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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Johansson, GA
    Hertz, HM
    Gullikson, EM
    Kreissig, U
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    14.5% near-normal incidence reflectance of Cr/Sc x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window2003In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, Vol. 28, no 24, 2494-2496 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr/Sc multilayer mirrors, synthesized by ion-assisted magnetron sputter deposition, are proved to have a high near-normal reflectivity of R = 14.5% at a grazing angle of 87.5degrees measured at the wavelength A = 3.11 nm, which is an improvement of more than 31% compared with previously published results. Elastic recoil detection analyses show that the mirrors contained as much as 15 at. % of N and traces of C and O. Soft x-ray reflectivity simulations reveal interface widths of sigma = 0.34 nm and an exceptionally small layer thickness drift of similar to1.6 X 10(-5) nm/multilayer period throughout the stack. Simulations show that a reflectivity of R = 25.6% is attainable if impurities and layer thickness drift can be eliminated. The abrupt interfaces are achieved with ion assistance with a low ion energy of 24 eV and high ion-to-metal flux ratios of 7.1 and 23.1 during Cr and Se sputter deposition, respectively. In addition, a near-normal incidence reflectivity of 5.5% for the C VI emission line (lambda = 3.374 nm) from a laser plasma source was verified. (C) 2003 Optical Society of America.

  • 2.
    Zhang, Xuanjun
    et al.
    Structure Research Laboratory and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China.
    Xie, Yi
    Structure Research Laboratory and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China.
    Zhao, Qingrui
    Structure Research Laboratory and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China.
    Tian, Yupeng
    Department of Chemistry, Anhui University, China.
    1-D coordination polymer template approach to CdS and HgS aligned-nanowire bundles2003In: New Journal of Chemistry, ISSN 1144-0546, E-ISSN 1369-9261, Vol. 27, no 5, 827-830 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 1D inorganic coordination polymer template route was firstly developed to synthesize metal sulfide aligned-nanowire bundles. Based on this strategy, CdS and HgS aligned-nanowire bundles with high yields were successfully prepared in a water system at room temperature using KCd(NCS)3 as a soft template. The results revealed that the morphologies of the MS (M=Cd, Hg) aligned-nanowire bundles were uniform with lengths of several microns and the diameters of each single wire were ca. 10–30 nm and 60–80 nm for CdS and HgS, respectively.

  • 3.
    Jantunen, Liisa
    et al.
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Wong, Fiona
    Stockholm University.
    Gawor, Anya
    Environment Canada.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Helm, Paul
    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Canada.
    Stern, Gary
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Strachan, William
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Burniston, Deborah
    Environment Canada, Canada.
    Bidleman, Terry
    Umeå University.
    20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 23, 13844-13852 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air−water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water−air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air−surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.

  • 4. Zhukov, L
    et al.
    Museth, Ken
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Digital Media. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Breen, David
    Whitaker, Ross
    3D modeling and segmentation of Diffusion weighted MRI data2001In: SPIE Medical Imaging 01,2001, 2001, Vol. 4319, 401-412 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW MRI) is a technique that measures the diffusion properties of water molecules to produce a tensor-valued volume dataset. Because water molecules can diffuse more easily along fiber tracts, for example in the brain, rather than across them, diffusion is anisotropic and can be used for segmentation. Segmentation requires the identification of regions with different diffusion properties. In this paper we propose a new set of rotationally invariant diffusion measures which may be used to map the tensor data into a scalar representation. Our invariants may be rapidly computed because they do not require the calculation of eigenvalues. We use these invariants to analyze a 3D DW MRI scan of a human head and build geometric models corresponding to isotropic and anisotropic regions. We then utilize the models to perform quantitative analysis of these regions, for example calculating their surface area and volume.

  • 5.
    Sundberg, Carina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Al-Soud, Waleed A.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alm, Erik
    SMI, Sweden .
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sorensen, Soren J.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    454 pyrosequencing analyses of bacterial and archaeal richness in 21 full-scale biogas digesters2013In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 85, no 3, 612-626 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microbial community of 21 full-scale biogas reactors was examined using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences. These reactors included seven (six mesophilic and one thermophilic) digesting sewage sludge (SS) and 14 (ten mesophilic and four thermophilic) codigesting (CD) various combinations of wastes from slaughterhouses, restaurants, households, etc. The pyrosequencing generated more than 160 000 sequences representing 11 phyla, 23 classes, and 95 genera of Bacteria and Archaea. The bacterial community was always both more abundant and more diverse than the archaeal community. At the phylum level, the foremost populations in the SS reactors included Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Spirochetes, and Euryarchaeota, while Firmicutes was the most prevalent in the CD reactors. The main bacterial class in all reactors was Clostridia. Acetoclastic methanogens were detected in the SS, but not in the CD reactors. Their absence suggests that methane formation from acetate takes place mainly via syntrophic acetate oxidation in the CD reactors. A principal component analysis of the communities at genus level revealed three clusters: SS reactors, mesophilic CD reactors (including one thermophilic CD and one SS), and thermophilic CD reactors. Thus, the microbial composition was mainly governed by the substrate differences and the process temperature.

  • 6.
    Choudhary, Preetam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chakrapani, Govind J.
    Indian Institute Technology, India.
    A 100-year record of changes in organic matter characteristics and productivity in Lake Bhimtal in the Kumaon Himalaya, NW India2013In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 49, no 2, 129-143 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment variables total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulfur (TS), as well as their accumulation rates and atomic ratios (C/N and C/S), were studied along with stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S), and specific biomarkers (n-alkanes and pigments) in a 35-cm-long sediment core from Lake Bhimtal, NW India. The average sedimentation rate is 3.6 mm year−1, and the core represents a provisional record of ~100 years of sedimentation history. Bulk elemental records and their ratios indicate that sediment organic matter (OM) is derived primarily from algae. In-lake productivity increased sharply over the last two decades, consistent with paleoproductivity reconstructions from other lakes in the area. An up-core decrease in δ13C values, despite other evidence for an increase in lake productivity, implies that multiple biogeochemical processes (e.g. external input of sewage or uptake of isotopically depleted CO2 as a result of fossil fuel burning) influence the C isotope record in the lake. The δ15N values (−0.2 to −3.9 ‰) reflect the presence of N-fixing cyanobacteria, and an increase in lake productivity. The δ34S profile shows enrichment of up to 5.6 ‰, and suggests that sulfate reduction occurred in these anoxic sediments. Increases in total n-alkane concentrations and their specific ratios, such as the Carbon Preference Index (CPI) and Terrestrial Aquatic Ratio (TAR), imply in-lake algal production. Likewise, pigments indicate an up-core increase in total concentration and dominance of cyanobacteria over other phytoplankton. Geochemical trends indicate a recent increase in the lake’s trophic state as a result of human-induced changes in the catchment. The study highlights the vulnerability of mountain lakes in the Himalayan region to both natural and anthropogenic processes, and the difficulties associated with reversing trophic state and ecological changes.

