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  • 1.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Automating a test strategy for a protocoldecoder tool2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within Ericsson AB, integration and verification activities is done on the network level in order to secure the functionality of the network. Protocol analysers are used to capture the traffic in the network. This results in many log files, which needs to be analysed. To do this, a protocol decoder tool called Scapy/LHC is used. Scapy/LHC is a framework that allows the users to write their own script to retrieve the data they need from the log files. The Scapy/LHC framework is incrementally developed as open source within Ericsson when there are needs for more functionality. This is often done by the users, outside normal working tasks. Because of this, there is almost no testing done to verify that old and new functionality works as expected, and there is no formal test strategy in use today.


    The goal of this master’s thesis is to evaluate test strategies that are possible to use on the Scapy/LHC framework. To make the time needed for the testing process as short as possible, the test strategy needs to be automated. Therefore, possible test automation tools shall also be evaluated.


    Two possible test strategies and two possible test automation tools are evaluated in this thesis. A test strategy, where the scripts that are written by the users are used, is then selected for implementation. The two test automation tools are also implemented. The evaluation of the implemented test strategy shows that it is possible to find defects in the Scapy/LHC framework in a time efficient way with help of the implemented test strategy and any of the implemented test automation tools.

  • 2.
    Linnefell, William
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Framväxt och utveckling av radikala högerpopulistiska partier i norden: En jämförelse mellan Sverigedemokraterna och Sannfinländarna2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Populism has been an integral part of the Finnish political system since the late 1950's. At that time the Agrarian Populist Party, better known as The Rural Party, emerged and thrived for decades until the party financially broke down in the 1990's. Reemerging on the political scene as the True Finns, the party is more radical and more influential than ever, gaining enough support to be the third largest party of the 2011 parliamentary election. Sweden, Finland’s neighbor, in contrast has a history with very little populist presence or radical right populist parties (RRP-parties). However, during the 2010 parliamentary election the Sweden Democrats attained seats in the parliament for the first time in history.

    In this thesis, these cases, with their different historical backgrounds, are analyzed to explain the rise and growth of RRP-parties. Many political scientists have tried to answer this question before, focusing on system-oriented and contextual factors, but often neglecting factors that incorporate the political actors themselves. What this thesis adds to the previous research is a perspective on the rise and growth of RRP-parties based on the dynamism between system-oriented factors and actor-oriented factors.

    The theoretical discussion indicates that some system-oriented and contextual factors are significant when explaining the rise and growth of RRP-parties. At the same time, actor oriented factors such as the legacy of the RRP-party and the mainstream party strategies prove to be influential on the electoral strength of the RRP-party.

    These theoretical approaches are then used and combined in a comparative analysis, which imply two important things. First, the legitimacy of the RRP-party itself is an aspect that does explain the rise and growth of RRP-parties. Second, in the case of Sweden, the system-oriented and contextual factors alone were not able to explain the rise and growth of the Sweden Democrats. Together these findings stress that the dynamic perspective between system-oriented and actor-oriented factors truly is meaningful when trying to explain rise and growth of RRP-parties.

  • 3.
    Musimiire, Angela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Chakhnashvili, Maka
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Product Adaptation to Different Markets through Technology Innovation2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aim: Markets are getting increasingly complex, competitive and changing. A firm’s ability to respond to environmental challenges is a significant factor for its survival and success. To establish itself in the market, a company needs to adjust the product in a way that meets the expectations and required quality of the target market in other words, make relevant product adaptations. Many aspects of product adaptation have been discussed in the literature ranging from small changes in the product such as specification or design to modifying a company’s market strategy depending on which stage the product is in its life cycle. Technology innovation can enable a firm keep the market share and retain customers especially in a mature and technology driven industry where the market is saturated and consumers diffuse to competitors who easily copy the product. However, the role of technology innovation to adapt a product in the growth stage to mature markets is missing from the present literature. This present thesis will investigate the role of technology innovation in product adaptation and the factors to consider thereof the Swedish high tech company Saab will be used as the case study.

    Methodology: Research method for the present thesis includes the qualitative approach with the case study design. For the purposes of this thesis the Swedish high-tech company Saab will be studied to explore the practices of adapting product (field hospital) to different markets.

    Completion and results: Result of the study showed that there are similarities and differences between what literature provides and Saab does to adapt a product in markets. Analyzing the theory and practice recommendations for Saab were concluded. Suggestions drown for Saab can be useful for other high technology companies as well.

  • 4.
    Ferguson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Ukkonen, Merja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Adopting Open Innovation: A New Framework for the Analysis of the Open Innovation Adoption Process2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The term Open Innovation describes a phenomenon where organizations are no longer solely relying on internal R&D to innovate technologies that they then would bring to market. Instead, firms are looking outside for ideas or working with other organizations to develop technologies in order to capitalize on efficiencies of existing knowledge, reduce investment risks and increase speed to market. We identified a need to analyze the existing open innovation adoption frameworks in order to track similarities and differences so that we could create a new framework which is more comprehensive.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to create a framework for the analysis of the open innovation adoption process which is based on organizational change and other relevant streams of research. In order to do this we were to find answers to the following research questions:

    1) How can organizational change theory be used to analyze the movement from a closed to open innovation strategy?

    2) In addition to organizational change theory, which research streams should be considered when analyzing the open innovation adoption process?

    3) To what extent does our new framework provide an adequate foundation for analyzing the open innovation adoption process at SCA Hygiene Products?

    Results: Our new framework is meant for the analysis of open innovation adoption process. The framework helps researchers to analyze how different organizations have adopted open innovation based on the four research streams that we have analyzed. Our framework includes aspects of organizational change theory, knowledge management, networks and managerial roles.

    Key Words: open innovation adoption, organizational change, knowledge management, networks, SCA

  • 5.
    Svensson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Outsourcing och backsourcing av IT-lösningar: Utveckling och bakomliggande faktorer2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Outsourcing, that is to say when an organization's services or products within a function or an activity are being contracted out to an external vendor, became increasingly noticeable during the 1990s. The trend has grown to represent the norm in today’s society and nowadays organizations outsource operations ranging from the management of information technology (IT) to whole functions. The outsourcing of IT is considered to be a growing and increasingly global phenomenon. However, problems with an outsourcing agreement or changes in a company's business situation can lead to backsourcing, a concept meaning that an organization chooses to bring back and re-implement activities within its own operations. Decisions regarding the outsourcing of IT solutions have been a central aspect in both research and practice while the decision to change supplier or backsource has received relatively little attention. Nevertheless, the drivers of backsourcing constitute an equally relevant topic to study. Hence, the aim of this study is to identify the motives underlying an organization’s decision to outsource, as well as backsource, IT related activities and functions and to examine how the conditions that applied when making the decision to outsource can change during an outsourcing process. 

    I have conducted a qualitative study where a case study design has been applied. A number of organizations that use IT and IT solutions in their day-to-day operations have been studied where the organizations previously have backsourced and/or now find themselves in the process of bringing back their IT. A literature review has been conducted and empirical data has been collected through the use of semi-structured interviews. In the analysis, the empirical data has been analyzed in relation to previous research regarding (1) outsourcing and (2) backsourcing. 

    The results of this study show that reasons and motives that can result in a firm's decision to outsource its IT include the possibility of achieving cost reductions, a greater flexibility and the possibility of gaining access to expertise. Examples of changes that can occur during an outsourcing process are within the management since the replacement of an organization’s management can bring new opinions and attitudes towards the firm’s sourcing strategy. The importance of IT to the operations can also change during an outsourcing process. Furthermore, a number of underlying factors that may affect an organization’s decision to backsource its IT have been identified. Examples of factors are that the outsourcing has resulted in no overall cost savings and that there’s a lack of compliance with the contract regarding, for example, the quality of the services being delivered.

  • 6.
    Lauri, Vaher
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dokumentation av möbler i Vasarummet på Rydboholm slott: Vård och preventiv konservering i en autentisk miljö2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a work about documentation and preventive conservation. My case study includes a number of furnishings in an environment where virtually no circumstances have changed during last 400 years. My goal was to, on the basis of observation of materials, techniques and construction, determine the possible date of origin and that with regard to previous research on climate and the effect of light and other conditions to formulate guidelines for the continued storage, without changing anything more pervasive in the physical environment. I have come to the conclusion that the different methods like the control of air movement or protection of the environment from UV-light is not unproblematic in an environment like this, but that the best strategy in the current situation are simple proven methods such as protective covering and ventilation.

  • 7.
    Sivik, Magdalena (Editor)
    Integrationsverket, Analysavdelningen, Norrköping.
    Rundqvist, Mikael (Editor)
    Integrationsverket, Analysavdelningen, Norrköping.
    Verksamhetsintegrerat mångfaldsarbete: en dokumentstudie av tolv statliga myndigheters arbete med mainstreaming av integrationspolitiken2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report Mainstreaming diversity work (Verksamhetsintegrerat mångfaldsarbete) maps twelve strategically important government authorities’ work with including the cross-sectoral integration policy in their respective core activities. In the government bill Sweden, the future and diversity – from immigration policy to integration policy (1997/98:16) the Government points to mainstreaming as an important tool in order to achieve the goals of the integration policy. In the report, the term diversity work is used to describe the perspective government authorities shall mainstream, according to regulations within this policy area.

    Activities in government authorities shall be based on the diversity in society and have everyone’s equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities as the goal. The integration perspective shall permeate activities and developments shall be implemented within the scope of regular activities and by regular staff. The consequences for foreign-born persons and persons with foreign extraction shall in a systematic way be considered in each situation.

    This report develops and tests the tools for examining the progress of mainstreaming diversity work. Through interviews and document analysis (e.g. annual reports), the report surveys whether the government authorities conduct their activities in accordance with the goals of integration policy.

    The result from both interviews and document analysis show that three out of twelve government authorities mainstream their diversity work according to the formulated policy. In another three government authorities does the information gathered through interviews verify that they mainstream their diversity work. Neither interviews, nor annual reports can verify that the remaining six government authorities mainstream their diversity work.

    The report concludes with suggestions dealing with the need for documented impact assessments, method- and interpretation support, as well as clarity, communication and consistency in management.

