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  • 1.
    Collin, Angelica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammarberg, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Röstfaktorer som avslöjar ironi: Akustiska likheter och skillnader mellan sinnesstämningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The word irony is defined as an utterance where the meaning is the opposite of the words. This report is a continuing study of Peder Palmér's study What is ironic speech: to find the auditory clues (2013). The basis for this follow-up study consists of recordings with three different talkers with five sentences in five different moods: happiness, anger, seriousness, irony and sarcasm. Thirty men and women aged 18 to 60 years have been listening to the sentences and categorized them based on interpreted mood. The authors have measured fundamental frequency and intensity, and used these measurements as a basis to elucidate the perception of irony and the ability to perceive mood based on changes in fundamental frequency and intensity. The fundamental frequency has also been compared between the three talkers. An acoustic comparison between the different moods forms the basis for the analysis, which can provide information about the importance of acoustic parameters, as well as other factors such as context, when identifying different moods. The aim is to examine whether the moods that are most similar from an acoustic perspective are the ones that the test subjects most often fail to distinguish. The results show that it is difficult to solely from acoustic parameters interpret mood. Fundamental frequency and intensity appear to be of some importance when confusing irony with other moods. No differences were found between men and women's ability to detect irony and sarcasm based solely on acoustic parameters.

  • 2.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology.
    Craig, A. D. (Bud)
    Atkinson Research Laboratory, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ.
    Mental energy: graded co-activation of the anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortices during challenging working memory,  visual perception and motor speed tasks.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Weström, Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Örneholm, Isabelle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Interaktion och intervention: En undersökning av kommunikativa behov hos personer med afasi och dysartri i vardagliga och kliniska samtal2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In speech and language intervention, the ability to interact is seldom evaluated; rather intervention is evaluated in terms of improved testresults.  If goal-setting in intervention also is based on everyday communicative needs, the relevance of the treatment may be increased and intervention outcome may be implemented in the patient’s natural environment.

    The present study, as part of a research-project, is based on analyses of interaction and interviews to examine everyday conversations and speech and language intervention. The aim was to explore if there is a relation between everyday communication needs and goal-setting in speech and language intervention for people with aphasia. A further aim was to investigate if there are everyday communicative needs that may form goals for speech and language intervention.

    Two individuals with aphasia and one individual with both dysarhtria and aphasia participated in the study. Three speech and language pathologists and two relatives also participated in the study. Everyday interaction and intervention sessions were recorded and transcribed according to Conversation Analysis principles and analysed from an interactional perspective. Interviews regarding intervention and everyday communication were carried out with all participants. Recordings were presented and discussed with all participants, in so called retrospections.

    Four phenomena that illustrate communication needs of the participating patients were identified: repair, alternative and augmentative communication, co-construction and feedback. Analysis, interviews and retrospections have revealed that communication needs can form the basis of goal-setting in speech and language intervention. It is also demonstrated that intervention mainly is based on the everyday communication needs of the patient. Retrospections were also shown to be useful in order to observe communication needs in everyday life and in order to evaluate speech and language intervention. The retrospections were found to be beneficial to an open dialogue between speech and language pathologist, patient and relatives regarding the content and aim of the intervention.

     

  • 4.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordin, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Voice Onset Time among Children with Phonological Impairment.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Speech production requires cooperation between cognitive, linguistic and motor processes. It also requires spatial and temporal control of muscles, as well as simultaneous and coordinated activity of respiration, phonation and articulation (Cheng, Murdoch, Goozée & Scott, 2007; Yorkston, Beukelman, Strand & Bell, 1999; Raphael, Borden & Harris, 2011). Voice Onset Time (VOT) reflects the timing between phonation and articulation (Hoit-Dalgaard, Murry & Kopp, 1983). VOT is the most reliable acoustic cue for distinguishing between voiceless or voiced plosives (Auzou et al. 2000). Studies of English-speaking children with phonological impairment have shown atypical VOT-patterns (Bond & Wilson, 1980). The aim of the present study was to investigate Voice Onset Time (VOT) among Swedish children with phonological impairment and to examine if their VOT-values differ from typically developed Swedish children. Participants were 38 children aged 4;2−11;6 distributed over eight age- groups and five developmental stages of phonology. Audio recordings of minimal pairs were made at preschools, schools or at speech pathology clinics. The results indicated that children with phonological impairment produced VOT with deviant values and with a great variability. A marked acoustic difference between voiceless and voiced stop consonants was present, but not in all cases. Since the VOT-values were distributed over the group of children with phonological impairment, no developmental trend toward adult-like values that could be related to increasing age was found for either the acquisition of producing VOT or the acquisition of producing voicing lead. No differences in VOT were seen between the children in different phonological developmental stages or ages. No correlation between the degree of deviance of VOT and the proportion of Procent Phonemes Correct (PPC), age or phonological processes were found. From the results the conclusion can be drawn that children with phonological impairment have deviant VOT-values that could be caused by lack of phonological knowledge, but in particular since the variability did not decrease with increased age, have difficulties with motor execution. 

  • 5.
    Åman, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Joakim, Behrendtz
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Anestesipersonalens peri-operativa omvårdnad av överviktiga och obesa barn2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children are a group of patients that require special knowledge from the anesthesia staff, both general and specific. Theoretical knowledge and practical experience is necessary to adequately care for the child as it anatomically, physiologically and mentally may differ from adult patients.

    A growing problem in the pediatric population is overweight and obesity. From a stagnation in the early 2000s the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in the world are again increasing.The purpose of this study was to examine peri-operative care of overweight and obese children.

    Systematic searches were done in PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus. After the quality audit according to SBU, twelve articles were included for analysis.

    Results suggest that overweight and obese children have a higher risk of respiratory peri-operative complications. The risk of hospital admission after outpatient surgery was also greater in this group as well as higher costs for health care.

    Overweight and obese children are complex subjects with more frequent peri-operative risk factors than normal-weight children. This group requires special knowledge of the anesthesia staff. More studies are required to secure evidence in anesthetic care for overweight and obese children.

  • 6.
    Björck, S
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Enochsson, L
    Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Svanvik, Joar
    Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Commentary: the rising tide of cholecystectomy for biliary dyskinesia2013In: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, ISSN 0269-2813, E-ISSN 1365-2036, Vol. 37, no 4, 493-494 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Hägg, Mary
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care. Hudiksvall, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg, Gävle, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tibbling, Lita
    Hudiksvall, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg, Gävle, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Effect of oral IQoro(R) and palatal plate training in post-stroke, four-quadrant facial dysfunction and dysphagia: A comparison study2015In: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, E-ISSN 1651-2251, Vol. 135, no 9, 962-968 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conclusion: Training with either a palatal plate (PP) or an oral IQoro(R) screen (IQS) in patients with longstanding facial dysfunction and dysphagia after stroke can significantly improve facial activity (FA) in all four facial quadrants as well as swallowing capacity (SC). Improvements remained at late follow-up. The training modalities did not significantly differ in ameliorating facial dysfunction and dysphagia in these patients. However, IQS training has practical and economic advantages over PP training. Objectives: This study compared PP and oral IQS training in terms of (i) effect on four-quadrant facial dysfunction and dysphagia after a first-ever stroke, and (ii) whether the training effect persisted at late follow-up. Methods: Patients were included during two periods; 13 patients in 2005-2008 trained with a PP, while 18 patients in 2009-2012 trained with an IQS. Four-quadrant facial dysfunction was assessed with an FA test and swallowing dysfunction with a SC test: before and after a 3-month training period and at late follow-up. FA and SC significantly improved (p less than 0.001) in both groups. FA test scores after training and at late follow-up did not differ significantly between the groups, irrespective of whether the interval between stroke incidence and the start of training was long or short.