  • 7.
    Friman, Mathias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A biography of historical responsibility in UNFCCC negotiations2007In: European PhD Network on International Climate Policy 15th Workshop,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Kiflemariam, Jordanos
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    A Biomimetic Manganese Model for Artificial Photosynthesis: Q-band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of a Novel Mn2(II,III) Complex2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In natural oxygen-producing photosynthesis solar energy is stored as chemical energy, in carbohydrates, fats and amino acids, using water as electron source. The large transmembrane protein complex, PSII, is the key enzyme in the light-driven reactions. Water oxidation is accomplished by a triad in PSII in which the Mn-cluster plays an important role. In the artificial photosynthetic system, nature’s photosynthesis will be mimicked such that hydrogen, a sustainable energy source, can be produced from solar energy and water alone. Since water oxidiation requires the catalytic activity of a Mn-cluster in photosynthesis, different artificially constructed manganese complexes are investigated.

    The dinuclear ([Mn2(II,III)L(µ-OAc)2]ClO4), where L is the X-anion of 2-(N,N-Bis(2-methylpyridyl)aminomethyl)-6-(N-(3,5-ditert-butylbenzyl-2-hydroxy)-N-(pyridylmethyl)aminomethyl)-4-methylphenol, an unsymmetric ligand with two coordinating phenolate groups, has been studied. The two Mn-ions are linked via a mono-µ-oxo bridge and two acetate ligands. Q-band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance was conducted on the Unsymmetric Mn2(II,III) Complex. Aquired results show that the complex has a 2600 Gauss broad signal (11 400-14 000 Gauss) with 14-17 lines at g~2 and hyperfines of 120 Gauss. This is consistent with previous X-band studies. Q-band spectra of the Unsymmetric Mn(II,III) display increased hyperfine resolution compared to Qband spectra of the symmetric complex, Mn2(bpmp)(µ-OAC)2. This is noticeable since Unsymmetric Mn2(II,III) and Mn2 (bpmp)(µ-OAC)2 partly overlap in low-frequency experiments (X-band EPR).

    Further investigations are yet to be expected. Nevertheless, the conducted thesis study provides important knowledge in the futuristic goal of building an artificial super-complex.

  • 9.
    Quast, Ulrich
    et al.
    Ex University Hospital, Germany.
    Kaulich, Theodor W.
    University Hospital, Germany.
    Alvarez-Romero, Jose T.
    ININ, Mexico.
    Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Enger, Shirin A.
    McGill University, Canada.
    Medich, David C.
    Worcester Polytech Institute, MA 01609 USA.
    Mourtada, Firas
    Helen F Graham Cancer Centre and Research Institute, DE 19713 USA.
    Perez-Calatayud, Jose
    University Hospital La Fe, Spain; Clin Benidorm, Spain.
    Rivard, Mark J.
    Tufts University, MA 02111 USA.
    Abu Zakaria, G.
    University of Cologne, Germany; Gono University, Bangladesh.
    A brachytherapy photon radiation quality index Q(BT) for probe-type dosimetry2016In: Physica medica (Testo stampato), ISSN 1120-1797, E-ISSN 1724-191X, Vol. 32, no 6, 741-748 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In photon brachytherapy (BT), experimental dosimetry is needed to verify treatment plans if planning algorithms neglect varying attenuation, absorption or scattering conditions. The detectors response is energy dependent, including the detector material to water dose ratio and the intrinsic mechanisms. The local mean photon energy E(r) must be known or another equivalent energy quality parameter used. We propose the brachytherapy photon radiation quality index Q(BT) ((E) over bar), to characterize the photon radiation quality in view of measurements of distributions of the absorbed dose to water, D-w, around BT sources. Materials and methods: While the external photon beam radiotherapy (EBRT) radiation quality index Q(EBRT) ((E) over bar) = TPR1020((E) over bar) is not applicable to BT, the authors have applied a novel energy dependent parameter, called brachytherapy photon radiation quality index, defined as Q(BT) ((E) over bar) = D-prim(r = 2 cm; theta(0) = 90 degrees)/D-prim(r(0) = 1 cm; theta(0) = 90 degrees), utilizing precise primary absorbed dose data, D-prim, from source reference databases, without additional MC-calculations. Results and discussion: For BT photon sources used clinically, Q(BT) ((E) over bar) enables to determine the effective mean linear attenuation coefficient (mu) over bar (E) and thus the effective energy of the primary photons E-prim(eff)(r(0), theta(0)) at the TG-43 reference position P-ref (r(0) = 1 cm; theta(0) = 90 degrees) being close to the mean total photon energy (E) over bar (tot)(r(0), theta(0)). If one has calibrated detectors, published (E) over bar (tot)(r) and the BT radiation quality correction factor k(Q, Q0)(BT) ((E) over bar, r, theta) for different BT radiation qualities Q and Q(0), the detectors response can be determined and D-w(r, theta) measured in the vicinity of BT photon sources. Conclusions: This novel brachytherapy photon radiation quality index Q(BT) characterizes sufficiently accurate and precise the primary photon` s penetration probability and scattering potential. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica.

  • 10.
    Rodriguez de Tembleque Garcia, Sandra M.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    A case Study of Cooperation between Municipalities in the Miño River (The Area of the Spanish-Portuguese Border)2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this case study is to analyse cooperation mainly in issues related to water management in the area along the Miño river. The study focuses on the Spanish municipalities that limit with the river and that are in the border area with Portugal. There was a key issue which was discovered during the reading and analysis of data, a change of no cooperation to cooperation on the Spanish-Portuguese border. There was previously a political culture of no cooperation among the autonomous regions in Spain, which could have affected cooperation with the region of north Portugal. The fact the both countries have different administrative cultures could also impede cooperation. Nevertheless cooperation seems to have developed and in order to study this phenomenon the researcher uses a qualitative method and relies on a choice of institutional theories. This research studies how institutions affect cooperation in this particular case. The theories will analyse the impact of political institutions and the relation between institutions and individuals. They also help to identify how human behaviour affects processes and events.

  • 11.
    Vonk, Jorien
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Alling, Vanja
    Stockholm University.
    Rahm, Lars
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mörth, Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University.
    A centennial record of fluvial organic matter input from the discontinuous permafrost catchment of Lake Torneträsk2012In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 117, no G03018, 1-11 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-latitude regions are underlain by the most organic carbon (OC)-rich soils on earth and currently subject to intense climate warming, potentially increasing remobilization and mineralization of soil OC. Sub-Arctic Scandinavia is located on the 0°C mean annual isotherm and is therefore particularly vulnerable to climate change. This study aimed to establish a baseline for soil OC release over the past century into Lake Torneträsk, the largest lake in sub-Arctic Scandinavia, through bulk geochemical and molecular radiocarbon analyses in chronologically constrained sediment cores. Our results suggest a dominance of peat-derived terrestrial OC inflow. We show that the annual terrestrial OC inflow to the lake is ∼12 times higher than the in-lake produced particulate OC, and consists for a large part (ca. 60%) of old OC from deep reservoirs in the catchment. The sedimentary record shows signs of increasing inflow of more degraded terrestrial matter since ∼1975, as indicated by increasing %TOC concentrations, a lower δ13C value and lower TOC:TN ratios. Based on simultaneous changes in local climate and reported signs of permafrost degradation (e.g., active layer deepening, mire/peat erosion), the observed changes in the sedimentary record of Scandinavia's largest mountain lake likely reflect a climate warming-induced change in terrestrial OC inflow.  

