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  • 1.
    Hakim, Ali
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Characterization of Hard Metal Surfaces after Various Surface Process Treatments2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how material surfaces are affected by various surface treatments and how this relates to the adhesion of the coating. The materials that were studied were WC-Co and Cermets and the surface treatments used were polishing, grinding with coarser and finer abrasive grains, and finally wet blasting and dry blasting. Focus was on deformations and residual stresses in the surface, surface roughness and cracks. The test methods used for examining the samples included surface roughness measurements, residual stress measurements, adhesion tests using Rockwell indentation and SEM images of the surface and the cross section.

    The results concluded that polishing gives very good adhesion. Additionally, the adhesion for ground surfaces was good for WC-Co but very poor for Cermets. Furthermore, it was observed that finer abrasive grains did not result in better adhesion. In fact, the coarser grains gave slightly better results. Finally, it was concluded that wet blasting has a clear advantage over dry blasting and results in much better adhesion, especially for the Cermets. The results for the WC-Co were a bit inconsistent and so further research is required.

  • 2.
    Warth, Benedikt
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Design and Application of Software Sensors in Batch and Fed-batch Cultivations during Recombinant Protein Expression in Escherichia coli2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software sensors are a potent tool to improve biotechnological real time process monitoring and control. In the current project, algorithms for six partly novel, software sensors were established and tested in a microbial reactor system. Eight batch and two fed-batch runs were carried out with a recombinant Escherichia coli to investigate the suitability of the different software sensor models in diverse cultivation stages. Special respect was given to effects on the sensors after recombinant protein expression was initiated by addition of an inducer molecule. It was an objective to figure out influences of excessive recombinant protein expression on the software sensor signals.

    Two of the developed algorithms calculated the biomass on-line and estimated furthermore, the specific growth rate by integration of the biomass changes with the time. The principle of the first was the application of a near infrared probe to obtain on-line readings of the optical density. The other algorithm was founded on the titration of ammonia as only available nitrogen source. The other two sensors analyzed for the specific consumption of glucose and the specific production of acetate and are predicted on an in-line HPLC system.

    The results showed that all software sensors worked as expected and are rather powerful to estimate important state parameters in real time. In some stages, restrictions may occur due to different limitation affects in the models or the physiology of the culture. However, the results were very convincing and suggested the development of further and more advanced software sensor models in the future.

  • 3.
    Linnefell, William
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Framväxt och utveckling av radikala högerpopulistiska partier i norden: En jämförelse mellan Sverigedemokraterna och Sannfinländarna2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Populism has been an integral part of the Finnish political system since the late 1950's. At that time the Agrarian Populist Party, better known as The Rural Party, emerged and thrived for decades until the party financially broke down in the 1990's. Reemerging on the political scene as the True Finns, the party is more radical and more influential than ever, gaining enough support to be the third largest party of the 2011 parliamentary election. Sweden, Finland’s neighbor, in contrast has a history with very little populist presence or radical right populist parties (RRP-parties). However, during the 2010 parliamentary election the Sweden Democrats attained seats in the parliament for the first time in history.

    In this thesis, these cases, with their different historical backgrounds, are analyzed to explain the rise and growth of RRP-parties. Many political scientists have tried to answer this question before, focusing on system-oriented and contextual factors, but often neglecting factors that incorporate the political actors themselves. What this thesis adds to the previous research is a perspective on the rise and growth of RRP-parties based on the dynamism between system-oriented factors and actor-oriented factors.

    The theoretical discussion indicates that some system-oriented and contextual factors are significant when explaining the rise and growth of RRP-parties. At the same time, actor oriented factors such as the legacy of the RRP-party and the mainstream party strategies prove to be influential on the electoral strength of the RRP-party.

    These theoretical approaches are then used and combined in a comparative analysis, which imply two important things. First, the legitimacy of the RRP-party itself is an aspect that does explain the rise and growth of RRP-parties. Second, in the case of Sweden, the system-oriented and contextual factors alone were not able to explain the rise and growth of the Sweden Democrats. Together these findings stress that the dynamic perspective between system-oriented and actor-oriented factors truly is meaningful when trying to explain rise and growth of RRP-parties.

  • 4.
    Harangi, Márta
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Social och studierelaterad stress i prestigeutbildningar: En enkätstudie med fokus på psykologstudenter och civilingenjörsstudenter i informationsteknologi vid Linköpings universitet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningens syfte har varit att studera och synliggöra social och studierelaterad stress i två professionsorienterade utbildningar samt att studera genusaspekter i anslutning till detta.

    Studien är grundad på kvantitativ ansats, baserad på gruppenkät och efterföljde statistiska bearbetningar. Resultatet redogör för studenternas sociala och studierelaterade stress med fokus på psykologstudenter och informationsteknologstudenter, inklusive genusaspekten.

    Enligt resultatet uppskattade respondenterna sina stressnivåer på en medelhog grad. Det finns en grupp individer (cirka 15 procent) som visar psykosomatiska symptom på långvarig stress. Studenterna upplever studierelaterade stressfaktorer, stressorer som rör studieteknik, prestation, kontroll över den egna studiesituationen och rädslan inför framtiden, samt stressorer som relateras till olika sociala förhållanden. De viktigaste stressfaktorerna är: ständig tidspress och tidsbrist i studierna, de går på ständigt högvarv och de känner sig aldrig lediga från studierna. De är ständigt trötta och de har svårt att använda PBL.

    Det förekom könsrelaterade skillnader: kvinnor uppvisar en högre stressnivå än män.

  • 5.
    Håkansson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Åberg, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Measuring Interest Rate Risk in the Treasury Operations of an International Industrial Company Group: A Case Study of Toyota Industries Finance International2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The volatility in the interest rate market have increased during the last decade and this have made interest rate risk management more important for  both financial institutions and non-financial companies with short- and long term financial commitments.

    Objective: The main objective of this thesis is to analyze different ways of measuring interest rate risk in the treasury operations an international industrial company group. Further, the study will also examine the way treasury departments of international industrial company group’s measure interest rate risk and explain why this method have been chosen.

    Method: The research method of the thesis is a case study and a mix of both quantitative and qualitative data has been used to conduct it. The quantitative data have been secondary data received from TIFI’s treasury management software and the qualitative data have been collected through a survey with eight treasury managers from other international industrial company groups.

    Conclusion: The repricing model is suitable because it is straight forward, fairly easy to communicate to management and it focuses on the book value. However, defining relevant time buckets might be difficult. The duration model is a good measurement tool because it can be used in a variety of ways, but a disadvantage is that it focuses on the market value, which might not be appropriate for treasury departments. Stress testing captures the true change in market value, but demands forecasts about future interest rate movements and lacks tools to manage the interest rate risk.

    Treasury departments of international industrial company groups use a variety of measurement methods. The most frequently used methods are duration-, maturity- and Value at Risk models and different kinds of stress tests. The method should not only measure the interest rate risk in a correct way but it should also be easily explained to management and other executives in the company that might not have knowledge about financial economics.

    The main difference between treasury departments and commercial banks is that commercial banks try to earn money on interest rate fluctuations, whereas treasury departments want to minimize the impact of interest rate fluctuations in order to support the company group’s core business.

  • 6.
    Rashid, Asim
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Kallin, Sara
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Salomonsson, Kent
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hansbo, Peter
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Simulation of internal mechanical conditions in the lower limb donned in a transtibial prosthetic socketManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the internal mechanical conditions in a transtibial cross-section while in contact with a prosthetic socket. The nite element model considers the nonlinear behaviors of individual soft tissues instead of lumping them together. The contact problem is solved between socket and limb while taking the friction into consideration to determine the contact forces and resultant internal stress-strain in the limb. Simulation results are presented for three dierent socket designs; total contact, total surface-bearing and hydrostatic sockets. Inuence of higher blood pressure on internal mechanical conditions is also explored.

