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  • 1.
    Larsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Profile and perceptions of biogas as automobile fuel: A study of Svensk Biogas2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From an environmental- and health perspective, biogas and other biomass-based fuels have several advantages; nevertheless the majority of motorists fill their cars with petroleum-based fuels. This thesis is designed to explore the profile of biogas in relation to its perceptions. It is a study concerning the communication between the biogas producing company Svensk Biogas and their biogas users and non biogas users. To obtain a thorough understanding of the profile and perceptions of biogas a qualitative approach was considered appropriate. Biogas users and non-users were interviewed at gasoline stations, while Svensk Biogas was interviewed as a group.

    The three interview segments were analyzed and compared in order to identify patterns, similarities and differences. Based on research data the thesis concludes that the profiling arguments of biogas correlates to that biogas is the most environmentally friendly fuel, the least expensive fuel, and locally produced. Furthermore, the company profile of Svensk Biogas is equal to sustainable alternative, locally produced, trustworthy, environmentally friendly and climate smart [klimatsmart]. Given the arguments of the company profile, environmental values seem to be the core communicating value. Profiling Svensk Biogas happens through events and by using communication material such as company logotype.

    Motorists have an overall positive perception of biogas. Biogas users states environmental benefits as the key argument behind their commitment. Non-users are positive toward biogas although expressing a lack of knowledge confusing biogas with ethanol and bio-fuels in general. According to motorists the negative perceptions, in addition to the prerequisites of biogas, are connected to insufficient infrastructure of biogas filling stations, a short range of the biogas tank, a high investment cost of a biogas car, a biogas price increase, scarcity of cars, and information (lack of information and misleading information).

    The overall perception of Svensk Biogas among biogas users is positive. Biogas users express a negative perception concerning the Svensk Biogas filling stations and also wish for a lower biogas price. Non-users express modest perceptions of the company. This research also concludes that perceptions of the biogas producer are correlated to the perceptions of biogas. Furthermore, biogas producer, users and non-users wish to be directed by political decisions, guiding them toward environmentally friendly fuel alternatives.

  • 2.
    Carlander, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Att bygga bostäder enligt miljöbyggnadskrav: En fallstudie i området Nya Wahlbecks2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and resource efficiency is an important part in moving towards a sustainable society. In the year 2013, the total energy use in Sweden was 563 TWh and approximately 26 % of the energy was used in the residential and service sector. Within the residential and service sector, nearly 60 % of the used energy is for heating (Energimyndigheten, 2015). The construction of energy efficient buildings is a central part in creating a sustainable society and Nya Wahlbecks is supposed to become a city district which will show that it is possible to increase growth, quality of life and well-being and at the same time decrease the use of non recyclable and non reusable resources.The primary purpose of this master thesis has been to generate suggestions on how to design the residential buildings in the new city district Nya Wahlbecks, which will be built in east Valla in Linköping, so they can be certified in accordance to the environmental certification system Miljöbyggnad. Besides the primary purpose an investigation on how much electricity that can be generated with photovoltaic and how much energy that can be saved by the use of solar heating panels, has also been conducted. Finally a comparison in emissions of CO2-eqvivalents between a building that just meets the criteria´s of Boverkets Byggregler (BBR) and the generated building models was done.The results which the case study has generated, clearly shows that it is possible to build the new residential buildings in Nya Wahlbecks so that they will meet the different criteria’s for grade Silver and Guld from Miljöbyggnad. The requirements from Miljöbyggnad aim to have as low energy use as possible at the same time as a good indoor climate is kept. These two factors can be contradictions to one another, as for instance low energy use can be reached by having thicker insulation, but thicker insulation often results in higher indoor temperature which can then lead to deterioration in indoor climate. The investigations of energy use and indoor climate were conducted through simulations in the building-simulation program IDA-ICE, where several optimizations were done for different parameters to finally meet the requirements from Miljöbyggnad. Simulations with solar panels for heating and generation of electricity were also conducted with IDA-ICE. The results of the study shows that nearly 60 % of the used electricity in the project building can be generated from photovoltaic panels placed on the roof of the building. About 9 % of the buildings heating energy can be produced with solar panels placed in the same way as the photovoltaic ones. When it comes to emissions of CO2-eqvivalents there would be a difference in approximately 19 tons, which is equivalent to about 30 %, if the building meets the requirements of Miljöbyggnad Silver instead of just meeting BBR´s requirements.

  • 3.
    Holton-Jørgensen, Helle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology.
    Hont, Petra
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology.
    Separering, integrering, hållbar konflikthantering: En kvalitativ studie av kvinnliga och manliga kommunikativa uttryckssätt i arbetslivet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att studera chefers upplevelser av kommunikation i arbetsrelaterade konflikter och hanteringen av dessa. Vidare var syftet att studera chefers upplevelser av skillnader i kvinnliga respektive manliga kommunikativa uttryckssätt och försöka identifiera vilka av dessa uttryckssätt som upplevs främjande för hållbar konflikthantering. Studien har genomförts med en kvalitativ ansats där semi-strukturerade intervjuer har använts vid insamling av data. Analysen har utgått från hermeneutiken, där inspiration har hämtats från den fenomenologiska kodningsprocessen. Resultatet visar att konflikter är ett positivt inslag i arbetslivet så länge de benämns på ett avdramatiserat sätt. Studien visar att det finns skillnader i sättet att kommunicera baserat på personlighet, men att genus inte kan avfärdas eftersom det framkommit skillnader i kvinnliga och manliga uttryckssätt. Män och kvinnor fokuserar på olika saker och dessa skillnader bör kunna kombineras i konstruktivt syfte, genom att identifiera vilka egenskaper som medför negativt respektive positivt resultat samt lära av varandra för att främja hållbar konflikthantering.

  • 4.
    Hellquist, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies.
    Lindberg, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies.
    Giftfritt och effektivt: Om att göra kloka val i tapetserarverkstaden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Can we as upholsterers work effectively and nontoxic using plates in natural materials as filling in furniture?

    In our work we have investigated renewable natural materials in plates and how they work as furniture filling. We want to find out what products are available and examine what their possibilities and limitations are.

    We have inventoried the supply of Swedish retailers and we have tested products made for furniture but we have also tried isolation plates in flax and hemp from the construction industry. Through practical tests we l earned how well the materials are suitable for various upholstery techniques. Based on the tests we chose some products to use in our work on restoring an armchair and a sofa. After performing the tests and working on the furniture we have summarized the results, including time saving aspects and cost. We have found that hemp insulation is an affordable material that works very well as filling material in furniture. This work can form the basis for the upholsterer who wants to shift to a sustainable way of working. We believe the future lies in finding ways to work more effectively with natural materials. The plates are one way to do it

  • 5.
    Haegeland, Veronica
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Sustainable water management in the textile industry – barriers and opportunities: The case of Swedish retail brand policy on water use in the context of Bangladesh, and the prospects of increased efficiency through dialogue2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although Bangladesh is considered to be a water rich country the groundwater levels are decreasing at a steady rate. The pressure on water resources is to a large extent driven by the wet processing of textiles in the country, and this thesis will therefore focus on the issue of water governance in the textile industry. This thesis will argue that the issue is made complex due to the variety of stakeholders from different cultural backgrounds with vested interests in how the water resources are being managed. Based on interviewees from two Swedish retail brands, the Bangladeshi government, suppliers and organization active in the country, the thesis aims at identifying barriers towards increasing sustainable water management practices in the country. The diversity of cultural background will be analyzed through the lens of institutional theory in order to consider the differences in governance strategies and how they might relate to the barriers. The thesis will also present the prospect of an inclusive stakeholder dialogue platform as a means of overcoming barriers and institutional differences in terms of water governance strategies. Building on the findings the thesis concludes that there are several barriers in terms of agreement, knowledge, and social and political structures. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that the stakeholders approach these barriers differently depending on their cultural background. Lastly, the stakeholder dialogue is considered to have the capacity to create a much needed space for stakeholder collaboration in order to overcome these barriers. 

  • 6.
    Ruales Falconi, Alejandra
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Cultural paradigm shifts in socio-technical transitions towards sustainable cities: A case study of the transportation system of São Paulo2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation is a key component of the urban realm due to its high fossil fuel consumption, GHG emissions and pollution generation (among other negative externalities) that have been aggravated by an individual motor vehicle-driven society. In order to achieve a balanced urban growth for the future, the transportation paradigm requires a complete shift that will depend upon a change on people’s behaviors and perceptions about mobility. Being the biggest, most populous city of Brazil and the western hemisphere, as well as the financial motor behind the country’s economy, São Paulo currently faces a very serious transportation problem: an extremely high car per capita ratio in conjunction with a deficient public transport network. Furthermore, socioeconomic disparities exert an additional pressure to this dilemma, limiting the access to mobility and deeply embedding the car from a cultural standpoint. Given its prominence, São Paulo is the ideal city to evaluate how specific cultural and socio- spatial niches can steer a cultural paradigm shift that could ultimately trigger a socio-technical transition towards sustainability. In this case study, the role of policies, technology, and infrastructure as policymaking instruments are analyzed in the context of urban spaces in emergent nations, where political and economic structures are strong social determinants. Moreover, this study has shown how these instruments could not only produce a new set of mobility practices (or a new transportation culture) but also the creation of an equitable and thriving urban environment. 

