reception study  of fiction2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the proposed paper is to increase the knowledge on fiction in use. A combination of reader reception studies (cf. Fish, 1980) and discursive psychology (Edwards & Potter, 1992), which I would like to call discursive reception studies (Eriksson & Aronsson, 2009): that is, a discursive-psychological analysis of reader-reception data is used in the paper. Such approach provides possibilities to analyse the role of social interaction in the co-construction of the experience of a film or a play (or the reading of a book). Drawing on detailed analyses of video-recorded pair or group conversations before, during and after the viewing of a stage play or a film, empirically-driven research questions will be addressed: f ex How is fiction used to create ourselves and position each other, to be seen as smart or well-informed, as being part of the cultural elite or as not high-brow? How is talk about fiction used to quarrel, flirt, tie bonds of friendship et cetera? To analyse talk about fiction as interaction makes it possible to understand the potential of action in interpretation of fiction contains, the participants in a conversation around a play or a film do not only report their reading of the piece, they also use their interpretation in social interaction. Hereby, it becomes possible to analyse how readings of fictive stories are created in social interaction and how they are used for different purposes. Hence, the knowledge on fictive characters becomes more dynamic.

    Data from conversations after seeing Shakespeare’s play Romeo & Juliette and films as One Day, Jane Eyre, Real Steel and Arrietty the Borrower is analysed in the paper.

  • 37.
    Lukin, Kara
    et al.
    National Jewish Health.
    Fields, Scott
    National Jewish Health.
    Guerrettaz, Lisa
    National Jewish Health.
    Straign, Desiree
    National Jewish Health.
    Rodriguez, Valerie
    National Jewish Health.
    Zandi, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Hematology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mansson, Robert
    Lund Strategic Centre for Stem Cell Biology.
    Cambier, John C.
    National Jewish Health.
    Sigvardsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Hematology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hagman, James
    National Jewish Health.
    A dose-dependent role for EBF1 in repressing non-B-cell-specific genes2011In: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 41, no 6, 1787-1793 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the absence of early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1), B-cell development is arrested at an uncommitted progenitor stage that exhibits increased lineage potentials. Previously, we investigated the roles of EBF1 and its DNA-binding partner Runx1 by evaluating B lymphopoiesis in single (EBF1(het) and Runx1(het)) and compound haploinsufficent (Ebf1(+/-) Runx1(+/-), ER(het)) mice. Here, we demonstrate that decreased Ebf1 gene dosage results in the inappropriate expression of NK-cell lineage-specific genes in B-cell progenitors. Moreover, prolonged expression of Ly6a/Sca-1 suggested the maintenance of a relatively undifferentiated phenotype. These effects were exacerbated by reduced expression of Runx1 and occurred despite expression of Pax5. Repression of inappropriately expressed genes was restored in most pre-B and all immature B cells of ER(het) mice. Enforced EBF1 expression repressed promiscuous transcription in pro-B cells of ER(het) mice and in Ebf1(-/-) Pax5(-/-) fetal liver cells. Together, our studies suggest that normal levels of EBF1 are critical for maintaining B-cell identity by directing repression of non-B-cell-specific genes.

  • 38.
    Korishe, Abdulah
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
    A Driver Circuit for Body-Coupled Communication2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main concept of Body-Coupled Communication (BCC) is to transmit the electrical information through the human body as a communication medium by means of capacitive coupling. Nowadays the current research of wireless body area network are expanding more with the new ideas and topologies for better result in respect to the low power and area, security, reliability and sensitivity since it is first introduced by the Zimmerman in 1995. In contrast with the other existing wireless communication technology such as WiFi, Bluetooth and Zigbee, the BCC is going to increase the number of applications as well as solves the problem with the cell based communication system depending upon the frequency allocation. In addition, this promising technology has been standardized by a task group named IEEE 802.15.6 addressing a reliable and feasible system for low power in-body and on-body nodes that serves a variety of medical and non medical applications.