  • 7.
    Jansson, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Influences of environment and personality on cognitive judgment bias in chickens2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive processes include biases, such as cognitive judgment bias. Cognitive judgment bias influences how the surrounding is interpreted, and this can differ between individuals. However, thus far no formal framework exists to understand how cognitive judgment bias works. Here I investigated how environmental factors and personality influence cognitive judgment bias in Gallus gallus chicks. First I investigated how two environmental factors affected the cognitive judgment bias of laying hen chicks. Chicks were exposed to stress and/or environmental enrichment, and tested in a cognitive judgment bias test before and after collective unpredictable stressors were presented. The results showed that chicks living in enriched environments were faster to reach all cues after the collective stressors than chicks living in non-enriched environments. Individual differences are often observed in animals, even when raised under identical conditions; therefore I also investigated if variation in personality influence cognitive judgment bias. Red junglefowl chicks were thereby raised in equal environments and exposed to personality assays in addition to a cognitive judgment bias test. I demonstrated that less nervous chicks were more optimistic towards ambiguous and negative cues than more nervous chicks. Also previous studies have found indications of connections between cognitive bias and environment or personality. I conclude that environmental enrichment can buffer the influence of stress on cognitive judgment bias and that personality has a small influence on interpretations of stimuli. In the future, experiments in this field should focus on exploring more aspects on how cognitive biases occurs to improve our understanding of cognitive processes.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Från segregation till segregation: En familjs ackulturation i en mångkulturell miljö2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hageby is a district in Norrköping, which is mainly perceived as segregated with a large number of inhabitants of foreign origin. It's also associated with low socioeconomic status, criminality, high unemployment and social exclusion. The external perception of the area is mainly negative, whilst the internal experiences and views, on the contrary are quite positive. Some internal conflicts, based on ethnicity and religion is clearly present here, but most informants expresses a positive view of the Swedish people, though many have little opportunity to interact with ethnic Swedes. Living in a multicultural area, seems for many of the local inhabitants to be something partly positive. For newcomers living there, closeness to family and their ethnic group, also helps soften the stress of settling in and adjusting to a new community. Extensive research shows that living in a segregated area, tend to slow the integration process, having negative effect on learning the new language, developing networks necessary for finding work, understanding of and full participation in society. Newer the less, my informants show that living in a segregated area, does not necessarily have these effects on an individual level. Although the extended influence of negative stereotyping of the area and the people who live there, tend to have an effect on self image and the construction of identity.

  • 9.
    Schön, Isabella
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    What do schoolchildren think of grades in school? The views and values regarding grades of students in year six.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to give an insight into how school children in year six, in Sweden, value and view grades. In Sweden, currently there are many debates on whether schools should have grading systems and if so, in which school year they should be introduced. In the present study seven children (3 boys and 4 girls), attending year six, were divided into two focus groups; that were simultaneously conducted. In the focus groups, the children discussed their views, values and their experiences in regard to grades. The results discerned from the two focus groups were that the seven participating school children felt that there was value and merit in receiving grades because they gained a better understanding of their own academic performance based on the grades they received. Additionally, however, the children acknowledged that they also do experience negative emotional effects from receiving grades, such as stress and the de-evaluation of their capabilities in comparison to their schoolmates. Nevertheless, the participating children perceived that grades were necessary and believed that the grading system should begin to be enforced in either year four, or year five, for the most optimal effect.

  • 10.
    Danielsson, Tina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Intergrated Computer systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Portering från Google Apps REST API till Microsoft Office 365 REST API2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stress på arbetsplatsen relaterat till många inkommande och utgående kommunikationskanaler är ett reellt problem. Applikationer som samlar alla kanaler i samma verktyg kan hjälpa till på det här området. För att förenkla vid utveckling av en sådan applikation kan ett modulärt system skapas, där varje modul ser liknande ut och enkelt kan kopplas in i en huvudapplikation. Den här studien undersöker de problem som kan uppstå när flera tjänster ska integreras, mer specifikt genom att titta på hur en befintlig modul för e-post via Google Apps kan porteras för att stödja e-post via Microsoft Office 365. Arbetet har skett enligt metoder för testdriven portering och varje steg i porteringen har dokumenterats noggrant. Ett antal problemområden har identifierats och möjliga lösningar föreslås. Utfrån de problem som uppstått dras slutsatsen att de är av en sådan karaktär att de inte utgör något hinder för en portering.

  • 11.
    Toll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Designstöd för kommunikationspolicys mot stress inom organisationer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För varje år som går använder vi oss mer och mer av elektroniska kommunikationsmetoder såsom email och chatt. På senare år har forskning visat att det finns problem förknippade med bland annat email inom organisationer som leder till stress och minskad produktivitet på arbetsplatsen. Denna studie undersöker hur dessa problem skulle kunna minskas med kommunikationspolicys och designstöd för dessa. Studien fann att dessa problem existerar inom 4 organisationer som intervjuades och dessvärre att kommunikationspolicys inte är något utbrett som finns för att tackla problemen. Efter att ha undersökt vilka saker som skulle kunna ingå i en kommunikationspolicy togs designförslag fram för att minska några av dessa problem och leda till en mindre stressad användarupplevelse. Dessa syftar till att få användaren att anpassa sin kommunikation bättre, inte använda olika kommunikationsmetoder på fel sätt och få större kontroll över hur man kommunicerar. Dessa designförslag utvärderades sedan där några användbarhetsproblem hittades. Hur dessa designförslag skulle upplevas i verkligheten skulle dock behöva testas i en riktig miljö. Dessa designförslag kan vara en av många lösningar på problemen som behövs för att dessa inte skall breda ut sig och bli ett problem för organisationer och samhället i stort.

  • 12.
    Pettersson, Alice
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Can stress-related behavior in dogs be due to pain? A pilot study.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dogs and other pets can have back pain for years that no one notices. As a result they become stressed and can e.g. develop aggressiveness or decrease their feeding. There are indications that chiropractic treatments can treat these animals but this is not commonly known by veterinarians. This study investigated stress related behaviors and average heart rate in ten dogs before and after chiropractic treatment. A control group of eight dogs was also tested but did not receive the treatment. The test consisted of three parts: 1) one part without owner interaction, 2) one part where a human approached and 3) one part were the owner commanded the dog to sit and lie down. Eight out of ten owners experienced a positive change in their dogs’ behavior one week after the treatment though the test results did rather point at more stressful behaviors. The test group showed an increase in yawning and panting from the first to the second test (after the treatment) and showed a higher heart rate after the treatment compared to the control group during part 1. Probably due to that the treatment and the tests were in the same local and the dogs became stressed by being there again. Part 3 did show a possible increase in movability and contact with the owner but more studies are needed to confirm the change that the owners experienced. Though, this study is a step in the right direction; more animals could be treated and saved from euthanizing if chiropractic and the diagnosis of this back injury are taught to veterinarians.

  • 13.
    Calais, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poor welfare or future investment? Different growth pattern of broiler breeders2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The parental stock of meat type chickens (broiler breeders) are commonly feed restricted to decrease their rapid growth and the issues associated with it. Among these birds, chronic hunger and stress are the most prominent welfare concerns and mass heterogeneity within flocks a major management challenge. The present study compared small and large broiler breeders of the same age within a flock, with the hypothesis that small birds would show signs of poorer welfare indicated by higher corticosterone concentration and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio as a consequence of higher experienced feed restriction due to competition. It also aimed to characterize morphometric differences between small and large birds within flocks as well as between birds on different feeding regimens; skip-a-day vs. every-day-fed. Heterophil/lymphocyte ratio at 4 weeks was significantly higher in large birds compared to small birds, but corticosterone concentration did not differ. Relative mass of the upper gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and liver of small birds at 4 weeks of age were significantly larger, while relative muscle and gizzard fat mass were significantly lower compared to large birds. 12 weeks old skip-a-day fed birds largely followed the pattern of 4 weeks old small birds. In the present study, no clear signs of poorer welfare in small broiler breeders could be seen and the morphometric differences might suggest different ways to cope with feed competition. A larger gastrointestinal tract might indicate long-term investments and maybe that smaller broiler breeders, and skip-a-day fed birds, are better habituated to feed restriction.

  • 14.
    Strid, Carl-Filip
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mätning av färgutveckling med mobilapplikation som indikator på stressnivå2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A salivary enzyme called alpha-amylase could be used as a marker for a person's subjective stress level. The existence of alpha-amylase can be tested by adding a saliva sample to a filter paper, which is then coloured blue. The rate of the colouration has been shown to correlate with the alpha-amylase activity, and has previously been measured using a photodiode. In this thesis work, the possibility of using a mobile phone to allow easy-access testing has been evaluated. To find a suitable method of measuring the colouration, a data set of image sequences taken with a mobile phone was analyzed. The resulting method has then been implemented in the form of a mobile app for Android. Colour distances and suitable regions-of-interest have been evaluated, as well as how the impact of varying lighting conditions and the instability of the camera can be reduced. Results have shown that a mobile app may indeed be used to measure the colouration with consistent results, but that the precision needs to be further evaluated with respect to alpha-amylas. In closing, flaws and suitable improvements of the implementation is discussed.