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.
    Larsson, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.
    Solvärme i Singapore2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world faces big issues regarding its energy supply and its impact on the environment. Something has to be done in order to stop this. One way to do that is to make energy generation more sustainable by shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. Solar energy is one of them, and this report covers hot water produced from it.

    A country that should have good conditions to harvest solar power is Singapore. The country has a very limited land area and almost no natural resources. Because of this, most of its energy is supplied by imported natural gas. In this report, a case has been created to evaluate the performance and profitability of a hot water solar system in a villa in Singapore. In order to do this, literature about the sun, solar heating systems and Singapore has been looked into. Further, thermodynamical correlations have been studied and used in calculations to draw conclusions.

    The result of this report is that an installation of a solar water heating system in a villa in Singapore is feasible and profitable. Other applications of solar thermal power have been evaluated qualitatively and the conclusion is that these also have big potential in Singapore. Ultimately, this could lead Singapore to be less relying on imported energy and also reduce its impact on the environment.

  • 8.
    Haile, Henok Debessai
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Sustainable Phosphorus Management in Sweden: A study of phosphorus recycling from wastewater sludge in several municipalities of the Östergötland County2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Environmental Agency (SEPA) proposed a national target to increase the rate of phosphorus recycling from wastewater sludge in 2013. Reusing phosphorus from wastewater sludge by spreading it on arable lands raises the risk of contamination and substance deposition in soils. In addition to quantifying the targeted rate of recycling, the proposal has also introduced new thresholds that limit the concentrations of undesired substances in wastewater sludge. This thesis assesses the potential challenges and opportunities in implementing the proposed measure in the Swedish municipality settings. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been gathered from three selected mid-sized Swedish municipalities in the Östergötland County and other data sources. The analytical framework of the thesis is based on the Systems Framework for Phosphorus Recovery and Reuse. Several discrepancies between the national goal to increase phosphorus recycling and local circumstances that affect local decision-making have been identified in this thesis. Reducing the flow of undesired substances into the wastewater stream raises goal conflict and is an enormous challenge which requires regulating the way chemicals are consumed in society. From the policy perspective, the national environmental objectives framework is ambiguous with regards to how local decisions should be directed in line with the national goals. The proposed measure should hierarchically be unequivocal and its implementation needs to be coordinated across all geographical scales. The thesis also highlights that there are significant local opportunities for addressing other sustainability goals through phosphorus recycling measures. Sweden’s commitment to creating a resource-efficient phosphorus cycle affirms that the key for a sustainable phosphorus management is the transformation of path-dependent social and technical systems.

  • 9.
    Holgerson, Line
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Exploring the role of multi-functional solutions when planning for climate change: A case study of stormwater management in a Swedish city2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Managing stormwater sustainably in the face of extreme weather events has increasingly been recognized as a strategy for climate adaptation in the urban planning context. Sustainable stormwater management intends to reduce urban vulnerability while ensuring the overall sustainability and robustness of future cities. To add to the emerging research field of green infrastructure, the objective of the study is to explore the role of multi-functional solutions as a climate change response in urban planning and development. This study has been driven by an inductive research process and draws on empirical data collection through workshops and interviews with City Hall officials in Motala City. The study concludes that despite the lack of preventative planning to anticipate climate change, city renewal and urban development of Motala City presented a window of opportunity to implement potential multi-functional stormwater solutions in the urban environment through urban planning. Further, increased focus on internal and external collaboration through the process of envisioning the future of the city have enabled new forms of governance and facilitated arenas for public acceptance and an integrative planning-approach. Lastly, discourses on attractiveness enabled greenery to be viewed from a social, economic and environmental perspective, supporting multi-functional stormwater solutions as a strategy for climate adaptation and urban sustainability.

  • 10.
    Bouvrain, Stanislas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sarka, Darius
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Compatibility of Corporate Sustainability with a Cost Leadership Strategy2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    BACKGROUND

    Exploring literature about corporate sustainability and cost leadership strategy and to study the collusion of the two concepts through the case of Ikea.

    AIM

    Researching whether firms can align corporate sustainability approach to doing business on the imperatives of a cost leadership strategy. The contribution aims to provide guidance on choosing appropriate sustainability activities within the context of cost leadership strategy. Furthermore, it should be noted that this paper sets out to analyze the compatibility between sustainability and cost leadership remaining/gaining competitiveness.

    METHODOLOGY

    The study regards Ikea’s implementation of sustainable business practices through a mixed method, via informal interview, bottom-employees survey and secondary data.

    FINDINGS

    Companies having a deep understanding of sustainability can achieve to conciliate their efforts toward sustainability with their cost leadership strategy.

    KEYWORDS

    Corporate sustainability, cost leadership strategy, triple bottom line, maturity phase, challenges, competitive advantage

  • 11.
    Hassan, Mao
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pastoralist Way of Life Under Threat:: Assessing the vulnerability risks faced by pastoralist communities as well as their potential to adapt to climate change in the Horn of Africa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis was to examine the main causes of pastoral  vulnerability to climate change as well as assess their adaptive capacity to withstand future climate disturbances in the Horn of Africa. By studying two of the most iconic pastoralists’ communities in Africa – the Somali and the Massai’s in Kenya, the study intended to use the communities as representative to the overall pastoralist’s situation in the Horn of Africa. The study used the 2007 IPCC Vulnerability Assessment framework that entails exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity to climate change as a guiding instrument to comprehend the complexities of the pastoral livelihood. The participants of the study included pastoralists, officials from the government, NGO’s and research Institutions. Major findings of this study were, in addition to climate manifesting in destructive forms, pastoralism faces political marginalization, shrinking pastureland, sprawling urbanization, exponential growth of population and conflicts. Despite the challenges, the study also finds strong adaptive capacity by the pastoralists. Adaptation strategies include traditional methods of rangeland management and migration. The study also shows new modern methods adaptation to climate mainly instigated by the pastoralists with assistance from external actors, these methods include; Ecological Based Adaptation and technology driven approaches as well as a mixture of agriculture and pastoralism – agro-pastoralism. It was also found that the two communities studied face different climate challenges and adaptation approaches.

  • 12.
    Molin, Johan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Present and Future Role of Energy Recovery in Waste Management - A Case Study of Linköping and Norrköping2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Union 500 million tonnes of waste are either incinerated without energy recovery,or deposited in landfills, which could have been recycled instead. The European Union initiated theCircular Economy Package in order to decrease the amount of waste being generated, lost inlandfills, and to increase the recycling and usage of recycled material. However, the CircularEconomy Package did not contain any targets focusing on energy recovery, and only mentionedenergy recovery as having a role in decreasing the amount of waste deposited in landfills. TheCircular Economy Package was in the end of 2014 withdrawn but will come back with moreambitious targets. In Sweden energy recovery is treating more than 50% of the municipal waste andwould then be affected by the targets of the Circular Economy Package when it comes back.This thesis focuses on Linköping and Norrköping to identify the what role energy recovery have inthese municipalities, both present and future, as well as asking the questions of how waste is valuedas a resource.The results were that both municipalities thought that it was important to have separate sorting ofmunicipal waste, to separate organic waste from the rest, in order to use it in material recycling andthe rest in energy recovery. In both municipalities the energy recovery had the role of treating themunicipal waste which was found to be not recyclable, as well as to deliver heat and electricity. Allof the organisations were identified to have a high environmental value on waste, but the economicvalue of waste were low or negative. The municipalities also knew little of the Circular EconomyPackage, but were aware of it, while the energy companies knew a little more of it, but still littlecompared to their national interest organisations Avfall Sverige and Svensk Fjärrvärme. All of theorganisations had identified similar challenges such as increased focus on recycling, minimisationof waste, but also a focus on decreasing amount of hazardous substances in products in order todecrease the amount of waste which needed to be deposited in landfills.

  • 13.
    Zeeshan, Jafer
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    U.S. Governmental incentives and policies for investment in electric vehicles and infrastructure2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of study is to research the development of electric vehicle technology in the United States. This study describes the United States public policies towards electric vehicle technology and system of innovation approaches. The government roles with the help of national system of innovation have been also covered in this study.

    The point of departure was the study of available literature and U.S energy policy acts which illustrates that the break-through in electric vehicles still not only depended on better battery technology and infrastructure for charging stations but also on social, economic and political factors. The important actors involved in the process are both at local and international level are private firms, governmental departments, research and development (R&D) institutes, nongovernment organizations (NGO’s) and environmental organizations etc. The arguments which are put forward in the background of development of such technologies are to reduce dependence on foreign oil and to reduce emissions of harmful gasses.

