To evaluate how lean production should be modified to be suitable for implementation in the production of digital, customized products and how the first phase of this implementation can be conducted.
RQ1: What constitutes waste when producing digital, customized products, and to what extent can the waste be eliminated?
RQ2: Which lean concepts and tools are suitable to apply in the production of digital, customized products?
RQ3: What steps are necessary for initial implementation of lean production for production of digital, customized products, and how should they be prioritized?
The empirical findings are the result of a single case study focused around in-depth analysis and understanding of concepts and relationships. The data is collected through interviews work shops and observations during a period of three months.
RQ1: The types of waste are; Waiting, Transportation, Over processing or incorrect processing, Excess inventory, Unnecessary efforts, Defects and Unused employee creativity. Waste are further classified as removable, non-removable and in some instances necessary.
RQ2: Unsuitable concepts: Value stream mapping (varying level of unsuitability), Kaikaku, Just in time, Stopping the
line (without modifications) and Physical visual controls. Redundant concept: Pull. Especially suitable concepts: 5 Why, Decentralized responsibility, Digital visual controls and Isolating variation. Suitable concepts: Elimination of waste, Root cause analysis, Genchi genbutsu, Kaizen events, Flow, Stopping the line (with modifications) and Standardization.
RQ3: Step I: Aligning the production strategy and process with the organization’s strategy and goals. Step II: Standardization.