  • 15.
    Agelin, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Rörlig bild för lärande: Läraresintentionerochvillkorföratteleverskagörafilmiskolan2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete handlar om hur lärare kan uppfatta hur elever inom grundskolan lär och vad de kan lära genom att göra egna filmer. Arbetet beskriver lärares syften med att låta elever skapa film i skolan och vad som krävs av lärare och elever för att arbetet ska fungera och svara upp mot läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet 2011. Undersökningen består dels av en litteratursökning och dels resultatet från en kvalitativ intervju av lärare. Lärarna som intervjuats berättar att det är ett arbetssätt som fungerar mycket bra för dem. Eleverna är ofta väl motiverade och många skolämnen kan integreras. Dock kan inte all undervisning ske på detta sätt eftersom arbetet tar mycket tid och kan orsaka stress. En del av arbetet sker dessutom på lärarnas egen fritid. Elever lär sig att skapa berättelser som kan filmatiseras. Det finns även intention om att elever som arbetar med film genom sina erfarenheter att berätta och få fram sitt budskap ska kunna bli mer kritiska gentemot det mediala utbudet.

  • 16.
    Näsström, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Control and Development of the Autonomic Nervous System in Posthatch Broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Heart rate is tonically regulated by the two branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS); parasympathetic activation decreases heart rate while sympathetic activation increases it. Previous studies on the ANS in chickens have focused mainly on embryonic development, but it is largely unknown what happens in the weeks following hatching. The present study focused on the development of the autonomic nervous system in 2 and 5 week old broiler and Red Junglefowl (RJF). Since broilers are less fearful, less stressed and less active than their wild ancestor RJF, a possible domestication effect on the sympathetic nervous system was investigated by evaluating both physiological and behavioural responses during stress. I found that the heart is mainly under control from the sympathetic nervous system in 2 and 5 week old broiler and RJF as propranolol significantly decreased heart rate during baseline and stress conditions while injection of atropine had little or no effect on baseline heart rates. When the adrenergic tone was blocked, heart rate still increased during stress, more so in 5 week old birds than in 2 week old birds. This suggests that some other physiological regulatory mechanism with fast recruitment is involved in the stress response and it matures in the weeks following hatch. No differences in behaviour between broiler and RJF were observed when the sympathetic nervous system was blocked. As both breeds show similar responses, a domestication effect on the ANS from these results cannot be confirmed.

  • 17.
    Lindblom, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The effect of visual barriers, outdoor housing and feeding enrichment on the behaviour of drills (Mandrillus leucophaeus) at Parken Zoo2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Animals are confronted with potential stressors at zoos compared to in the wild, such as visitors and lack of environmental stimulation. This study included two projects conducted on the drills at Parken Zoo in Eskilstuna where I investigated: 1) the effect of visual barriers on the behaviour of the drills and if the visual barriers can moderate the visitor effect on the drills and 2) how outdoor-only access together with feeding enrichment (frozen fruit and tube feeders) affects the behaviour of the drills. 1/0- sampling method was used when observing the behaviours of the drills with 1 minute-intervals. Resting/Sleeping increased, while social agonistic behaviour and stereotypies decreased with visual barriers. A moderated visitor effect was shown in resting/sleeping and social affiliative behaviour in the drills with visual barriers. However, social agonistic behaviour and visitor interaction were still affected by visitors after the installation of the visual barriers, implying that the drills still find visitors stressful to some extent and that further alterations on the observation area viewing the indoor enclosure is recommended for the welfare of the drills. With outdoor-only access together with feeding enrichment, locomotion, foraging/eating and body-shaking increased, while resting/sleeping, social affiliative and agonistic behaviour, stereotypies, visitor interaction, scratching and self-grooming decreased. This suggests that outdoor-only access and feeding enrichment improve the behaviour of the drills and would be a valid option during summer season for the drills at Parken Zoo. 

  • 18. Kato, Naoko
    et al.
    Kinugawa, Koichiro
    Ito, Naomi
    Yao, Atsushi
    Watanabe, Masafumi
    Imai, Yasushi
    Takeda, Norihiko
    Hatano, Masaru
    Kazuma, Keiko
    Adherence to self-care behavior and factors related to this behavior among patients with heart failure in Japan2009In: Heart & Lung, ISSN 0147-9563, E-ISSN 1527-3288, Vol. 38, no 5, 398-409 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Adherence to self-care behavior is important for patients with heart failure (HF) to prevent exacerbation of HF. The aim of this study was to evaluate adherence, identify associated factors, and clarify the impact of previous HF hospitalizations on adherence in outpatients with HF. METHODS: A total of 116 outpatients completed a questionnaire, including the Japanese version of the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale, to assess adherence. RESULTS: Regardless of previous hospitalizations, adherence to seek help if HF worsened was poor. Multivariate analysis adjusted for age and brain natriuretic peptide showed that diabetes mellitus and being employed were independent predictors of poorer adherence to self-care behavior (P = .03, P = .02, respectively), but the experience of previous HF hospitalizations was not a predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Self-care strategies for HF should target patients with diabetes mellitus and employed patients. Further study is necessary to develop effective programs for such patients.

  • 19.
    Anskär, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors och sjuksköterskors upplevelse av arbetsmiljö i primärvård och en kartläggning av arbetstidens innehåll2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:

    A good work environment and good resources among district nurses’ and general nurses’ are important in the provision of good nursing care. For patient security it is also very important that resources and time are used in an appropriate way. A lot of time is spent on non-core activity, for example administration takes more and more time, which can result in feelings of stress.

    Aim:

    The aim was to describe how district nurses’ and nurses’ in primary care perceived their work environment, how their worktime content was distributed and if there was some connection between perceived work environment and the distribution of work time.

    Methods:

    A mapping of the content of the work was made in two parts. The first part was a survey where the respondents were asked about their perceived work environment, their work tasks and if they perceived stress. The second part was a time reporting, by self-reporting on a preprinted form.

    Results:

    Almost half of the district nurses’ and general nurses’ said that they seldom had to perform tasks which they wondered if were really necessary. More than 40 percent perceived that they sometimes had work tasks which placed demands beyond what could be expected of them. About 40 percent perceived that they often had enough time to do their work tasks and 30 percent perceived it sometimes. Stress was perceived some of the time by almost 40 percent. Most of the nurses’ thought the quality of care was good. The proportion of direct patient care was approximately 45 percent and indirect patient work approximately 24 percent. The proportion of other work varied with the proportion of quantitative requirements: there was enough time.

    Conclusion:

    Nearly half of the district nurses’ and the general nurses’ perceived that they seldom had work tasks they felt doubtful about and that they sometimes had work tasks which required more than could be expected of them. About two thirds said that they often or sometimes had enough time to do their work tasks. Nearly half perceived stress a part of the working time. The proportion of direct patient care was barely half of the working time.

  • 20.
    Olsson, Joel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics.
    Lindholm, Jim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics.
    Statisk hållfasthetsanalys av bärplansstag2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the course TMMT06, Mechanical engineering – project course, a mandatory project is carried out in a group, while a bachelor’s degree work is, in unison, carried out in pairs. The project, which in this case is shared by three pairs, aim to investigate the dimensioning of hydrofoils and their performance. This document is part of one of those bachelor’s degree works, and is focused on a static structural analysis of hydrofoil support struts under the influence of lift and drag forces.

    The goal with this work is to create a construction foundation to be used in the shared project. The aim of the work is to find guidelines for the selection of strut and hydrofoil assembly angles, as well as strut dimensions, depending on the size and shape of the hydrofoil.

    With the use of generally established equations for lift and drag forces, and data for hydrofoils the forces and stresses crucial to the dimensioning of the strut cross-section and assembly angles are analyzed.

    Two streamlined struts, thickness 15 mm and width 100 mm, with the hydrofoil section design Eppler 818 mounted, are studied in a static structural case without dimensioning for unexpected events, such as collisions. Within the span of velocities that are probable for a boat it was found that there never occurs any danger of buckling. Within the same span, plastic deformation does not occur either, although the stress is high enough that the safety margin is relatively small.

    The danger of buckling does not increase as the assembly angles are changed from a perpendicular position, and buckling ceases to be a factor for angles of attack lower than −4°. The stresses and the risk for plastic deformation, however, can increase as the assembly angles deviate from perpendicularity. By making the struts bigger, the construction will be able to use more demanding assembly angles, but to have anything but perpendicular struts is to be avoided. The analysis also shows that the boat should not be allowed to pitch more than 6° at high speeds to avoid large stresses in the struts.

    The largest dimensioning stress in a strut acts at the connection point with the hull or with the hydrofoil. In order to minimize the total thickness of the strut, and thus lowering the drag, it can be made thicker at the connection points while keeping it thin otherwise. The analysis also shows that an increase in strut cross-section area will give large positive outcomes in terms of safety margins against buckling and deformation.

    Eppler 818 was the only hydrofoil studied during the analysis, but the results provide good guidelines for construction of support struts in regards of strength.