    The mapping exercise show, first, a need to implement and document impact assessments of how the government authorities’ various activities relate to the goals of integration policy. Such impact assessments can contribute to the government authority itself gaining an understanding of how its activities contribute to the achievement of the goals of integration policy, in addition to giving external actors an insight into the state of play.

    A second conclusion is that government authorities need method- and interpretation support for how to mainstream diversity work. One explanation for the fact that not all government authorities currently work on mainstreaming diversity work is that they lack knowledge about how this can be done.

    A third conclusion is that the Government must think through and decide on a strategy for how government authorities shall implement integration policy. The government authorities must in turn improve their reporting to the Government on how they mainstream their diversity work and the results they achieve.

    The document analyses and interviews are extensively reported for each government authority in a separate appendix (only available in Swedish).

  • 8.
    Harnesk, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Hellström, John
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Effekter av e-tjänster inom den offentliga vården: En kvalitativ fallstudie om hur e-tjänster kan påverka en offentlig vårdorganisations verksamhet och dess medarbetare2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    E-services are becoming increasingly prevalent in various contexts. Organizations in the public sector have also embraced this trend and today provide e-services with different purposes, e.g. various e-health services. Although there are advantages of e-services compared to traditional channels, they are not free of problems; a public organization must, among other things, provide an availability that private organizations may not need. This in turn means that the business needs to adapt its internal IT systems to handle incoming cases, which affects both the organization’s business and its employees. As today’s demands exceeds the resources, and that the population in Sweden is growing older, demands increase on the health care’s business. Citizens have to take greater responsibility for their own healthcare, which involves changes in working methods through effective e-services. Therefore, we examined the consequences this has within the business, as well as how the use of e-services affects the employees’ working routines and administrative work.

    The study aims to identify and analyze consequences, opportunities and obstacles with e-health and e-services within a public health care organization. In this way, we see that the study may help with possible explanations to the challenges that arise from the use of e-services in the public health care. The intention is also to identify and describe possible gaps between expected effects of strategies and the outcome in the operational business, which we see can contribute to greater understanding of the differences and how they might be handled. The study is based on a qualitative case study on Region Östergötland, where we have collected empirical data through interviews. The interviews have then been interpreted and analyzed to provide an illustration of how the organization strategically works with e-services in the public healthcare and how this is manifested in the business.

    The study results and conclusions show that there are both positive and less desirable effects of e-services within the operational level of the business. The same also applies to certain strategic decisions, particularly the decision to make patient records available through the e-service My health care contacts. We consider that an important contribution of the study is to highlight the needs from the operational health care business, as well as the importance of taking these into account in the development of e-health and e-service related strategies. We consider that another contribution of the study is the need to reflect on the business implications that may arise as a result of e-services.

  • 9.
    Steen Lagerstam, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship.
    Expansion av e-handelsverksamhet i detaljhandeln: En studie om utmaningar och framgångsfaktorer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has become a central part of the modern society and has change our everyday life in many ways. An area that’s been strongly affected by this development is the Swedish retail e-commerce market. E-commerce sales have increased six-fold over the course of the past decade and forecasts indicate that this expansive trend will continue. This trend places significant challenges on Swedish retail companies who have a legacy of exclusively carrying out their sales in the traditional brick and mortar format. The subject of this study was originally proposed by the Swedish retail company Företag X[1], who have decided to embark on their e-commerce initiative in early 2016. Företag X asked the author of this report to help with finding out what it takes to develop a small e-commerce store, in such a way that it becomes a successful part of the company, contributing to the company’s overall profitability. The purpose of this study is therefore to identify practices and methods that enable successful expansion of e-commerce for medium-sized, Swedish retail companies.

    In order to achieve the purpose, a qualitative multi-case study design was chosen for the study. Information for the theoretical framework was collected from articles in scientific journals and books, and supplemented with secondary empirical data in the form of reports from companies. Qualitative primary data were then collected from interviews with three chosen companies, which were found with through a small cross-sectional study of 20 competitors to Företag X where their EBITDA margins over the past five years were studied.

    The study results showed an expansive trend on the Swedish retail e-commerce market, and it seems that this trend is set to continue over the next decade. As a consequence, market climate is changing and shifting towards becoming more digitalized, which requires companies to review their sales organizations. The main trend in the market is called “omni-channel retailing" and means that a company is integrating its brick and mortar and e-commerce sales to enable a seamless shopping experience for the customer. This trend has emerged as a response to a new buying patterns observed among customers, who move between their digital and physical sales channels during the purchase.

    The study indicates that the e-commerce-related issues that are most important to address and work with are in the following areas:

    • Customer Focus
      • IT
      • Customer relations
      • Responsiveness to customers
    • Cost effectiveness
      • Supply chain and logistics
      • Strategy and governance
    • Resistance Management
      • Education
      • Synchronization between brick and mortar stores and e-commerce store

    This study represents the author’s master’s thesis in the Industrial Engineering and Management program at Linköping University, Sweden.

    [1] Företag X are known by a different name, but have asked to remain anonymous in this study

  • 10.
    Lindblom, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A framework for disruptive innovation in an industry where everything is innovative2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis is written as a part of The Media Technology program at Linköping University in collaboration with the streaming music company Spotify. The thesis investigates how a software company in the modern age effectively and organically can stay innovative through times. The thesis maps out strategies, models and methods currently known, analyses Spotify’s innovative efforts over the past year and suggests a framework tailored to the needs of the company.

  • 11.
    Lindholm Pirttilä, Christopher
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordh, Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Relativvärderingsbaserade investeringar. Hur väl fungerar de i olika branscher?: En studie över samtliga företag noterade i Norden mellan åren 2005–20142015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This thesis has been executed in order to bring clarity into the matter whether relative valuation works as an investment strategy in the Nordic region between the years 2005 and 2014. Whether the strategy performs differently if the markets are sorted by sector affiliation, as well as if previously commonly used key ratios can generate different returns in different sectors is an unexplored area. Previous studies have focused on examining entire markets or specific industries where the results partially have been interpreted with behavioral finance.Aim: The aim of the thesis is to analyze whether there are any differences in how well relative valuation works as an investment method in different sectors, in order to generate excess return; as well as if it is statistically possible to find a connection between sectors and key ratios.Completion: A quantitative approach is used where the stocks are sorted into quartile portfolios in accordance with their sector affiliation and based on their valuation relative to sector competitors. The portfolios are then rebalanced on a yearly basis and returns are calculated on monthly and cumulative basis. Furthermore the portfolios are evaluated using risk measures, a diversification process and behavioural finance.Results: Relative valuation can be used to generate excess return in all sectors except in the energy sector. A discrepancy in returns is shown, depending on which sector, quartile and key ratio that is used for the investment. Moreover, diversification effectively lowers the risk without lowering the return at the same pace. Behavioural finance can only partially explain the differences in return between the portfolios.

  • 12.
    Holgerson, Line
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Exploring the role of multi-functional solutions when planning for climate change: A case study of stormwater management in a Swedish city2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Managing stormwater sustainably in the face of extreme weather events has increasingly been recognized as a strategy for climate adaptation in the urban planning context. Sustainable stormwater management intends to reduce urban vulnerability while ensuring the overall sustainability and robustness of future cities. To add to the emerging research field of green infrastructure, the objective of the study is to explore the role of multi-functional solutions as a climate change response in urban planning and development. This study has been driven by an inductive research process and draws on empirical data collection through workshops and interviews with City Hall officials in Motala City. The study concludes that despite the lack of preventative planning to anticipate climate change, city renewal and urban development of Motala City presented a window of opportunity to implement potential multi-functional stormwater solutions in the urban environment through urban planning. Further, increased focus on internal and external collaboration through the process of envisioning the future of the city have enabled new forms of governance and facilitated arenas for public acceptance and an integrative planning-approach. Lastly, discourses on attractiveness enabled greenery to be viewed from a social, economic and environmental perspective, supporting multi-functional stormwater solutions as a strategy for climate adaptation and urban sustainability.

  • 13.
    Odenryd, Theo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hassan, Mohamed
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kapitalstruktur i kris – anpassning eller överlevnad?: En studie om skuldsättning i de Large Cap-noterade svenska industriföretagen under åren 2006-20092015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Regardless of the economy, a company must finance its operations with capital. Capital structure is a controversial area of research without any general applicable theory for the majority of companies. This, together with the relatively unexplored area of capital structure in economic turnarounds enables an interesting contribution to knowledge. The fact that companies within the same industry has proven greater similarities in capital structure raises a delimitation into a specific sector. How was Sweden’s largest export sector, industrial companies, affected by the major economic downturn that prevailed during the years 2006–2009, considering their relatively high leverage ratio?

    Purpose: The aim is to analyse the management of, and what affected the indebtedness in the Swedish industrial companies during the economic downturn the years 2006– 2009.

    Completion: In order to analyse the indebtedness during an economic downturn the study used a quantitative approach based on financial ratios and valuation multiples as explanatory variables. Interviews were conducted in order to make the study more reality-based regarding management of capital structure over time. Previous research in capital structure, together with the empirical results, has been the basis for analysis and comparisons to the economic downturn during 2006–2009.

    Results: Most correlations, which affected the indebtedness during 2006–2009, prevails regardless of the economic climate. However, there is a greater impact by the economic downturn when analysing the explanations of the correlations whereby profitability, growth and risk are seen as contributing factors. Furthermore, industrial companies make no direct adaption in structure at economic turnarounds since they are considered “survivors” in their strategy based on their business and flexibility in the composition of capital structure. 

  • 14.
    Larsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Yosef, Naima
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    In the Pursuit of Influence: A Study of Transnational Advocacy Networks' Legitimacy Efforts2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    As organized global actors, transnational advocacy networks (TANs) are an emerging way of people getting their voice heard and to make a change in global governance. Influencing policy-makers through advocacy has an identified connection to the legitimacy of the organization where the general assumption is that a higher legitimacy facilitates influence.

    In this thesis we have approached this situation from a strategic standpoint. Seeing as TANs – like most organizations – follow a strategy in order to achieve their goals, we wanted to see how legitimacy can be included as a part of the TANs strategy. This included describing the connections between the TAN as an organization and the legitimacy potential in both the organizational form and their actions.