  • 12.
    Pham, M K
    et al.
    IAEA.
    Betti, M
    IAEA.
    Povinec, P P
    Comenius University.
    Benmansour, M
    Centre Natl Energie Science and Tech Nucl, Rabat.
    Buenger, V
    Senatsverwaltung Gesundheit Umwelt and Verbraucher.
    Drefvelin, J
    Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority.
    Engeler, C
    WGMLA Radiochem.
    Flemal, J M
    Science Institute for Public Health.
    Gasco, C
    Centre Invest Energet MedioAmbient and Technology.
    Guillevic, J
    Institute Radioprotect and Surette Nucl.
    Gurriaran, R
    IRSN DEI STEME LMRE.
    Groening, M
    IAEA.
    Happel, J D
    University of Miami.
    Herrmann, J
    Bundesamt Seeschifffahrt and Hydrog.
    Klemola, S
    Radiat and Nucl Safety Author.
    Kloster, M
    Senatsverwaltung Gesundheit Umwelt and Verbraucher.
    Kanisch, G
    Johann Heinrich von Thunen Institute.
    Leonard, K
    Centre Environm Fisheries and Aquaculture Science.
    Long, S
    Radiol Protect Institute Ireland.
    Nielsen, S
    Riso Natl Lab.
    Oh, J-S
    Natl Oceanog Centre Southampton.
    Rieth, P U
    Johann Heinrich von Thunen Institute.
    Oestergren, I
    Swedish Radiat Safety Author.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Pinhao, N
    Institute Tecnol and Nucl, Sacavem, Portugal .
    Pujol, L
    Centre Estudios Expt and Obras Publ.
    Sato, K
    Japan Chemistry Anal Centre.
    Schikowski, J
    University of Gottingen.
    Varga, Z
    Hungarian Academy of Science.
    P Vartti, V
    Radiat and Nucl Safety Author.
    Zheng, J
    Natl Institute Radiol Science.
    A certified reference material for radionuclides in the water sample from Irish Sea (IAEA-443)2011In: JOURNAL OF RADIOANALYTICAL AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY, ISSN 0236-5731, Vol. 288, no 2, 603-611 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new certified reference material (CRM) for radionuclides in sea water from the Irish sea (IAEA-443) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. Ten radionuclides (H-3, K-40, Sr-90, Cs-137, U-234, U-235, U-238, Pu-238, Pu239+240 and Am-241) have been certified, and information values on massic activities with 95% confidence intervals are given for four radionuclides (Th-230, Th-232, Pu-239 and Pu-240). Results for less frequently reported radionuclides (Tc-99, Th-228, Np-237 and Pu-241) are also reported. The CRM can be used for quality assurance/quality control of the analysis of radionuclides in water samples, for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. The material is available in 5 L units from IAEA (http://nucleus.iaea.org/rpst/index.htm).

  • 13.
    Lind, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.
    Josefsson, Karl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.
    A CFD Method for Simulation of Gas-Liquid Flow in Cooling Systems: An Eulerian-Eulerian Approach2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When designing modern engines it is important to construct a cooling system that cools the engine structure efficiently. Within the cooling system there is always a certain amount of air which can accumulate and form air pockets in critical areas, such as the water jacket, which can lead to wall degradation. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method in STAR-CCM+ from CD-adapco, was derived at Volvo Cars in order to study the accumulation of air bubbles in the water jacket. The method was derived by investigating and evaluating already existing methods. The method initially considered as the best suited was the Eulerian-Eulerian approach. The method was validated against three simpler geometries where experimental data was available. The Eulerian-Eulerian approach treats both phases, liquid and gas, as continuous phases. The idea with the method is to solve the Navier-Stokes equation, the continuity equation and the energy equation for both phases using the Eulerian approach, therefore called Eulerian-Eulerian. The interaction between the two phases was important to model properly which was done by including several interaction models within STAR-CCM+. By tuning different coefficients, which were investigated by a thorough parameter study, the method resembled the experimental data in a satisfying way. The best suited mesh for these simpler geometries was a directed mesh. However, the mesh in the water jacket was automatically generated by STAR-CCM+ and the simpler cases were therefore validated with an automated mesh as well. To capture the experimental data the convection scheme for volume fraction had to be of second order when simulating with automated mesh. This resulted in convergence issues when implementing the method on the water jacket. Instead first order convection scheme, which did not present as satisfying results as second order, had to be implemented. Simulations of the water jacket were performed with two different velocities, that were 10 m/s and 19 m/s, and different flow split ratios for the three outlets. Air with volume fraction 0.1 was injected at the inlet during the first 0.5 s followed by 0.5-1.1 s of further simulation without injecting air. Increased velocity resulted in increased flow through of gas, whereas no big difference could be seen between the different outlet flow split ratios. At two different zones lower pressure was found which resulted in gas holdup. To be able to validate the results from the water jacket, experiments would be necessary to perform in order to provide experimental data for comparison. Velocity profiles from the derived two-phase method resemble the velocity profiles from the one-phase simulation from Volvo, which indicated that the two-phase method did not affect the solution in a remarkable way. Granted that the zones of lower pressure and gas holdup normally coincides, the pressure field from the one-phase simulation could be directly studied, which would lower the computational costs significantly.

  • 14.
    Nilsson, Annika E.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Changing Arctic Climate: Science and Policy in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has often been framed as a global issue but slow progress in the global climate negotiations and an increasing need to plan for local adaptation have made it increasingly salient to also discuss the potential of other arenas for climate policy and knowledge production. This dissertation analyzes the interplay between science and policy at the international regional level based on a study of an assessment of the impacts of climate change in the Arctic. In this case, the regional arena brought new actors into climate knowledge production and policy with an increased emphasis on the complexity of social and cultural impacts of climate change among indigenous peoples. The dissertation also shows how the structure of regional political cooperation played a role in highlighting the Arctic as a bellwether for global change. Meanwhile, the political negations that were linked to the regional climate impact assessment were ruled by the same political dynamics and policy positions as the global climate negotiations. The process illustrates how the structure of international cooperation can influence knowledge production about climate change. The dissertation emphasizes the role of vertical interplay among political regimes and how new arenas can make an assessment salient, credible, and legitimate to different actors. It also highlights the political dimensions of focusing on particular spatial scales and governance levels in climate knowledge production and policy.