  • 8.
    Karlsson, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical Programme.
    Olofsson, John
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical Programme.
    Tidseffektivitet vid ljumskbråcksoperationer: - Jämförelse mellan privat- och offentlig vårdgivare2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Inguinal hernia surgery is one of the most common surgeries within general surgery, with approximately 20 000 surgeries per year in Sweden. There are three places in Östergötland County where inguinal hernias are executed within outpatient surgery; at Aleris Specialistvård in Motala (ASM), Närsjukvården in Finspång (NiF) and at Medicinskt Centrum in Linköping (MCL).

    There is a theory that private health care providers are more time-efficient than public health care providers. The private health care providers are considered to perform more operations over a given time though no studies has been done on time efficiency.

    This study was performed to detect if there is a difference in time in the various steps during the surgery between the clinics, what causes these differences and if the patients differ.

     

    Methods:

    The study includes 70 patients distributed on three outpatient surgery clinics; ASM, MCL and NiF. The inguinal hernia operations were divided into shorter steps measured with a digital watch.  Furthermore, data were noted about the patients’ age, ASA-score, BMI and who were present in the operating room. Statistical analyses were performed with the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. The software used was SPSS version 22.

     

    Results:

    The study found no significant difference in BMI, ASA-score and age between the health care providers (p > 0,05). However, regarding the time efficiency, there were significant differences between the clinics.

     

    Conclusions:

    The study concludes that there are big differences in time, within the various steps in the inguinal hernia surgeries, between the clinics. The private health care providers were always faster than the public health care provider. Since no earlier studies have been made in this area, it would be interesting to see if there are similar differences in other types of surgeries.

  • 9.
    Hahn, Camilla (Editor)
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Årsberättelse disciplinnämnden vid LiU 20142014Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den statistik som redovisas i årsberättelsen är vald för att ge en bild av de ärenden som hanteras av nämnden och skall i första hand jämföras med föregående år. Ambitionen är inte att redogöra för statistiska skillnader eller samband. Med tanke på det antal ärenden som hanteras och att förändringar som kan förekomma mellan olika år ofta handlar om enstaka fall är det svårt att göra alltför långtgående analyser.

  • 10.
    Hahn, Camilla (Editor)
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Årsberättelse disciplinnämnden vid LiU 20132013Other (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna
    et al.
    Center for Public Health Genomics, Univ Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Chen, Wei-Min
    Center for Public Health Genomics, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Burren, Oliver
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Cooper, Nick J
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Quinlan, Aaron R
    Center for Public Health Genomics, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Mychaleckyj, Josyf C
    Center for Public Health Genomics, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Farber, Emily
    Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Bonnie, Jessica K
    Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Szpak, Michal
    Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Schofield, Ellen
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Achuthan, Premanand
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Guo, Hui
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Fortune, Mary D
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Stevens, Helen
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Walker, Neil M
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Ward, Lucas D
    Department of Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Kundaje, Anshul
    Department of Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA / Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA / Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Kellis, Manolis
    Department of Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Daly, Mark J
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Barrett, Jeffrey C
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK.
    Cooper, Jason D
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Deloukas, Panos
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK.
    Todd, John A
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Wallace, Chris
    Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF)/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Medical Research Council (MRC) Biostatistics Unit, Institute of Public Health, University Forvie Site, Cambridge, UK.
    Concannon, Patrick
    Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Rich, Stephen S
    Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Fine mapping of type 1 diabetes susceptibility loci and evidence for colocalization of causal variants with lymphoid gene enhancers.2015In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 47, no 4, 381-386 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic studies of type 1 diabetes (T1D) have identified 50 susceptibility regions, finding major pathways contributing to risk, with some loci shared across immune disorders. To make genetic comparisons across autoimmune disorders as informative as possible, a dense genotyping array, the Immunochip, was developed, from which we identified four new T1D-associated regions (P < 5 × 10(-8)). A comparative analysis with 15 immune diseases showed that T1D is more similar genetically to other autoantibody-positive diseases, significantly most similar to juvenile idiopathic arthritis and significantly least similar to ulcerative colitis, and provided support for three additional new T1D risk loci. Using a Bayesian approach, we defined credible sets for the T1D-associated SNPs. The associated SNPs localized to enhancer sequences active in thymus, T and B cells, and CD34(+) stem cells. Enhancer-promoter interactions can now be analyzed in these cell types to identify which particular genes and regulatory sequences are causal.

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Therése
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lawrence, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    English as a Second Language for Kenyan Children in Primary School: A Trial of the Spoken Language Assessment Profile – Revised Edition2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sub-Saharan Africa is a multilingual environment and there is a lack of materials available for speech and language assessment in this area (Hartley & Krämer, 2013). The norms for assessment material cannot be used for both monolinguals and bilinguals, since bilinguals may have different levels of knowledge in their languages (Kohnert, 2010). The Spoken Language Assessment Profile – Revised edition (SLAP-R) is an assessment that can be used to evaluate English as a second language (ESL) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this instrument is an attempt to fill the gap of suitable speech and language assessment tools that can be used for all those involved in setting up clinics, schools or speech and language assessment tools (Hartley & Krämer, 2013). The aim of the present study was to assess English as a second language for Kenyan children in primary school based on their result on the SLAP-R. The present study consisted of 68 participants with reported typically developed language and hearing that attended first or second grade in a public school in western Kenya. All participants were between six and nine years old, had a Bantu language as their first language and had been exposed to English for less than one year up to eight years. They had also attended preschool at their current school. The independent variables in the present study were grade, age and exposure to English. SLAP-R consists of six subtests that test expressive and receptive phonology, semantics and grammar. These parts constituted the dependent variables. In addition there is a part called ultimate expressive language skill (UELS) that consists of picture sequences where the participant should tell a story of what is happening in the pictures. The result indicated that grade had the largest effect on the participant’s performance in English as a second language. Grade two had significantly higher results regarding receptive phonology as well as expressive and receptive semantics and grammar than the participants in grade one. Most of the incorrect answers were made in the subtest expressive grammar. These answers were mainly incorrect due to other reasons than an answer in Kiswahili.

  • 13.
    Neffati, Hammadi
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Översättning och anpassning av Kortfattad Afasiprövning till arabiska: Jämförelse med arabiska Bilingual Aphasia Test och självskattad språkförmåga2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing amount of citizens with another mother tongue than Swedish, the need for assessment instruments in other languages than Swedish within the Swedish health care increases. To enable this, the knowledge of multilingualism and adequate assessments are required. The aim is to develop a modern Arabic version of a screening material that is comparable to what is used in the Swedish clinic in the assessment of people diagnosed with aphasia. In the present study, Short Aphasia Examination (Kortfattad Afasiprövning), which is one of the few screening material is available in Swedish and among the ten most frequently used assessment materials (Blom Johansson, Carlsson & Sonnander, 2011). Translation and adaptation was made to the Standard Arabic (KAPARABISKA) and Arabic dialect of Hadari (KAPHADARI). The results were also compared with the participants' self-rated language abilities. The study is also implementing a comparison between KAP and the Hadari Arabic screening version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT). The translated assessment materials were tested on six participants, where five had Arabic as their mother tongue and one participant had Arabic and Swedish as mother tongues. The result indicates that the Arabic versions of KAP and BAT are assessing the language ability of the participants almost equally, but that KAP is assessing reading and writing abilities on a higher difficulty. The KAP assessments were conducted during half as long time as BAT. Both the KAP assessments and the BAT assessment identified participants with limited literacy skills, which indicates the importance of inquiring the patient’s education level to avoid false interpretation of the results.