    Our empirical findings suggested a close relationship between a TAN’s legitimacy and their stance with a policy-making institution, which led to a focus on these institutions as a target for TANs and their advocacy. We developed on this relation and outlined a suggestion for a strategic framework for TANs to consider when strategizing around legitimacy. We found that two main paths – named the Insider and the Outsider strategies – illustrate the options and implications a TAN is faced with on the topic of strategic legitimacy.

    The results constitute a contribution to the development of TAN strategy, a field that in the time of our writing this remains underexplored territory. We suggest that this field can be further developed by continuous research and we hope that this thesis is a contribution to that development.

  • 15.
    Vallgren, Rikard
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vem ska rädda världen?: En textanalys av faktaböcker för barn om klimatförändringarna 2000-20152015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the message of non-fiction books on climate change for children, published in Swedish 2000-2015. The purpose of the study is to investigate how the message is communicated in relation to how recent research shows that it should be done. The study also aims to analyze the similarities and differences in the book's message compared to the message in the public debate during the period. The issues that the study intends to answer is what message is being communicated, how it is done and if the message and the way to communicate has changed over the time period.

     

    The study was conducted in the form of a text analysis where qualitative content analysis and visual text analysis have been combined. The interpretation strategy is interpreter-related. The empirical material consists of sixteen non-fiction books, devised by searching in Swedish Children's Book Institute's catalog.

     

    The results indicate that the speech in the literature changed in a significant way during the 2000s first fifteen years, and that the changes broadly follows the changes in the contemporary Swedish climate debate. Meanwhile, clear differences are interpreted regarding what messages and symbols are highlighted in children's literature compared to the rest of society. Certain discrepancies between the speech of children's literature and research findings concerning appropriate communication strategies can also be interpreted in the analysis.

  • 16.
    Stangnes, Viktoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sternelöv, Herman
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kommuner i det minsta laget: En studie om avfolkning och strategier2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to explain and describe the difficult situation for small and depopulated municipalities in Sweden. The thesis will examine which strategies these municipalities uses to ensure mandatory obligations in the public sector. It will also reveal how these actors operate to reverse the depopulation. How do the municipalities handle the decreasing resources which emerge out of the urbanisation? The thesis will use research and three diffrent fundational theories, which are the sociological, the classical institutionalism and the rational perspective. By using resarch and theories, we aim to explain similarities and diffrences between the chosen subjects. 

    The examination of these complexities is generated by a comparative case-study. By using offical documents interviews, we have found that intermunicipal cooperation is the most freqeuntly used strategy and it is mostly because of the ability of increased competence.     

  • 17.
    Bouvrain, Stanislas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sarka, Darius
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Compatibility of Corporate Sustainability with a Cost Leadership Strategy2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    BACKGROUND

    Exploring literature about corporate sustainability and cost leadership strategy and to study the collusion of the two concepts through the case of Ikea.

    AIM

    Researching whether firms can align corporate sustainability approach to doing business on the imperatives of a cost leadership strategy. The contribution aims to provide guidance on choosing appropriate sustainability activities within the context of cost leadership strategy. Furthermore, it should be noted that this paper sets out to analyze the compatibility between sustainability and cost leadership remaining/gaining competitiveness.

    METHODOLOGY

    The study regards Ikea’s implementation of sustainable business practices through a mixed method, via informal interview, bottom-employees survey and secondary data.

    FINDINGS

    Companies having a deep understanding of sustainability can achieve to conciliate their efforts toward sustainability with their cost leadership strategy.

    KEYWORDS

    Corporate sustainability, cost leadership strategy, triple bottom line, maturity phase, challenges, competitive advantage

  • 18.
    Sparrefors, John
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fjellström, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Made in Sweden: Små teknikintensiva tjänsteföretags val av etableringsform vid internationalisering2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Small enterprises have become increasingly important in the Swedish business world. Among other things, 60 percent of the contribution to the country’s economy comes from small businesses. To support future growth and development it is important for companies to venture onto the international markets. This is a big step for small enterprises with constrained capital and guidance on the internationalization process and choice of entry mode is needed. Research on these two factors are limited in relation to small technology-focused enterprises in the service sector, which is the most rapidly growing sector in the Swedish economy.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to analyze the internationalization process and the choice of entry mode for small and technology-focused enterprises in the Swedish service sector.

    Methodology: The study has a qualitative research strategy and a deductive research approach. It is based on semi-structured interviews with three small technology-focused enterprises in the Swedish service sector and can be classified as a comparative case study.

    Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is that the most essential tool, for small technology-focused enterprises in the Swedish service sector when going abroad, is a distinct network of contacts. The study also reveals that the technical aspect of these types of companies implies that collaboration is the least risk and capital-intensive choice of entry mode at the beginning of a foreign establishment, which challenges the current research on the topic.

  • 19.
    Olsson, John
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Investeringsstrategier baserade på multipeln Pris/Bokfört värde: En studie på Stockholmsbörsen under perioden 2004-03-31 till 2015-03-312015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a general belief that value stocks, historically, have created a greater return of investment compared to growth stocks. Investors can, through key ratios, compare companies to one another and thereby gain a solid appreciation whether a company is overvalued or undervalued relative to other comparable companies. The problem for investors is how to identify these value stocks and exploit mispricing in the market.

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to analyze investment strategies that are based on the Price-to-Book ratio on the Swedish stock market.

    Completion: To meet the purpose, the study is based on a deductive foundation with a quantitative method. Two investment strategies are investigated based on the Price-to-book ratio. The first strategy sorts the material following the value of the multiple, whereas the other strategy relies on regression analysis where interest on own capital is used as an explaining variable.

    Results: To only look at the price-to-book ratio, in order to distinguish undervalued stocks, does not work in the Swedish stock market during the period of 31-03-04 to 31-03-2015. It can be concluded that the combination used in the developed strategy works to identify value stocks that have a significantly higher cumulative return compared to the OMX Stockholm Price Index.

  • 20.
    Perman, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strategisk verifiering av social IT-produkt: en djupdykning i en blå ocean2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Startup companies about to release B2B-software on the Internet have special circumstances. The company's main asset – the software concept – can easily be replicated by other companies and thus limit the possibilities of value creation. The competitive advantage is volatile and maintaining it requires profound strategic preparatory work. The purpose of this study is to examine how a Blue Ocean Strategy can be used in this context to find an additional set of profitable target customers and an alternative strategic approach. Background material was collected by attending strategy meetings at a startup company and its business contacts. Based on the company’s existing software, a Blue Ocean Strategy was developed and presented, first to the board and then to potential customers. As a result, one customer is now interested in testing the service, seeing opportunities to extend its use in its operations across Europe. In conclusion, a Blue Ocean Strategy can be used to find alternative strategic approaches in this context.

  • 21.
    Nyström, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Organisatoriska förutsättningar för coachande ledarskap i en agil kontext2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The usage of agile methods where a coaching leadership style isrecommended, is increasing quickly. Well-developed leadership capabilities are noguarantee for a successful coaching leadership since there are organizational factors thatmight make it difficult. Earlier studies have investigated which organizational prerequisitesthat are important for coaching leadership, but not in an agile context, why thisstudy is needed.

    Aim: The aim of the study is to identify and analyze organizational prerequisites formanagerial coaching in an agile context.

    Method: The study is a qualitative case study where semi structured interviews have beenconducted with eight team leaders at Saab AB, Linköping.

    Results: Through this study we have identified six different prerequisites for coachingleadership in an agile context. Two of these mostly relate to the implementation processwhereas the other four affect the maintenance of a coaching leadership in an agile context.The prerequisites are; understanding changes, training & individual goals,organizational culture, strategy & goals, clear roles and management by objectives. Thelast two have not been highlighted in existing literature about coaching leadership, butare important in an agile environment.

  • 22.
    Ahmed, Uday
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ayo, Priscilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Developing Common Questions about Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE), Ecodesign and Engineering Education2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, more and more manufacturing firms recognize the benefit of providing products together with related services with an aim to gain higher profits as compared to supplying products without additional services. On the other hand, the competition in the global markets has been increased dramatically through increased sales of services in order to gain additional value for their products. In addition, several environmental challenges such as climate change, pollution, global warming impact, greenhouse gases emissions have played a vital role by influencing on the production protocols and trend of the companies. These challenges forced manufacturing countries to take into consideration environmentally conscious approach to their design thinking and industrial production processes. As a result, it became an important drive for manufacturing industries to shift from traditional product-oriented to service-oriented business models that has been witnessed during the last few years.

     

    The objective of this study research is to develop common questions that capture fundamental and common issues about Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE), Design for Environment (DFE) and Engineering education are effectives for industries to check and develop their knowledge, because the Engineering education plays a necessary role in associating socio-ethical knowledge with scientific and technological advances. The strategy taken to conduct this thesis task was first to study and understand the concept of Product Service System (PSS), IPSE, and Ecodesign as well as Engineering Education. Informative knowledge on these concepts were collected by reviewing several related journal articles, CIRP IPS2 conference proceedings.

     

    In this thesis the concepts of PSS, IPSE, DFE and Engineering Education discussed to develop the key common questions and issues to address the environmental, economic and social problems. Since PSS aims to reduce consumption through alternative schemes of product use as well as to increase overall resource productivity and dematerialization, but IPSE does not focus on a single factor but incorporates a wide range of factors such as environmental, social and economic issues. Whilst one of the main problems in this research focused on how to develop and strengthen the relationship between the academia and industry, and how this relation can be used to improve the academic performance and scientific research at universities and transfer them to industry.

     

    Sustainability and the life cycle concept have become a main solution for various problems such as a growing world population and a change in the industrial culture to come. As results Ecodesign and environmental considerations, financial aspects, product improvement as well as the commercial aspects were discussed in this project by understanding the previous concepts. The university considered as an important base of cultivating the talents, basic of inputs business organizations which help them to develop and improve their level of performance and quality of their products and services, and enhance its competitive position in the market. Changes in organized science further encouraged university interests in expanding technology transfer, because the scientific disciplines play an important role in influencing the type of interactions with industry as well as the University and Industry collaboration became the basic method of solving the problems to achieve (environmental, economic and social) sustainability.