  • 21.
    Fagerhierta, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tidspress och ekonomiskt risktagande2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress and time pressure is more present in todays labor markets. In financial markets a securities broker is forced to take decisions on investments under high cognitive load and under extreme time pressure. The research of decision under risk gained new ground with the development of the prospect theory and gave us new insights to the decision making of men. Prospect theory has shown that people are risk seekers when dealing with loss decisions and risk avert when dealing with profit decisions. The value function are defined over gains and losses. Losses looms larger then gains. Although much research conducted on the decision making under risk no previous research have been done showing how time pressure affects decision at risk by using skin conductance.

    This paper aimed through a randomized experiment with 23 participants examine how time pressure affects individuals' decisions related to risk. Furthermore, it intends to analyze whether time pressure mediate a possible effect of stress by using skin conductance.

    The results show that there is an increase in risk aversion for gains. This risk aversion was also statistically significant at the 1% level when each participant's responses were used and almost at 5% level when the mean values from each participant was used. Upon loss a risk -seeking behavior could be noticed but it was not statistically significant at the 5 % level. Stress levels as measured by skin conductance showed that the time-pressed group showed signs of stress. However, no stress data was significant at the 5 % level.

  • 22.
    Appelgren, Linn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlsson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Paradox mellan Lean och motivation?: En medarbetarfokuserad undersökning om den upplevda motivationen i en kontext med Lean2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background In modern research, it is essential that companies consider employees’ motivation so that they benefit from the applied practices. A working method that has become increasingly common is the concept Lean, which has its origin in the Japanese automotive industry. Today, Lean has evolved into a universal concept that is applied in many industries worldwide. Although the concept involves numerous positive aspects it has endured strong criticism when it comes to the human aspects and researchers have raised the question if Lean is "Mean". Criticism is derived primarily to employees’ working conditions in terms of stress and lack, variation, autonomy, health and wellbeing. However, few empirical studies have been carried out that examines the impact that Lean has on employees’ experienced motivation.

    Aim The aim is to increase the understanding of employees’ experienced motivation in companies that practice Lean. Further on the study has the intention to investigate if there is a paradox between Lean and what motivates employees on work.

    Methodology The study has been conducted through a qualitative method by interviews and to be able to do a deeper examination and analyze how our phenomenon, motivation, is experienced in a Lean context we applied small-N-studies. Our strategy has been iterative, combining both a deductive and inductive approach, where the study has varied between theories and empirical observations until the final result.

    Conclusions We have identified that there is no paradox between Lean and motivation since the majority of employees’ experienced that they are motivated even though the company practice Lean. Nevertheless the study shows that there are both supportive and counteractive factors when it comes to the employees’ experienced working conditions. The counteractive factors consists foremost of high performance standards, goal steering and standardizations, and have in some cases a negative influence on the working conditions. Furthermore the experienced motivation is more positive overall when the companies use a softer form of Lean where all the members’ interests are taken into account.

  • 23.
    Nylund-Gustafson, Mona
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tid för uteskola?: Utomhuspedagogisk verksamhet i den grundläggande utbildningen i åk 1-6 i den åboländska i den åboländska skärgårdsstaden Pargas2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [no]

    Syftet med den här studien är att ta reda på vilka verksamheter som ingår i utomhusundervisningen i åk 1-6 i skolorna i Pargas, vilka möjligheter och vilka hinder lärarna upplever samt hur eleverna upplever utomhusundervisningen. Undersökningen riktar sig till samtliga klasslärare i Pargas stad. Utgående från att allt fler rapporter visar på barns och ungdomars stillasittande, försämrade hälsa och stressymptom behöver vi medvetet fundera på hur vi kan förändra skolans arbetsmetoder för att befrämja välmående och hälsa. Uppsatsen strävar till att ringa in vad utomhuspedagogik innebär, att ge en liten bakgrund samt redogöra för några, främst nordiska forskares syn på utomhusundervisning. Studien innefattar en lärarenkät, några lärarintervjuer samt belyser elevernas åsikter med hjälp av en elevenkät. Eftersom kopplingen till läroplanen är viktig för att berättiga utomhusundervisning i skolan berörs också den i uppsatsen. Resultatet visar att många lärare upplever tidsbrist och stress p.g.a. utökade uppgifter i skolan, men de flesta är ändå positiva till att undervisa utomhus. De flesta elever är också positivt inställda till undervisning utomhus.

  • 24.
    Karjalainen, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems.
    Klarholm, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems.
    Termomekanisk utmattning av Sanicro 25: Materialmodellering med finita elementmetoden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to describe the austenitic stainless steel Sanicro 25 from a thermomechanical point of view. The thermal and mechanical properties of the material make it suitable for use in coal – and thermal power plants. By the use of Sanicro 25 it would be possible to bring the efficiency of these plants up while bringing the carbon emissions down.A material model is created from material testing and validated through simulation in the finite element software Abaqus. The model that has been derived describes the material behavior during loading and stress relaxation for the first cycle in a thermomechanical fatigue test well. The unloading part of the cycle however cannot be described correctly by the use of this model.

  • 25.
    Åkesson, Emilia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Affectivity in the classroom: A contribution to a feminist corpomaterial intersectional pedagogy2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study I aim to contribute to the field of feminist corpomaterial intersectional pedagogies, which I understand as a part of the broader field of feminist postconstructionist pedagogies. Against the background of feminist postconstructionism I wish to overcome binary understandings of for example discourse/materiality, theory/practice, male/female and mind/body in pedagogies. To follow this through I have analysed how affects and emotions are present in a classroom by studying the possibility of taking a starting point in the body while rethinking the anti-oppressive and norm critical pedagogical idea of the self-reflective teacher. In order to challenge the idea of the teacher as a neutral, universal and rational knowledge producer, I have in this study analysed how one can affectively and emotionally situate teacher-bodies and participant-bodies in a classroom.

     

    The analysis was carried out on the basis of empirical material collected at a workshop on corporeality and norm critical pedagogy organised in a teacher-training program at a Swedish university. The workshop was conducted as intra-active-research and the material consists of my field diary, eight written interviews, one oral interview and my experiences from leading the workshop. I argue in this study that teacher-bodies affectively and emotionally could be situated as both following a corporeal schema, an expected plan for how a teacher-body should act and move, and also as stepping away from and disrupting this schema. Further on I argue that teacher-bodies could be situated as memory banks and as working from memory. I stress how important it is in pedagogic situations to be aware of the ways in which bodies in a room affect and are affected by each other, in other words; how bodies “do not end at the skin”. This affective and emotional situatedness shows how it is possible to overcome the idea of teachers and students as bodily neutral. I also argue that it might be important to integrate workshops on corporealities in teacher training. This could be one possible way to start to think on one’s affectively and emotionally situatedness as teacher, something I claim as required if one aspires for a feminist intersectional corpomaterial pedagogy. 

  • 26.
    Bergwall, Kajsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hansson-Malmlöf, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Förändringsprocesser i acceptance and commitment therapy för personer med hörselnedsättning: - en randomiserad kontrollerad studie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige beräknas 17 % av befolkningen ha en hörselnedsättning, vilket innebär att det är den vanligaste sensoriska funktionsnedsättningen. Idag finns det en mängd studier som visar att hörselnedsättning är relaterat till sämre psykisk hälsa. Acceptans av sin hörselnedsättning har visat sig vara positivt för hörselnedsatta och samvarierar med hjälpsökande. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) är en transdiagnostisk behandling där psykopatologi antas bero på en hög grad av upplevelsemässigt undvikande och fusion med tankar. Målet i ACT är att öka psykologisk flexibilitet där acceptans är en betydande komponent. Denna explorativa studie undersökte förändringsprocesser i ACT för personer med hörselnedsättning där utfallet var känslomässig och social anpassning för hörselnedsättningen (HHIE-S). De förändringsprocesser som prövades var acceptans (HAQ), som tidigare visat på medierande effekt för ACT, samt två alternativa förändringsprocesser; self-efficacy (HSE-4) och upplevd stress (PSS-4). Behandlingen bestod av åtta internetadministrerade moduler givna med behandlarstöd där veckovisa mätningar av förändringsprocesser och utfall användes. Studiens resultat visar att behandlingsgruppen upplevde marginellt signifikant mindre problem med känslomässig och social anpassning för hörselnedsättningen (HHIE-S). Studiens resultat pekar på att hörselrelaterad acceptans (HAQ) och self- efficacy (HSE-4) medierar behandlingens effekt på deltagarnas känslomässiga och sociala anpassning för hörselnedsättning (HHIE-S). Således tillför denna studie ytterligare belägg för acceptans som förändringsprocess i ACT. Även self-efficacy kan vara en intressant mediator att beakta i fortsatt forskning. 

  • 27.
    Busse, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Accounting for non-linear effects in fatigue crack propagation simulations using FRANC3D2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis methods to account for non-linear effects in fatigue crack propagation simulations using FRANC3D are evaluated. FRANC3D is a crack growth software that supports automated crack growth in the FE mesh using the power of an external FE code.