  • 15.
    Willander, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chirgwandi, Zakaria
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Nour, Omer
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    A chip that creates micro-scale vortices in water and mimics biochemistry2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Shutova, T
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Klimov, VV
    Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Andersson, Bertil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Samuelsson, G
    Umeå University.
    A cluster of carboxylic groups in PsbO protein is involved in proton transfer from the water oxidizing complex of Photosystem II2007In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics, ISSN 0005-2728, E-ISSN 1879-2650, Vol. 1767, no 6, 434-440 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis presented here for proton transfer away from the water oxidation complex of Photosystem II (PSII) is supported by biochemical experiments on the isolated PsbO protein in solution, theoretical analyses of better understood proton transfer systems like bacteriorhodopsin and cytochrome oxidase, and the recently published 3D structure of PS II (Pdb entry IS5L). We propose that a cluster of conserved glutamic and aspartic acid residues in the PsbO protein acts as a buffering network providing efficient acceptors of protons derived from substrate water molecules. The charge delocalization of the cluster ensures readiness to promptly accept the protons liberated from substrate water. Therefore protons generated at the catalytic centre of PSII need not be released into the thylakoid lumen as generally thought. The cluster is the beginning of a localized, fast proton transfer conduit on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membrane Proton-dependent conformational changes of PsbO may play a role in the regulation of both supply of substrate water to the water oxidizing complex and the resultant proton transfer.

  • 17.
    Hook, F.F
    et al.
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers Institute of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Voros, J.
    Vörös, J., Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Rodahl, M.
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers Institute of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kurrat, R.
    Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Boni, P.
    Böni, P., Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland.
    Ramsden, J.J.
    Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Biocenter of the University, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.
    Textor, M.
    Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Spencer, N.D.
    Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Tengvall, Pentti
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Gold, J.
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers Institute of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kasemo, B.
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers Institute of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation2002In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, Vol. 24, no 2, 155-170 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption kinetics of three model proteins - human serum albumin, fibrinogen and hemoglobin - has been measured and compared using three different experimental techniques: optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS), ellipsometry (ELM) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D). The studies were complemented by also monitoring the corresponding antibody interactions with the pre-adsorbed protein layer. All measurements were performed with identically prepared titanium oxide coated substrates. All three techniques are suitable to follow in-situ kinetics of protein-surface and protein-antibody interactions, and provide quantitative values of the adsorbed adlayer mass. The results have, however, different physical contents. The optical techniques OWLS and ELM provide in most cases consistent and comparable results, which can be straightforwardly converted to adsorbed protein molar ('dry') mass. QCM-D, on the other hand, produces measured values that are generally higher in terms of mass. This, in turn, provides valuable, complementary information in two respects: (i) the mass calculated from the resonance frequency shift includes both protein mass and water that binds or hydrodynamically couples to the protein adlayer, and (ii) analysis of the energy dissipation in the adlayer and its magnitude in relation to the frequency shift (c.f. adsorbed mass) provides insight about the mechanical/structural properties such as viscoelasticity. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Hagemann, Markus
    NewClimate Institute Climate Policy and Global Sustainab, Germany; University of Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Roeser, Frauke
    NewClimate Institute Climate Policy and Global Sustainab, Germany.
    Amars, Latif
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    A Comparison of Design and Support Priorities of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions2015In: Journal of Environment and Development, ISSN 1070-4965, E-ISSN 1552-5465, Vol. 24, no 2, 237-264 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In context of the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, developing countries are asked to contribute to greenhouse gas control objectives by proposing so-called Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). Although the concept provides developing countries with complete flexibility to design NAMAs, a majority of proposals seek international support. This article improves our understanding of the matching of NAMA design and international support by exploring (mis-) alignment between support providers and NAMA developers prioritization for NAMAs. The article assesses survey responses from support providers in light of records of NAMAs. We conclude that there is a mismatch between support providers primary emphasis on systems for measuring emissions reductions and the lack of such provisions in existing NAMA proposals. Furthermore, sector preferences may create structural biases in NAMA support.

  • 19.
    Chuasomboon, Sasit
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparison of ranging and localization techniques in indoor, urban, and tunnel environments2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Localization in wireless network sensors is an attractive research area nowadays. It is widely used in many applications e.g., indoor/outdoor asset tracking, intrusion detection, search-and-rescue, road traffic monitoring, and water quality monitoring. An accuracy and robustness to noise are important issues for localization which is needed to study and research to find the best solution. This thesis compares a ranging and localization techniques in indoor, urban and tunnel through a high performance ray-tracing simulator, Wireless InSiteR . Ranging techniques are based on two standard distance related measurement schemes e.g., RSS and TOA. A linearized least squares technique with reference node selection approach is chosen to estimate unknown nodes positions. Indoor and urban area are built-in floor plan and terrain available in simulator program, while tunnel is designed. In general, localization accuracy suffers from multipath and NLOS condition. This thesis also observes characteristic of them from ray-tracing method perspective. Firstly, important simulation parameters such as number ofreflections/diffractions, types of waveform, and types of antenna are analyzed oneach environments. Then, the models for distance estimation based on RSS and TOA measurements are created using measurements in simulated environments. The thesis proposes four scenarios for distance estimation model. They are line-of-sight (LOS), non-line-of-sight (NLOS), combination of LOS and NLOS, and NLOS with obstacle. All four scenarios models are derived along with model error distribution to observe characteristic of noise due to multipath and NLOS condition. Finally, the localization using only LOS condition measurements, is tested on each environment and compared results in term of accuracy.

  • 20.
    Svensson, Klas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A computational parametric study on the development of confluent round jet arrays2015In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 53, 129-147 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and response surface methodology is employed in a parametrical investigation of an in-line array of confluent round jets. Confluent round jet arrays are common within several fields of engineering, as detailed knowledge of the flow field development of confluent round jets is of great importance to design engineers working with, for example, chemical mixing, multiple jet burners, waste water disposal systems or ventilation supply devices. In this paper, five independent factors affecting flow field development are investigated with a multi-variable approach using a Box–Behnken design method.

    The results include decay of maximum velocity, turbulence intensity, location of merging and combined points and development of volumetric flow rate. Dimensionless nozzle spacing, S/d0S/d0, is an important design parameter and has a large impact on several properties, such as merging and combined points, decay of maximum velocity, and development of turbulence intensity. Other factors, such as the number of jets per row and inlet velocity, are also of importance. The analysis of decay in maximum velocity led to the definition of a new zone of development, referred to as the Confluent Core Zone (CCZ), as its behaviour is reminiscent of the potential core of a single jet. The CCZ has uniform velocity, lacks considerable decay in streamwise velocity and has a rather low turbulence intensity. The CCZ has a characteristic footprint in confluent round jet arrays, and its properties are investigated in detail.

    The development of volumetric flow can be divided into two regions. The initial region, close to the nozzles, features a high entrainment but decreasing entrainment rate. As the jets combine, the entrainment rate is lower, but rather constant. While S/d0S/d0 is generally an important design parameter, there is no direct correlation between S/d0S/d0 and entrainment rate of the combined jet.