  • 14.
    Bol, Simona
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ceric, Ajla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bitcoin - ett hållbart betalningsmedel?: En transaktionskostnadsanalys av Bitcoin som betalningsmedel jämfört med traditionella betalningsmedel2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Swedish central bank has had a currency monopoly since 1897, which has meant that they since then have had exclusive right to issue money. Technological advances and the increasing use of the Internet has led to an evolvement of virtual communities and in some cases these communities created their own currency. Bitcoin is the worlds first fully decentralized currency. In the beginning the currency was based on technological curiosity to a handful of hobbyists. In recent years demand for bitcoins has increased, which has led to a dramatic price increase.Aim: The purpose of this thesis is to identify and analyze the transaction costs that may arise when Bitcoin is used as means of payment, and to compare these costs with the transaction costs associated with the use of traditional means of payment.

    Completion: The study was conducted through a mixture of qualitative and quantitative approaches as well as a processing of the transaction cost theory in the context of new institutional theory. The empirical material consists of three parts in which the study begins with a literature review for the reader to get a glimpse of what Bitcoin is and how the currency works. The qualitative approach is in the form of semi-structured interviews and finally the study's quantitative approach is presented in the form of a questionnaire to survey the use of bitcoin.Conclusion: The study shows that Bitcoins transaction costs are higher than conventional means of payments when account is taken to the fact that the currency is dependent on the current financial structure. The user furthermore disclaims the safety net that traditional means of payments offer. For Bitcoin to become an established means of payment it requires that the basic functions of money are fulfilled which the study shows is inadequate.

  • 15.
    Bardh, Julia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlsson, Emma
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ”…economically and socially. And confidence and decision-making. Everything that we could not do before.”: A Minor Field Study on Fair Trade in India and Sri Lanka2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fair Trade is an international movement which aims to strengthen the livelihoods of producers in the South, and to give the opportunity for conscious customers in the North to buy socially and environmentally friendly products. The conventional trade system is criticised, as well as the efficiency of aid to support developing countries. The core idea of Fair Trade is therefore “Trade not Aid”, where marginalised producers are given the chance to improve their living conditions by fair wages, market access and improved working conditions. The aim of the thesis is to investigate the potential of Fair Trade to contribute to sustainable development and empowerment, which therefore also act as the theoretical frameworks for this thesis. Sustainable development is investigated by its division into economic, social and environmental sustainable development. Fair Trade is furthermore investigated through specific key elements connected to these theories, by performing interviews with managers and producers within five separate Fair Trade organisations in India and Sri Lanka.  The main findings within this study reveal how Fair Trade does have the potential to contribute to sustainable development and empowerment to a certain degree. It is specifically prominent regarding social development and empowerment, while economic development occurs mainly on an individual level. The contribution to environmental development is also possible to detect, even though it remains clear how the initiative to do so might not always be fully related to environmental causes.

  • 16.
    Johannesson, Maja
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stejmar, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gröna obligationer - Vägen till en mer hållbar kreditmarknad: En studie om aktörers motiv och ekonomiska drivkrafter på den svenska marknaden för gröna obligationer2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2007 the World Bank issued the first green bond in the world in co-operation with SEB. Vasakronan issued the first green corporate bond in 2013 and since then the market has expanded. Green bonds have the same financial characteristics as traditional bonds, the difference being that the proceeds from green bonds have to finance environmental or climate friendly projects. Green bonds give incentives to investors and issuers to implement sustainable investments and projects.

    Aim: The purpose of the thesis is to examine and analyze motives and economic incentives behind the participation of players in the Swedish green bond market. In addition, the thesis maps out the institutional conditions that enabled the emergence of green bonds and highlight the future challenges and prospects.

    Completion: This thesis is a qualitative study of 13 interviews conducted by the authors. The interviewees represent the following groups: issuers, investors, banks and certifiers. A literature review about green bonds is provided to illustrate the characteristics of green bonds and the market. The empiric material is analyzed using institutional theory, game theory, financial theory and CSR theories, as well as previous research about CSR and SRI.

    Conclusion: A number of institutional conditions and individual actions have contributed to the rise and development of the Swedish green bond market. The motives and economic incentives that apply to all the players in the market are the opportunity to enhance a green and sustainable profile, the fact that green bonds have the same financial characteristics as traditional bonds and that they include a green feature. Future challenges for the growth of the green bond market include the development of standards and to increase the supply of green bonds.

  • 17.
    Wiréhn, Lotten
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate Suitable Energy Crops and Biomass Energy Potentials: Assessment of the Current and Future Prospects in Estonia2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Development of biomass energy plantations is one approach to mitigate and adapt to climate change and the energy challenges related to it; however, climate change will affect the climate conditions and in turn the selection of crops and trees suitable for renewable energy sources. In Estonia, electricity is mainly based on oil shale but since their integration in the European Union they are required to increase the share of energy from renewable sources. In this study, the possible changes of suitable species are assessed by examining the current and the future prospects and potentials with biomass energy derived from energy plantations in Estonia, taking climate change into consideration. The biomass energy potentials for the species that are climate suitable in current and future time are manually estimated, using a case study approach when determining the yields. The study result suggests that biomass energy from crops and trees have great development possibilities and that climate is not a key limitation for the selection of suitable species; in addition, the energy crops and trees appear to suit the future climate conditions better than the current. The results indicate that the established national target of 25% of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy by 2020 could be achieved to a large extent by putting energy plantations into practice.

  • 18.
    Grantz, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, National Centre for Outdoor Education (NCU). Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Handla med handlingskompetens: en kvasiexperimentell studie kring undervisning om hållbar konsumtion2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien har varit att undersöka vilka skillnader som kan identifieras rörande elevers handlingskomptens beroende på var och hur undervisningen har bedrivits. Jag har velat ta reda på på vilka sätt valet av undervisningsmetoder och valet av plats för undervisningen kan påverka elevernas utveckling av handlingskompetens. Studien har genomförts med en kvasiexperimentell design, där två klasser i årskurs 8 har arbetat med ett tema kring hållbar konsumtion av kläder. Den ena klassen har haft all undervisning i klassrummet medan den andra klassen vid två tillfällen fått gå till stadens centrum för att göra butiksundersökningar och intervjua butikspersonal. I övrigt har båda klasserna fått likartad undervisning av samma lärare. I slutet av projektet genomfördes semistrukturerade gruppintervjuer med eleverna som analyserades med hjälp av tematisk analys. Resultaten visar att klassen som gjort butiksundersökningar i betydligt högre utsträckning såg just att ställa frågor i butiken som ett sätt att påverka för en hållbarare klädkonsumtion. Att de nämner frågandet som en lösning på problemen med klädproduktion och konsumtion kan kopplas till att de fått möjlighet att pröva detta tillvägagångssätt. Men det innebär dock inte med nödvändighet att eleverna kommer att använda sig av denna påverkansmetod när de själva handlar kläder. Intervjuerna visade också att butiksundersökningarna lyftes av elva av tjugo elever som viktigast för att skapa engagemang för ämnet. Näst viktigast ansåg de vara att se på film. I klassen som hade all undervisning i klassrummet var film det mest dominerande sättet att skapa engagemang.

  • 19. Ullah, Sami
    Carbon Capture and Storage: Major uncertainties prevailing in theFutureGen project2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an old technology matrix with new concept to mitigate climate change while utilizing fossil fuels by advancing the technology. The various level of advancement in technology has been successfully demonstrated in some part of the world. However the technology has inherent uncertainty of not having commercial CCS plant. Efforts to make CCS commercially viable unfold uncertainties in numerous aspects of CCS technology. Beside the uncertainties in technology many barriers restrain CCS to become a successful climate mitigation technology. However the growing energy demand and urgent need to mitigate climate change through emission reduction favours CSS as transition to clean energy production. FutureGen 2.0 is the only large commercial scale CCS project, initiated in 2003 to test the commercial viability of the technology and to meet the U.S energy demands besides emission reductions target. The project resurrection in 2010 as FutureGen 2.0 after FutureGen termination in 2008 provides an opportunity to understand and analyse numerous uncertainties. However through document analysis only major three uncertainties i.e. policy and regulatory, economic and financial and public acceptance uncertainties are identified and analysed. The interlinkages between these uncertainties are also analysed. The study results show that above uncertainties constrained the project engendering new uncertainties i.e. timeframe uncertainties. This study also provides an insight about the sustainability implication of CCS by evaluating economic, environmental and social impact of CCS technology. It is still early to term the CCS as Sustainable technological innovation however for many years CCS would upset and restrain investment in other clean energy technologies like Renewable technology system. This study gives an input in sustainability of CCS and technological assessment study. This study is helpful in managing uncertainties and planning new CCS projects. 

  • 20.
    Bergqvist, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lärares bedömning av bildämnet vid en lärarutbildning i Sydafrika: En minor Field study2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of the Arts has been challenged regarding its quality, fairness, function and how it affects the subject and the individual .  The study examines assessment of Visual Arts in teaching education in South Africa, presented from a teacher’s view. The research questions have been based on a didactics theory .The Method is a two-month field work with participant observations, collection of documents and interviews at the teaching education where the daily work of three teachers, have been followed.