    The entire BAN project is divided into three major parts consisting of application layer, digital baseband and analog front end (AFE) transceiver. In the thesis work a strong driver circuit for BCC is implemented as an analog front end transmitter (Tx). The primary purpose of the study is to transmit a strong signal as the signal is attenuated by the body around 60 dB. The Driver circuit is cascaded of two single-stage inverter and an identical inverter with drain resistor. The entire driver circuit is designed with ST65 nm CMOS technology with 1.2 V supply operated at 10 MHz frequency, has a driving capability of 6 mA which is the basic requirement. The performance of the transmitter is compared with the other architecture by integrating different analysis such as corner analysis, noise analysis and eye diagram. The cycle to cycle jitter is 0.87% which is well below to the maximum point and the power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) is 65 dB indicates the good emission of supply noise. In addition, the transmitter does not require a filter to emit the noise because the body acts like a low pass filter.

    In conclusion the findings of the thesis work is quite healthy compared to the previous work. Finally, there is some point to improve for the driver circuit in respect to the power consumption, propagation delay and leakage power in the future.   

  • 39.
    Kimita, Koji
    Department of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Department of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan.
    A Failure Analysis Method for Designing Highly Reliable Product-Service SystemsIn: Research in Engineering Design, ISSN 0934-9839, E-ISSN 1435-6066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, Product-Service Systems (PSSs), which create value by integrating a physical product and a service, have been attracting attention. In PSSs, it is critical for a provider to offer highly reliable products and services. To do so, the provider needs to effectively and efficiently detect possible failures, and then, take adequate measures against them in the conceptual design stage. However, in current studies on product failure analysis, service aspects are not covered in analyzing failure causes and developing measures. On the other hand, product aspects are hardly considered in existing methods of service failure analysis. To fill the gap, this paper proposes a method for failure analysis in PSS design called PSS Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (PSS FMEA). Especially, this paper extends the framework of FMEA, and then, a procedure for PSS FMEA is introduced so that designers can analyze failures and develop measures in consideration of both product and service aspects. Furthermore, the proposed method supports designers in finding new business opportunities. The proposed method was applied to a real offering of products and services by a cleaning machine provider and found effective.

  • 40.
    Kimita, Koji
    et al.
    Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.
    A failure analysis method for designing highly reliable product-service systems2017In: Research in Engineering Design, ISSN 0934-9839, E-ISSN 1435-6066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, product-service systems (PSSs), which create value by integrating a physical product and a service, have been attracting attention. In PSSs, it is critical for a provider to offer highly reliable products and services. To do so, the provider needs to effectively and efficiently detect possible failures, and then, take adequate measures against them in the conceptual design stage. However, in current studies on product failure analysis, service aspects are not covered in analyzing failure causes and developingmeasures. On the other hand, product aspects are hardly considered in existing methods of service failure analysis. To fill the gap, this paper proposes a method for failureanalysis in PSS design called PSS failure mode and effect analysis (PSS FMEA). Especially, this paper extends theframework of FMEA, and then, a procedure for PSS FMEA is introduced so that designers can analyze failures and develop measures in consideration of both product andservice aspects. Furthermore, the proposed method supports designers in finding new business opportunities. The proposed method was applied to a real offering of products and services by a cleaning machine provider and found effective.

  • 41.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Wang, Chen
    Department of Neuroradiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    A fifteen-year follow-up of neurological conditions in VLBW children without overt disability: Relation to gender, neonatal risk factors, and end stage MRI findings2008In: Early Human Development, ISSN 0378-3782, Vol. 84, no 5, 343-349 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Very low birthweight (VLBW; birth weight ≤ 1500 g) children run a greater risk than controls of developing neurosensory disabilities, but also minor neurological disturbances.

    Aims: To assess neurological status from the neonatal period up to fifteen years of age in VLBW children without overt neurological disability in relation to gender, neonatal risk factors, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings of the brain.

    Study design: A population based follow-up study of VLBW children and their controls.

    Subjects: Eighty VLBW children without overt disability, in a cohort of 86 surviving VLBW children, were enrolled in a follow-up study at 40 weeks gestational age and at 4, 9, and 15 years of age. 56 VLBW children were examined with cerebral MRI at 15 years of age.

    Outcome measures: Neurological test scores. MRI findings, principally white matter damage (WMD).

    Results: VLBW children were inferior in neurological assessments in comparison with controls at 40 weeks gestational age and 4 and 15 years of age. VLBW girls did not differ from their controls at 9 and 15 years. Fourteen of 56 (25%) VLBW children had abnormal MRI findings and 13 were evaluated as mild WMD. Children with WMD did not differ in neurological outcome from those without WMD at any examination. Mechanical ventilation and/or intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) during the neonatal period were significantly related to less a favourable outcome at follow-up examinations.