  • 14.
    Jansson, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Höglund, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Logopeders samtal med närstående till en person med afasi: En samtalsanalys2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In institutional interactions such as conversations between a speech and language therapist, a person closely related to a person with aphasia and the individual with aphasia there is an asymmetry considering the power. The asymmetry arising in institutional interactions may mean that the participant with the least power will experience a face threatening act. Understanding is seen as a dynamic process and when understanding is a problem in the conversation the ongoing activity is disturbed. The receiver can solve the problem by giving the speaker a candidate understanding. How these strategies are used in conversations between a speech and language therapist with a person closely related to a person with aphasia is a relatively unexplored field and an important area which is a common for speech therapists. The aim of the present study was to investigate a number of communication strategies in the conversation with a person closely related to a person with aphasia; how understanding was reached and how face threatening acts were reduced when the speech therapists delivered test results and gave counseling. Three conversations between speech and language therapists, persons closely related to a person with aphasia and in two of the recordings the person with aphasia were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to principles of Conversation Analysis (CA). Two speech and language therapists, three persons closely related to a person with aphasia and two persons with aphasia participated in the study. In total, the recorded material is one hour and 37 minutes. Participating speech and language therapists also filled in a questionnaire. Strategies for mitigation and understanding were identified. The strategies were divided into two categories; strategies to mitigate FTA:s when delivering the test results and counseling, the other categorie was the use of candidate understandings for gaining an mutual understanding. The study revealed that candidate understandings were often initiated by the person closely related to a person with aphasia. The study also revealed that the test results with positive outcome where not mitigated and often emphasized and test results that could be perceived as negative were mitigated with hedging.

  • 15.
    Larsson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Isaksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Avgörande faktorer för talnaturlighet hos personer med Parkinsons sjukdom: Korrelationsstudie mellan naiva lyssnares bedömning och akustisk analys2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Speech and voice changes are common in Parkinson’s disease. These changes can affect the speaker’s intelligibility but can also have a negative impact on the perceived naturalness of speech. The research available regarding the different factors that affect speech naturalness is scarce, which was the motivation behind this study.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the level of perceived speech naturalness could derive from any specific aspects of speech. This was accomplished by recording speech samples from eight people with Parkinson’s disease using a test battery with various speech tasks. These samples were presented to a group of 27 naive listeners whose task was to judge the level of intelligibility as well as the level of speech naturalness. Correlations were then made between their assessments and various acoustic measurements.

    The main finding of the present study was that speech and articulation rate seemed to have the greatest impact on the perceived level of naturalness, where the people who had the slowest rate were judged to be the least natural sounding. Furthermore there were strong indications that the level of intelligibility correlated with the level of speech naturalness. In this study there were no other acoustic correlates found with statistical significance.

  • 16.
    Birchwood, Aina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammarberg, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Högteknologiskt samtalsstöd vid demens: En analys av samtal med och utan surfplatta med applikationen Book Creator2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of people who are affected by dementia is expected to increase, from 25 million in the year 2000 to approximately 63 million in the year 2030. Dementia can be described as a global disorder of intellectual functions, where the cognitive ability including communication is affected. High technological communication aids that support people with dementia in their communication are currently an underexplored area with limited evidence. The aim of the present study was to identify interactional phenomena occurring in interaction involving one person with dementia with and without a tablet with the application Book Creator. A further aim was to examine how the conversation partner experienced the communication of the person with dementia. The study was conducted in a residential care facility for people with dementia where a total of nine conversations were recorded, six conversations without the application and three conversations with the application. The material comprised 2 hours and 25 minutes and was transcribed according to Conversation Analytic principles. Five phenomena were identified: initiative, common ground, coherence, incomplete common ground and non-coherence. The frequency of occurrence of these phenomena was calculated in percentage of their occurrence in relation to total number of turns.The result in the present study indicated that the interactional phenomena involving incomplete common ground and non-coherence occurred in a reduced frequency in conversations with the application Book Creator. The person with dementia took the initiative to the same extent in interactions with and without the application. There appeared to be no differences regarding common ground and coherence between the participants in the conversation with and without the application. The analysis also revealed that the person with dementia could handle the tablet with the application Book Creator on her own with some support. The results are in accordance with research regarding communicative difficulties in people with dementia, strategies to address these difficulties and the need of increased training in communicative treatment in dementia.

  • 17.
    Netin, Rebecka
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pehrson, Fanny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Logopedisk gruppbehandling för barn med språkstörning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study objective was to investigate interaction in speech and language therapy groups for children with language impairment and to investigate whether treatment was implemented in the home environment. The material was collected from a speech and language therapy center in the south of Sweden and from the participants’ home environment. In total, seven video recordings were made of speech and language therapy sessions in two different groups. Five sessions were recorded in one of the groups, and the remaining two were recorded in the second group. Three SLPs, eight children and eleven parents participated in the study. Interviews with two of the participating SLPs and two of the participating parents were conducted. Video recordings from a home setting were collected from two of the participating children. All of the collected video recorded material was transcribed and analyzed according to principles of Conversation Analysis. The results show that the SLPs in therapy use imitation-based and modelling strategies to elicitate language production. Manual signs and recasts were found to be used as treatment strategies. Other phenomena in treatment were repairs, feedback and face-saving strategies. The study highlights the asymmetry in the interaction between children and SLPs, but also shows that the interaction sometimes departs from interaction of an institutional kind. The results indicate that one of the participating parents has implemented manual signs in the interaction during treatment as well as in the home environment. The study shows that two parents use recasts in the interaction with their children.  

  • 18.
    Collin, Angelica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tollander, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Att leva med autismspektrumtillstånd: Innehållsanalys och samtalsanalys av en fokusgruppsdiskussion2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a neuropsychiatric impairment that may affect an individual's everyday life. Life areas that may be problematic include work, family, relationships and areas that require social interaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate communication in everyday life amongst adults with ASD as well as, by listening to the participants' personal narratives, explore how AST can affect an individual's life. The study was based on a video recorded focus group discussion with four participants who in adulthood have been diagnosed with ASD. Conversation Analysis and Content analysis were used for analysis of the material. The results showed that the participants have skills for social interaction and empathy. Some of the participants were perceived as using their gaze in a deviant way, and unexpected changes in topics and attempted interruptions were observed during the discussion. The majority of the participants described periods of psychiatric problems during their lives, and that the diagnosis has been important for their quality of life as it enables them to create relationships with people with similar difficulties. This appears to be important to them since they have difficulties building relationships. The results contribute to a better understanding of how a neuropsychiatric diagnosis can affect an individual's life.

  • 19.
    Karlsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zetterlund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Behandlas barn olika?: Smärtskattning på barn efter skoliosoperation2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite improved guidelines and treatment of children, postoperative pain is still a problem. Painassessment in children and specially children with cognitive disibilities demands knowledge in existing pain measurement tools for nurses. Then all children have the opportunity to express their pain.

    Aim: To find out if there is a difference in the frequency of assessment in postoperative pain in children after surgery for scoliosis.

    Design: A retrospective study.

    Methods: The study was performed in Linköping University hospital. Children admitted 2008-2009 for Idiopatic scoliosis or Neuromuscular scoliosis surgery, in age 0-18 years and available via the data journal were included in the study.

    Results: Children with Idiopatic scoliosis had a higher freqvence of painassessment compared with Neuromuscular scoliosis. Children who didn´t understood verbal information had less frequence of painassesment compered with those who understood verbal information. Girls were assessed for pain significant more often as compared to boys in the group who understood verbal information.

    Conclusion: There was differences between children who were able to express themselves and those who weren´t in painassessment, but also gender matters and to ensure all children’s right to similar care it´s of importance to access different pain measurement tools.