    Introductorily, a theoretical base in fracture mechanics, especially regarding crack propagation models is established. Furthermore, the functionality of FRANC3D is shown for several different applications.

    As a benchmark for the investigated methods the associated results are compared to data from laboratory tests. The conditions in the test are closely modeled, but with relevant simplifications. The cyclic life-times are calculated using Paris’ law incorporating the stress intensity factors computed by FRANC3D and with material parameters derived from a different set of experiments than those simulated. When comparing the calculated cyclic life-time with the test data it can be seen that the pure linear elastic simulation, for this particular test set-up, gives nearly as good results as the investigated approaches that account for non-linear effects. 

  • 28.
    Ahlsén, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Felczak, Michael
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hinder & möjligheter med dagvattenhantering: Fallstudier över Linköping och Norrköping kommuns arbete med alternativ dagvattenhantering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More frequent and intensified rainfalls are expected to occur due to climate change in the nearfuture. This together with a higher proportion of paved areas increases the pressure on today’sstorm water systems (Risinger, 2014; Boverket, 2013; Stahre, 2006). Traditional storm watersystems (i.e. underground pipe systems) have during last decades started to be questioned(Olshammar & Baresel, 2012). The precipitation over Sweden is expected to increase 10-20% over the next century (SMHI, 2009). Increased precipitation may cause temporary capacityloss in pipe-based storm water system with flooding in sensitive areas as a result (Östlund &Lagerblad, 2011). To decrease the potential stress on traditional storm water systems,sustainable urban drainage systems have started to be developed (Viklander & Bäckström,2008). The era of traditional storm water systems has reached a breaking point and moresustainable storm water systems has become more desired as a complement to today’ssystems (Cettner et al, 2014; Semadeni-Davies et al., 2007). In order to build an increaseunderstanding sustainable storm water management it is decisive to investigate what obstaclesthat municipalities has to tackle, regarding storm water management. This study aims toanalyze problems that may occur concerning storm water management including whatchallenges and possibilities that municipalities have to face. The study is based on qualitativeinterviews with informants in the municipalities of Linköping and Norrköping to see how theyare working with storm water and sustainable storm water management. The conclusions ofthe study is mainly, the need for a more pronounced governance, a more explicit demandconcerning laws and regulations, in particular the Swedish planning and building act, acommon vision about how storm water management practices should be handled and finallyquestions concerning how storm water should be handled in an early stage in the planningprocess. This is the main factors to facilitate the work with sustainable urban drainage system.

  • 29.
    Linde, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjukgymnasters upplevelser av arbete på särskilt boende för äldre: En intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The conditions for the physiotherapists’ work in housing for the elderly vary depending on number of care recipients, the availability of the physiotherapists and the resources provided at the county level in Sweden. Previous studies have shown that the lack of resources makes the work difficult for the physiotherapists. Moreover, it is hard to meet the needs of individual care recipients when physiotherapists have the medical rehabilitation responsibility for a large number of care recipients. Rehabilitation is carried out on a specific level and a general level and often delegated to care assistants. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine physiotherapists’ perceptions of their work in housing for the elderly. Method: Seven physiotherapists working in houses for the elderly were interviewed with the help of a semi-structured interview guide. The interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Results: The analysis revealed five categories: controlling factors, priorities, cooperation around the care recipient, the breadth of the work and self-image and status. Conclusion: The participants’ perceptions of work in housing for the elderly were that the job was fun and varied but influenced by stress and lack of resources. The work was perceived as consisting of a lot of prioritizing; however, the grounds on which the decisions were made varied as did the perception of support from guidelines. The participants reported that they desired a well-functioning working relationship with the care assistants because the physiotherapy inputs were often delegated to them.

  • 30. Garner, B
    et al.
    Li, Wei
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Roberg, K
    Brunk, UT
    On the cytoprotective role of ferritin in macrophages and its ability to enhance lysosomal stability.1997In: Free radical research, ISSN 1071-5762, Vol. 27, 487-500 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Macrophages have a great capacity to take up (e.g. by endocytosis and phagocytosis) exogenous sources of iron which could potentially become cytotoxic, particularly following the intralysosomal formation of low-molecular weight, redox active iron, and under conditions of oxidative stress. Following autophagocytosis of endogenous ferritin/apoferritin, these compounds may serve as chelators of such lysosomal iron and counteract the occurrence of iron-mediated intralysosomal oxidative reactions. Such redox-reactions have been shown to lead to destabilisation of lysosomal membranes and result in leakage of damaging lysosomal contents to the cytosol. In this study we have shown: (i) human monocyte-derived macrophages to accumulate ferritin in response to iron exposure; (ii) iron to destabilise macrophage secondary lysosomes when the cells are exposed to H2O2; and (iii) endocytosed apoferritin to act as a stabiliser of the acidic vacuolar compartment of iron-loaded macrophages. While the endogenous ferritin accumulation which was induced by iron exposure was not sufficient to protect cells from the damaging effects of H2O2, exogenously added apoferritin, as well as the potent iron chelator desferrioxamine, afforded significant protection. It is suggested that intralysosomal formation of haemosiderin, from partially degraded ferritin, is a protective strategy to suppress intralysosomal iron-catalysed redox reactions. However, under conditions of severe macrophage lysosomal iron-overload, induction of ferritin synthesis is not enough to completely prevent the enhanced cytotoxic effects of H2O2.

  • 31.
    Birchwood, Aina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson Leidnert, Michaela
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nyordsinlärning i relation till ordförråd, nonordsrepetition och prosodi hos en grupp barn i förskoleåldern med typisk språkutveckling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have shown that vocabulary size and nonword repetition ability correlate with novel word learning. The impact of prosodic features on novel word learning has, however, not been studied extensively. The purpose of this study was to examine how children aged 4:5–6:0 with typical language development perform on novel word learning, vocabulary and nonword repetition and to explore what impact prosodic features have on the ability to learn novel words. The study involved 15 children whose performance on the novel word learning task, vocabulary testing and nonword repetition was calculated. The novel word learning task consisted of six words which were connected to six different items. The novel words were matched in pairs differing by only one prosodic feature: either the number of syllables, stress or tonal word accent. No significant correlations between the novel word learning, vocabulary and nonword repetition were found. However, the correlation between age and nonword repetition reached near significance, which indicated that increased age gave a higher result on the nonword repetition. Regarding how the prosodic features related to the novel word learning, a significant difference between stress placements was detected. Novel words with stress on the final syllable were easier to learn. The children also achieved a higher result on the three syllable words than the two syllable words. The study implies that stress and word length seem to play a somewhat important role for novel word learning in contrast to tonal word accent, while it appears to be no relation between novel word learning, vocabulary and nonword repetition.

  • 32.
    Harangi, Márta
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Känslomässiga påfrestningar på medarbetarna vid arbete med ensamkommande flyktingbarn på ett HVBhem2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore the HVB staff's emotional strain associated with their work. The study is based on a phenomenological approach, using semi-structured interviews of ten employees. According to my results the personnel experienced working with unaccompanied minors as both rewarding and demanding. Social skills are the most important knowledge in this kind of work, but language and cultural competence are also desirable. Sensitivity and respect for other people are highlighted as central issues in this kind of work. The psychosocial environment is perceived as stressful. Workers use various coping strategies to manage their stress. The study concludes that work in the HVB home is mentally and emotionally stressful and strenuous, increasing the risk of mental illness.

  • 33.
    Karlsson, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    De centralt utarbetade proven i skolan: Hur de centralt utarbetade proven påverkar betygssättningen - ska de vara kvar?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med denna forskningskonsumerande uppsats vill jag belysa ämnet bedömning och betygssättningen i skolan med utgångspunkt i de centralt utarbetade proven och dess betydelse för den likvärdiga bedömningen. Bedömning och betygssättning är en stor och viktig del i läraryrket, där det främsta målet är att eleverna ska bli så likvärdigt bedömda som möjligt. Redan på 1930-talet började man i USA och Frankrike forska kring rättsäkerheten i bedömning, något som även svenska forskare tog till sig och började undersöka. Sedan 1930-talet och framåt har forskning kring bedömning i skolan ökat, men trots det visar Skolinspektionens senaste rapport från 2013 på stora skillnader i bedömningen av de nationella proven, vilket ses som ett stort nedslag för strävan mot en likvärdig bedömning. De centralt utarbetade proven infördes i skolan som ett hjälpverktyg för landets lärare till att sätta just rättvisa och likvärdiga betyg, men det inflytande som de centralt utarbetade proven har, och har haft, på bedömningen är större än vad många tror och visar snarare på motsatsen.