    Conclusion: A cohort of VLBW children without overt neurological disability had a poorer neurological condition up to adolescence in comparison with controls. A quarter of the VLBW children had mild WMD but without relation to the neurological functions. Mechanical ventilation and IVH were related to poorer neurological outcome.

  • 42.
    Bergqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Private practice, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rydberg, Kristoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dérand, Tore
    Department of Dental Technology and Dental Materials Science, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    A finite element analysis of stress distribution in bone tissue surrounding uncoupled or splinted dental implants2008In: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 10, no 1, 40-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies on one-stage surgery in the treatment of the edentulous maxilla with implant-supported fixed prostheses have reported problems with removable provisional prostheses, which can load the implants in an uncontrollable manner during healing, and jeopardize healing. Immediate splinting of the implants with a fixed provisional prosthesis has been proposed to protect the bone-implant interface.

    Purpose: This study used the finite element method (FEM) to simulate stresses induced in bone tissue surrounding uncoupled and splinted implants in the maxilla because of bite force loading, and to determine whether the differences in these stress levels are related to differences in observed bone losses associated with the two healing methods.

    Materials and Methods: Stress levels in the maxilla were studied using the FEM program TRINITAS (Institute of Technology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden) in which all phases – preprocessing/modeling, equation solving, and postprocessing/evaluation – were simulated.

    Results: Stress levels in bone tissue surrounding splinted implants were markedly lower than stress levels surrounding uncoupled implants by a factor of nearly 9.

    Conclusion: From a mechanical viewpoint, FEM simulation supports the hypothesis that splinting reduces damage evolution in bone tissue, which agrees with clinical observations.

  • 43.
    Li, Lin
    et al.
    Tongji University.
    Huo, Jiazhen
    Tongji University.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A hybrid flowshop scheduling problem for a cold treating process in seamless steel tube production2011In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 49, no 15, 4679-4700 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seamless steel tubes often have various categories and specifications, which further require complicated operations in production, especially in the cold treating process (CTP). This paper investigates the scheduling problem using the seamless tube plant of Baoshan Iron and Steel Complex as a study background. By considering the practical production constraints such as sequence-dependent setup times, maintenance schedule, intermediate material buffers, job-machine matches, we formulate the hybrid flowshop scheduling problem with a non-linear mixed integer programming model (NMIP). In addition, our model provides a flexibility to remove the permutation assumption, which is often a limitation in early studies. In order to obtain the solution of the above NMIP problem, a two-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed and it combines a modified genetic algorithm and a local search method. With real production instances, our computation experiments indicate that the proposed algorithm is efficient and it outperforms several other approaches. Industrial implementation also shows that such a scheduling tool brings a cost saving of more than 10% and it substantially reduces the computation time. Our study also illustrates the need of relaxing permutation assumption in such a scheduling problem with complicated operation sequences.

  • 44.
    Abdul Aziz Hasan Ali, Aamir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shahzad, Muhammad Adil
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Joint Subcarrier/Power allocation Scheme for OFDMA-based Cellular Networks2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The assignment of this master thesis consists of initiating power, subcarrier allocation in a dynamic FFR based scheme designed for multi-cell OFDMA networks and to enhance the throughput of all center users in bandwidth hungry borrower cells (overloaded cells) which was previously degraded by original FFR3 scheme as a result of partitioning of system bandwidth into center and edge bands respectively. The method uses band borrowing to compensate center user’s throughput loss in a semi and fully overloaded system. The scheme uses dynamic programming method (0/1 knapsack problem) to bargain an edge band on various power levels and tends to check the best combination (power and sub-carrier) which the system can utilize while still maintaining acceptable throughput loss for the users at the edge of the neighboring cell (lender cell).