  • 23.
    Dalros Sköld, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wennström, Klara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ständiga förbättringar ett fortsatt lärande: En fallstudie vid Saab Dynamics2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Continuous improvement and organisational learning both aim to improve and develop an organisation’s processes. Within the field of continuous improvement the focus is often on systematic methods whilst in organisational learning the focus is mainly holistic when looking at an organisation. Although both research areas differ in many ways there are clear similarities concerning what are influential factors inducing the output regarding both strategies. This aroused our interest and we wanted to explore this fact further.

    Aim: This study aims to understand the influential factors that exist regarding continuous improvement as a strategy in businesses and organisational learning, as well as discovering where there are common denominators.

    Method: The study has a qualitative approach and is based on interviews and observations collected at Saab Dynamics as well as a literature review of existing research and theories.

    Result: The result from this study is shown in two models: a theory developed model that maps the common denominators regarding influential factors on the organisational-, group- and individual level as well as a revised model with focus on the factors we have found empirically. Influential factors include policy communication, managerial presence, group dynamics and understanding. A condition and a critical variable in this is time.

  • 24.
    Abring, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transaktionsexponerade kassaflöden: En kvalitativ studie om hur styrdokument reglerar den praktiska hanteringen av transaktionsexponerade kassaflöden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As a result of increased international trading, adequate management of transaction exposure has become more important. Foreign currency cash flows are associated with different risks and thus give cause to distinct transaction exposure with overseas trading. Previous research advocates that management of transaction exposure is controlled through policy documents and we have identified a lack of research in how policy documents of Swedish firms are designed.

    Problem: To what extent is previous research agreeing with how Swedish firms have developed policy documents for managing transaction exposure of different foreign currency cash flows?

    Aim: The aim of the study is, compared to what previous research advocates, to examine and analyze how policy documents for managing transaction exposure are designed within the Swedish firms. The study also aims to analyze the differences in the policy document for the transaction exposure in different foreign currency cash flows, as well as the factors that give reasons to possible deviations.

    Conclusions: The findings of the study indicate a clear congruence between previous research and established practices of how policy documents for managing transaction exposure are designed in Swedish firms. Policy documents are comprehensive in their design; regulate the risk management strategy but not the management procedures. Even though the actual management of transaction exposure of different foreign currency cash flows indicates significant discrepancies, the policy document doesn’t regulate any of them. Giving reason for a different management are: factors related to the foreign exchange market characteristics, company-specific factors and other influencing market factors.Contribution: The study contributes to a better understanding and clearer differentiation of how Swedish firms control the management of transaction exposure, from a business perspective. Moreover, the study intends to give rise to the interest in how and on which grounds companies differently control the management of transaction exposure of different foreign currency cash flows.

  • 25.
    Carlsson, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Löfgren, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sinar svensk mjölkproduktion?: En studie om en bransch i kris2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 1990, the Swedish food market was deregulated to be enforced with theEuropean food market. Since then, the number of dairy farms has dropped from roughly 25000 companies, to a little bit more than 4 000 companies. During the end of year 2014 andthe beginning of 2015 the price paid to dairy farmers by dairies has been extremely low,which has had an impact on the dairy farmers profitability. Each dairy farmer has one dairycompany affiliation, and it is the dairy companies who decide which price they will pay forthe milk that is produced. Because of the monotone production of dairy farmers, it isusually hard for them to differentiate their product and they often end up in an unprofitablesituation.

    Aim: This study aims to examine the dairy industry and the structural problems Swedishdairy farmers perceive within it. Given the perceived structural problems, we want toexamine the approach Swedish dairy farmers holds to the possibilities they considerthemselves to have, to influence their role within the dairy industry.

    Completion: The study begun by reading newspaper articles, specialist literature and othere-references regarding the dairy industry. The collecting of secondary data was followed upby collection of primary data through several visits by dairy farms, surveys, one case studyand one telephone interview. The study has an abductive approach, and therefore theory andempirical data were collected parallelly. During the collection we used both a qualitativeand a quantitative method. The quantitative information was collected by using semistructuredand structured interviews but also by doing observations. The quantitative datawere collected using surveys.

    Conclusion: Swedish dairy farmers are today in a severe situation. They suffer from lowprofitability, and it is hard for them to influence their income in the current dairy industrystructure. Because dairy farmers experience low control in their daily work, and at the sametime have a very high work strain, it is possible that it will affect their health in a negativeway. However, we believe that dairy farmers, like many of them selves, can influence theirposition in the dairy industry, even though a lot of work will be needed. If dairy farmerswould like to affect their position in the industry, it would be helpful for them to develop aclear strategy for their companies, something we do not percept that many Swedish dairycompanies have today.

  • 26.
    Gustafsson, Rasmus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Helmerson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vilken kontroll spelar roll?: En förklarande studie om den interna revisionens påverkan för den externa revisionen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The internal auditor is assumed to have a greater insight in the firm than the external auditor. Agency theory tells us that the internal auditor maximizes his own utility, which questions his independence. The current research is divided into two perspectives where the internal audit and the cost of the external audit has a positive or a negative relationship. The prevailing trend of increased internal audit and control together with the new context created in the 21th century with introduced regulations motivates and actualizes this study.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to explain how the internal audit impacts the cost of the external audit in swedish listed firms.

    Method

    This study has a quantitative research strategy and a deductive research approach. Data from swedish listed firms has been collected through studies of documents and analyzed with a linear regression. Operationalization has been made in accordance with previous research and the presence of internal audit has been measured with a dummy variable.

    Conclusion

    The result of this study shows that the presence of internal audit has a strongly significant positive relationship with the cost of the external audit. The study finds that firms with internal audit increase their audit costs, but that underlying reasons might be demand for greater control. Previous research confirms the argument and that demand for greater control leads to greater investments in both internal and external audit. The result of this study implies that internal audit is used by management to signal trust to the shareholders.

  • 27.
    Rigaki, Anastasia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Teachers of Greek Model Experimental High: Schools and Lifelong Learning: a mixed methods approach2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lifelong Learning is a key concept in modern ‘knowledge-based’ society and it is viewed as a commodity, a personal drive or a social necessity. This thesis aims to unravel its many dimensions and the values that are ascribed to it by the teachers of Greek Model Experimental High Schools. A Model Experimental High School is a relatively new type of state school in Greece, which is highly differentiated from other schools in terms of curriculum, inter-school activities, staff and students and emerged in the Greek education system in 2011. For this reason, research on the effects of this differentiation in the aspects of Lifelong Learning is scarce. The mixed methods strategy was used in order to form a complete picture of the Lifelong Learning dimensions and the research was conducted in two parts. The first part was quantitative and aimed to categorize the elements that constitute Lifelong Learning for the teachers, the factors that encourage or discourage it and its positive and negative dimensions on a macro level as, through a questionnaire, and as a result responses were collected from the thirty-six Model Experimental High Schools in urban and semi-urban areas of Greece. The second part was qualitative and through semi-structured interviews, it explored more in-depth the issue of Lifelong Learning and the concept of vocational vitality which is related both to Lifelong Learning and a teacher’s professional life. Following the propositions of the Theory of Work Adjustment, the research revealed that through the various non-formal and informal activities that the demanding context of Model Experimental High Schools promotes, Lifelong Learning acts as a reinforcer and a means of sustaining the balance between the school and the teachers by increasing their satisfaction. Moreover, both the quantitative and the qualitative methods revealed that teachers consider Lifelong Learning firstly as a means of personal development and secondly as continuous professional development. Lifelong Learning as investment in the human capital was not found as important as the previous two. Furthermore, the vocational vitality of teachers was found to be thriving due to the importance that Lifelong Learning plays in their life a and despite the difficulties which arise from the work demands or the difficult socioeconomic context in Greece due to the economic crisis of the recent years.

  • 28.
    Thalén, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Manpower planning for airline pilots: A tabu search approach2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The airline industry faces some of the largest and most complicated optimization problems among all industries today. A large part of their costs iscrew costs and large savings can be made by efficient manpower planning. The research focus has been on the later steps in the planning process such as crew scheduling. The focus of this thesis is on the largely unexplored research area of staffing and transition planning for pilots. For the important question of which pilot should receive training to which position no solution strategy with optimization has, before this thesis, been presented. One reason for this might be that many complicated regulations concern this question, making an easily solved model impossible. I have developed a tabu search based algorithm with encouraging results. The algorithm was tested on data from Scandinavian Airlines. Compared to a reference algorithm based on commercial mixed integer programming software, the tabu search algorithm finds similar solutions about 30 times faster. I show how tabu search can be tailored to a specific complicated problem, and the results are good enough to not only be of theoretical interest but also of direct practical interest for use in the airline industry.

  • 29.
    Haugøy, Grethe
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Sharing learning across diversity: Immigrant employees’ inclusion in communities of practice2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Norway research on immigrants and the labour market has to a large degree focused on immigrants’ shortcomings, be it their lacking knowledge, competence and skills (KCS) or their failures in being recruited to available jobs. This study seeks to refocus current academic interest and investigates the potential benefits of recruiting immigrant employees. It explores highly skilled immigrants and how their KCS is valued, shared and used in a Norwegian workplace. In this study seven immigrant employees in a State organisation (the Directorate) are interviewed about their experiences with having their KCS validated, shared and used. In addition they reflect on the Directorate’s framework conditions for sharing learning, and whether the organisation is able to expand the organisational culture to embrace immigrants’ values, opinions and practices. The study adopts a socio-cultural view on learning and operationalises this approach through the use of Lave and Wenger’s concept of communities of practice (CoPs). Employees in the Directorate are thus seen as members of CoPs and new immigrant employees as novices going through a participative process to gain access to the CoPs’ repertoire of accepted practices. Findings indicate that the negotiation of meaning taking place when new, immigrant KCS enters CoPs is a contested process in which both new employees and veteran members go through a process of identity formation. Findings also indicate that although an organisation may have an inclusive work environment regarding surface-level diversity, the inclusion of foreign values, opinions and practices and the development of a diverse learning environment is dependent on a conscious strategy on harvesting foreign KCS.

  • 30.
    Hildebrand, Cisilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hörtin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparative study between Emme and Visum with respect to public transport assignment2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Macroscopic traffic simulations are widely used in the world in order to provide assistance in the traffic infrastructure development as well as for the strategic traffic planning. When studying a large traffic network macroscopic traffic simulation can be used to model current and future traffic situations. The two most common software used for traffic simulation in Sweden today are Emme and Visum, developed by INRO respective PTV.