    The empirical material is analyzed from the three didactic questions what, how and why. The result shows that the teacher’s assessments are based on a normative approach in regards to high and low quality. The teachers performed collegial assessments of student work. A relative rating system were works were compared was used during the assessment. No explicit grading criteria were used. Students were repeatedly summative assessed on attendance, work pace, how they followed instructions and results of the projects. The projects were judged in parts where artistic technical skills dominated the grading process.

    Criteria were communicated to students during the lesson and presentation as brief comments, such as nice, good, bad composition and pieces student work was often used as an example. Feedback was recurrent describing the product but was rarely formative in interaction with the student. During lessons teachers improved some parts of students work by painting /drawing directly on their products, which might make questionable a fair assessment. The teacher regarded assessment as relatively easy task, referring to personal experience rather than to criteria/aims in course syllabus. Students' intentions of their work were not assessed.

    The study provides a basis for discussing how cultural context affects the way to assess and raises issues in relation to sustainable quality education of fair assessment. The ethnographic method increases understanding and helps reflections of higher education from a global perspective.

  • 21.
    Eriksson, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wennerstål, Rebecka
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hållbart varumärke: En fallstudie på Vattenfall om hur kommunikationen av hållbarhetsarbetet påverkar varumärket2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate social responsibility is a highly relevant subject discussed in media and business. Larger companies are expected to deal with sustainability questions and the corporate brand is highly affected by their sustainability work. The development of new communication channels, such as the internet, mobile broadband and social media, has led to increased demands for transparency and companies who do not communicate their responsibility externally are seen with suspiciousness. The difficulty with sustainability communications is to communicate to the public what the company is doing in terms of sustainability. The communication must create an image of the company that is as close to reality as possible and not being perceived as a manipulating PR trick. The purpose of this study is to understand the link between sustainability work, sustainability communication and corporate brand. It also aims to identify success factors for creating a sustainable corporate brand. The study was conducted as a qualitative case study of the project One Tonne Life, conducted by Vattenfall in collaboration with several other partners in 2009-2011. The One Tonne Life project is seen by Vattenfall as a good example of a successful sustainability communication, which makes it an interesting case to study in order to develop theories about how a company should work.

    A corporate brand is not limited to its logo and graphic profile, but consists of identity and personality. The corporate brand can be seen as a combination of several different identities. In this study we have chosen to focus on seven identities: actual-, communicated-, conceived-, covenanted-, cultural-, ideal- and desired identity. An analytical model was developed to describe the relationship between sustainability, sustainability communications and corporate branding. When sustainability is fully integrated into the company’s strategy and when it is communicated by involving stakeholders in the communication, the work and communications are inseparable. It is only with this approach that the corporate brand can be built for sustainability.

    This study shows that the corporate brand is influenced by all the company’s activities, which means that the company’s sustainability efforts and sustainability communications must be indistinguishable in order to be used to build a strong corporate brand. Findings fromthe case study concludes the importance of 1) working with a relevant sustainability issue, 2) making the work visible and put in context, 3) working with others to solve complex issues and improve the credibility, 4) involving the recipient in the communication, 5) communicating the same message through multiple channels, 6) packaging the sustainability efforts into an interesting story, and 7) gaining support for sustainability efforts internally. When following these factors, the sustainability work can be integrated into the corporate brand.

  • 22.
    Olsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Conceptual Female Hygiene Product: Developed from Needs and Prerequisites in an Agricultural East African Context2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Menstruation is a large problem for females in development countries today. Studies have shown that around 40 percent of menstruating girls have been absent from school due to their menstruation. One of the challenges that need to be solved is the absence of female hygiene products amongst women, especially in low income and developing countries due to the cost of commercial products. In countries where the national economy is unstable or poorly comes a problem with importing products, it would be better if they could produce their own products so that the national economy is supported. Small factories and production sites that produce female hygiene products have started to form in some areas. This shows that it is possible to produce in the context where the product is going to be sold. One of the advantages of this system is from the environmental perspective, many of the local production sites use environmentally friendly materials and some products are up to 95 percent bio-degradable. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a concept for a sustainable female hygiene product that women in developing countries can afford to buy, this so that social effects can be enabled due to the security that a functioning protection can bring. To be able to do so a field study in Uganda has been conducted. During the study users and local producers were interviewed to find out what demands and prerequisites there are to create a female hygiene product that can be produced and used locally. The field study gave a deeper understanding and knowledge about both the subject as whole and the technical aspects to take into consideration when developing a female hygiene product. The study confirmed that female hygiene products, or rather the lack of them, are a big problem that needs to be solved quickly. It also revealed that the possibilities for producing in the context existed but was not developed enough. Through an analysis of the empirical findings as well as theories about, for example, material and production, six concepts were developed. The concepts and already existing products were evaluated and correlated to requirements collected in the field study. One concept was chosen for further development from this evaluation. This concept consists of a disposable napkin that is fastened by putting it in holders sewn in the panty. The panty can be bought as a product with existing holders or the holders can be sewn into the users own panties. The final concept has taken both technical aspects and social effects into account. Lists of requirements on material for the concept as well as the production of it are also included in the work. A prototype of the concept has been sewn and tested. The final concept in this work is not a finished product and needs further developing before being released as a product. More work need to be done on specifying the production and specific materials to implement the concept. For further developing, it is also important to have in mind in what context the product would be used due to the different possibilities and demands that the setting gives.

  • 23.
    Nilsson, Celine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visual identity: Communicating sustainable development in the Swedish marketplace using visual features2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I takt med ökande informationsströmmar via internet och sociala medier sprids också budskap om miljön och dess bräckliga hälsotillstånd. Detta kan påverka flertalet branscher och företag genom att deras kunder blir mer miljömedvetna och måna om miljön. Det skapar ett behov av att kommunicera företags miljötänk externt, inte bara via text utan även via den visuella identiteten. Denna studie görs på uppdrag av fjärrvärmeavdelningen på Mjölby-Svartådalen Energi AB. Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur detta företag med hjälp av bildelement kan kommunicera hållbar utveckling på den svenska marknaden. Undersökningens datainsamling har genomförts med en blandad metod i form av granskning av kvalitativa audiovisuella material, samt en kvantitativ enkätundersökning. De audiovisuella material som granskades var tre fotografier från fyra olika företag i olika branscher. Bildelement som identifierades i dessa fotografier testades sedan i olika varianter i studiens enkät. Studien visar på att bildelementen bildutsnitt, lager/bilddjup, perspektiv, symmetri, färg, skärpedjup och riktning är vanligt förekommande i kontexten hållbar utveckling. Det har också visat sig att företag i olika branscher som arbetar med hållbar utveckling ofta använder liknande varianter av studiens preciserade bildelement. Dessa varianter kan således tolkas som allmänt vedertagna bland företag vars avsikt är att kommunicera hållbar utveckling. Resultatet från både undersökning av audiovisuella material samt enkät pekar i de flesta fall på ett samband i användandet av bildelement i kontexten hållbar utveckling. Det pekar på att det bildutsnitt som föredras är etableringsbild. Bilddjupet önskas vara långt och färgen grönt förekommer ofta i sammanhang kring hållbar utveckling och förknippas därför med detsamma. Ytterligare färger som förknippas med detta är kombinationen av de två färgerna limegrönt och rosa, men även blått förekommer. Ett långt skärpedjup föredras liksom en riktning pekandes någonstans mellan vertikalt rakt uppåt och horisontellt åt höger.

  • 24.
    Akhter Feroz, Raisin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Sustainable Urban Development: A Study on Slum Population of Kota, India2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The urban centres are becoming more vulnerable to climate change because of the rapid urbanization and the inequality of urban development. This study assesses the urban vulnerability in an integrated approach focusing the slum people as the targeted group. The slum people are severely exposed to climate risks in terms of city‟s overall development. The negative indications of the indicators of person‟s vulnerability represent their high sensitivity to the adverse impact of climate change. The determinants of adaptive capacity also confirm that the slum people are more vulnerable to climate change with having lower adaptive capacity; though, the city is possessing high development indexes. In this context, an institutional structure is developed to build multi-level urban climate governance with the involvement of all relevant stakeholders based on the case study and literature review to integrate the vulnerable group in development planning for climate change adaptation.

  • 25.
    Jia, Ruoyu
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    CDM Leakage Quantification Methods: A content analysis of CDM methodologies linked to 15 sectoral scope2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper sheds light upon a specific issue: carbon leakage. Leakage can be understood as an unanticipated net carbon loss or gain, attributable to a climate policy, or reduction activities. Benign leakage effects are harmless. Unsettling are the ones that pose a threat to project’s environmental integrity. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is no exception to such risk. In order to investigate leakage and the corresponding leakage calculation methods addressed in the CDM projects, a qualitative content analysis is conducted on 203 methodologies. Methodology documents serve as ideal textual data for examining CDM related leakage because the development of any new project must be based on methodologies.