    The algorithm consists of generating a borrowing request to neighboring cells for utilizing their edge bands by the overloaded borrower cell if their average center user throughput reaches below a minimum threshold value set in the system. The borrowing method uses 0/1 knapsack problem to capture an edge band based on limiting factors of total cost in average throughput losses by neighbors (Ci) and Un (tolerable mean user edge user throughput loss by lending cell). While solving knapsack problem the lender (neighbors) will check Ci and Un before granting the right to use its edge band. The later stage requires reducing subcarrier power level in order to utilize the lenders edge band using "soft borrower" mode. The borrowed sub-carriers will be activated take power from the original center band sub-carriers of the overloaded cell by taking into account the interference between the lender and the borrower. In case of negative (0) reply from the lender cell after the first request, multiple requests are generated at reduce power level at every step to order to acquire more bands. If a neighbor has band borrowing requests from multiple overloaded base stations, the band will be granted to the one which gives minimal loss in terms of throughput to the lender cell.

    The simulation results are analyzed w.r.t reuse-1 and FFR3 scheme of a multi cell regular and irregular scenarios comprising of lightly to heavily overloaded cells with various subcarrier allocation patterns. An overhead and time assessment is also presented between borrower and lender cells. Simulation results show an increase of 60% in center user’s throughput w.r.t original FFR3 scheme with an acceptable loss of 18% at the edges in complex overloaded scenarios while the overall system throughout increases by 35%.

  • 45.
    Munjulury, Raghu Chaitanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Staack, Ingo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berry, Patrick
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A knowledge-based integrated aircraft conceptual design framework2016In: CEAS Aeronautical Journal, ISSN 1869-5582, 1869-5590, Vol. 7, no 1, 95-105 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "The conceptual design is the early stage of aircraft design process where results are needed fast, both analytically and visually so that the design can be analyzed and eventually improved in the initial phases. Although there is no necessity for a CAD model from the very beginning of the design process, it can be an added advantage to have the model to get the impression and appearance. Furthermore, this means that a seamless transition into preliminary design is achieved since the CAD model can guardedly be made more detailed. For this purpose, knowledge-based aircraft conceptual design applications Tango (Matlab) and RAPID (CATIA) are being developed at Linköping University. Based on a parametric data definition in XML, this approach allows for a full 3D CAD integration. The one-database approach, also explored by many research organizations, enables the flexible and efficient integration of the different multidisciplinary processes during the whole conceptual design phase. This paper describes the knowledge-based design automated methodology of RAPID, data processing between RAPID and Tango and its application in the courses ‘‘Aircraft conceptual design’’ and ‘‘Aircraft project course’’ at Linköping University. A multifaceted user interface is developed to assist the whole design process."

  • 46.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, RTSLAB - Real-Time Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Linux-based, Web-oriented operating system designed to boot quickly2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the design and implementation of a Linux-based, Web-oriented operating system called Awesom-O, designed with a focus on short boot time and small disk footprint. Among other techniques for lowering boot time, a semi-automatic method for generating a Linux kernel of minimal size for a given platform is developed, making use of an interpreter for the Linux kernel’s configuration language, Kconfig. The boot process of the finished system is analyzed to identify limiting factors in lowering its boot time further, and techniques for overcoming these are suggested.

    Excluding the initial BIOS stage of the boot process, the boot time of the finished system—up until it is idling inside the web browser interface waiting for user input—is 3.8 seconds (2.1 seconds to a shell prompt, 1.7 seconds in the kernel) on an Acer Travelmate 8200 laptop with an Intel Core Duo CPU at 2.0 GHz and a Momentus 5400.2 SATA (ST9120821AS) hard drive; 2.4 seconds (1.6 seconds to a shell prompt, 1.1 seconds in the kernel) on a Celsius M460 workstation with an Intel Core 2 Quad CPU at 2.5 GHz and a Barracuda 7200.11 SATA hard drive (ST3500320AS); 4.6 and 4.0 seconds respectively for the same systems when booting from a USB 2.0 device (a ChipsBank CBM2080 USB 2.0 stick); and 12.6 seconds on the BeagleBoard (8 seconds in the bootloader—an obvious area for future improvement).

    The Web functionality in Awesom-O is implemented atop the Opera Linux Devices SDK: a software framework for integrating web browser functionality in small Linux-based systems.