    The aim of the thesis is to perform a comparison between the software Emme and Visum with respect to the assignment of public transport, in other words how passengers choose their routes on the existing public transport lines. However, in order to make a complete software comparison the run-time, analysis capabilities, multi-modality, capacity to model various behavioural phenomena like crowding, fares etc. this will not be done in this comparison. It is of interest to study the differences between the two software algorithms and why they might occur because the Swedish Transport Administration uses Emme and the Traffic Administration in Stockholm uses Visum when planning public transport. The comparison will include the resulting volumes on transit lines, travel times, flow through specific nodes, number of boarding, auxiliary volumes and number of transits. The goal of this work is to answer the following objective: What are the differences with modelling a public transport network in Emme and in Visum, based on that the passengers only have information about the travel times and the line frequency, and why does the differences occur?

    In order to evaluate how the algorithms work in a larger network, Nacka municipality (in Stockholm) and the new metro route between Nacka Forum and Kungsträdgården have been used. The motivation for choosing this area and case is due to that it is interesting to see what differences could occur between the programs when there is a major change in the traffic network.

    The network of Nacka, and parts of Stockholm City, has been developed from an existing road network of Sweden and then restricted by "cutting out" the area of interest and then removing all public transportation lines outside the selected area. The OD-matrix was also limited and in order not to loose the correct flow of travellers portal zones was used to collect and retain volumes.

    To find out why the differences occur the headway-based algorithms in each software were studied carefully. An example of a small and simple network (consisting of only a start and end node) has been used to demonstrate and show how the algorithms work and why volumes split differently on the existing transit lines in Emme and Visum. The limited network of Nacka shows how the different software may produce different results in a larger public transport network.

    The results show that there are differences between the program algorithms but the significance varies depending on which output is being studied and the size of the network. The Visum algorithm results in more total boardings, i.e. more passengers have an optimal strategy including a transit. The algorithms are very similar in both software programs, since they include more or less parts of the optimal strategy. The parameters used are taken more or less into consideration in Emme and Visum. For example Visum will first of all focus on the shortest total travel time and then consider the other lines with respect to the maximum waiting time. Emme however, first focuses on the shortest travel time and then considers the total travel time for other lines with half the waiting time instead of the maximum wait time. This results in that less transit lines will be attractive in Emme compared to Visum. The thesis concludes that varying the parameters for public transport in each software algorithm one can obtain similar results, which implies that it is most important to choose the best parameter values and not to choose the "best" software when simulating a traffic network.

  • 31.
    Ubillis, Amaru
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of Sprite Kit for iOS game development2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this thesis is to investigate whether Sprite Kit is a good tool to simplify the development process for game developers when making 2D games for mobile devices. To answer this question a simple turn based strategy game has been developed with Sprite Kit. Sprite Kit is a game engine for making 2D games released by Apple.

    Based on the experience I got during the development I will go through and discuss some of the most important tools provided by the game engine and how they helped us to complete our game.

    The conclusions I reached after making a game with Sprite Kit is that the frame- work provides all the tools necessary for creating a simple 2D mobile game for iOS. Sprite Kit hides much of the lower level details and gives the game de- veloper comprehensive development support. This helps the game developer to save a lot of time and focus more on the gameplay when creating a game. 

  • 32.
    Aktan, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wirén-Hallqvist, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Developing a responsive mobile-first design guide for e-commerce with the users in focus2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile e-commerce is an increasing trend. Still, many sales sites are not adapted to mobile interfaces. Important factors in the design of successful e-commerce applications are trust, high quality graphics, and easy navigation. However, a typical design approach is to strip down functionality and this can have a negative impact on the user experience.

    The goal of this thesis was to create a style guide that can be used to develop responsive e-commerce sites through a mobile first implementation strategy. A style guide was created by applying modern design theory and by investigating existing e-commerce solutions. Moreover, a prototype of an e- commerce solution was developed using the style guide. This prototype was evaluated by an expert group of usability professionals. The study indicates that the style guide is a useful and effective tool in the design and development of e-commerce systems. We conclude that a mobile first strategy needs to be combined with subsequent traditional desktop design. 

  • 33.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology and Gothenburg School of Economic and Commercial Law.
    Narváez, Rommel
    Chalmers University of Technology and Gothenburg School of Economic and Commercial Law.
    Developing a Balanced Scorecard model for Volvo Information Technology: A new strategy for the integration unit2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the area of financial control of companies has developed substantially. Traditionally, companies were using budget and simple product calculation but today companies need complementary methods for control in a broad perspective. Among these methods, the Balanced Scorecard has developed as a tool to meet the needs for financial control and measurement systems. The aim of the Balanced Scorecard is to increase the efficiency of companies both in the long and short time-perspectives by controlling, measuring, and implementing the results of a specific strategy.

    Today, many companies suffer from internal problems associated with a lack of strategy in the integration of different departments. It is important for the business process to focus on obtaining favourable conditions for creation of new products and services, for increasing quality while reducing the costs by rationalization and simplification, and for reaching a faster delivery in terms of lead time. In order to become top of the line in the area of integration, Volvo IT has decided to perform an integration project incorporating a Balanced Scorecard.

    The main objective for this thesis is to develop a proposal for the Balanced Scorecard, and to identify the critical factors for success and the corresponding strategic measures. The Balanced Scorecard methodology can be used to monitor and balance the whole company, as well as individual divisions, both on the long- and short-term time perspectives. At Volvo IT the vision is to be regarded as the ideal IT supplier among its customers. For Volvo IT we found that the following four perspectives are suitable: the financial, customer, internal, and development perspectives. These perspectives can be applied to processes and activities at all divisions and levels of the company where it is judged to be useful. The idea is that everyone in the organization should know exactly what he or she should be working on for increasing the efficiency both at the level of the own division and for the company as a whole. To reach its vision, the strategy of Volvo IT is to develop a profound competence in the area of integration.

    Since introducing a Balanced Scorecard into an organization is a rather demanding project that normally takes one to two years, we have limited our work to create a proposal for Volvo IT. The design of the Balanced Scorecard also needs to be discussed in detail on the different levels at the company before the actual implementation. For the implementation phase, patience and flexibility is a prerequisite in order to obtain acceptance and understanding on all levels in the organization. Moreover, the use of a Balanced Scorecard is a dynamic process, where modifications are made regularly as internal and external conditions of the company are changing. We recommend Volvo IT to use the Balanced Scorecard, as described in this thesis, as a starting-point for the implementation phase. Based on the information obtained from our research interviews with key personnel, we have identified several critical factors for success and the corresponding strategic measures. We believe that introducing the Balanced Scorecard will be useful for the integration project at Volvo IT, strengthening the company with respect to future challenges.

  • 34.
    Hirani, Shyam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Black-Litterman Asset Allocation Model: An Empirical Comparison to the Classical Mean-Variance Framework2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the scope of this thesis, the Black-Litterman Asset Allocation Model (as presented in He & Litterman, 1999) is compared to the classical mean-variance framework by simulating past performance of portfolios constructed by both models using identical input data. A quantitative investment strategy which favours stocks with high dividend yield rates is used to generate private views about the expected excess returns for a fraction of the stocks included in the sample. By comparing the ex-post risk-return characteristics of the portfolios and performing ample sensitivity analysis with respect to the numerical values assigned to the input variables, we evaluate the two models’ suitability for different categories of portfolio managers. As a neutral benchmark towards which both portfolios can be measured, a third market-capitalization-weighted portfolio is constructed from the same investment universe. The empirical data used for the purpose of our simulations consists of total return indices for 23 of the 30 stocks included in the OMXS30 index as of the 21st of February 2014 and stretches between January of 2003 and December of 2013.

     

    The results of our simulations show that the Black-Litterman portfolio has delivered risk-adjusted return which is superior not only to that of its market-capitalization-weighted counterpart but also to that of the classical mean-variance portfolio. This result holds true for four out of five simulated strengths of the investment strategy under the assumption of zero transaction costs, a rebalancing frequency of 20 trading days, an estimated risk aversion parameter of 2.5 and a five per cent uncertainty associated with the CAPM prior. Sensitivity analysis performed by examining how the results are affected by variations in these input variables has also shown notable differences in the sensitivity of the results obtained from the two models. While the performance of the Black-Litterman portfolio does undergo material changes as the inputs are varied, these changes are nowhere near as profound as those exhibited by the classical mean-variance portfolio.

     

    In the light of our empirical results, we also conclude that there are mainly two aspects which the portfolio manager ought to consider before committing to one model rather than the other. Firstly, the nature behind the views generated by the investment strategy needs to be taken into account. For the implementation of views which are of an α-driven character, the dynamics of the Black-Litterman model may not be as appropriate as for views which are believed to also influence the expected return on other securities. Secondly, the soundness of using market-capitalization weights as a benchmark towards which the final solution will gravitate needs to be assessed. Managers who strive to achieve performance which is fundamentally uncorrelated to that of the market index may want to either reconsider the benchmark weights or opt for an alternative model.

  • 35.
    Kemperyd, Emmeline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mideklint, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modifying Lean Production for Implementation in Production of Digital, Customized Products2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To evaluate how lean production should be modified to be suitable for implementation in the production of digital, customized products and how the first phase of this implementation can be conducted.

    Research Questions

    RQ1: What constitutes waste when producing digital, customized products, and to what extent can the waste be eliminated?

    RQ2: Which lean concepts and tools are suitable to apply in the production of digital, customized products?

    RQ3: What steps are necessary for initial implementation of lean production for production of digital, customized products, and how should they be prioritized?

    Methodology

    The empirical findings are the result of a single case study focused around in-depth analysis and understanding of concepts and relationships. The data is collected through interviews work shops and observations during a period of three months.

    Conclusions

    RQ1: The types of waste are; Waiting, Transportation, Over processing or incorrect processing, Excess inventory, Unnecessary efforts, Defects and Unused employee creativity. Waste are further classified as removable, non-removable and in some instances necessary.