    Det är med fokus på de centralt utarbetade proven som jag vill diskutera hur bedömning och betygssättning i skolan idag har blivit så problematiserad. Skolan är en institution som historiskt sett alltid har utgått från prov som betygsunderlag, men ända sedan de centralt utarbetade proven infördes i den svenska skolan har man ifrågasatt dess problematik och påverkan. Av erfarenhet från verksamhetsförlagd utbildning har problematik uppmärksammats angående de nationella proven, då det sätter stress på både elever och lärare. Elever har prestationsångest och presterar inte alls lika bra som de brukar medan lärare känner sig stressade över medvetenheten om att provresultaten senare används som statistik i undersökningar, vilket bidrar till en negativ inställning till hela lärprocessen, vilket bekymrar mig som blivande lärare. Den negativa anda som finns kring de centralt utarbetade proven är djupt förankrad, och ofta något som sitter kvar långt efter skoltiden. Om skolan ska kunna förbättras och kunskapsnivån hos våra elever ska öka, behöver man ifrågasätta de nationella provens framtid i skolan.

    Mot denna bakgrund är syftet att visa vad forskning och utredningsrapporter säger om betygsättning och bedömning, i synnerhet i ämnet svenska med fokus på de centrala och nationella provens påverkan. Med utgångspunkt i tre frågeställningar ska denna uppsats utifrån äldre och nutida forskning diskutera vilken roll de centralt utarbetade proven har haft och vilken framtid provet bör ha i skolans framtid. De frågeställningar som jag har utgått ifrån är:

    • Hur har förändringar i skolsystemet påverkat hur bedömning och betygssättning ser ut idag?
    • Vilken påverkan har de centrala och nationella provens haft på den likvärdiga bedömningen?
    • Vad är provets pedagogiska roll?
  • 34.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Varumärkesvård i tider av kris: En fallstudie om återhämtning till följd av ett produktfel2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about how a swedish brand within the food industry that experiences a crisis following a product failure. It focuses on three areas following the crisis and these are crisis management, recovery strategies and brand management. This study seeks to explain how these areas interact in relation to massive exposure to mass media and how they interact restore the brand's potential loss of reputation. This study was conducted as a case study with a deductive and qualitative approach. The data gathered to this study was mainly based on newspaper articles and complemented with semi-structured interviews with twelve local retailers of the brand.

  • 35.
    Varelogianni, Georgia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Oliynyk, Igor
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Roomans, Godfried M
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Johanssesson, Marie
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The effect of N-acetylcysteine on chloride efflux from airway epithelial cells2010In: Cell Biology International, ISSN 1065-6995, E-ISSN 1095-8355, Vol. 34, no 3, 245-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Defective chloride transport in epithelial cells increases mucus viscosity and leads to recurrent infections with high oxidative stress in patients with CF (cystic fibrosis). NAC (N-acetylcysteine) is a well known mucolytic and antioxidant drug, and an indirect precursor of glutathione. Since GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione) previously has been shown to be able to promote Cl- efflux from CF airway epithelial cells, it was investigated whether NAC also could stimulate Cl- efflux from CF and non-CF epithelial cells and through which mechanisms. CFBE (CF bronchial epithelial cells) and normal bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) were treated with 1 mM, 5 mM, 10 mM or 15 mM NAC for 4 h at 37 degrees C. The effect of NAC on Cl- transport was measured by Cl- efflux measurements and by X-ray microanalysis. Cl- efflux from CFBE cells was stimulated by NAC in a dose-dependent manner, with 10 mM NAC causing a significant increase in Cl- efflux with nearly 80% in CFBE cells. The intracellular Cl- concentration in CFBE cells was significantly decreased up to 60% after 4 h treatment with 10 mM NAC. Moreover immunocytochemistry and Western blot experiments revealed expression of CFTR channel on CFBE cells after treatment with 10 mM NAC. The stimulation of Cl- efflux by NAC in CF airway epithelial cells may improve hydration of the mucus and thereby be beneficial for CF patients.

  • 36.
    Stoltz, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Naturljud inomhus - En pilotstudie i tre fall2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It's an everyday experience shared by many that nature can be of help in relieving pain, reducing stress, support mental recovery etc. In the last three decades or so this experience has also found support in a large number of scientific investigations. Among other things the experience of nature has been shown to reduce stress and pain in patients and to boost concentration and reduce impulsive behavior in children. Most of this research however has mainly been concerned with the visual modality. In this thesis the aim has been to focus on the auditory modality in this context by trying to reveal some effects on people from the exposure of nature sounds played indoors in three different environments: a grammar school class room, a kindergarten play room and a post-surgery wake up room at an intensive care unit. The results from the class room revealed a great difference among the children in how they perceived the sounds and how the sounds affected their self-reported ability to concentrate. The sounds of nature seemed to have no great impact on the kindergarten children; however the impact that was found was slightly positive. No impact on the investigated parameters of blood pressure, heart rate and respiration rate was found in the subjects at the intensive care unit; though the number of subjects was very small and they were all under heavy influence of anesthesia and analgesic drugs during the sound exposure. Also, the sound environment in the wake up room was very hard to control and was sometimes noisy.

  • 37.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hallvig, David
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Observer Rated Sleepiness and Real Road Driving: An Explorative Study2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 5, 64782- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore if observer rated sleepiness (ORS) is a feasible method for quantification of driver sleepiness in field studies. Two measures of ORS were used: (1) one for behavioural signs based on facial expression, body gestures and body movements labelled B-ORS, and (2) one based on driving performance e.g. if swerving and other indicators of impaired driving occurs, labelled D-ORS. A limited number of observers sitting in the back of an experimental vehicle on a motorway about 2 hours repeatedly 3 times per day (before lunch, after lunch, at night) observed 24 participant’s sleepiness level with help of the two observer scales. At the same time the participant reported subjective sleepiness (KSS), EOG was recorded (for calculation of blink duration) and several driving measure were taken and synchronized with the reporting. Based on mixed model Anova and correlation analysis the result showed that observer ratings of sleepiness based on drivers’ impaired performance and behavioural signs are sensitive to extend the general pattern of time awake, circadian phase and time of driving. The detailed analysis of the subjective sleepiness and ORS showed weak correspondence on an individual level. Only 16% of the changes in KSS were predicted by the observer. The correlation between the observer ratings based on performance (D-ORS) and behavioural signs (B-ORS) are high (r = .588), and the B-ORS shows a moderately strong association (r = .360) with blink duration. Both ORS measures show an association (r>0.45) with KSS, whereas the association with driving performance is weak. The results show that the ORS-method detects the expected general variations in sleepy driving in field studies, however, sudden changes in driver sleepiness on a detailed level as 5 minutes is usually not detected; this holds true both when taking into account driving behaviour or driver behavioural signs.

  • 38.
    Berlin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effekten av olika stressorer på open-field beteende hos kycklingar av White Leghorn2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress affects a number of animals and is a survival mechanism. During stress, changes in the animal’s physiological mechanisms and changes in behavioural reactions will happen. This study evaluates four different stressors that can occur in a chicken’s life. The four stressors are fixation, social isolation, predation and transport. 40 White Leghorn chicken from age sex to seven weeks were used in the study. An open-field test was used to evaluate the stressors. The open-field test registered time for ambulation, time for first change of zones, number of zones used and number of registrations in central zones. The chicken was expected to ambulate in the open-field arena since chickens are curious but the activity was expected to be different depending on which stressor the chicken was exposed to. Previous studies have shown that more stressed birds are less active in an open-field test than birds that are not stressed. A control group was included in the study and this group was not exposed to a stressor. The results did not show any significant dereferences between time for the first change of zones, number of zones used and number of registrations in central zones. However, there was a tendency for a significant difference in time to first ambulation. The results suggested that the control group and the group that was exposed to social isolation displayed most stress-related behaviour. Least stressed was the predation group and the transport group.

  • 39.
    Hult, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Förbättrad plockkvalitet - ett kvalitetsprojekt vid DSV solution AB2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis has been carried out at the request of DSV Solutions AB in Norrköping. The purpose of the project is to improve the picking quality at the warehouse on Händelö. Improving the picking quality means to lower the number of wrong picks without increasing costs. Measurements to improve efficiency have also been done, the hope is that the workers will feel less stress if they have more time to pick.

    Today, DSV on Händelö has four customers in the warehouse. This project focuses on two of those customers. The project is carried out in three different parts, the first part is gathering information, the second part is analyse and the last part is an economic analyse. The information is used as a basis for the analysis and it contains both our own observations in the warehouse and information from the warehouse management system. The analysis evaluates different improvement measurements that DSV Solutions intends to continue with after the project.