  • 47.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Literature Review of Life Cycle Costing in the Product-Service System Context2016In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 47, 186-191 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A transition from a product-selling to a Product-Service Systems (PSS) business model incurs a transition in costs from customer to provider. Due to this shift in cost ownership, Life Cycle Costing (LCC) is used by providers and customers to better understand the PSS costs spanning from design to end-of-life. Through a literature review the paper determines that there are similarities in the approach to LCC for specific types of PSS e.g. availability type, but further research needs to be undertaken to identify commonalities between different types of PSS. The review also discerned that the terminology for LCC is not consistent and sometimes it is used to identify only the costs incurred by a specific actor. Furthermore, the end-of-life stage and the implications of a second life for a remanufactured PSS in LCC are also yet to be fully understood. A number of challenges associated with obtaining quality data for costing within PSS were identified. These include the lack of availability, the relevancy due to use of pre-PSS data that does not reflect the redesign of products and services to fit in PSS and challenges associated with the design paradox. Finally, a lack of empirical studies is noted.

  • 48.
    VendlerToft-Kehler, Rasmus
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark; Accelerace, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kim, Phillip H.
    Babson College, Arthur M. Blank Center for Entrepreneurship, Babson Park, MA, USA.
    A little bit of knowledge is a dangerous thing: Entrepreneurial experience and new venture disengagement2017In: Journal of Business Venturing Insights, ISSN 2352-6734, Vol. 6, 36-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing research has offered conflicting narratives of how entrepreneurial experience influences whether founders will continue working on or disengage from their ventures. We theorize and test how entrepreneurs with varying levels of experience disengage from early-stage companies. Findings reveal a U-shaped relationship, such that novices and highly experienced entrepreneurs are more likely to quit their ventures, while moderately experienced entrepreneurs are more likely to persist in their pursuits. We offer both theoretical and empirical explanations for how the propensity to disengage from new ventures evolves with entrepreneurial experience.

  • 49.
    Widhe, Mona
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hedin Skogman, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jarefors, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eknefelt, Mattias
    Jönköping, Sweden.
    Eneström, Gunilla
    Västervik, Sweden.
    Nordwall, Maria
    Norrköping, Sweden.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Croner, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A multicenter study on children with Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Up-regulation of Borrelia-specific IL-4 and IFN-γ secreting cells in cerebrospinal fluid and bloodManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The clinical course and outcome of several infectious diseases are dependent on the type of immune response elicited against the pathogen. As suggested by animal models the interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ responses seem to play a role in Lyme borreliosis. In adults with neuroborreliosis (NB), a type 1 like response with high production of Borrelia-specific IFN-γ, but no IL-4, in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood has been reported. Since children have a more benign course of NB than adults, we wanted to investigate type 1 and type 2 like responses in children with NB. CSF and blood were collected from children during the acute stage of 'confirmed NB' (n=34), 'possible NB' (n=30) and 'non-NB' (n=10). The number of Borrelia-speciflc IL-4 and IFN-γ producing cells was measured by ELISPOT. Borrelia-specific secretion of both IL-4 and IFN-γ was increased in CSF in confirmed (p<0.05) and possible (p<0,01) NB, compared with non-NB. Furthermore, children with NB had significantly higher Borrelia-speciflc IL-4 secretion in cerebrospinal fluid than an adult reference material with NB (p<0,05). There were no differences in cytokine secretion in relation to onset or recovery of neurological symptoms. Since IL-4 is known to down-regulate the pro-inflammatory and possibly hannful. effects of prolonged IFN-γ responses, the observed prominent IL-4 response in the CNS-compartment might contribute to the more benign disease course seen in children with Lyme NB.

  • 50.
    Löfving, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A multi-step balancing procedure for quality assessment of substance flow data2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All estimates of substance flows are more or less uncertain, which implies that the collected data can violate mass balance constraints that should be valid. In this article, we introduce multi-stage balancing algorithms that can accommodate prior information about mass balance constraints and uncertainty of the collected data. In particular, we formulate the balancing task as an optimization problem for a given set of prior information. If it is suspected that some flows have been overlooked, the balancing is achieved by minimizing the total increase in flows that is required to satisfy the given mass balance constraints. If the major problem consists of errors or uncertainty in the raw data, the sum of squares of all adjustments needed is minimized. We present a software prototype in which the balancing is integrated with a variety of tools for quality assessment of collected data, and use data from a previously published study of nitrogen flows in Sweden to illustrate the steps involved in the proposed algorithms.

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