  • 21.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nawab, Bahadar
    COMSATS University Abbottabad, Pakistan.
    A Cultural - spatial analysis of excreting, recirculation of human excreta and health - The case of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan2011In: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, Vol. 17, no 1, 57-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sanitation issue is entering the development discussion and the UN proclaimed 2008 the year of sanitation. The study aims to understand the cultural–spatial dimension among Muslim communities of excreting and recirculating human excreta in North West Frontier Province in Pakistan. Information on local perceptions and cultural understanding was collected through interviews, group discussions and observations in four selected villages. The study identifies a diversity of excreting practices among age groups and sexes, and varied adherence to expressed cultural norms. Interviewees express less resentment towards urine compared to faeces, however, their negative attitude subsides when faecal matter is mixed with water since this changes appearance, odour—and cultural meaning. Religious dictums about excreta and sewage accommodate contradicting routine behaviours to cater for needs of residents and farmers. For example, when mothers pray wearing soiled clothing, and in the use of wastewater as fertiliser for food production. The excreta-related practices are compatible with good hygienic behaviour as outlined by WHO Guidelines, except for children who are allowed to defecate anywhere.

  • 22.
    Lövbrand, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Pielke Jr, Roger
    University of Colorado, Boulder.
    Beck, Silke
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research.
    A democracy paradox in studies of science and society?2011In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 36, no 4, 474-496 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today many scholars seem to agree that citizens should be involved in expert deliberations on science and technology issues. This interest in public deliberation has gained attraction in many practical settings, especially in the European Union, and holds the promise of more legitimate governance of science and technology. In this article, the authors draw on the European Commission’s (EC) report “Taking the European Knowledge Society Seriously” to ask how legitimate these efforts to “democratize” scientific expertise really are. While the report borrows from deliberative democrats' normative accounts of legitimacy, the authors identify a tension between the principles for legitimate rule prescribed by deliberative democratic theory and the report’s celebration of diversity and dissent. While this inconsistency suggests that the legitimacy of deliberative governance arrangements is justified on empirical rather than normative grounds, it remains an open question whether studies of science and technology offer enough empirical support for such a justification. In this article, the authors address this pressing question and propose three possible responses.

  • 23.
    Tombelli, S
    et al.
    Sez Chim Analit, Dipartimento Sanita Pubbl Epidemiol and Chim Analit, Florence, Italy; Sez Igiene, Dipartimento Sanita Pubbl Epidemiol and Chim Analit, Florence, Italy; Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Mascini, M
    Sez Chim Analit, Dipartimento Sanita Pubbl Epidemiol and Chim Analit, Florence, Italy; Sez Igiene, Dipartimento Sanita Pubbl Epidemiol and Chim Analit, Florence, Italy; Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Sacco, C
    Sez Chim Analit, Dipartimento Sanita Pubbl Epidemiol and Chim Analit, Florence, Italy; Sez Igiene, Dipartimento Sanita Pubbl Epidemiol and Chim Analit, Florence, Italy; Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    A DNA piezoelectric biosensor assay coupled with a polymerase chain reaction for bacterial toxicity determination in environmental samples2000In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 418, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report the realisation of a DNA piezoelectric biosensor coupled with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of a specific bacterial toxicity factor. Biotinylated 23-mer probes were immobilised on the streptavidin coated gold surface of a quartz crystal; streptavidin was covalently bound to the thiol/dextran modified gold surface. The hybridisation of the immobilised probe with a synthetic oligonucleotide was investigated; the absence of non-specific adsorption was verified using a non-complementary oligonucleotide. Many cycles of measurements can be performed on the same crystal surface by regenerating the single strand with 1 mM HCl. The same hybridisation reaction was then performed using real samples of DNA extracted from bacteria and amplified by PCR. The PCR product was a fragment of a specific gene of Aeromonas hydrophila. The piezoelectric biosensor was able to distinguish samples containing the gene or not; in this way it was possible to determine the pathogenicity of different Aeromonas strains isolated from water, vegetables or human specimens. Experiments with non-specific samples confirmed the absence of adsorption or non-specific effects on the quartz crystal treated with the reported procedure. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 24. Vassiljev, A
    et al.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Statistics .
    Larsson, M
    A dual-porosity model for nitrogen leaching from a watershed2004In: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, Vol. 49, no 2, 313-322 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MASONW (MACRO + SOILN + Watershed) model describing nitrogen leaching in watersheds was developed and tested. The model is based on the MACRO and SOILN models. The dual-porosity model MACRO simulates water flow on the field scale. The SOILN model describes turnover and leaching of nitrogen. Two main features of a watershed have been added into these two models: (a) the existence of a river system, and (b) variable thickness of the aeration zone within a watershed. Good agreement between the output of the MASONW model and observed data for water discharge and nitrate concentrations were achieved in the Odense watershed (496 km2) in Denmark.

  • 25.
    Khayyeri, Hanifeh
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anna
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Heuijerjans, Ashley
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Matikainen, Marko K.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Julkunen, Petro
    Kuopio University Hospital, Finland; University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Eliasson, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Aspenberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Isaksson, Hanna
    Lund University, Sweden.
    A Fibre-Reinforced Poroviscoelastic Model Accurately Describes the Biomechanical Behaviour of the Rat Achilles Tendon2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 6, e0126869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Computational models of Achilles tendons can help understanding how healthy tendons are affected by repetitive loading and how the different tissue constituents contribute to the tendons biomechanical response. However, available models of Achilles tendon are limited in their description of the hierarchical multi-structural composition of the tissue. This study hypothesised that a poroviscoelastic fibre-reinforced model, previously successful in capturing cartilage biomechanical behaviour, can depict the biomechanical behaviour of the rat Achilles tendon found experimentally. Materials and Methods We developed a new material model of the Achilles tendon, which considers the tendons main constituents namely: water, proteoglycan matrix and collagen fibres. A hyperelastic formulation of the proteoglycan matrix enabled computations of large deformations of the tendon, and collagen fibres were modelled as viscoelastic. Specimen-specific finite element models were created of 9 rat Achilles tendons from an animal experiment and simulations were carried out following a repetitive tensile loading protocol. The material model parameters were calibrated against data from the rats by minimising the root mean squared error (RMS) between experimental force data and model output. Results and Conclusions All specimen models were successfully fitted to experimental data with high accuracy (RMS 0.42-1.02). Additional simulations predicted more compliant and soft tendon behaviour at reduced strain-rates compared to higher strain-rates that produce a stiff and brittle tendon response. Stress-relaxation simulations exhibited strain-dependent stress-relaxation behaviour where larger strains produced slower relaxation rates compared to smaller strain levels. Our simulations showed that the collagen fibres in the Achilles tendon are the main load-bearing component during tensile loading, where the orientation of the collagen fibres plays an important role for the tendons viscoelastic response. In conclusion, this model can capture the repetitive loading and unloading behaviour of intact and healthy Achilles tendons, which is a critical first step towards understanding tendon homeostasis and function as this biomechanical response changes in diseased tendons.