    The measurements that were carried out during the project were double picking faces for all articles and separation of articles to increase the picking quality. The economic analysis is used to evaluate measurements to see if they lead to savings or losses. The economic analysis for double picking places resulted in savings for the warehouse.

    Other measurements that were analysed during the project were article groups, placing the articles on the basis of frequency, change of complaint process and change of work processes in the warehouse. Proposals to increase the picking quality are gathered in a manual that is presented to DSV.

  • 40.
    Rashid, Asim
    et al.
    Tekniska Högskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping, JTH. Forskningsmiljö Produktutveckling - Simulering och optimering.
    Strömberg, Niclas
    Tekniska Högskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping, JTH. Forskningsmiljö Produktutveckling - Simulering och optimering.
    An Efficient Sequential Approach for Simulation of Thermal Stresses in Disc Brakes2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an ecient approach to simulate thermal stresses due to tem-perature variations in disc brakes is presented. In the approach thermal and stress analysis are performed sequentially. The frictional heat analysis is based on the Eulerian method, which requires signicantly low computational time as compared to the Lagrangian approach. The nodal temperature history is recorded at each time step and is used in a sequentially coupled stress analysis, where a temperature dependent elasto-plastic material model is used to compute the stresses in the disc brake. The results show that during hard braking, high compressive stresses are generated on the disc surface in circumferential direction which cause plastic yielding. But when the disc cools down, the compressive stresses transform to tensile stresses. Such thermoplastic stress history may cause cracks on disc surface after a few braking cycles. These results are in agreement with experimental observations available in the literature.

  • 41.
    Rashid, Asim
    et al.
    Tekniska Högskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping, JTH. Forskningsmiljö Produktutveckling - Simulering och optimering.
    Strömberg, Niclas
    Tekniska Högskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping, JTH. Forskningsmiljö Produktutveckling - Simulering och optimering.
    Sequential simulation of thermal stresses in disc brakes for repeated braking2013In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 227, no 8, 919-929 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an efficient sequential approach for simulating thermal stresses in brake discs for repeated braking is presented. First, a frictional heat analysis is performed by using an Eulerian formulation of the disc. Then, by using the temperature history from the first step of the sequence, a plasticity analysis with temperature dependent material data is performed in order to determine the corresponding thermal stresses. Three-dimensional geometries of a disc and a pad to a heavy truck are considered in the numerical simulations. The contact forces are computed at each time step taking the thermal deformations of the disc and pad into account. In such manner, the frictional heat power distribution will also be updated in each time step, which in turn will influence the development of heat bands. The plasticity model is taken to be the von Mises yield criterion with linear kinematic hardening, where both the hardening and the yield limit are temperature dependent. The results show that during hard braking, high compressive stresses are generated on the disc surface in the circumferential direction which cause yielding. But when the disc cools down, these compressive stresses transform to tensile residual stresses. For repeated hard braking when this kind of stress history is repeated, we also show that stress cycles with high amplitudes are developed which might generate low cycle fatigue cracks after a few braking cycles.

  • 42.
    Leong, Elaine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Water Situation In China - Crisis Or Business As Usual?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies indicates China is experiencing a water crisis, were several regions are suffering of severe water scarcity and rivers are heavily polluted. On the other hand, water is used inefficiently and wastefully: water use efficiency in the agriculture sector is only 40% and within industry, only 40% of the industrial wastewater is recycled. However, based on statistical data, China’s total water resources is ranked sixth in the world, based on its water resources and yet, Yellow River and Hai River dries up in its estuary every year. In some regions, the water situation is exacerbated by the fact that rivers’ water is heavily polluted with a large amount of untreated wastewater, discharged into the rivers and deteriorating the water quality. Several regions’ groundwater is overexploited due to human activities demand, which is not met by local. Some provinces have over withdrawn groundwater, which has caused ground subsidence and increased soil salinity. So what is the situation in China? Is there a water crisis, and if so, what are the causes?This report is a review of several global water scarcity assessment methods and summarizes the findings of the results of China’s water resources to get a better understanding about the water situation. All of the methods indicated that water scarcity is mainly concentrated to north China due to rapid growth, overexploitation from rivers and reduced precipitation. Whereas, South China is indicated as abundant in water resources, however, parts of the region are experiencing water scarcity due to massive dam constructions for water storage and power production. Too many dam constructions in a river disrupts flow of the river water and pollutants are then accumulated within floodgates.Many Chinese officials and scholars believe that with economic growth comes improved environmental quality when the economy has reached to a certain of per-capita level. However, with the present water situation it is not sustainable or possible for China to keep consuming and polluting its water resources. Improvement of environmental quality does not come automatically with increased income, and policies, laws and regulations are needed in order to stop further deterioration of the environment.China’s water situation is not any news and the key factor is human activities, but the question is how to solve it. China’s water crisis is much more complex than over exploitation of groundwater and surface water. There are three water issues in China: “too much water – floods, too little water – droughts, and too dirty water – water pollution” (Jun & Chen, 2001). Thus, solving China’s water crisis is a huge challenge to solve without negatively affecting the economic growth.

  • 43.
    Appelgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automated control and test system for long time stess tests of microwave ovens2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to improve products extensive testing is required in order to find hidden flaws in the design. The earlier flaws are found the higher are the probability that they can be corrected before the product is released onto the market. If the tests could be carried out all hours of the day every day of the week, this would introduce another level of stress to the product. More stress than if the product would be tested only during working days and it may reveal issues that could be corrected to improve the product further. Although a similar test environment already exists at Whirlpool Sweden AB, there are requests to rethink and improve these tests so that the microwave ovens are tested in an environment more close to reality. This thesis will present a concept proposal of how to improve the tests. Further, the thesis will include initial construction of a machine that could perform automated tests with the ability to interpret errors and report them. In the end, the machine should press buttons on the microwave oven, look at the display with a camera, open the door and so on.

    The mechanics for the machine is bought, so a big part of the thesis will be electronics design. The project will include an embedded system design with a 32-bit ARM micro controller that is going to control the machine. As this part is quite big the thesis will include the hardware design, but not much programming.

    The hardware design of the embedded system did work as expected, without any revisions. The hardware has been verified by electrical tests and basic software to test the general functions of the hardware. In the future, the hardware needs programming and the machine has to be equipped with a mechanical finger to be able to press buttons.

    Keywords: Embedded system design, ARM, Cortex-M3, , Linear guide, Stepper

    motor.

  • 44.
    Amolo, Ritah
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stress and pregnancy: the mother's perspectives. Mukono district, Uganda2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of maternal health raises overwhelming concern whenever mentioned, this is because of the natural desire to bear children yet every pregnancy is a lifetime risk for the mother. Several factors contribute towards the risk of dying during childbirth, stress is one such factor. The aim of the study is to understand the perspectives of pregnant mothers regarding stress during pregnancy and childbirth. Factors affecting daily life, that is, health facilities, work and income, social support and transport were chosen as the main themes of study. It is my belief that, if stressful circumstances are avoided through these factors, then pregnant mothers will experience better health. A qualitative approach was used. Thirteen in-depth interviews and 1 focus group discussion were conducted. A grounded theory approach   was used to analyze the data.

    The findings indicate that mothers are aware of the causes of stress during pregnancy. They mention lack of care from husbands, insensitive nurses and midwives, poverty and unplanned pregnancies. The pregnant mothers mention miscarrriage, sickness, death, low birth weight, ceasarian birth as some of the effects of stress, though some mothers said they don't know any effect. Some of the strategies they use to cope with stress are; talking to a friend, counselor, accepting one's financial situation, listening to music and finding work to do.

  • 45.
    Lööf, Maja
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Erika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Uttalsträning i svenska för tre personer med thai som förstaspråk: En single subject design-studie2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Three native Thai speakers with Swedish as their second language have received special training in Swedish pronunciation in the current single-subject design study. The aim of the current study was therefore to devise and implement a set of pronunciation training exercises, divided into suprasegmental and segmental modules. The aim was also to examine how suprasegmental and segmental changes in pronunciation affected the intelligibility of the pronunciation. The pronunciation training consisted of 14 training sessions during a five-week period. The exercises were divided into two modules, one with focus on suprasegmental aspects (B1) and one with focus on segmental aspects (B2). The suprasegmental module included acquainting subjects with the syllabic structure of the Swedish language as well as training of the Swedish language stress pattern. The segmental module contained training of consonant clusters, the Swedish speech sound [ɧ] and /r/. At the end of each session the participants were asked to repeat 50 words chosen before the start of the study. These words constituted the measuring points of the study and were analyzed according to the participants' ability to produce suprasegmental and segmental aspects correctly. The suprasegmental aspects were assessed according to fixed criteria and the segmental aspects were rated by means of Percentage Phonemes Correct (PPC). After completion of the final training session, three independent listeners estimated intelligibility to determine if relationship existed between these and the chosen assessment tools. Single words were selected in order to compare their criteria-based and PPC-ratings with acoustic correlates. The results of the present study indicate that a relationship can be observed between specific pronunciation training with focus on segmental aspects and improved pronunciation in terms of segmental and suprasegmental aspects. The pronunciation training with suprasegmental focus indicated the same conclusion. Further, a relationship can be seen between the judgment of the segmental aspects based on the measuring points' PPC-rating and the ratings of intelligibility. The intelligibility improved when the PPC increased. The focus of pronunciation training should be to achieve good intelligibility (Pennington, 1996; Levis, 2005); therefore it is suggested that segmental aspects should be included in pronunciation training for native Thai speakers when learning Swedish as a second language. No similar relations have been discovered between the suprasegmental aspects and intelligibility, which, however, may be due to limitations in the design of the study. Therefore suprasegmental aspects should not be neglected in pronunciation training.