    RQ2: Unsuitable concepts: Value stream mapping (varying level of unsuitability), Kaikaku, Just in time, Stopping the

     line (without modifications) and Physical visual controls. Redundant concept: Pull. Especially suitable concepts: 5 Why, Decentralized responsibility, Digital visual controls and Isolating variation. Suitable concepts: Elimination of waste, Root cause analysis, Genchi genbutsu, Kaizen events, Flow, Stopping the line (with modifications) and Standardization.

    RQ3: Step I: Aligning the production strategy and process with the organization’s strategy and goals. Step II: Standardization.

  • 36.
    Wikberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jerlström Hultqvist, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of the S&OP process at Seco Tools AB: Aligned with today´s supply chain planning processes 2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Companies strive to produce as close to customer demand as possible to reduce the cost, inventories, etc. One process that deals with this issue of balancing demand and supply is Sales & Operations Planning (S&OP). Seco Tools is a company with their head-office located in Fagersta, Sweden, which is experiencing high inventory levels and a need of cutting cost. The ongoing project Supply Chain Planning at Seco Tools resulted in the implementation of a new software which enables them to improve demand, inventory, and supply planning. As a result of the improved planning ability, a new S&OP process is developed and in need for improvement.

    Purpose:

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the current S&OP process from the Supply Chain Planning project and to suggest future improvements for Seco Tools AB.

    Research objectives:

    1. Study and describe the current S&OP process at Seco Tools.

    2. Analyse and identify differences in Seco Tools’ S&OP process compared to the literature and a benchmark company.

    3. Perform deeper analyses within financial integration and the use of KPIs in Seco Tools´ S&OP process.

    4. Suggest future improvements to Seco Tools regarding their S&OP process based on the identified differences from research objective 2 and the deeper analysis from research objective 3.

    Method:

    The planning report set the framework for the carrying through of the thesis. A literature study regarding S&OP and a case study performed at Seco Tools regarding their S&OP have been done in parallel. Seco Tools’ S&OP process has been studied and described with the help of interviews, observations, and internal documents. Analysis was made where Seco Tools S&OP was compared to the theoretical S&OP and the S&OP at AstraZeneca. The analysis led to recommendations to Seco Tools regarding improvements in their S&OP process.

    Conclusions:

    Two opportunities for improvement were highlighted during the analysis of Seco Tools S&OP. They were financial integration and the use of cross-functional KPIs covering all the departments that were suggested to be involved in S&OP at Seco Tools. Seco Tools should integrate their finance in the process to compare S&OP against the business plan, and the company’s strategy should be well understood by the participants in S&OP. The knowledge of the company’s strategy together with the right authorities in the process will improve the decision making in Seco Tools’ S&OP. Seco Tools also need to implement an S&OP scorecard with KPIs that covers all departments in the company and the strategy as well. This helps to further develop cross-functionality and to early on make root cause analysis of identified problems. Cross-functionality and KPIs are believed to be general recommendations that all companies can use as well, not only something that Seco Tools can take advantage of. A template for an S&OP scorecard especially for Seco Tools has been made. It contains 16 cross-functional KPIs covering all steps and departments involved in S&OP at Seco Tools.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wennerstål, Rebecka
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hållbart varumärke: En fallstudie på Vattenfall om hur kommunikationen av hållbarhetsarbetet påverkar varumärket2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate social responsibility is a highly relevant subject discussed in media and business. Larger companies are expected to deal with sustainability questions and the corporate brand is highly affected by their sustainability work. The development of new communication channels, such as the internet, mobile broadband and social media, has led to increased demands for transparency and companies who do not communicate their responsibility externally are seen with suspiciousness. The difficulty with sustainability communications is to communicate to the public what the company is doing in terms of sustainability. The communication must create an image of the company that is as close to reality as possible and not being perceived as a manipulating PR trick. The purpose of this study is to understand the link between sustainability work, sustainability communication and corporate brand. It also aims to identify success factors for creating a sustainable corporate brand. The study was conducted as a qualitative case study of the project One Tonne Life, conducted by Vattenfall in collaboration with several other partners in 2009-2011. The One Tonne Life project is seen by Vattenfall as a good example of a successful sustainability communication, which makes it an interesting case to study in order to develop theories about how a company should work.

    A corporate brand is not limited to its logo and graphic profile, but consists of identity and personality. The corporate brand can be seen as a combination of several different identities. In this study we have chosen to focus on seven identities: actual-, communicated-, conceived-, covenanted-, cultural-, ideal- and desired identity. An analytical model was developed to describe the relationship between sustainability, sustainability communications and corporate branding. When sustainability is fully integrated into the company’s strategy and when it is communicated by involving stakeholders in the communication, the work and communications are inseparable. It is only with this approach that the corporate brand can be built for sustainability.

    This study shows that the corporate brand is influenced by all the company’s activities, which means that the company’s sustainability efforts and sustainability communications must be indistinguishable in order to be used to build a strong corporate brand. Findings fromthe case study concludes the importance of 1) working with a relevant sustainability issue, 2) making the work visible and put in context, 3) working with others to solve complex issues and improve the credibility, 4) involving the recipient in the communication, 5) communicating the same message through multiple channels, 6) packaging the sustainability efforts into an interesting story, and 7) gaining support for sustainability efforts internally. When following these factors, the sustainability work can be integrated into the corporate brand.

  • 38.
    Appelgren, Linn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlsson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Paradox mellan Lean och motivation?: En medarbetarfokuserad undersökning om den upplevda motivationen i en kontext med Lean2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background In modern research, it is essential that companies consider employees’ motivation so that they benefit from the applied practices. A working method that has become increasingly common is the concept Lean, which has its origin in the Japanese automotive industry. Today, Lean has evolved into a universal concept that is applied in many industries worldwide. Although the concept involves numerous positive aspects it has endured strong criticism when it comes to the human aspects and researchers have raised the question if Lean is "Mean". Criticism is derived primarily to employees’ working conditions in terms of stress and lack, variation, autonomy, health and wellbeing. However, few empirical studies have been carried out that examines the impact that Lean has on employees’ experienced motivation.

    Aim The aim is to increase the understanding of employees’ experienced motivation in companies that practice Lean. Further on the study has the intention to investigate if there is a paradox between Lean and what motivates employees on work.

    Methodology The study has been conducted through a qualitative method by interviews and to be able to do a deeper examination and analyze how our phenomenon, motivation, is experienced in a Lean context we applied small-N-studies. Our strategy has been iterative, combining both a deductive and inductive approach, where the study has varied between theories and empirical observations until the final result.

    Conclusions We have identified that there is no paradox between Lean and motivation since the majority of employees’ experienced that they are motivated even though the company practice Lean. Nevertheless the study shows that there are both supportive and counteractive factors when it comes to the employees’ experienced working conditions. The counteractive factors consists foremost of high performance standards, goal steering and standardizations, and have in some cases a negative influence on the working conditions. Furthermore the experienced motivation is more positive overall when the companies use a softer form of Lean where all the members’ interests are taken into account.

  • 39.
    Westergren, Jonatan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hilborn, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Means-end value assessment2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Services are intangible in their nature. When product oriented companies seeks to expand their industrial offerings with services they encounter many problems, one of which is the challenge of selling these intangible services. The sales team needs to be able to show the value of the service in order to successfully reach out to the customers.

    Embracing “service logic” has proven successful for this type of company. Its perspective on value creation is very different from the perspective traditionally employed by product companies i.e. through “product logic”. One must turn to customer day-to-day activities and look at their value creating processes in order to understand what value can be created from a service. This is because customers will not be interested in complex, intangible aspects of an offering. They want to know how a supplier can improve their business.

    The purpose of this study is to develop a framework for value communication through value assessment (and segmentation) of a product related service in a B2B business relation.

    A qualitative single case study was employed involving the multinational Swedish garden and forestry company Husqvarna (i.e. the supplier) and their soon-to-be-released IT-based fleet management service called Husqvarna Fleet Services (i.e. the service). Seven customer interviews were held in France, one in Sweden. The value hierarchy is used as an approach to value creation and the laddering technique is consequently employed in order to assess the potential customer value deriving from use of the service. On an attribute level, the elements are approximated to the categories of information represented in the user interface.

    Primary ladders are comprised of 4 end‐states and 22 consequences that should be seen as potential benefits from use of the service. Screening them for low frequencies, 11 consequences and 2 end‐states (‘Productivity & Efficiency’ and ‘Cost Reduction/Control’) remain. Preliminary cost savings are given (as examples) in four cases although these lack significant information to be considered as important findings.

    Attempting value based segmentation, a basic non‐statistical segmentation gives rise to seven variables by which the identified benefits are thought to vary.

    Employing the idea of communicating through a resonating focus, the findings suggest that depending on customer characteristics the 11 identified benefits, each of which will have varying degrees of importance. Due to the fact that no realized value is found, these benefits are still regarded intangible.

    Finally, the complexity, novelty and intangibility of the offering point toward an increasing need for a communication strategy that serve the purpose of providing solutions to customers’ major issues. The results from our study suggest that the supplier rigorously attempts more pilot studies on a few selected targets in order to realize substantial value and develop business cases.

  • 40.
    Karlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nikkanen Johansson, Ronja
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Inre tal hos barn med utvecklingsstörning: Finns det ett samband mellan inre tal och storleken på ordförråd?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When children are faced by a cognitive challenge they often speak out loud to themselves. This is a common strategy in five year old children and is called private speech, which gradually, is developed into a silent form called inner speech. Inner speech is essential in several cognitive tasks including planning and problem solving, and is also involved in the working memory, particularly in the phonological loop. Children with intellectual disabilities have a limitation in the capacity of the working memory and in the phonological loop. The capacity of the working memory and the development of the phonological loop have a big importance in the acquisition of the vocabulary, therefore a limitation or delay in these skills lead to a delay in the vocabulary.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the inner speech in children with intellectual disabilities and to investigate the correlation between the inner speech and the dimension of the active and passive vocabulary. 

    Method: 28 children participated. The target group consisted of 14 children with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities aged 8:4-16:0 years. The control group consisted of 14 children with typical development aged 4:8-8:6 years. The two groups were matched according to their test results on Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The active vocabulary was tested with Boston Naming Test and the passive vocabulary was examined with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. To examine the inner speech and memory strategies the European Picture Span Study was used.