  • 20.
    Odeskog, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenberg, Noomi
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Validering av föräldraskattningsformuläret SCDI-III för svenska barn i tre års ålder2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Communicative Development Inventory (SCDI-III), a parent report instrument, is a modified form of the third version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, and has been developed as a research tool for the investigation of the language ability of children aged 2;6 - 4;0 years.

    It is of great importance that children who are most at risk of developing a language impairment are identified in time in order to increase the possibility to stimulate their language in favourable developmental phases. Clinicians have expressed a need for a material that can provide an overview of a child’s language ability, prior to carrying out further language assessment. The need of such material has contributed to the need for an investigation of the validity of SCDI-III, which has formed the basis for the present study. The purpose was to validate the already standardized parent estimation form SCDI-III with established language assessments to investigate whether it can be used to identify children who are at risk for language impairment.

    Forty-one children (21 girls and 20 boys) aged 3;0 - 3;11 years, with Swedish as their mother tongue, and 41 guardians participated in the study. The grammatical abilities of the children were examined using the validation tools SIT (Språkligt Impressivt Test) and Gramba (Grammatiktest för barn) and the lexical abilities were examined using BNT (Boston Naming Test) and PPVT-III (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test). The testing was performed at their respective daycare center, and the guardians filled in SCDI-III, after which the results were compared.  

    Moderate significant correlations were found between estimations in SCDI’s word production section and the children’s production on the BNT and the result of the PPVT-III, and between parents’ evaluations in the sentence construction section of the questionnaire and the test results on Gramba. No significant or strong correlations in the sentence complexity section of the SCDI-III were found on any of the four SLP assessments. In addition to these results, girls performed significantly better than boys on Gramba and the oldest children had significantly better results than the youngest on the BNT. The results of the present study suggest a need for different methods and perspectives for the assessment of children’s language abilities. SCDI-III could therefore be a complementary tool in providing a basis for discussion between practicing speech-language pathologists and guardians, but cannot be used as an assessment tool by itself. 

  • 21.
    Nilsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sirén, Ellen
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sambandet mellan Theory of Mind, språkliga förmågor och exekutiva funktioner hos barn i treårsåldern2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A childs’ first five years are characterized by an extensive development of language abilities and executive functions. These are skills that have demonstrated large impact on how children develop their understanding of their own and others’ thoughts, that is, their Theory of Mind. Within contemporary research, a central question has been to investigate how these abilities correlate at different stages of age. 

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between Theory of Mind, language and executive functions in typically developed three-year-old children. A central part in this study was also to assess whether differences in performance between boys and girls occurred and also if the number of younger and/or older siblings, socioeconomic status, and adult contact did affect the children’s performance. 

    A total of 30 children with typical development participated, of whom 16 were girls and 14 were boys. Age-appropriate test materials were used to examine, Theory of Mind, grammatical ability, semantic ability, cognitive flexibility, working memory, and phonetic discrimination. The demographic information was based on a questionnaire that parents of the participating children had to answer. 

    The result of this study indicates that the three-year child's ability to manage and understand tasks that assess Theory of mind seems to covariate with both grammatical skills and cognitive flexibility. A Correlation was also found between grammatical skills and cognitive flexibility, which indicate that language ability, executive functions and ToM have a strong dependent relationship. 

    The present study confirms that all abilities are more or less integrated at different ages and the correlations indicate that certain abilities in language, ToM and executive functions are de-veloped in interaction with each other. Specifically, the executive component cognitive flexibility and the grammatical ability are important abilities for three-year children’s ToM.

  • 22.
    Eriksson Leidnert, Michaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cederqvist, Jenni
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Interaktion i vardagslivet hos vuxna med Aspergers syndrom. Implikationer för intervention.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Asperger syndrome (AS) results, among other things, in a deficit in social interaction. This deficit causes difficulties with several communicative abilities. Still, there is a limited range of communicative intervention programs for people with AS. The aims of this study were to analyze the interaction in the daily life of adults with AS, to further be able to construct a foundation for the design of future intervention programs. The study consisted of an interview part and a video part. Seven individuals participated in the interview part and two in the video part. The interview part consisted of semi-structured interviews, where the following aspects were investigated: how the participant experienced her/his own and the surrounding’s communicative abilities, conscious strategies to facilitate the communication, and lastly, experiences of and preferences for intervention. The interview part was analyzed with content analysis. Regarding the video part, two film clips were recorded. The film clips were analyzed with Conversation Analysis (CA), in order to describe the interactional strengths and difficulties of the participants.The content analysis resulted in the identification of ten categories, which highlight different aspects of communication in individuals with AS from their own perspective. The majority of the participants showed an interest in participating in communicative. The analysis of the film clips indicated that repair and organization of topics may be problematic areas in the communication of individuals with AS. Continuers proved to be a communicative strength. Considering all of the results in this study, the authors suggest a varied intervention, where group and individual intervention are combined. Examples of communicative abilities that can be practiced are repair, organization of topics and continuers. People close to the individual with AS should be integrated in the intervention. Video recordings of real life situations should be part of the intervention and may advantageously be analyzed with CA. The practice of specific communicative behaviors can be carried out using role-playing. Since the result of both the interview and the video part suggest great individual differences, it is of great importance that the intervention is based on individual abilities.

  • 23.
    Norkvist Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Samuelsen, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Läsförmåga bland högstadieelever utan och med läs- och skrivsvårigheter2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study’s aim was to examine reading ability in secondary school students. The participants; 30 grade 7 students (13 years old) and 30 grade 8 students (14 years old) without literacy problems, and eleven grade 8 students whom either had documented literacy problems or received special education for it, were selected through convenience sample. Text comprehension was tested by three texts which are called the Skobigotexts. Three reading settings were applied: listening, silent reading and silent reading with textsupport. Following the texts, literal and inference questions were asked. The first text was read out loud to each participant, the next text was read silently and the last text was also read in silence but the participants were allowed to have the text in front of them whilst answering the questions. Further, phonological awareness and decoding ability was examined. Whether the comprehension differed within and between the groups regarding reading setting and type of question was looked upon. The results showed that all groups were benefited by silent reading with textsupport and performed better on literal questions. Furthermore, it was found that participants without and with literacy problems performed equivalent regarding text comprehension. However did grade 7 and 8 perform significantly worse than standard average for grade 6. Although the study generated low scores, a conclusion was drawn that secondary school students without or with literacy problems didn’t have any substantial difficulties to interpret and answer questions regarding these texts. Due to the fact that the participants without and with literacy problems performed equally on the Skobigotexts, does not the authors of this study consider these texts as clinically reliable for investigating literacy problems in secondary school students.

  • 24.
    Henriksson, Erika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Müllerström, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Läsförmåga hos elever i årskurs 3 och 5 samt hos elever i årskurs 5 med autismspektrumtillstånd2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine reading ability in younger students with or without autism spectrum disorder. In total, 72 students participated; 30 in grade 3 (9-10 years old), 31 in grade 5 (11-12 years old) and 11 in grade 5 with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism (11-12 years old). Three texts with related literal and inference questions (Bishop & Adams, 1992) were presented through listening, silent reading or silent reading with text support during questions. The study also examined other variables in relation to the texts; word reading ability, verbal working memory, Theory of Mind and vocabulary. The methodological foundation was a study by Nyström and Söderqvist (2013). When including all participants, analysis showed that the text presentation silent reading with text support and the question type literal questions lead to higher results. Regarding text presentation in relation to question type the results on the literal questions improved with text support whilst text presentation did not affect results on the inference questions. Regarding silent reading and inference questions grade 5 performed better than grade 3. Correlations between text comprehension and other variables, mainly vocabulary, were found for grade 3 and 5. No statistically significant differences were found for students in grade 5 with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism compared to the other groups. This may be due to the group’s wide distribution and small size. Conclusions are that grade 5 has a more developed reading ability than grade 3. The results of the students with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism in grade 5 do not statistically significant differ from students in grade 3 or grade 5.