  • 46.
    Leong, Elaine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Water Situation In China - Crisis Or Business As Usual?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies indicates China is experiencing a water crisis, were several regions are suffering of severe water scarcity and rivers are heavily polluted. On the other hand, water is used inefficiently and wastefully: water use efficiency in the agriculture sector is only 40% and within industry, only 40% of the industrial wastewater is recycled. However, based on statistical data, China’s total water resources is ranked sixth in the world, based on its water resources and yet, Yellow River and Hai River dries up in its estuary every year. In some regions, the water situation is exacerbated by the fact that rivers’ water is heavily polluted with a large amount of untreated wastewater, discharged into the rivers and deteriorating the water quality. Several regions’ groundwater is overexploited due to human activities demand, which is not met by local. Some provinces have over withdrawn groundwater, which has caused ground subsidence and increased soil salinity. So what is the situation in China? Is there a water crisis, and if so, what are the causes?

    This report is a review of several global water scarcity assessment methods and summarizes the findings of the results of China’s water resources to get a better understanding about the water situation. All of the methods indicated that water scarcity is mainly concentrated to north China due to rapid growth, overexploitation from rivers and reduced precipitation. Whereas, South China is indicated as abundant in water resources, however, parts of the region are experiencing water scarcity due to massive dam constructions for water storage and power production. Too many dam constructions in a river disrupts flow of the river water and pollutants are then accumulated within floodgates.

    Many Chinese officials and scholars believe that with economic growth comes improved environmental quality when the economy has reached to a certain of per-capita level. However, with the present water situation it is not sustainable or possible for China to keep consuming and polluting its water resources. Improvement of environmental quality does not come automatically with increased income, and policies, laws and regulations are needed in order to stop further deterioration of the environment.

    China’s water situation is not any news and the key factor is human activities, but the question is how to solve it. China’s water crisis is much more complex than over exploitation of groundwater and surface water. There are three water issues in China:  “too much water – floods, too little water – droughts, and too dirty water – water pollution” (Jun & Chen, 2001). Thus, solving China’s water crisis is a huge challenge to solve without negatively affecting the economic growth.

     

  • 47.
    Christiansson, Reine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Behovet av kontroll bland intagna i fängelse: Samband mellan stress och hälsoångest bland intagna i kriminalvården2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate correlations between stress, health anxiety, visits to the health clinic and the use of medications in a correctional facility. The respondents were 66 men between 21 and 68 years of age and had served time from one month to thirteen years and nine month. The study was based on self administered questionnaires, measuring stress (Perceived Stress Scale, PSS) and health anxiety (Health Anxiety Inventory, Short Version SHAI). The analyses controlled for correlations, predictability and threshold effects. The results established correlations and predictability between stress and health anxiety and the frequency of visits to the health clinic. No correlation was established for the use of medications. A correlation was established between stress and the high-anxiety group. Correlations were established between coping and low health anxiety and for the high-rating group correlation was established with visits to the health clinic. Conclusions in the study are that stress acts as a possible factor of influence over the manifestation of health anxiety and visits to the health clinic. A further conclusion is that when few external possibilities of coping exists the focus for inner processes and bodily sensations increases, which further puts them in risk of developing stress and health anxiety.

  • 48.
    Hammerman, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of undrained shear strength from drop-cone tests2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Geotechnical Institute, SGI, has been given the assignment of mapping the risk of landslides in the area by the river Göta älv. Tests were made to determine the shear strength of soil on land and in the river. It has been shown that shear strength values evaluated with drop cone tests from points under the river are higher compared to other test methods although experience shows that the shear strength values from fall cone tests usually is slightly lower compared with those from other test methods.

    The soil under the river is more over consolidated then the surrounding soil because of years of erosion from the river. When evaluating undrained shear strength from CPT- and field vane shear tests, consideration to over consolidation is taken. SGI is now interested to look into if this needs to be done when evaluating undrained shear strength from fall cone tests as well.

    This thesis compares values from fall cone tests without correction for the over consolidation with values which is corrected to see if a correction is necessary. All data concerning the soils effective stress is necessary for calculating the over consolidation ratio and is evaluated manually. There is no set method to correct fall cone tests for the over consolidation so the existing formula used in the correction of field vane shear tests in over consolidated soils were used, both in its original form and with the exponent -0,15 adjusted. Own evaluations were made on the CPT- and field vane shear tests for comparisons with the results from the fall con tests. All processed data comes from SGI's own measurements.

    Results show that shear strength values from fall cone test and CPT field tests match better after corrections due to the over consolidation with the presented formula.

  • 49.
    Martikainen, Petra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Jasmine
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Utprövning och prosodisk analys av ord- och nonordsrepetition på en grupp barn med typisk utveckling2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has confirmed that the ability to repeat non-words has a close connection to a child’s language acquisition (Adams & Gathercole, 2000; Gray, 2003; Sahlén, Reuterskiöld-Wagner, Nettelbladt & Radeborg, 1999). It is also known that a repetition task is aided if the word is well known to the child (Roy & Chiat, 2004; Sahlén, m.fl., 1999). A relatively under-investigated area is that of the influence of prosodic variables on repetition of words and non-words.

    In the current study, 44 Swedish children between the ages of four and six years with typical language development were tested regarding word- and non-word repetition abilities. The words and non-words were matched based on stress, tonal word accent and number of syllables. Segmental as well as supra segmental variables were analyzed.

    The children performed better on the word repetition task than on the non-word repetition task, based on all accounts of segmental variables. Vowels were easier to repeat than consonants, but appeared to be developing to the same extent. There was no difference in performance relating to manipulation of supra segmental variables.. Children between the ages of five and six achieved better results than the younger children regarding both segmental and supra segmental aspects. Correlations between all segmental variables were observed, as well as between segmental and supra segmental variables. The authors discuss whether or not supra segmental variables could be another strong indicator for language impairments. No gender differences could be observed. Stress had strong correlations with other supra segmental aspects as well as with segmental variables, and seems to be an important ability to analyze The results also revealed that the prosodic ability is not connected to whether the word to be repeated is previously known. 

  • 50.
    Tütüncü, Deniz
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Killing a tree is the same as killing a part of Creation: A comparative study of Western and Indigenous’ worldviews, views of nature and knowledge systems2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays there is a great deal of concern for global warming. Researchers and politicians all over the world are urgently trying to find solutions to it. However, most of the solutions which consider sustainable development have a technical perspective to environmental problems. The alarm of global warming might open up for new ways of solving problems. Indigenous peoples live close to nature and their specific ecosystems which give them a unique understanding for the complexity of nature.

    However, indigenous people and their knowledge are rarely integrated in international regimes, the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment is the most inclusive regime. Integration of Indigenous Knowledge have been successful in Western environmental management, such as in EIA’s. This ignorance to indigenous knowledge as a source to knowledge illustrates a Eurocentrism in environmental management (McGregor, 2004; Tsuji & Ho, 2002; Berkes, 1999; Smith & Sharp, 2012; Battiste & Henderson, 2000).

    This study has several aims. Firstly I will compare what has been interpreted as a holistic worldview with the atomistic one. Secondly, I will compare the organic view of nature to the technocratic view of nature. Thirdly, a comparison of the positivist-reductionist approach to the term “Indigenous Knowledge” as McGregor (2004) describes it will be done. Furthermore, the aim of this study is to understand if and if so how IK challenges the positivist-reductionist approach and whether these knowledge systems are compatible with each other. At last, a new analytical framework will be developed to support my theories and clarify them.

    This study concludes that while there are fundamental differences between the worldviews, views of nature and knowledge systems. This study stress that indigenous knowledge is compatible with the positivist-reductionist approach. Furthermore it is desirable to include IK in Western society further because Western society can make benefits from indigenous peoples view on nature and their view on knowledge from an environmental management perspective.

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