    Results: The result showed that the children in the control group have a bigger passive and active vocabulary compared to the target group and that there is a correlation between having a big vocabulary and using a more mature strategy in the control group. The target group use phonological strategies to a smaller extent than the control group, but they seem to have developed a consciousness regarding their use of strategies. The analysis also shows a significant correlation between span level and the size of the passive vocabulary in the target group, whilst there is a significant correlation between the span level and the active vocabulary in the control group.

  • 41.
    Ivarsson, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skolvalet: en investering i framtiden?: En narrativ studie om föräldrars resonemang kring grundskolevalet ur ett Bourdieu-inspirerat perspektiv2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis aims to increase our understanding about parents reasoning about the elementary school choice by studying which factors parents perceive as important during the decision making process and also by giving meaning to Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of capital through the parents perspective. The empirical material comes from seven BNIM-interviews made with parents, which has been analyzed according to the thematic field analysis.

    The results show that the parents are not especially concerned about making an active school choice. Stability, closeness, friends, rumors, development and adaptability to the reality are the factors that are perceived as the most important in the decision making process. The school choice has a limited meaning as an investment in social capital, from Bourdieu’s perspective. The cultural capital has a somewhat more prominent meaning for the school choice, but the parents’ seems to mainly use the school choice as a reproduction strategy.

  • 42.
    Candell, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Varumärkesbyggande genom storytelling: En möjlighet för mönsterformgivare att särskilja sig på den svenska marknaden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pattern designers on the Swedish market operate in a growing industry that makes it difficult for them to succeed and distinguish themselves amongst others. A lot of them are self-employed, which means that the pattern designers personality have a large affect on how the brand is perceived. An opportunity to enhance or promote their brand is through storytelling, which through true stories that reflect the company's culture and values, can contribute to an unique position on the market. Research showing how storytelling can be used to build a brand or as a marketing strategy exist, although no studies have been found about storytelling on the Swedish market or with the target of self-employees or pattern designers. Therefore this study intends to examine how self-employment pattern designer on the Swedish market can use storytelling to build their brand. 

    In the case study data has been collected from interviews with three successful and established designers on the Swedish market with focus on how they build their brands. The study explains how storytelling can be used to build a brand and theories concerning three main areas: finding the stories (brand identity), adapting the stories (positioning and the brand meaning) and using the stories (marketing and communication). Based on these theories and the collected data the material was analysed in order to answer the study's purpose.

    The results show that self-employed pattern designer’s personality, background and values ​​are the main elements that define the brand identity, since a great deal of the pattern designer’s private life is linked with the brand. Stories can also be found in these parts and used as storytelling. The stories are unintended communicated through the pattern designer’s style. Their unique style is also what distinguishes them from others. Based on the style, patterns should be created and through them storytelling can be used, either from the brand’s identity or from intuition. The stories are communicated by marketing or through the patterns where the stories can speak for themselves. The marketing primarily communicates through ethos and pathos on Instagram, Facebook, websites and public relations and has different meaning based on the brand identity depending on the selected media platform.

  • 43.
    Juarez, Maribel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Structuring Lean Thinking in the Radio Access Network Area2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Customer’ demands, higher quality, faster and safer deliveries are some reasons for unexpected changes in the organizations. It has incremented complexity and cost. Lean production is known as a methodology to make improvements in manufacturing areas such as mentioned above and it is focused on the process of a product. But, Lean Thinking is a management strategy to make improvements in the process of a product or service and it is based on five principles. It allows having the process close to the customer eliminates tasks that do not add value and produces with low costs and high quality. However, there are some concepts ambiguous to be applied effectively to the Radio Access Network area in wireless telecom industry as a service company. Radio Access Network area transmits Radio frequency (RF) signals from the Radio Base Station (RBS) to the user equipment (UE) or mobile phone and is an area to present dynamic changes by high technology innovation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify improvements through for the Radio Access Network area.

    This thesis was structured to know how the five Lean principles and Lean tools can be used in the Radio Access Network area and the benefits that it could have. The study was realized through a qualitative research and five semi-structured interviews. A manager, team leaders and engineers of wireless telecom industry vendor and operators were the participants for this study.

    The results of major impact for Lean principles and Lean tools were VSM and Flow principles and Waste as Lean tool found for the Radio Access Network area. Project definition, resource planning and VOC were some improvements revealed for VSM principle. Furthermore, faster and optimal tools, training for engineers, knowledge in software and employee empowerment were some improvements found for Flow principle. Waste Lean tool showed some improvements found on customer’s focus, clear communication and waiting time reduction. Cross functional teams were other aspects that provided quality performance in the projects.

    This study seemingly is a good start for making decisions and for the high technology innovation and dynamic changes for telecom service companies.

  • 44.
    Samuelsson, Ylva
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The preschool teacher, gender pedagogy and change: Rethinking the preschool teacher and her work for change from the perspective of sexual difference theory.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I aim to investigate the Swedish preschool teacher interested in change and her work, here conceptualised as gender pedagogy. I will take my departure in sexual difference theory to contrast some of the assumptions behind preschool work, gender pedagogy and gender equality. I am also reflecting upon the concepts of normalisation, freedom and change and their relevance for preschool work. To help me with this endeavour I have interviewed five preschool teachers about their work and their interest for change. The thesis is divided into three chapters mirroring the themes of the interviews. In the first chapter I reflect upon normalisation as a process inherent to preschool work, both historically and in the present, connected to notions of class, cognitive ability and sexual difference. Through the statements of my informants and theoretical discussion the concept of normalisation is nuanced and understood as a process inherent to the whole of society as well as the preschool but also as a practice that might not be possible to abolish in its entirety. In the second chapter I move my focus towards gender pedagogy. An outline of different strands of, and discussions on, gender pedagogy is given as well as a critical discussion on the aim to go beyond gender in gender pedagogy and feminist theory. As an alternative and additional approach I suggest sexual difference theory as a possible source of inspiration for gender pedagogy. In the second part of this chapter the preschool teachers express their views on, and their work with gender pedagogy. This allows for a more entangled and process oriented understanding of gender pedagogy and its different strands. I conclude this chapter by stating that gender pedagogy could be understood in terms of normalisation and even as reinforcing the masculine norm, however the process oriented understanding of change as highlighted by my informants, as well as the use of multiple strategies, theories and methods, might allow for a practice where difference instead of likeness serves as a condition for the gender pedagogical work. In the last chapter I turn to the preschool teacher as such and her history entangled with notions of femininity, motherhood and gender equality. Employing the strategy of “working through” as described by Braidotti I lay bare how the position of the preschool teacher  and her work has been represented as stereotyped woman’s work and thus connected to less worth, but simultaneously how the actual work of the preschool teachers strongly denounce this view of  woman’s work, as well as motherhood and femininity. I also show how the work of preschool teachers put into question such prominent binary pairs as mind/body, emotion/intellect, practice/theory and adult/child. I conclude that the misrepresentation of woman’s work also has material consequences in terms of working conditions for preschool teachers. To conclude the whole thesis I emphasise how the view of the female preschool teacher and the view of the child cannot be radically separated and therefore the importance of considering both adults and children in the gender pedagogy work. I also conclude that what gender equality or gender pedagogy is, is not settled ones and for all, but rather the importance to fill these concepts with a positive view of difference.

  • 45.
    Dalborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henriksson, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Outsourcing R&D in the Defense Industry: Developing Strategies for Collaborating with Indian Suppliers2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An important step in making an impact on the Indian market, Saab India Technology Center, SITC, was inaugurated on October 21, 2011. SITC is a collaboration with the Indian company Tech Mahindra, and supplies all of Saab’s Business Areas with skilled engineers. The growing interest for SITC has spread to TDH, the department for Human Machine Interface and Avionics. Possible benefits, but also challenges, of utilizing SITC have been discussed. This thesis attempts to address challenges and maximize benefits for TDH by exploring how a Swedish R&D organization in the defense industry, that has a tradition of performing most work in-house, can initiate outsourcing to a supplier in India. In order to do this, a literature study was performed. Since gaps in the literature regarding outsourcing in the defense industry were identified, a combination of a descriptive and exploratory research approach was chosen. Following the literature study, interviews were conducted to collect experience from working with external partners at TDH, experience from working with SITC, experience from other companies that have outsourced R&D to India and experience of working with Saab from SITC. Empirical data was also gathered via informal meetings and observations during the researchers’ 5 month stay at TDH in Sweden and SITC in India.

    The outcome of this study shows that drivers and risks for outsourcing R&D, as well as the characteristics of the outsourcer and the supplier, will influence how the strategy for initiating outsourcing should be built. TDH’s main drivers in deciding to use SITC are mainly cost reduction goals, the possibility to access the Indian defense market and the opportunity to gain knowledge from collaborating with international suppliers. The type of risk that is most urgent for TDH is operational risk. Risks in this category, like overestimating cost reduction and risks associated with not understanding cultural differences are all highly relevant for any organization with limited experience in outsourcing.

    Strategy wise, the main finding is that an R&D organization in the defense industry will benefit from working in a more collaborative manner than traditional outsourcing entails. In an R&D organization, tasks are often complex and highly integrated with each other which, combined with a limited level of outsourcing experience, requires a tighter collaboration. With a high level of involvement from the outsourcer, problems can be detected early and insufficient requirements can be handled. Close collaboration also enhances knowledge sharing, which is important to ensure that the goal of gaining knowledge from international collaboration is achieved. Furthermore, organizational acceptance can be improved by a collaboration that enables close contact between outsourcer and supplier. Improving acceptance in the organization for collaborating with the supplier should be prioritized in order to strengthen the positive effects of outsourcing.