  • 25.
    Claar, Moa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kognitiva förmågor som förklarar utveckling av läsförståelse från första till andra klass2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Letter knowledge, word decoding and phonological awareness including RAN (rapid automatized naming) are known to predict early reading ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the development of reading comprehension from first to second grade. Phonological awareness holds an important role in this study; different ways to measure this ability will be discussed.  In the study, 36 second graders participated and the following abilities were measured; phonological awareness, word decoding, reading comprehension and letter knowledge. Performances in first and second grade were compared. The results showed that reading comprehension in first grade predicts reading comprehension in second grade. Furthermore, significant correlations between reading comprehension, word decoding and phonological awareness were observed in second grade. Word decoding and phonological awareness together explains 58 % of the variance of reading comprehension in second grade. The test Phonological processing alone explains the biggest part of the variance in reading comprehension. The tests for phonological awareness show that RAN had a significant correlation with the rime test but not with the test Phonological processing. The correlation indicates that the tests measure different aspects of phonological skills. In conclusion reading comprehension in first grade predicts reading comprehension in second grade. Additionally, phonological processing seems to be a strong predictor for reading comprehension in second grade. 

  • 26.
    Johansson, Inga-Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Emotionell prosodi efter högersidig cerebral stroke: Akustisk analys samt skattning av röstens uttrycksfullhet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Important aspects of communication, including emotional prosody, are regulated from the right hemisphere. However, the research in the area of emotional prosody has so far been rather limited. One of the aspects that have not been examined yet is the comparison of the participant’s own rating of voice expression with ratings by listeners. The aim of the study was to assess expressive emotional prosody after right-hemisphere stroke. Participants were three patients with right-hemisphere stroke and three controls without neurological conditions or problems regarding speech or voice. The groups of participants with stroke and the controls were matched regarding sex, age, dialect and level of education. Emotional prosody was examined using multiple methods: acoustic analysis of variation in fundamental frequency and the participants’ own as well as listeners’ rating of voice expression. The results show tendencies that indicate a difference between the participants with right-hemisphere stroke and the controls. The participants with stroke showed smaller variations in fundamental frequency and lower ratings of voice expression. Due to the small sample size in the present study, results should be treated with caution. However, the tendencies shown in the results regarding differences between subjects and controls would justify further studies.

  • 27.
    Ronnberg, A. K.
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ostlund, I.
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Fadl, H.
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Gottvall, Tomas
    Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, K.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Intervention during pregnancy to reduce excessive gestational weight gain-a randomised controlled trial2015In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 122, no 4, 537-544 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveTo evaluate if a feasible, low-cost intervention could decrease the percentage of women gaining weight above the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations on gestational weight gain (GWG) compared with standard maternity care. DesignA randomised controlled interventional design. SettingAntenatal clinics (n=14) in orebro county, Sweden, participated. PopulationHealthy women with a body mass index (BMI) 19kg/m(2), age 18years and adequate knowledge of Swedish language who signed in for maternity care at 16weeks of gestation. MethodsStandard care was compared with a composite intervention consisting of education on recommended GWG according to IOM, application of personalised weight graph, formalised prescription of exercise and regular monitoring of GWG at every antenatal visit. OutcomeThe proportion of women gaining weight above IOM guidelines (1990) and mean GWG (kg) was compared between groups. ResultsIn all, 445 women were randomised and 374 women remained for analysis after delivery. A majority of the women analysed were normal weight (72%). The intervention reduced the proportion of women who exceeded the IOM guidelines (41.1% versus 50.0%). The reduction was, however, not statistically significant (P=0.086). Mean GWG was significantly lower among women receiving the intervention, 14.2kg (SD 4.4) versus 15.3kg (SD 5.4) in the standard care group (P=0.029). ConclusionsThe low-cost intervention programme tested did significantly reduce the mean GWG but the proportion of women who exceeded the IOM recommendations for GWG was not significantly lower. ClinicalTrials.gov Id NCT00451425

  • 28.
    Baranowski, Jacek
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    Catheter based valve interventions2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Eklund Rimsten, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    "Det ger sig självt om man är en bra terapeut". En intervjustudie av hemuppgifter i familjeterapi.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The homework is an important part of both Functional Family Therapy (FFT) and Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). The goal of this essay has been to determine if, and in what way, homework is used in the context of family therapy, that is the frame of FFT. One hypothesis at the beginning of this work was that the interactional home assignments have started to be replaced by the behavior oriented ones that are a part of DBT.

    The individuals participating in the study are all working in a psychiatric outpatient clinic (BUP) in Uppsala. They are all using either Functional Family Therapy (n=3) or Dialectical Behavior Therapy (n=2) as treatment methods.

    The purpose of the study has been to try to understand more of the homework as a therapeutic instrument, especially the relational homework that family therapists are expected to work out on the basis of a manual that is provided within FFT. Two methods have been used to examine this: a survey and focus group interview.

    The results show a relatively large width when it comes to the therapists view on and practice of homework, though the general pattern indicates that they work out both relational as well as behavior oriented assignments in their practical work. However, there is a need and a wish of the family therapists to gain more clarity on how to determine and give a family a relational oriented homework. The conclusion of this essay is that a clarification like that is not possible, unless you go to the bottom with and define what the relational function is and how to use it in what within Functional Family Therapy is called the Relational Assessment Phase.

  • 30.
    Gauthier Westergård, Veronica
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Barnets rätt att komma till tals i familjebehandling. Familjebehandlarnas röster om Barnkonventionens artikel 12 i praktiken.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if the article 12 of the Convention of the Rights of the Child to be heard is applied in family treatment by making a pilot study. Family practitioners within the municipal outpatients care had to answer how they did involve the children, the manner in which children were heard and if there were times when children should not be participate in family treatment. To get answers to these questions a semi-structured survey was made. The selected theory was systems theory.  The study also included the Convention of the Rights of the Child, family treatment and BBIC. The results showed that family practitioners used various methods to get children to be heard. There was a lot of flexibility around these practices making children involved and creating the opportunity to get children to talk. There were times when children should not participate in family therapy for example when parents had their own difficulties and when it was a predominantly adult problem.

  • 31.
    Bransell, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pappors reflektioner om hur, över tid pågående, konflikter med mamman drabbar barnet.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of fathers, who have participated in a combined therapy/self-help group, of young children to appreciate the effects of prolonged conflicts in the family on the children, e.g. their ability as fathers to assume the children's perspective on the matter.

    Ten fathers no longer living with the mothers, with whom they still had unresolved issues, participated in individual interviews concerning different questions that might be of importance to children exposed to family conflict. The interviews were based on two fictitious cases describing the situation of children whose parents are in dispute over custody. All of the participating fathers emphasized how difficult it was to keep the welfare of the child in focus, while having an ongoing conflict with the mother. They also expressed problems in judging what practical daily life measures would be best for the child during the conflict. Moreover, they raised the issue of not being able to focus on parenting, putting all their energy into managing their ex-partner instead. Hence, focusing on managing a conflict occurred at the expense of the relationship to their children. The participants also expressed how the fathers in the fictitious cases, and in their own situation, should be concerned with not intensifying an already difficult situation for the children as long as they don’t understand the children's perspectives.

    It can be concluded that the participants obtained an increased awareness of the importance of being more sensitive to the needs of their own children due to the support from the group treatment. They could see parenting as a lifelong task with responsibilities on them even when the relationship with mother had ended.