    In relation to the research question, the content analysis synthesizes 11 types of leakage sources. Excluding the case where no leakage is considered, 10 type of leakage sources are then broadly classified as Activity Shift, Market Effects and Life Cycle Leakage. Their corresponding leakage calculation methods are described and reviewed in terms of their geographic reach, and leakage characteristics. A percentage pattern is presented in relation to each sector. The findings are that the vast majority of the CDM leakage calculation methods address primary leakage specific to each individual project at a localized scale, among which, methods addressing Life Cycle Leakage are in the predominant majority. Market Effects as secondary sources are acknowledged as a potential threat to the overall benefit, but the CDM methodologies offer no quantitative method.

  • 26.
    Bäcklund, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danesten, Mathias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Östersjölaxen, ett förslag och enrad aktörer - vad kan gå fel?: En innehållsanalytis k studie kring olikaaktörers ståndpunkt gällande Europarlamentens och Europarådets förslag till en långsiktig förvaltningsplan förlaxbestånden i Östersjön och dess älvar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the Atlantic salmon in the Baltic Sea is threatened by substantial anthropogenic activities, and in practice, an action plan hasbeen missing for almost a decade. A proposal for a multi annual action for the Baltic salmon stock was presented by the EU-commission 2011,this plan aimed to aid attempts of reaching a sustainable exploitation of the salmon stock, and to sustain the genetic integrity and diversity of thespecies. The main purpose of this thesis is to examine selected statements of opinion in regards of mentioned proposal, these statements areofficial recommendations carried out by concerned authorities and NGO’s, and have been delivered to the Swedish government. Content analysiswill be used on the statements of opinion and the two interviews. The analysis shows that various actors are generally positive towards theproposal of a multiannual action plan, but disagreements and critique of proposed approaches tend to be dominant in several statements. This isvery clear in terms of the phasing out of the salmon releases and the smolt production goals, which the proposal deals with. A large number ofproposed measures and associated processes are very time consuming, and thus, changes in matters like these happen over extended periods oftime. It is therefore of great importance that actions are put in motion long before the risks of reaching irreversible damages becomes evident.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Material Flow and Stakeholder Analysis for a Transfer & Recycling Station in Gaborone, Botswana2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Landfilling waste material is still one of the most common methods to take care of waste in a big part of the world. Gaborone, the capital of Botswana located in the southern part of Africa is no different in this way. The major part of all waste is landfilled in Gaborone and there is only a minor part of all collected material that is recycled. One solution that earlier studies suggest is to build a transfer and recycling station in the city of Gaborone that can contribute to a more sustainable waste management. This study aims to identify the major waste streams of recyclable waste and also the major stakeholders that are active in this area through an exploratory study involving interviews, a workshop and a survey. The result of this thesis can hopefully assist in the preparations for such a transfer station. The conclusions of this study are many and contains of both hard facts and also loose ends that can contribute to pursue further studies. The first important result is that all the waste collection companies transports everything they collects to a landfill and it is only recycling organizations that are working with collection and recycling in Gaborone. These recycling organizations are a few but smaller compared to the waste collection companies in collected amounts of material. Besides these collection organizations, Gaborone City Council, the local municipality works with collection of household waste and the collaboration between these three groups that operates in the same environment is very poor. All the interviewed stakeholders showed a positive interest in the transfer and recycling station but there is only a small part of the commercial business in Gaborone that believes in a more serious waste management than landfilling. Despite that one major shopping mall actually sort out recyclables and saves 30% in waste management costs thanks to that. Another issue is the prevailing cultural contradictions that is obvious among the organizations in Gaborone. The last two bigger issues is the tremendously dull political bureaucracy that is appearing in Botswana and also that voices are raised that corruption is great beneath the surface.

  • 28.
    Ahlsén, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Felczak, Michael
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hinder & möjligheter med dagvattenhantering: Fallstudier över Linköping och Norrköping kommuns arbete med alternativ dagvattenhantering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More frequent and intensified rainfalls are expected to occur due to climate change in the nearfuture. This together with a higher proportion of paved areas increases the pressure on today’sstorm water systems (Risinger, 2014; Boverket, 2013; Stahre, 2006). Traditional storm watersystems (i.e. underground pipe systems) have during last decades started to be questioned(Olshammar & Baresel, 2012). The precipitation over Sweden is expected to increase 10-20% over the next century (SMHI, 2009). Increased precipitation may cause temporary capacityloss in pipe-based storm water system with flooding in sensitive areas as a result (Östlund &Lagerblad, 2011). To decrease the potential stress on traditional storm water systems,sustainable urban drainage systems have started to be developed (Viklander & Bäckström,2008). The era of traditional storm water systems has reached a breaking point and moresustainable storm water systems has become more desired as a complement to today’ssystems (Cettner et al, 2014; Semadeni-Davies et al., 2007). In order to build an increaseunderstanding sustainable storm water management it is decisive to investigate what obstaclesthat municipalities has to tackle, regarding storm water management. This study aims toanalyze problems that may occur concerning storm water management including whatchallenges and possibilities that municipalities have to face. The study is based on qualitativeinterviews with informants in the municipalities of Linköping and Norrköping to see how theyare working with storm water and sustainable storm water management. The conclusions ofthe study is mainly, the need for a more pronounced governance, a more explicit demandconcerning laws and regulations, in particular the Swedish planning and building act, acommon vision about how storm water management practices should be handled and finallyquestions concerning how storm water should be handled in an early stage in the planningprocess. This is the main factors to facilitate the work with sustainable urban drainage system.

  • 29.
    Lagergren, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ett hållbart skogsbruk på lika villkor: En granskning av skogscertifieringen FSC som ideologi och dess kompromisser2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många intressen har länge fått trängas innanför miljöpolitikens väggar och det är än idag svårt att avgöra vilka värden som ska få mest plats.Skogspolitiken i Sverige har sedan 1800-talets början förändrats kraftigt från hårt statligt styrd till frivilligt ansvarstagande. I samband med dessaförändringar kom det på 70-talet en kraftfull våg av intressen från naturvårdens sida som ställde allt högre krav på produktionens hänsyn tillnaturen och dess betydelse för den biologiska mångfalden samt den lokala befolkningen. Trots en förbättrad hänsyn i skogsvårdslagen krävdes merav flertalet intressenter, något som tillslut mynnat ut i ett samarbete mellan ekonomiska, miljömässiga och sociala intressen. CertifieringsorganetForest Stewardship Council skapades och år 1998 godkändes den första FSC-standarden. Idag är mer än 11 miljoner hektar skogsmark certifierad.FSC var en idé att gemensamt komma fram till en kompromiss mellan särintressen och på så sätt uppnå ett hållbart skogsbruk nationellt såväl sominternationellt. Detta var på så vis menat som ett komplement till skogsvårdslagen. Trots den goda idé som FSC vilar mot, har standardiseringenlett till en rad konflikter. Denna studie har som syfte att lyfta problematiken och ge en förståelse över vad de olika intressena säger om standardenidag. Granskningen har genomförts utifrån ett antal dokument som på olika sätt tar sig an problematiken kring standarden samt genom kontakt medpersoner som har en tydlig anknytning till FSC. Tidigare forskning har pekat både mot förhoppningar om FSC som positiv utveckling förskogsbruket men menar att det finns flera utmaningar i processen framåt och som riskerar att ligga till grund för konflikter. Det finns även en tillittill att certifieringen möjliggör en starkare gemensamhet mellan olika värderingar än tidigare. I denna granskning kan ett antal bristmoment i FSC:sprocess identifieras, där vikten av att tydliggöra kriterier och ansvarsroller ska betonas. Ursprungsidén tycks idag, utifrån de granskade texterna,inte hålla måttet, och har enligt flera av de berörda i texterna tappat en betydelsefull del av sin trovärdighet. Det innebär en risk att FSC:sorganisation förlorar den gemenskap som gör den trovärdig och på så sätt legitim. FSC är i grunden en god plattform för dialog kring viktigapolitiska frågor angående både miljö och socialt ansvar.

  • 30.
    Kairento, Kajsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Nygårds, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Export of municipal environmental technology knowledge: An analysis of previous activities and incentives 2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerating urbanisation and greenhouse gas emissions cause some of the world’s important environmental problems, which leads to an increasing awareness of the importance of sustainable environmental technology systems. Sweden has had a very strict environmental legislation since the 1970’s, with Swedish municipalities responsible for local environmental technology service systems. This has led municipal companies to be very experienced of some of the functions related to waste management, waste-to-energy and district heating.

    Municipal companies often receive international visits where the foreign delegates sometimes request Swedish municipal knowledge regarding how to design and manage sustainable systems in their home regions. Therefore, the idea of municipal knowledge export has been up for discussion. This study aims to analyse the municipal companies’ previous experiences of knowledge export, which includes looking at what incentives and barriers they perceive therein. The work also investigates what knowledge municipal companies export and what approaches they choose, as well as what role they and other actors think municipal companies should have in order to best benefit Swedish environmental technology export.

    The project was designed as a qualitative interview study, where the main data collection was carried out in semi-structured interviews with decision-makers in municipal energy and waste companies. Interesting companies were found using desktop research. Data collection was complemented by a survey where municipal companies were asked about their involvement in knowledge export.