  • 46. Garner, B
    et al.
    Li, Wei
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Roberg, K
    Brunk, UT
    On the cytoprotective role of ferritin in macrophages and its ability to enhance lysosomal stability.1997In: Free radical research, ISSN 1071-5762, Vol. 27, 487-500 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Macrophages have a great capacity to take up (e.g. by endocytosis and phagocytosis) exogenous sources of iron which could potentially become cytotoxic, particularly following the intralysosomal formation of low-molecular weight, redox active iron, and under conditions of oxidative stress. Following autophagocytosis of endogenous ferritin/apoferritin, these compounds may serve as chelators of such lysosomal iron and counteract the occurrence of iron-mediated intralysosomal oxidative reactions. Such redox-reactions have been shown to lead to destabilisation of lysosomal membranes and result in leakage of damaging lysosomal contents to the cytosol. In this study we have shown: (i) human monocyte-derived macrophages to accumulate ferritin in response to iron exposure; (ii) iron to destabilise macrophage secondary lysosomes when the cells are exposed to H2O2; and (iii) endocytosed apoferritin to act as a stabiliser of the acidic vacuolar compartment of iron-loaded macrophages. While the endogenous ferritin accumulation which was induced by iron exposure was not sufficient to protect cells from the damaging effects of H2O2, exogenously added apoferritin, as well as the potent iron chelator desferrioxamine, afforded significant protection. It is suggested that intralysosomal formation of haemosiderin, from partially degraded ferritin, is a protective strategy to suppress intralysosomal iron-catalysed redox reactions. However, under conditions of severe macrophage lysosomal iron-overload, induction of ferritin synthesis is not enough to completely prevent the enhanced cytotoxic effects of H2O2.

  • 47.
    Pepi, Erind
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Model-Based Testing and Defect Distribution per Testing Phase2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automated software testing (AST) is method that helps in the testing process, by means of time and costs and therefore efficiency. It is however not fully automatic, as manual effort is needed prior to execution of these tests. AST has consequently some drawbacks. Worth to be mentioned are difficulties in execution of the tests and test coverage but the main problem is the maintenance of the test scripts, which is reasonably expensive. A newer approach in AST is Model-Based Testing (MBT) that should provide easier and less expensive script maintenance together with better test coverage. However, there are defect types, which cannot be prevented with this model either thus making the question at issue for this paper related to the most problematic phases in MBT, which account for the defects that show after implementation of the software. Interviews at Ericsson and Spotify (both testing their products with MBT) have shown that the companies have different approaches to MBT. Ericsson uses it simply to generate the test scripts for later offline execution while Spotify has an online approach. These approaches lead to different results since Ericsson does not involve MBT in the test execution phase. Besides the different approaches, it showed that MBT has its own weak points which might lead to defects such as right choice of the abstraction layer and the selection strategy for choosing the generated scripts.

  • 48.
    Omar, Omar Jaber
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronic Devices. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An On-Chip Memory for Testing of High-Speed Mixed-Signal Circuits2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed-signal processing systems especially data converters can be reliably tested at high frequencies using on-chip testing schemes based on memory. In this thesis, an on-chip testing strategy based on shift registers/memory (2 k bits) has been proposed for digital-to-analog converters (DACs) operating at 5 GHz. The proposed design uses word length of 8 bits in order to test DAC at high speed of 5 GHz. The proposed testing strategy has been designed in standard 65 nm CMOS technology with additional requirement of 1-V supply. This design has been implemented using Cadence IC design environment.

    The additional advantage of the proposed testing strategy is that it requires lower number of I/O pins and avoids the large number of high speed I/O pads. It therefore also solves the problem of the bandwidth limitation that is associated with I/O transmission paths. The design of the on-chip tester based on memory contains no analog block and is implemented entirely in digital domain. In the proposed design, low frequency of 1 MHz has been used outside the chip to load the data into the memory during the write mode. During the read mode, the frequency of 625 MHz is used to read the data from the memory. A multiplexing system is used to reuse the stored data during read mode to test the intended functionality and performance. In order to convert the parallel data into serial data at high frequency at the memory output, serializer has been used. By using the frequencies of 1.25 GHz and 2.5 GHz, the serializer speeds up the data from the lower frequency of 625 MHz to the highest frequency of 5 GHz in order to test DAC at 5 GHz.

  • 49.
    Kawai, Maho
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    THE APPLICATION OF POLITENESS THEORY INTO ENGLISH EDUCATION IN JAPAN2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Japan, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) revised the Course of Study in English education twice in the last decade (in 2002 and in 2011), and the drastic changes have been made especially in the section of communicative skills: introduction of English study in elementary school, teaching English in English in high school, requirement of the subject ‘Oral Communication I’ in high school, etc. The aim of the revisions is to produce international individuals, who have high English proficiency not only in input-skills but also in output-skills, especially in speaking (MEXT 2004: 90, MEXT 2011). Despite the revisions of the Course of Study, Japan is still ranked low in English proficiency not only among the developed countries but also among the Asian countries (Sakamoto 2012: 409; Sullivan and Schatz 2009: 586; Educational Testing Service 2012).

    Inputs on different cultures and languages take an important role in language learning especially in the modern society where students have high chances to encounter cross-cultural communication. The politeness strategy is one of those factors that the social actors must learn for the sound relationships with others. Each culture has its own politeness strategy; therefore, miscommunication is observed more often in intercultural conversations due to the various conceptualization of politeness in different cultures (Sifianou 1992: 216). That is, comprehending the diversity in politeness strategy seems to be a clue of smooth communication and better apprehension of different cultures in cross-culture conversations. The Course of Study for foreign languages and English language also refers to the significance of comprehending various cultures and languages (MEXT 2009); however, as previous studies represent the Japanese students studying abroad or the Japanese businessman in intercultural communications seem to lack the understanding of the western politeness strategy (cf. Fujio 2004, Nakane 2006). Besides, it is vague what ‘different cultures’ refers to in the Course of Study for English. Based on the attitudes of the Japanese students towards cross-cultural communication and ambiguous explanation on ‘cultural learning’ by the Course of the Study, I assume that one of the reasons why Japan cannot achieve the communication-focused curriculum might be attributed to the lack of politeness theory perspective in English learning. Taking differences in politeness strategies between the western societies and the Japanese ones into consideration, it seems to be unfeasible and insufficient to only increase the number of communicative lessons and compel students into speaking English. The differences in politeness strategy should be applied into English learning in order to boost the English proficiency of Japanese students and produce globalized students.

    The present paper focuses on the following two aspects of English learning in Japan in order to test the hypothesis:

    • The Course of Study in English learning in Japan does not specify what is ‘cultural learning’, which triggers the lack of politeness perspective
    • The lack of politeness learning obstruct Japanese students to successful crosscultural communication

    In the present paper, in order to observe the application of the politeness theory in English learning, firstly English textbooks used in Japan are analyzed in terms of the politeness theory by focusing on the following four aspects: silence, speech style, ambiguity, and hierarchical relationship. Previous studies have shown that extinctive differences between the western politeness and the Japanese politeness in communication are obviously revealed in those four points (cf. Fujio 2004; Kameda  2001; Nakane 2006). In addition to the analysis of the English textbooks, an interview on the correlation between English learning and politeness theory is conducted on international Japanese in order to observe how they acquire the western politeness strategy, how English learning at school functioned to learn the western politeness strategy, etc. (cf. see 3. for details). To contextualize this paper, the politeness theory and the previous studies on the relation between the Japanese politeness and crossculture communication will be presented first, and a brief overview of English education in Japan and tendencies in Japanese schooling will follow.

  • 50.
    Hamnqvist, Fabian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bokakademin i Östergötland AB möter framtiden: En studie av studenters köpbeteende vad gäller kurslitteratur och ett förslag på marknadsföringsstrategi för Bokakademin2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bakgrund

    Denna kandidatuppsats presenterar en marknadsundersökning genomförd vid Linköpings universitet. Fokus har legat på en specifik butik på Campus Valla och dess konkurrenssituation samt kundkrets, nämligen en butik tillhörande företaget Bokakademin i Östergötland AB, Bokakademin fortsättningsvis. Denna marknadsundersökning har genomförts våren år 2013 under författarnas sista termin på sin kandidatutbildning inom ämnesområdet företagsekonomi.

    Företagets VD har uppfattningen om att företaget står inför en hård konkurrens och vill därför informera sig om marknaden. Författarnas avsikt med denna undersökning har varit att kunna ge företaget en ökad förståelse för sin konkurrenssituation och ny kunskap om sina kunder. Bokakademin bedriver försäljning av kurslitteratur till studenter och på grund av internets utbredning råder idag mer transparens på marknaden än tidigare. Forskning har visat att kunder har blivit mer krävande och att de inte uppvisar en hög grad av lojalitet till återförsäljare, det råder alltså ökad konkurrens och en minskad kundlojalitet på den marknad som Bokakademins är verksam på. Av dessa skäl menar författarna att det är av relevans och intresse att undersöka och studera detta ämne, detta styrks av att tidigare forskning har bedrivits inom området.

    Syfte Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka studenters köpbeteende vid köp av kurslitteratur samt att utifrån denna information föreslå en lämplig marknadsföringsstrategi för Bokakademin att möta den nya marknadssituationen.

    Metod Den metodansats som uppsatsen har utgått ifrån är av induktiv karaktär då den har haft sin utgångspunkt i empiri, den empiriska data som har samlats in har legat till grund för den marknadsföringsstrategi som presenteras i uppsatsen. Det underlag som uppsatsen har baserats på har i första hand utgjorts av en enkätundersökning omfattande 200 respondenter ur Bokakademins potentiella kundkrets och målgrupp. Dessa respondenter har fått besvara frågor rörande deras köpvanor och köppreferenser vid köp av kurslitteratur, en kvantitativ undersökning har med andra ord genomförts. Utöver detta har en intervju med bokhandelns VD samt åtta stycken uppföljningsintervjuer med utvalda respondenter genomförts. Samtliga intervjuer har varit av mer samtalsliknande karaktär och kan anses utgöra kvalitativa informationskällor. Genom intervjuerna har författarna erhållit ytterligare data angående Bokakademin och dess kundkrets. För att uppnå ett mer kvalitativt djup i denna undersökning har författarna valt ut en respondent för att sedan jämföra denna persons uppfattning om hur mycket pengar denne spenderar på kurslitteratur per termin mot vad denne, enligt inhämtad kurs- och prisinformation, borde spendera på kurslitteratur per termin. Vad gäller den teori som presenteras i denna uppsats utgörs den främst av grundläggande teorier presenterade i Jobber och Fahy (2009) samt Blackwell et al. (2006). Denna litteratur har kompletterats med teoriavsnitt som återger teorier samt forskning av exempelvis Kotler (1999), Kotler et al. (2013), Wilson et al. (2012), Foucault och Scheufele (2002) samt Parment (2013).

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