  • 32.
    Aspén-Franzén, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Föräldrars upplevelse av insatsen föräldrakoordinator.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Parenting Coordination is a child-focused alternative dispute resolution approach practiced in Sweden since 2009. In this interview study separated parents experience of being supported in their parental cooperation by a parenting coordinator have been examined. Interviews have been conducted with seven parents who have had a Parenting Coordinator for at least six months. All participating parents have had several years of experience in an intractable conflict with the other parent, and has previously tried other forms of dispute solving measures. The results show that most parents have experienced that the method has been helpful when it comes to improving co-parenting skills, reducing conflict and improving the well-being of their children. The interviewed parents state that it has been most helpful to get support in structuring the communication with the other parent. Some say that having access to more information regarding common children improves parenting as well as the parent-child relationship. Not having to sit together in shared dialogue, getting help to make written agreements and the Parenting Coordinator having a clear child-focus in meetings are also addressed as helpful. Parents describe that in order to achieve said results it is important that the parenting-coordinator can remain neutral in the conflict.

  • 33.
    Arbman, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Familjerelationer i förändring? En studie av FFT-behandling avseende Frågor om Familjemedlemmar och Familjeklimat.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is an evaluation of Functional Family Therapy (FFT). The aim was to investigate whether a FFT treatment meant a change for a youth and his parents regarding their description of family climate and dyads within the family. The target group consisted of 29 families that during 2011-2013 completed the FFT treatment at Ungdomscentrum (Youth Centre), in Uppsala community. The families had completed the self-assessment forms Issues of Family members and Family climate before and after the treatment. The results showed several significant differences that were consistent with previous research of the model, both internationally and nationally. Criticism and blame had been reduced between family members and the parents considered themselves less over-involved in their youth after the treatment. Current Family climate, it turned out that the adolescents, mothers and fathers experienced more closeness and less distance within the family in the end of treatment. The evaluation confirmed that the FFT- model provides some effect for families with a teenager with behavior problems. The strong emphasis on changing family patterns of communication to a more supportive one, is crucial for the family to complete their treatment and for the result of the treatment.

  • 34.
    Barsegård Gustavsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Familjeterapi inom primärvården. Intervjuer med nio remittenter.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is natural for families and couples who have problems to apply to instances other than in primary care, hence the interest to conduct a study in primary care where the purpose was to examine the problems, opportunities, and increase understanding of working with family therapy. The actual study is based on an interview study in which nine individuals with different professions were asked semi-structured questions, where their reflections and assessments, when remitted to family therapy were laying foundation for the study content. The results indicate that it is possible to work with the family system in a health center.

    The conclusion: it is possible to broaden the perspective on various therapies, as well as the opportunities to implement family therapy as a method or expand thinking about the family system when patients with mental illness find their way to a medical center.

  • 35.
    Viberg, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danielsson, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Konflikter i arbetslivet utifrån ett pedagogiskt processperspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet har varit att utifrån ett pedagogiskt processperspektiv utveckla förståelsen för fenomenet konflikt och konflikthantering. Detta genom att lägga fokus på vad en arbetsrelaterad konflikt innebär, arbetsrelaterade konflikters uppkomst, konflikthantering och vad arbetsrelaterade konflikter kan leda till i den studerade organisationen. Studien har genomförts utifrån en kvalitativ ansats där inspiration har hämtats från ett fenomenologiskt förhållningssätt. I studien har semi-strukturerade intervjuer använts som datainsamlingsmetod.

    I resultatet framkom det att en arbetsrelaterad konflikt innebär att parterna har svårt att enas om olika åsikter gällande hur arbetsuppgifter ska utföras. Orsaker till att konflikter uppstår delas in i fyra kategorier; formella/strukturella problem, kommunikation, ledarskap och personligheter. Det finns inget generellt konflikthanteringssätt i organisationen och en tredje part används vid långvariga och svårhanterliga konflikter. I organisationen råder det blandade uppfattningar om vad konflikter leder till. I studien presenteras hur organsationen kan förbättra hanteringen av konflikter samt vilka konsekvenser en konstruktiv konflikthantering kan medföra.

  • 36.
    Ringdahl, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Familjen i cancervården - när en förälder är sjuk2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes how the whole family with its various family members are affected in different ways when a parent suffers a cancer disease. Parents ' experience includes both their vision of how parenting and relationship are affected and how they see that the children, teenagers and young adults is affected when one parent is ill, and the significance of any talks had offered.  Even the children, teenagers and young adults as dependents between the ages of 10-25 years, have given their views on how they perceive themselves and parents affected by that one parent has/had a cancerous disease and the significance of any talks had offered. This study shows, among other things, that partner describes a much higher impact for themselves and their children than parents who are patient, and that young adults are more affected by the parent's cancer than what parents think.

  • 37.
    Strojwas, Iwona
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Har behandlarens etnicitet/kultur betydelse? På spaning efter transkulturellt familjearbete2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to contribute to the description and development of cross-cultural family work. Six family therapists in social services outpatient were interviewed with a focus on the importance of their own ethnicity/culture in the meeting with the families and the similarities/differences in working approach with the Swedish and immigrant families. Interviews were analyzed using qualitative method

    The results shows that the therapist’s ethnicity/culture are important but socio-economic classis important too.

    My stud shows that there are both differences and similarities in working approach with immigrant families and Swedish families.

    The clearest differences that emerge in working approach with immigrants are described in the categories: to inform, to meet, different values and not knowing. Similarities are described in the categories: to see the universally human, to create relationships and to ensure resources,

    The result also describes what is important for a new employee to think about in an areawhere many immigrants live and what cross-culture work means to family therapists.

  • 38.
    Nelson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Barn som upplevt familjevåld. Kunskapsläge, bedömning och behandling av legitimerade familjeterapeuter på BUP2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how registered family Therapists in child and youth psychiatry (in Swedish BUP) perceives their own and their workplace knowledge of children who have experienced family violence. The aim was to look at how registered family Therapists conducts assessments and treatments on BUP when they meet a child who may have experienced or who have experienced family violence. Questions have been how registered family Therapists perceive their own respectively their workplace knowledge of children who have experienced family violence? Additional research questions have been how assessments are made and what kind of treatment that are offered by registered family Therapists on BUP? In the study, 38 registered family Therapists, have responded to a questionnaire with fixed answers. The questionnaire study has also been supplemented by 13 telephone interviews with semi-structured questions designed to make respondents share their views more freely. The results show that registered family Therapists experience their own competence to work therapeutically with the children who have experienced family violence as good. Nevertheless, there are obvious flaws in how assessments are conducted to ensure that these children get the correct diagnoses and are offered effective treatments. The result also shows that registered family Therapists, in treatment activities, put most focus on stabilization work with a focus on improving communication and interaction, but fails to assess, discuss and deal with any trauma as a result of family violence.

  • 39.
    Felekidis, Dimitrios
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Advanced Visualization Techniques for Laparoscopic Liver Surgery2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Laparoscopic liver surgery is mainly preferred over the traditional open liver surgery due to its unquestionable benefits. This type of surgery is executed by inserting an endoscope camera and the surgical tools inside the patient’s body through small incisions. The surgeons perform the operation by watching the video transmitted from the endoscope camera to high-resolution monitors. The location of the tumors and cysts is examined before and during the operation by the surgeons from the pre-operative CT scans displayed on a different monitor or on printed copies making the operation more difficult to perform.