    The results show that municipal companies export knowledge such as consulting and advisory services, education and project management. They offer knowledge for example within managing waste systems, operating district heating plants, as well as public awareness and citizen participation. Some companies have started subsidiaries dedicated specifically to export ventures, while others offer personnel as sub-consultants to private companies. Most export took place as projects run by the municipal companies themselves, often financed by development aid funds.

    The most important incentives motivating municipal companies to start or continue their export endeavours include motivating employees, becoming an attractive employer, contributing to reducing environmental impact where it is most needed, and external initiatives or requests. The most prominent barriers were related to lack of resources, cultural and political differences, and challenges related to marketing.

    The municipal companies and other actors in governmental and private organisations appear to have different perceptions of the significance of municipal knowledge and the role municipal companies should play, in order to best contribute to Sweden’s environmental technology export. In general, the interviewed municipal companies tend to seek a more active role in the export, whereas the other actors would prefer municipal companies to be more focused on promoting the export from their home region.

  • 31.
    Karunanithi, Ambarish
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    System analysis of de-watering process for treating biogas digestate2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increasing production of biogas for transportation and other purposes, generation of biogas digestate is also increased. Biogas digestate is considered as an organic fertilizer which can potentially replace mineral fertilizer used for agricultural purpose as they contain rich soil and plant nutrient. Processing and logistics of the biogas digestate became a challenging opportunity due to presence of higher water content in the raw biogas digestate that is obtained from wet anaerobic digestion process. Many research groups and organizations are involved in designing a sustainable processing mechanism for biogas digestate so that they can be marketable and commercially available as bio-fertilizers. Among various identified processing options, de-watering is an important and mandatory process (solid-liquid separation) involved in full scale biogas digestate processing. This work is focused in systemic assessment of the environmental impacts associated with biogas digestate de-watering process using Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology. Various operational options are considered for the de-watering process and analyzed accordingly. A comparison from environmental and economical perspective is made within the operational options to find out which one can be efficiently used.

  • 32.
    Fälton, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Department of History, Tourism and Media. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Food and Sustainable Tourism: A study of authenticity and organic food in a customer supply perspective2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tourism industry has a large impact on the environment’s health and tourists’ behaviours as well as consumption attitudes have an important role. Tourists’ food decisions and engagements in sustainable food could encourage the tourism operators to improve their environmental burdens. This essay investigates the experience of organic food as a part of the sustainable development within the tourism industry. A dualistic authenticity framework has been applied and a method to measure and analyse perceived authenticity has been drawn from the literature. Questionnaires were handed out to the guests and the staff at two Swedish hotels. The results revealed that there are several dimensions in the meeting between the customers and the operators that arrange food experiences in touristic contexts. There is an interest for the question of organic food as a part of the environmental sustainable development, both relative to the contemporary tourism industry and for the future convention to a more sustainable development in the tourism industry. The results presented that organic food is experienced as a central concept that could be a part of and have an important role for the future sustainable development within the tourism industry. An important part of this is the importance to be aware of the meeting between the customers and the operators. Sweden has a potential to accomplish a more sustainable tourism industry in the future, but more research and educations with focus on the subject needs to be made.

  • 33.
    Almgren, Richard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swanström, Lennart
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, SE-72178 Västerås, Sweden.
    Pagounis, Michail
    ABB Asea Brown Boveri Ltd.
    LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT THROUGH BUSINESS DRIVEN SUSTAINABILITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: OPPORTUNITIES AND LIMITATIONS2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a study of the current sustainability management system landscape within the ABB Group and discusses the limitations and opportunities related to these systems and belonging tools. It also suggests a sustainability management model which covers both the “vertical” and “horizontal” directions along the value chain. The model describes how current management systems and tools can be better linked to the business strategy and decision situations to enable sustainable growth and profit while contributing to a “better world”. The main conclusions are that LCM needs to be explored further through the lenses of each company’s specific organization. Finally the role of a continual improvement procedure is considered the cornerstone for “true” life cycle implementation.

  • 34.
    Zhong, Ling
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Decentralized Urban Wastewater Reuse in China: - with Focus on Grey Water2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Grey water reuse has attracted more and more attention among researchers and professionals in recent years. As most of the Chinese cities are undergoing the process of fast urbanization and economic development, many water-related problems have occurred and urban water resources management has become a strategic issue. The urge to reconsider the conventional ways of utilizing water and discharging the wastewater in cities is calling. As a relatively simple and flexible way, decentralized grey water reuse system can help to make the first step in achieving a sustainable urban water management. However, whether it is feasible in China is still a question. This paper aims at looking for the answer based on a survey and interviews with professionals in the fields from different Chinese cities. The result shows “reuse” as one of the solutions of solving water shortage and achieving sustainable water management is not as simple as one may think. In general, decentralized urban grey water / wastewater reuse is not easy to flourish in China in the near future though most of the respondents hold a positive attitude about reuse itself. To explain this difference between attitude and actual planning we need more historical, political and social-economic understanding with a touch of “Chinese characteristics”.

  • 35.
    Radpour, Houtan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Diel and monthly observations of plant mediated fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide from lake Följesjön in Sweden using static chamber method2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic plants or macrophytes are known as conduits of Methane (CH4), Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Nitrous oxide (N2O) which contribute to the total fluxes of the Greenhouse gases emissions from lakes. Recent studies emphasized that the knowledge on plant mediated emissions calls for more systematic and comparative data especially in the areas of spatial and temporal variability. In this study I measured diel (24 hour) and diurnal(  daily hours only) plant mediated fluxes during four sampling sessions using chamber method from a  Swedish lake in summer 2012. The measurements were conducted on two macrophyte population patterns of mixed plant communities and Equisetum fluviatile (specie-specific) community. CH4 emissions were higher in darker hours and there were no diel correlation between CH4 fluxes and average diel temperature. CH4 fluxes varied between 0.42 mmol m-2d-1 and 2.3 mmol m-2d-1. The CO2 fluxes had negative fluxes in day and positive during the day which was logical due to macrophyte respiration and photosynthesis mechanisms. Occasional daily positive fluxes were seen (only) during the rainy hours and there were no correlation between temperature and diel CO2 fluxes. The total net CO2 exchange was 2.8mmol m-2d-1 indicating that there was more CO2 release in the littoral zone of that lake. N2O fluxes did not show any clear diel or monthly pattern and the fluxes ranged between positive and negative numbers. The N2O fluxes did not exceed 2µmol m-2 d-1 with the total average flux of 0.8µmol m-2 d-1.

  • 36.
    Sultan, Zahid
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Agenda 21 As A Tool For Implementing An Improved Traffic Environment And Safety For Developing Countries, A Case Study of Faisalabad, Pakistan2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agenda 21 deals with the sustainability and sustainable transportation strategies are those that can meet the basic mobility needs of all and be sustained into the foreseeable future without destruction of our resource base. In the developing countries transportation is one of the main growing crisis. This crisis is the product of multiple forces, including the rapid pace of urbanisation and a mismatch between the supply of transportation infrastructure, services, and technologies and the mobility needs of the majority of the people, whose incomes are very low. Transportation development policies and investments in most developing countries are focused on encouraging motorization and are indifferent or hostile to low-cost, informal, nonmotorised transportation modes, despite the vital role they play in mobility for lower-income groups.

    My main focus in this study is Asian developing countries, one country – Pakistan – is selected as an example and 3rd largest city in Pakistan named Faisalabad is selected for detailed study. Transportation scenario and problems in this city are closely observed and studied which lead to interesting findings and facts. These include congestion index, loss in working hours, average speed, expenses and commuter satisfaction. Sustainable transportation and environmental problems are also studied for the City of Faisalabad, and recommendations made to improve them. It is finally inferred that there is an urgent need for comprehensive transportation planning, managing Kachi Abadies population, curbing private vehicle use and effectively facilitating the public transportation in the City of Faisalabad.

    Keywords: Sustainable Transportation; Agenda 21; Traffic Safety; Environmental Problem; Developing Countries; Transportation Problems in Faisalabad, Pakistan; Indicators of sustainability;

  • 37.
    Love-Raoul, Nteziryayo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Food web structure of a Pantanal shallow lake revealed by stable isotopes2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Food webs are good ecological macro-descriptors and their study is important in ecology in understanding nutrient cycles, tracing and quantifying energy and in describing trophic interactions within an ecosystem. The knowledge of food web finds applications in various natural sciences disciplines but also in many productive sectors. This study investigated the structure of the food web of a shallow lake in the Pantanal flood plain. The food web included two macrophytes, six aquatic insects, four crustaceans and 24 fish species. Sources of carbon for the various organisms living in the lake were identified through the values of δ13C exhibited by the organisms. The δ15N signature was used to estimate the trophic position of each organism. A cluster analysis based on the two isotopic signatures revealed six different feeding guilds and emphasized on the broad occurrence of omnivory among animals living in the lake. This study revealed that the use of food carbon was the most important factor that structured the lake community. Very low values of δ13C in zooplankton, benthic dwellers and bottom-feeder organisms as well as similarities between the gradient of δ13C and that of use of methane oxidizing bacteria informed on the possible use of biogenic methane as a source carbon and energy for the lake biota.