  • 26.
    ERASIN, BR
    et al.
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,BEDFORD MK43 0AL,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    WHEATLEY, AD
    CRANFIELD UNIV,CRANFIELD BIOTECHNOL CTR,BEDFORD MK43 0AL,ENGLAND; .
    A FIXED-FILM BIOASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF MICROPOLLUTANTS TOXIC TO ANAEROBIC SLUDGES1994In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 298, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Micropollutants in waste water streams can be a serious problem for the anaerobic digestion process. A short-term acute bioassay system is described for testing the effects of new and potentially toxic compounds on anaerobic digestion processes. Change in methanogenic activity was used as the monitored process parameter and the performance of intoxicated inocula was compared to activity prior to adding test compounds and to the activity of a parallel control assay. The performance of the bioassay was tested with chlorinated solvents and heavy metals. Trichloroethane caused a 50% reduction in methanogenic activity at 7 mg/l assay. The performance of suspended and fixed biomass assays were compared; the suspended growth was found to be five times more sensitive to trichloroethane. There was no clear inhibition with the heavy metals even at the highest concentration used (up to 750 mg Cu/l). The duration of assay was found to be an important parameter in the evaluation of anaerobic toxicity.

  • 27.
    Rantanen, V.-V.
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, University of Turku, FIN-20014, Turku, Finland, Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Åbo Akademi University, Tykistökatu 6 BioCity 3A, FIN-20521, Turku, Finland.
    Denessiouk, K.A.
    Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Åbo Akademi University, Tykistökatu 6 BioCity 3A, FIN-20521, Turku, Finland.
    Gyllenberg, M.
    Department of Mathematics, University of Turku, FIN-20014, Turku, Finland.
    Koski, Timo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematical Statistics .
    Johnson, M.S.
    Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacy, Åbo Akademi University, Tykistökatu 6 BioCity 3A, FIN-20521, Turku, Finland.
    A fragment library based on Gaussian mixtures predicting favorable molecular interactions2001In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, Vol. 313, no 1, 197-214 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, a protein atom-ligand fragment interaction library is described. The library is based on experimentally solved structures of protein-ligand and protein-protein complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and it is able to characterize binding sites given a ligand structure suitable for a protein. A set of 30 ligand fragment types were defined to include three or more atoms in order to unambiguously define a frame of reference for interactions of ligand atoms with their receptor proteins. Interactions between ligand fragments and 24 classes of protein target atoms plus a water oxygen atom were collected and segregated according to type. The spatial distributions of individual fragment - target atom pairs were visually inspected in order to obtain rough-grained constraints on the interaction volumes. Data fulfilling these constraints were given as input to an iterative expectation-maximization algorithm that produces as output maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters of the finite Gaussian mixture models. Concepts of statistical pattern recognition and the resulting mixture model densities are used (i) to predict the detailed interactions between Chlorella virus DNA ligase and the adenine ring of its ligand and (ii) to evaluate the "error" in prediction for both the training and validation sets of protein-ligand interaction found in the PDB. These analyses demonstrate that this approach can successfully narrow down the possibilities for both the interacting protein atom type and its location relative to a ligand fragment. © 2001 Academic Press.

  • 28.
    Klein, Richard
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Juhola, Sirkku
    University of Helsinki, Finland; Aalto University, Finland .
    A framework for Nordic actor-oriented climate adaptation research2014In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 40, 101-115 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The past ten years have seen a substantial increase in research on climate change adaptation, but a large gap remains between adaptation research and action. Adaptation researchers have either failed to demonstrate the relevance of their findings to practitioners and policymakers, or stakeholders have based their views and decisions on other kinds of information. In addition, in sectors such as agriculture, forestry, nature conservation, urban planning, water management and energy supply, adaptation has been studied separately from mitigation, which contradicts the reality of many practitioners. This paper identifies five bottlenecks to the use of adaptation research in adaptation practice and policy. These bottlenecks have gone unnoticed because the traditional framing of adaptation does not adequately consider the notion of agency, often rendering stakeholder interactions ineffective. Knowledge and use of actor-oriented theory when analysing and discussing adaptation needs and options could serve to find ways to overcome the bottlenecks and narrow the gap between research and action. The paper presents a novel framework for actor-oriented adaptation research that is being conducted within the Nordic Centre of Excellence for Strategic Adaptation Research (NORD-STAR). It frames climate adaptation as addressing both the impacts of climate change and the consequences of climate policy. Two methodological approaches - modelling and visualisation, and policy analysis - are applied to three thematic issues: land-use change, energy transitions, and insurance and finance.