    In order to make it easier for the surgeons to locate the tumors and cysts and have an insight for the rest of the inner structures of the liver, the 3D models of the liver’s inner structures are extracted from the preoperative CT scans and are overlaid on to the live video stream transmitted from the endoscope camera during the operation, a technique known as virtual X-ray. In that way the surgeons can virtually look into the liver and locate the tumors and cysts (focus objects) and also have a basic understanding of their spatial relation with other critical structures. The current master thesis focuses on enhancing the depth and spatial perception between the focus objects and their surrounding areas when they are overlaid on to the live endoscope video stream. That is achieved by placing a cone on the position of each focus object facing the camera. The cone creates an intersection surface (cut volume) that cuts the structures that lay in it, visualizing the depth of the cut and the spatial relation between the focus object and the intersected structures. The positioning of the cones is calculated automatically according to the center points of the focus objects but the sizes of the cones are user defined with bigger sizes revealing more of the surrounding area. The rest of the structures that are not part of any cut volume are not discarded but handled in such way that still depict their spatial relation with the rest of the structures. Different rendering results are presented for a laparoscopic liver test surgery in which a plastic liver model was used. The results include different presets of the cut volumes’ characteristics. Additionally, the same technique can be applied on the 3D liver’s surface instead of the live endoscope image and provide depth and spatial information. Results from that case are also presented.

  • 40.
    Petterssen, Max
    et al.
    Linköping University. Linköpings University, Scotland, UK.
    Eljamel, Sarah
    Lothian Radiology Training Programme, Scotland, UK.
    Eljamel, Sam
    University of Dundee, Scotland, UK.
    Protoporphyrin-IX fluorescence guided surgical resection in high-grade gliomas: The potential impact of human colour perception2014In: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, ISSN 1572-1000, Vol. 11, no 3, 351-356 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Protoporphyrin-IX (Pp-IX) fluorescence had been used frequently in recent years to guide microsurgical resection of high-grade gliomas (HGG), particularly following the publication of a randomized controlled trial demonstrating its advantages. However, Pp-IX fluorescence is dependent upon the surgeons eyes perception of red fluorescent colour. This study was designed to evaluate human eye fluorescence perception and establish a fluorescence scale. Materials and methods: 20 of 108 pre-recorded images from intraoperative fluorescence of HGG were used to construct an 8-panel visual analogue fluorescence scale. The scale was validated by testing 56 participants with normal colour vision and three red-green colour-blind participants. For intra-rater agreement ten participants were tested twice and for inter-observer reliability the whole cohort were tested. Results: The intra- and inter-observer reliability of the scale in normal colour vision participants was excellent. The scale was less reliable in the violet-blue panels of the scale. Colour-blind participants were not able to distinguish between red fluorescence and blue-violet colours. Conclusion: The 8-panel fluorescence scale is valid in differentiating red, pink and blue colours in a fluorescence surgical field among participants with normal colour perception and potentially useful to standardize fluorescence-guided surgery. However, colourblind surgeons should not use fluorescence-guided surgery.

  • 41.
    Hedenqvist, Clara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Förekomsten av disfluenser hos svenska 6-åringar med typisk utveckling2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Disfluency is a naturally occurring phenomenon that occurs with some degree of individual variation in all speakers. The presence of disfluencies in children is not well studied, which was the motivation behind this essay.

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of disfluencies in 6-year-old Swedish children with typical speech and language development. A secondary aim was to analyze whether the occurrence of disfluencies differ between genders. Finally the possible correlation between the children’s amount of disfluencies and their lexical abilities including vocabulary and word retrieval was examined.

    The study included 55 children, 25 girls and 30 boys between 6;0–6;12 (M 6;5) years old. All children had Swedish as their mother tongue. To map disfluencies an event image was used to elicitate spontaneous speech. The lexical ability was examined using the tests PPVT and Ordracet.

    The main finding was that 6-year-olds have a mean of 15.6 (SD 5,7) disfluencies per 100 spoken words. Different types of disfluencies were analyzed in the study, the most common was unfilled pauses. It is, however, important to note that there was considerable individual variation regarding the amount disfluencies between the studied children, and that the presence of disfluencies was slightly more common in girls. Significant differences between the genders and disfluencies were found. The girls produced more unfilled pauses, prolongations and sound repetitions in medial position. The boys produced more word repetitions. There seems to be no correlation between the amount of disfluencies and lexical ability, including the vocabulary size and word retrieval.

  • 42.
    Cecilia, Bill
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Improving anti-drug antibody assay performance in Gyrolab for therapeutic recombinant antibody Infliximab2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Monoclonal antibodies can be used as targeting therapies for several diseases. One major concern when using these therapies is anti-drug antibodies which may hamper the drugs efficiency. Gyrolab is an automated platform which can be used to develop bridging immunoassays where the anti-drug antibodies affinity towards the monoclonal antibody is utilized. Anti-drug antibody immunoassay development on Gyrolab is limited mainly by three factors which may inappropriately affect signal intensity levels. In this project different variants of bridging immunoassays based on drug Fab fragments have been developed for monoclonal antibody Infliximab, with the purpose to illustrate the effects of these three factors.

    Findings indicate that an assay based completely on drug Fab fragments is more sensitive compared to an assay based on intact drug since less affected by unspecific interactions between drug reagents and complex formations. Surprisingly findings also indicate that an assay based completely on drug Fab fragments is affected by human anti-hinge antibodies which decrease assay sensitivity. The most optimal assay variant is based on the combination between intact capture drug and Fab fragment as detection. This variant is insensitive to false positive reactions caused by Rheumatoid factor and human anti-hinge antibodies, less prone to form unspecific interactions between drug reagents and complex formations in the presence of anti-drug antibodies. The optimal assay variant also demonstrates best drug tolerance in combination with acid dissociation.

  • 43.
    Ginning, Lise-Lotte
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Familjearbete på institution förändrar relationer och minskar konflikter.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay has been find out if working with a family which has its younger members placed in an institution, SiS Youthhome Folåsa, will affect the adolescents experience of anxiety and problems within their family and their mental health.

    Through an analysis of the interviews given to the adolescents upon arrival and departure to the facility and later on in the follow up interview, I have tried find the answers to the essay`s questions.

    When the adolescents themselves have to assess their experience, they find that life is better or much better in most areas that ADAD intends to explore. It shows that, one year after they have been discharged, the adolescents experience less conflicts in their families and they also worry less about family related problems. However, their apprehension of their mental health has increased somewhat compared to how they felt before the treatment.

    The majority of the adolescents consider that they got the help they needed with the problem they had and only two (2/26) of the participants in this study were placed at another institution after their stay at Folåsa.

  • 44.
    Josefsson, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Är familjeterapi ett alternativ på vårdcentralen?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last 15 years counselors, psychologists and psychotherapists are the professions hired for counseling in the Swedish primary care centers. Evaluations of the treatments show healthier patients and lower health care costs. Biological, psychological and social functions are central in counseling, since these features affect the description of the problem and the effect based on the level of functioning in relation to the partner and relatives. The primary care facilities are the first-line of caregivers, from maternal - to elderly care. When circumstances change for the patient, the whole family-network surrounding him/her is affected. The purpose of this study was to investigate what patients thought of bringing their relatives into counseling, and with which openness and what experience counselors invited the network to take part? The respondents answered questions in a survey, and the data was analyzed mainly in a quantitative fashion. The results showed that approximately half of the respondents wanted someone from their family-network to participate in the counseling. The other patients did not want their families’ participation, and thought of their own connection to the counselor as essential. The majority of the counselors claimed to offer couples and family counseling. The aim of the couple and family counseling differed between the respondents. The study suggests that the family is invited as resource at any time to get extended information and enhanced understanding of the patient's life situation. Some respondents described the counseling as processing of the interaction between the couple or the family members. A few patients said they had had couple or family counseling. They described it as being helpful and that working with the communication had been a contributing factor to the favorable outcome. 