  • 38.
    van der Blom, Daan Wilhelmus
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aquaculture in Sweden: Sustainability of land-based recirculation aquaculture as a future alternative for Swedish fish farmers2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the world’s population expanding rapidly and estimated to reach nine billion in 2050, the demand for food will increase. Therefore the need for more sustainable ways of food production, in particular meat, poultry and fish are needed. Aquaculture can significantly contribute to this. This thesis focuses on Swedish aquaculture and in particular the increasingly used method of food fish farming in Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS).

    The aim of the thesis is to analyze and discern the possibilities and challenges of RAS in Sweden, with particular focus on Östergötland. Furthermore it examines if and how aquaculture can contribute to an economical, social and ecological more sustainable Swedish aquaculture sector. The methods used are semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and actors at different governmental levels and fish farmers, participation in stakeholder meetings and literature research. The results show that Swedish aquaculture has overtime developed a negative image among consumers, politicians, government officials and investors. Today Swedish aquaculture faces threats that need to be addressed and opportunities that should be taken. In order to succeed with RAS in Sweden solid business plans, conservative production/ profit estimates and marketing are essential. Feed sources remain a concern from an environmental and economical point of view. Lack of financing from banks, investors and insurance companies, threatens Swedish aquaculture sector at the moment. Furthermore a lack of knowledge and capacity among lower government levels negatively influences aquaculture developments and this needs attention. The Östergötland region should concentrate on RAS and mussel farming and has the potential to become an example for the rest of Sweden. Aquaculture positively contributes to regional and rural development of the Swedish-country side by job creation and stimulation of local economies which is important for Östergötland and applicable to other regions of Sweden.  

  • 39.
    Rentsch, Isabell
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Education for Sustainable Development and Development of Berlin's Schoolyards - A Study of Possibilities and Limits2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The term ‘education for sustainable development’ is recently used and discussed in Germany, even though, to many people it is an abstract idea. The development of schoolyards can be seen as a practical project in order to teach and experience education for sustainable development in everyday school life. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine how the development of a schoolyard offers possibilities for education for sustainable development. Additionally, some challenges that have to be taken into consideration are pointed out.

    An extended literature review of education for sustainable development and schoolyard development serves as the basis for the thematic analysis. In order to approach the research question, the five themes that emerged through the thematic analysis, are discussed. 

    The present research shows that schoolyard development has the potential to support a holistic approach to learning, to offer possibilities for ‘progressive’ teaching strategies, to enhance ecological literacy, to foster the participation of students and to provide equal opportunities. Although there are basic framework conditions that need to be considered, the research indicates that schoolyard development can make an important contribution to education for sustainable development.

  • 40.
    Leong, Elaine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Water Situation In China - Crisis Or Business As Usual?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies indicates China is experiencing a water crisis, were several regions are suffering of severe water scarcity and rivers are heavily polluted. On the other hand, water is used inefficiently and wastefully: water use efficiency in the agriculture sector is only 40% and within industry, only 40% of the industrial wastewater is recycled. However, based on statistical data, China’s total water resources is ranked sixth in the world, based on its water resources and yet, Yellow River and Hai River dries up in its estuary every year. In some regions, the water situation is exacerbated by the fact that rivers’ water is heavily polluted with a large amount of untreated wastewater, discharged into the rivers and deteriorating the water quality. Several regions’ groundwater is overexploited due to human activities demand, which is not met by local. Some provinces have over withdrawn groundwater, which has caused ground subsidence and increased soil salinity. So what is the situation in China? Is there a water crisis, and if so, what are the causes?This report is a review of several global water scarcity assessment methods and summarizes the findings of the results of China’s water resources to get a better understanding about the water situation. All of the methods indicated that water scarcity is mainly concentrated to north China due to rapid growth, overexploitation from rivers and reduced precipitation. Whereas, South China is indicated as abundant in water resources, however, parts of the region are experiencing water scarcity due to massive dam constructions for water storage and power production. Too many dam constructions in a river disrupts flow of the river water and pollutants are then accumulated within floodgates.Many Chinese officials and scholars believe that with economic growth comes improved environmental quality when the economy has reached to a certain of per-capita level. However, with the present water situation it is not sustainable or possible for China to keep consuming and polluting its water resources. Improvement of environmental quality does not come automatically with increased income, and policies, laws and regulations are needed in order to stop further deterioration of the environment.China’s water situation is not any news and the key factor is human activities, but the question is how to solve it. China’s water crisis is much more complex than over exploitation of groundwater and surface water. There are three water issues in China: “too much water – floods, too little water – droughts, and too dirty water – water pollution” (Jun & Chen, 2001). Thus, solving China’s water crisis is a huge challenge to solve without negatively affecting the economic growth.

  • 41.
    Elmqvist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hållbart samhälle, hållbart liv: Om konstruktioner av ideal och problem kring social hållbarhet ur ett landsbygds- och äldreperspektiv2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social sustainability is often regarded as a solution to social problems in general. In this study, on the contrary, social sustainability is conceived as a socially constructed concept and the result of a certain way of looking at the world, the human being and the ideal society. The study centers around Kinda municipality in the southern region of Östergötland and a few of its elder inhabitants. What meaning and substance social sustainability is contained with as well as the effects that are produced by these conceptualizations is explored and analyzed. Also, the study examines the encounter between political policy’s and judgments on the one hand and the experiences and preferences held by the municipality’s elder inhabitants on the other.

  • 42.
    Leong, Elaine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Water Situation In China - Crisis Or Business As Usual?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies indicates China is experiencing a water crisis, were several regions are suffering of severe water scarcity and rivers are heavily polluted. On the other hand, water is used inefficiently and wastefully: water use efficiency in the agriculture sector is only 40% and within industry, only 40% of the industrial wastewater is recycled. However, based on statistical data, China’s total water resources is ranked sixth in the world, based on its water resources and yet, Yellow River and Hai River dries up in its estuary every year. In some regions, the water situation is exacerbated by the fact that rivers’ water is heavily polluted with a large amount of untreated wastewater, discharged into the rivers and deteriorating the water quality. Several regions’ groundwater is overexploited due to human activities demand, which is not met by local. Some provinces have over withdrawn groundwater, which has caused ground subsidence and increased soil salinity. So what is the situation in China? Is there a water crisis, and if so, what are the causes?

    This report is a review of several global water scarcity assessment methods and summarizes the findings of the results of China’s water resources to get a better understanding about the water situation. All of the methods indicated that water scarcity is mainly concentrated to north China due to rapid growth, overexploitation from rivers and reduced precipitation. Whereas, South China is indicated as abundant in water resources, however, parts of the region are experiencing water scarcity due to massive dam constructions for water storage and power production. Too many dam constructions in a river disrupts flow of the river water and pollutants are then accumulated within floodgates.

    Many Chinese officials and scholars believe that with economic growth comes improved environmental quality when the economy has reached to a certain of per-capita level. However, with the present water situation it is not sustainable or possible for China to keep consuming and polluting its water resources. Improvement of environmental quality does not come automatically with increased income, and policies, laws and regulations are needed in order to stop further deterioration of the environment.

    China’s water situation is not any news and the key factor is human activities, but the question is how to solve it. China’s water crisis is much more complex than over exploitation of groundwater and surface water. There are three water issues in China:  “too much water – floods, too little water – droughts, and too dirty water – water pollution” (Jun & Chen, 2001). Thus, solving China’s water crisis is a huge challenge to solve without negatively affecting the economic growth.

     

  • 43.
    Maharjan, Ramesh
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate change and the importance of empowering citizens: Science teachers' beliefs about educational response in Nepal2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Educational response to climate change is one of the measures to prepare people to combat climate change. This thesis explores the lived experiences of secondary Science teachers from Kathmandu Valley on the perception of climate change, the way they handled climate change issues in the classroom setting, the problems and challenges they came across in climate change communication in the classrooms and the relevance of existing secondary Science curriculum in relation to climate change. The thesis is built upon the study of secondary Science curriculum, relevant literature on climate change education and the interviews with secondary Science teachers, teaching Science at secondary level in different schools of Kathmandu Valley.  The results showed that the teachers were convinced and concerned on the ongoing climate change and stressed on knowledge for climate change actions; they were found to introduce climate change issues contextually and relating to the topics like greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion they teach; lack of resources, exclusion of climate change in the secondary Science curriculum, their own limited knowledge on climate change, the unpractical theory and marks oriented educational system, and shifting of the responsibilities by the students hindered effective climate change communication in the classroom settings. The findings have been discussed in relation to social learning theory and relevant literature.