  • 29.
    Ballester, Facundo
    et al.
    University of Valencia, Spain.
    Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Granero, Domingo
    Hospital Gen University, Spain.
    Haworth, Annette
    Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Australia; RMIT University, Australia.
    Mourtada, Firas
    Helen F Graham Cancer Centre, DE 19713 USA.
    Paiva Fonseca, Gabriel
    CNEN SP, Brazil; Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Zourari, Kyveli
    University of Athens, Greece.
    Papagiannis, Panagiotis
    University of Athens, Greece.
    Rivard, Mark J.
    Tufts University, MA 02111 USA.
    Siebert, Frank-Andre
    University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Germany.
    Sloboda, Ron S.
    Cross Cancer Institute, Canada; University of Alberta, Canada.
    Smith, Ryan L.
    Alfred Hospital, Australia.
    Thomson, Rowan M.
    Carleton University, Canada.
    Verhaegen, Frank
    Maastricht University, Netherlands; McGill University, Canada.
    Vijande, Javier
    University of Valencia, Spain; IFIC CSIC UV, Spain.
    Ma, Yunzhi
    CHU Quebec, Canada; University of Laval, Canada; University of Laval, Canada.
    Beaulieu, Luc
    CHU Quebec, Canada; University of Laval, Canada; University of Laval, Canada.
    A generic high-dose rate Ir-192 brachytherapy source for evaluation of model-based dose calculations beyond the TG-43 formalism2015In: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 42, no 6, 3048-3062 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In order to facilitate a smooth transition for brachytherapy dose calculations from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) formalism to model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), treatment planning systems (TPSs) using a MBDCA require a set of well-defined test case plans characterized by Monte Carlo (MC) methods. This also permits direct dose comparison to TG-43 reference data. Such test case plans should be made available for use in the software commissioning process performed by clinical end users. To this end, a hypothetical, generic high-dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 source and a virtual water phantom were designed, which can be imported into a TPS. Methods: A hypothetical, generic HDR Ir-192 source was designed based on commercially available sources as well as a virtual, cubic water phantom that can be imported into any TPS in DICOM format. The dose distribution of the generic Ir-192 source when placed at the center of the cubic phantom, and away from the center under altered scatter conditions, was evaluated using two commercial MBDCAs [Oncentra (R) Brachy with advanced collapsed-cone engine (ACE) and BrachyVision AcuRos (TM)]. Dose comparisons were performed using state-of-the-art MC codes for radiation transport, including ALGEBRA, BrachyDose, GEANT4, MCNP5, MCNP6, and pENELopE2008. The methodologies adhered to recommendations in the AAPM TG-229 report on high-energy brachytherapy source dosimetry. TG-43 dosimetry parameters, an along-away dose-rate table, and primary and scatter separated (PSS) data were obtained. The virtual water phantom of (201)(3) voxels (1 mm sides) was used to evaluate the calculated dose distributions. Two test case plans involving a single position of the generic HDR Ir-192 source in this phantom were prepared: (i) source centered in the phantom and (ii) source displaced 7 cm laterally from the center. Datasets were independently produced by different investigators. MC results were then compared against dose calculated using TG-43 and MBDCA methods. Results: TG-43 and PSS datasets were generated for the generic source, the PSS data for use with the ACE algorithm. The dose-rate constant values obtained from seven MC simulations, performed independently using different codes, were in excellent agreement, yielding an average of 1.1109 +/- 0.0004 cGy/(h U) (k = 1, Type A uncertainty). MC calculated dose-rate distributions for the two plans were also found to be in excellent agreement, with differences within type A uncertainties. Differences between commercial MBDCA and MC results were test, position, and calculation parameter dependent. On average, however, these differences were within 1% for ACUROS and 2% for ACE at clinically relevant distances. Conclusions: A hypothetical, generic HDR Ir-192 source was designed and implemented in two commercially available TPSs employing different MBDCAs. Reference dose distributions for this source were benchmarked and used for the evaluation of MBDCA calculations employing a virtual, cubic water phantom in the form of a CT DICOM image series. The implementation of a generic source of identical design in all TPSs using MBDCAs is an important step toward supporting univocal commissioning procedures and direct comparisons between TPSs. (C) 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  • 30.
    Abu Syeed, Kazi
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A GIS based Site Suitability Analysis for Shrimp Cultivation in the Coastal Region of Bangladesh2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bangladesh geographically comprised one of the largest delta landscapes of the world. Almost 6.7% of country’stotal area (147570 sqkm.) is covered byrivers and inland water bodies. These water bodies being rich in fishproduction meet the majority of the demand of protein. Bangladesh produces world's fourth largest quantity of fishand it is collected from the inland water bodies. Though shrimps were easily available in the inland water bodies forhundreds of years but shrimp culture as an export-oriented activity is a phenomenon of recent past. Bangladeshearned US$ 2.9 million by exporting shrimp in 1972-73 which was 1 % of the country's total exports. It increased to US$ 33 million in 1980 and to US$ 90.0 million in 1985. But until the mid-1980’s shrimp culture was principallydependent on open-water catches of shrimp it means that time shrimps were not cultivated in a proper planned way.But the culture of shrimp totally for export purpose started after the mid 1980’s. Since then the professional cultivation of shrimp had a very positive and effective impact on the economy of Bangladesh. Exports of shrimpfrom Bangladesh increased from US$ 91 million in FY (Fiscal Year) 1986 to US$ 280 million in FY1997. Duringthe corresponding period, the quantity of shrimp exports increased from 17.2 thousand tonnes to 25.2 thousandtonnes. As most of the shrimp farms have been developed without considering the sustainability of the environmentand some other factors like water pH & salinity, soil pH & salinity, soil texture etc. the farmers are getting lessreturn but affecting the environment most. Geographical Information System (GIS) can give an easier but effectivesolution here through selecting the best suitable sites for shrimp cultivation. Moreover GIS can solve thetransportation problem of this perishable product from the production area to the harbor or airport through transport route selection. This cansave a lot of money and time and consequently make the shrimp cultivation moreeconomic.

  • 31.
    Hinkel, Jochen
    et al.
    Global Climate Forum (GCF), Germany .
    Nicholls, Robert J.
    University of Southampton, England .
    Tol, Richard S. J.
    University of Sussex, England Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands .
    Wang, Zheng B.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands Deltares, Netherlands .
    Hamilton, Jacqueline M.
    University of Hamburg, Germany .
    Boot, Gerben
    Deltares, Netherlands .
    Vafeidis, Athanasios T.
    University of Kiel, Germany .
    McFadden, Loraine
    Middlesex University, England .
    Ganopolski, Andrey
    Potsdam Institute Climate Impact Research PIK, Germany .
    Klein, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A global analysis of erosion of sandy beaches and sea-level rise: An application of DIVA2013In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 111, 150-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a first assessment of the global effects of climate-induced sea-level rise on the erosion of sandy beaches, and its consequent impacts in the form of land loss and forced migration of people. We consider direct erosion on open sandy coasts and indirect erosion near selected tidal inlets and estuaries, using six global mean sea-level scenarios (in the range of 0.2-0.8 m) and six SRES socio-economic development scenarios for the 21st century. Impacts are assessed both without and with adaptation in the form of shore and beach nourishment, based on cost-benefit analysis that includes the benefits of maintaining sandy beaches for tourism. Without nourishment, global land loss would amount to about 6000-17,000 km(2) during the 21st century, leading to 1.6-5.3 million people being forced to migrate and migration costs of US$ 300-1000 billion (not discounted). Optimal beach and shore nourishment would cost about US$ 65-220 billion (not discounted) during the 21st century and would reduce land loss by 8-14%, forced migration by 56-68% and the cost of forced migration by 77-84% (not discounted). The global share of erodible coast that is nourished increases from about 4% in 2000 to 18-33% in 2100, with beach nourishment being 3-4 times more frequent than shore nourishment, reflecting the importance of tourism benefits. In absolute terms, with or without nourishment, large counties with long shorelines appear to have the largest costs, but in relative terms, small island states appear most impacted by erosion. Considerable uncertainty remains due to the limited availability of basic coastal geomorphological data and models on a global scale. Future work should also further explore the effects of beach tourism, including considering sub-national distributions of beach tourists.

  • 32.
    Lundqvist, Jan Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    A global perspective on water and the environment2000In: Physics and chemistry of the earth. Part B: Hydrology, oceans and atmosphere, ISSN 1464-1909, Vol. 25, no 3, 259-264 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At the turn to a new millennium, it is titillating to try to foresee what issues that are likely to be significant when we enter into the next century. Many of the water issues that we have been pre-occupied with in the past will, no doubt, continue to be important. But in addition, we should be prepared for new dimensions in what is now called the 'impending water crisis'. A pro-active behaviour that would make it possible to avoid a new generation of problems is warranted as a complement to the need to re-act to and take care of old problems. As will be argued below, connections between water quantity and quality and between water and the environment have been overlooked in the past. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Holmén, Hans
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Department of Geography. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Green Revolution for Africa -- Does it need to be so controversial?2003Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Wilk, Julie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andre, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Opach, Tomasz (Contributor)
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Neset, Tina S. (Contributor)
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Guidebook for Integrated Assessment and Management of Vulnerability to Climate Change2013Book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Berg, Kirsti
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Ericsson, Madelene
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Gustafsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Biomedical Engineering.
    A High Precision Method for Quantitative Measurements of Reactive Oxygen Species in Frozen Biopsies2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique using the spin probe cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetr​amethylpyrrolidine(CMH) was introduced as a versatile method for high precision quantification of reactive oxygen species, including the superoxide radical in frozen biological samples such as cell suspensions, blood or biopsies.