  • 45.
    Ernvik, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Anknytningsbeteenden i familjer tillhörande ett ursprungsfolk.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By observations in seven families belonging to the Karen people, I have been able to study the attachmentpatterns in families of an indigenous group living in villages in the mountains of Northern Thailand. The purpose of the study is to observe and describe how attachment and bonding is built up in families where the children live very close to their parents, and where several generations live together. The question I brought in to the study was: ”How do family members in a Karen family bond with each other?” I studied the interaction in between children and parents, in between the parents, and sometimes in between grandparents and other family members. Interviews were added to the observations.

    In the study it becomes clear that culture, physiological conditions as how the families live, as well as socio-economical factors as how the family gets there income, are all affecting the attachment patterns in the family. All families in the study are self-sufficient farmers, which makes it possible for the children to be together with their parents throughout the day. Different generations live close to each other, and the children often have several attachment figures. The children use their attachment figures as safe bases throughout their childhood, also having a lot of freedom to explore the world in and around the village. The parents are well aware about that children need a lot of time and proximity with their parents. As everyone is doing their work sitting on the floor, the children have easily access to the adults. Conversations, smiles and laughters are important parts of the bonding process in between the family members. The physical closeness in between children and parents is constantly there, while the strongest bonding factor in between the parents is the fact that they need each other.

  • 46.
    Wold, Magdalena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kunskapsbaserad socialtjänst. Att utvärdera behandlingsinsatser för barn, unga, och deras familjer2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Good quality is required in the Social service´s care for children, adolescents and their families. However there are few efficacy studies supporting existing treatment methods. Also there is a lack of knowledge about the method of treatment, its effect, and how to assess results.

    My purpose has been to learn more about how to evaluate treatment methods in the social service´s care for the target group using alternatives to RCT-studies. For that purpose I have used an evaluation model for treatment of parenting support, Parenting Programme evaluation tool (PPET). The treatment of parenting support is studied from three different quality aspects that have been shown in other research studies predicting positive effects for the target group. Evaluation and quality ranking with regard to quality and effectiveness is therefore possible. The three quality aspects are: defined target group, scientifically based theory, well defined education and implementation of the method.

    I have interviewed family therapists in a team for families that work with Social Service´s prevention treatment Parent support which through individual counseling or therapy is to be supportive for children, adolescents and/or their families. Furthermore I have interviewed parents receiving the treatment during year 2014.

    The PPET-model as an alternative to RCT-studies was useful in mapping out the treatment of parenting support. Together with an evaluation of the parent´s experience of the treatment PPET makes it possible to say if treatment can have expected results. The results show that the evaluation method can be used in supporting choosing and implementing methods of treatment for Social services.

     

  • 47.
    Vigren, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Palmertz, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Expressed Emotion hos föräldrar och självskadande beteende hos ungdomar.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide is the second most common cause of death among young people throughout the world, and self-injury has been shown to be a risk factor related to suicide attempts. The human suffering, suicide risk, societal costs, and potentially severe consequences associated with self-injury make it essential to develop effective programs of treatment for it. One such program, intensive contextual treatment (IKB), was developed and implemented in Uppsala in order to provide assistance to adolescents exhibiting self-injuring behavior and to their parents. The aims of the present quantitative study were to investigate 1) the effectiveness of IKB in reducing parental expressed emotion (EE); 2) the effectiveness of IKB in reducing self-injury in adolescents; and 3) the relationship between a high level of parental EE and self-injury. The participants in the study, 30 families in Uppsala who have undergone IKB treatment, were requested to fill in self-response forms and to be interviewed at both the beginning and completion of treatment. The results show that IKB had a positive effect upon reducing both parental EE and self-injury in adolescents.

  • 48.
    Kvarnryd, Erica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Morén, Emilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Matematiska färdigheter hos elever med lässvårigheter i årskurs 42014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reading difficulties is the most common learning difficulty in the western world and it is common that people with reading disabilities also exhibit arithmetic difficulties. Different theories about the cause of the relationship exists, one theory describes the importance of good phonological ability in reading as well as in arithmetic, while another theory describes the importance of a reliable number system and that only a subgroup of students with reading disabilities also have difficulties with arithmetic. The purpose of this study is to investigate how students with reading difficulties (RD), without any known mathematical difficulties, perform on mathematical tasks relative to a control group. The study was theoretically grounded on the Triple code model (Dehaene, 1992), which is a model for numerical information processing that describes how various numerical and arithmetic tasks are processed through three distinct representation systems in the brain, a verbal and a visual representation system and a quantity system. Reading skills, phonological skills, arithmetic skills and number processing skills were examined in 61 students through a variety of tests. After examination of reading ability, the participants were split into two groups, students with RD and a control group. Statistical comparisons were calculated by one-way analysis of variance between the two groups on each task, and for some tasks one-way analysis of covariance were used. The results provided partial support for the present hypotheses. The main findings showed that students with RD have difficulties within the verbal and visual representation system but exhibit an intact quantity system. Within the verbal representation system, students with RD performed significantly worse in retrieval of arithmetic facts (addition, subtraction and multiplication), they retrieved fewer established answers from long-term memory on all of the three arithmetic operations compared to the control group. The students with RD also made more errors regarding subtraction and multiplication and within the visual representation system they had significantly fewer answers that were correct on written arithmetic calculation and was significantly slower in symbolic number comparison, compared with the control group. It is discussed whether a connection difficulty, namely difficulties in linking a particular symbol with a semantic content, is the cause of the exhibited arithmetic difficulties in students with RD.

  • 49.
    Krögerström, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    von Eichwald, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hälsorelaterad livskvalitet hos partner till personer med afasi: En undersökning baserad på hälsoenkäten SF-36 och semistrukturerade intervjuer2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Around 30,000 people in Sweden suffer stroke every year, out of which about 12,000 end up with language difficulties, aphasia. Behind every person with aphasia there are significant others whose lives are also affected. Studies of how aphasia affects the health of these people are few. The overall aim of the present study was to examine how significant others of people with aphasia perceive their life situation, and how their quality of life is affected by the illness of their partner. Spouses of people with aphasia were contacted through aphasia groups and the Swedish Aphasia Association. A total of eleven people participated in the study, which consisted of the health survey SF-36 and semi-structured interviews. The results indicated that men, working people, and people at retirement age are at risk of having a lower health-related quality of life, by living with a person suffering from aphasia. Other factors that seemed to contribute to a lower quality of life were; a more severe aphasia, a big work load at home, less mutual activities as a couple, and a general decrease of communication in everyday life. The conclusion is therefore, that the health-related quality of life is at risk of becoming negatively affected by living with a person who suffers from aphasia.

  • 50.
    Jönsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Social interaktion i afasigrupp: En samtalsanalytisk studie med inriktning mot socialt fasadarbete och gester2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, 12,000 people in Sweden are diagnosed with aphasia. Many people with aphasia supplement their logopedic treatment by participating in an aphasia group. Aphasia groups provide both social and linguistic stimulation. The aim of the present thesis was to study the social interaction between participants, and between participants and leaders in aphasia groups.

    In the present study, eleven persons with aphasia and four leaders participated divided into three aphasia groups. The groups were video recorded during sessions with a total of four sessions. Two hours of social interaction were recorded. The material was transcribed and analyzed according to Conversation Analytical principles. The study focuses specifically on the use of gestures and face-work. Both phenomena could be observed in all groups. The results of the present work showed that different gestures could enhance as well as reduce intelligibility. Individuals’ gesture use was consistent with their ability of expression, i.e. the better the expressive ability, the more acceptable and understandable gestures. Face-work that was analyzed in the present study showed that face-threatening as well as face-saving strategies occur in aphasia groups.

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