  • 44.
    Hu, Jing
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Overseas Chinese students’ attitudes toward the role of China in the circumstance of global climate change2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global climate change is becoming increasingly evident. There has been increased attention paid to the impact of human activity on climate. As a rising power, China’s energy needs to fuel its rapid economic growth with the resulting potential impacts of climate change presents an enormous climate policy dilemma not only for China but also for the entire world. The role of China is an issue of perennial concerns at the international climate change negotiation: its energy saving, emission reduction and clean production reflect China’s dual objectives about sustainable development and efforts on international legal obligations.Education abroad is an integral part of China’s development strategy. The abroad Chinese students who possess the knowledge, technologies skills and ideas, as well as information are playing an important role to assist China retain or increase its competitive advantage. The aim of this paper is to analyze the abroad Chinese students’ opinion on China’s role under the circumstance of global climate change, with main focus on three aspects: Energy consumption and environment situation in China; Several current domestic policies regarding problems of climate change and energy consumption in China; Issues facing the country on its road map to future mitigation action regarding climate change.Alongside the interviews carried out within ten overseas Chinese students, using the social science of Science, Technology and Society (STS) especially its public understanding of Science and Technology as the theoretical perspective, this thesis is exploring the interviewees’ attitudes toward current China’s climate change related issues from a deeper sense of human, culture and public perspective.

  • 45.
    Razin, Shair
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Future Oppourtunities and Challenges of the Sustainability of Biofuels in Sweden and in the Netherlands2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Liquid Biofuels mainly Bioethanol and biodiesel are the main replacement for fossil fuels in the current world. But there are questions and concerns about the present biofuels production, mainly when it comes to matter of sustainability. In this thesis paper,Strategic Life Cycle Management data along with Life Cycle Analysis data has been used to analyze the sustainable biofuels condition in Sweden and the Netherlands. Data also has been collected through the interview from different stakeholders in Sweden and the Netherlands.

  • 46.
    Moden Treichl, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    E-KOLL - Methods and tools to engage residents in energy saving2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth’s population is increasing at the same time as our resources are decreasing. More and more people are therefore realising the importance of a sustainable society. There are two main reasons. Firstly, energy as a scarce commodity is becoming more expensive every day. Secondly, we need to think long-term in order not to endanger life for future generations.

    The public landlord Hyresbostäder in Norrköping has set a target to decrease their energy consumption with 30 percent by 2030. This investment, in collaboration with Hyresgästföreningen, is called E-KOLL (E stands for energy and KOLL for awareness) and includes both internal and external work within the areas of Organisation, Economy and Behaviour. The last mentioned category deals with the importance of including and engaging the tenants to reach the energy goals of E-KOLL. To make this happen, Hyresbostäder has chosen to engage volunteer tenants, so called energyambassadors. Together with the district supervisor and representatives of Hyresgästföreningen they are going to work on a local level to include and engage the tenants.

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how this collaboration could function as well as the needs for creating a concept to inspire tenants to save energy. This was done with the help of field studies such as observations and focus group interviews. The result, which is based on a thematic analysis of the collected data, is a set of key factors that can be used in the creation of a concept to include the tenants in EKOLL.

    An essential key factor for the work of changing people’s behaviour in E-KOLL is to pinpoint who is in charge and define clear guidelines for the task. Co-operation of residents is also a key factor to make the communication and flow of information to work on a higher level. Therefore this should be a priority with the help of participatory workshops and more feedback in general.

    It should also be taken to consideration that the target group of E-KOLL, the tenants, is not just one target group but several. One important target group that’s not in the same position to absorb information is immigrants that don’t fully understand the Swedish language. Another important target group is children that have the power to influence other people in their surroundings.

  • 47.
    Rodriguez, Emily
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Including diverse knowledge systems in the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Including scientific and non-scientific knowledge systems in the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) will influence the framing of biodiversity issues and management policies. Through analysis of documents from the IPBES meetings and interviews with non–state actors, this study identifies knowledge systems relevant for biodiversity issues, explores perceptions of why diverse knowledge systems should be incorporated into the IPBES and discusses governance challenges. This study draws upon research in science and technology studies to discuss democratic inclusion of knowledge into the IPBES on the international level. The social development pillar of sustainability underlies the substantive and normative rationales for including diverse knowledge systems into the IPBES. States involved in the IPBES negotiations face the challenge of designing mechanisms that reflect the predominating rationales for including a plurality of knowledge systems in this biodiversity decision–making tool.

  • 48.
    Gezelius, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Building permit Norrköping´s municipality - Improvement of the municipal website2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The building permits department in Norrköping’s municipality has for a long time wanted to improve their part of the municipal website. The employees feel like a lot of people are calling to ask similar questions and that documents from applicants often are incorrect and have to be completed. The local housing and environmental protection committee, has in addition been giving directive to the building permits department, to increase the information and possibilities to advice through the municipal website. This report describes the development of the new website, with a focus on designing new information about buildings permit and permit that the construction of the building is approved. Except from designing new information, this project also has contained creating drawing examples. It should be possible to download these from the new website and use them in the process of making your own drawings.

    There is a lot of information that should be communicated to the person who is going to seek planning permission or permission for the construction of the building. Buildings permit and permit for the construction are almost always needed before a construction work starts. This is needed to promote a good and sustainable development of the environment in the society. At the building permit review the authorities check that the planned action fulfil the laws in society regarding location and design. If the application isn’t against the law a written permission is handed to the applicant – a buildings permit. The technical parts also have to be checked by the authorities before you can start to build. That’s why you, at least three weeks before the construction work starts, also must seek permit for the construction of the building.

  • 49.
    Tütüncü, Deniz
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Killing a tree is the same as killing a part of Creation: A comparative study of Western and Indigenous’ worldviews, views of nature and knowledge systems2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays there is a great deal of concern for global warming. Researchers and politicians all over the world are urgently trying to find solutions to it. However, most of the solutions which consider sustainable development have a technical perspective to environmental problems. The alarm of global warming might open up for new ways of solving problems. Indigenous peoples live close to nature and their specific ecosystems which give them a unique understanding for the complexity of nature.

    However, indigenous people and their knowledge are rarely integrated in international regimes, the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment is the most inclusive regime. Integration of Indigenous Knowledge have been successful in Western environmental management, such as in EIA’s. This ignorance to indigenous knowledge as a source to knowledge illustrates a Eurocentrism in environmental management (McGregor, 2004; Tsuji & Ho, 2002; Berkes, 1999; Smith & Sharp, 2012; Battiste & Henderson, 2000).

    This study has several aims. Firstly I will compare what has been interpreted as a holistic worldview with the atomistic one. Secondly, I will compare the organic view of nature to the technocratic view of nature. Thirdly, a comparison of the positivist-reductionist approach to the term “Indigenous Knowledge” as McGregor (2004) describes it will be done. Furthermore, the aim of this study is to understand if and if so how IK challenges the positivist-reductionist approach and whether these knowledge systems are compatible with each other. At last, a new analytical framework will be developed to support my theories and clarify them.

    This study concludes that while there are fundamental differences between the worldviews, views of nature and knowledge systems. This study stress that indigenous knowledge is compatible with the positivist-reductionist approach. Furthermore it is desirable to include IK in Western society further because Western society can make benefits from indigenous peoples view on nature and their view on knowledge from an environmental management perspective.

  • 50.
    Larsson, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Maja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards sustainable sanitation in slum areas: A field study in Mumbai2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, there are 2.5 billion people who do not have access to improved sanitation. One third of these people are living in India. Bad sanitation is both undignified and causes the spread of diseases like diarrhoea. It is a large challenge to handle the problematic situation with sanitation, especially in urban areas. Sustainable sanitary systems that are energy self-sufficient and do not require sewage system are needed. There are new techniques with this in mind that are under development.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the possibilities to implement a sustainable sanitary system in slum areas of Mumbai. The chosen area and existing sanitary techniques is investigated in the literature study. To understand the user requirements and their living situation, a field study is performed in slum areas of Mumbai. Interviews are held with experts from organisations working with the sanitary situation in the area to get a deeper understanding about their experiences. The sanitary situation today is not well functioning, a new way of solving the problem is needed and it has to happen soon.

    Through an analysis of the empirical findings, three different sanitary situations are presented. It is important that each area is investigated to identify what situation there is, before building new sanitary facilities. To achieve a more sustainable sanitation, one system for each of the three situations should be developed. Requirements for each of the situations are presented and they all have two things in common, the toilet is shared between a determined amount of people and the user has the responsibility for the maintenance.

    From a cross mapping between the investigated sanitary techniques and the requirements for the three situations, it is clarified what techniques that are suitable in which context. No one of the investigated techniques is a perfect match and further development is needed. One of the sanitary situations is taken further through concept development. The concepts are compared against the requirements to identify the best concept. The best concept with modifications is visualised to exemplify how it may be designed. In the comparison between the requirements and concepts, gaps in the design and issues for further development are identified.

    The core of this master thesis is to emphasise the importance of having a holistic approach concerning the sanitary situation. It is important that new techniques are being developed with a close connection to the users and the specific environment. By investing money in more sustainable systems, the situation for the slum residents in Mumbai can be improved and at the same time contribute to a more sustainable society.

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