    Materials and Methods

    Loss of measurement precision and accuracy due to variations in sample size and shape were minimized by assembling the sample in a well-defined volume. Measurement was carried out at low temperature (150 K) using a nitrogen flow Dewar. The signal intensity was measured from the EPR 1st derivative amplitude, and related to a sample, 3-carboxy-proxyl (CP•) with known spin concentration.

    Results

    The absolute spin concentration could be quantified with a precision and accuracy better than ±10 µM (k = 1). The spin concentration of samples stored at −80°C could be reproduced after 6 months of storage well within the same error estimate.

    Conclusion

    The absolute spin concentration in wet biological samples such as biopsies, water solutions and cell cultures could be quantified with higher precision and accuracy than normally achievable using common techniques such as flat cells, tissue cells and various capillary tubes. In addition; biological samples could be collected and stored for future incubation with spin probe, and also further stored up to at least six months before EPR analysis, without loss of signal intensity. This opens for the possibility to store and transport incubated biological samples with known accuracy of the spin concentration over time.

  • 36.
    Folkesson, Tchou
    et al.
    Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden,.
    Samuelsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Intensive Care UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Tesselaar, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, B.
    Berzelius Clinical Research Center, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    A human vascular model based on microdialysis for the assessment of the vasoconstrictive dose-response effects of noradrenaline and vasopressin in skin: in JOURNAL OF VASCULAR RESEARCH, vol 48, pp 320-3202011In: JOURNAL OF VASCULAR RESEARCH, Karger , 2011, 320-320 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microdialysis is a well-established technique for continuous sampling of small, water-soluble molecules within the extracellular fluid space in vivo. It also allows the use of microdoses of drugs, and the simultaneous evaluation of their related effects at the site of action. The present study was an experimental, randomized microdose trial to develop a human vascular model of dose response. We aimed to evaluate a microdialysis dosing method using urea clearance as a marker of druginduced changes in dermal blood flow and metabolism (glucose and lactate) in 12 healthy volunteers. We found that asymptomatic vasoconstriction can be detected by continuous microdialysis measurements of urea clearance in dermal tissue. More importantly, dose-effect relations using the Emax model could be constructed using the corresponding data on drug doses and both the urea clearance-based flow estimates and the changes in concentrations of tissue metabolites. This in vivo human experimental skin model offers an interesting tool with which both the dose-response effects on blood flow and concentrations of tissue metabolites of potent vasoactive substances can be evaluated.

  • 37.
    Sahlberg, Jörgen
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    A Hydrodynamical Model for Calculating the Vertical Temperature Profile in Lakes During Cooling1983In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 14, no 4, 239-254 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A one-dimensional hydrodynamical model is used for simulating the vertical temperature profile in a lake during cooling conditions. The vertical mixing rate is calculated by solving the equations for turbulent kinetic energy, k, and dissipation of energy, ε. The heat exchange between the water and atmosphere consists of the radiation fluxes, sensible and latent heat flux. Temperature measurements from Lake Väsman during November-December, 1981, were used in the verification study. The agreement between calculated and measured temperature profiles is very good. This indicates that both the mixing processes and the net heat flux are well described in the model.

  • 38.
    Magiera, Sylwia
    et al.
    Silesian Technical University, Poland .
    Baranowska, Irena
    Silesian Technical University, Poland .
    Kusa, Jacek
    Regional Specialist Hospital, Poland .
    Baranowski, Jacek
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology UHL.
    A liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of potential biomarkers of cardiovascular disease2013In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 919, 20-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple, accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitation of alpha-ketoglutaric acid (alpha-KG), L-carnitine (L-CAR) and acetyl-L-carnitine (acetyl-L-CAR) in human urine as potential biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. The separation was performed using an isocratic elution of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile (97:3, v/v) on an Acclaim 120 C8 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 3.0 mu m). The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.2 mL/min and the total assay run time was 3 min. Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode via an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive and negative ion modes. This method covered a linearity range of 0.1-500 ng/mL for L-CAR and acetyl-L-CAR and 1-1000 ng/mL for alpha-KG with lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.08 ng/mL for L-CAR, 0.04 ng/mL for acetyl-L-CAR and 0.8 ng/mL for alpha-KG. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples exhibited relative standard deviations of less than 5.54% and relative error values from -5.95% to 3.11%. Analyte stability was evaluated under various sample preparation, analysis and storage conditions and varied from -9.89% to -0.47%. A two-step solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using silica gel and quaternary amine cartridges was used for urine sample cleanup. The average recoveries for all analyzed compounds were better than 86.64% at three concentrations. The method was successfully applied for the quantitation of alpha-KG, L-CAR and acetyl-L-CAR in human urine samples.

  • 39.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    A lost cultural hertitage ?2008In: Journal of environmental engineering and managment, ISSN 1022-7636, Vol. 18, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 40.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A mapping of climate change risks and adaptation guidelines to house owners in Denmark, Norway and Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This briefing informs on ongoing research within the project “Increasing Nordic homeowners adaptive capacity to climate change: research of opinions and development of a web-based tool” (In hac Vita) financed by Nordforsk. The project is subordinated the Nordic Centre of Excellence for Strategic Adaptation Research (NORD-STAR) which aims at bridging the gaps between adaptation science, practice and policy, and at helping public and private stakeholders at all levels to improve strategy development and decision-making. Since this is ongoing research, results and discussions presented in this text should be seen as preliminary.

  • 41.
    Wulff, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dept. of Systems Ecology Stockholm University.
    Rahm, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Jonsson, Per
    Dept. of Limnology Uppsala University.
    Brydsten, Lars
    Dept. of Physical Geography Umeå University.
    Ahl, Torsten
    Dept. of Water Resources SLU.
    Granmo, Åke
    Kristineberg Research Station Göteborg University.
    A mass balance of chlorinated organic matter for the Baltic Sea - A challenge to ecotoxicology1992In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 22, no 1, 27-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Persson, U. Martin
    et al.
    Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Henders, Sabine
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Cederberg, Christel
    Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    A method for calculating a land-use change carbon footprint (LUC-CFP) for agricultural commodities: applications to Brazilian beef and soy, Indonesian palm oil2014In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 20, no 11, 3482-3491 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world’s agricultural system has come under increasing scrutiny recently as an important driver of global climate change, creating a demand for indicators that estimate the climatic impacts of agricultural commodities. Such carbon footprints (CFPs), however, have in most cases excluded emissions from land‐use change (LUC) and the proposed methodologies for including this significant emissions source suffer from different shortcomings. Here we propose a new methodology for calculating land‐use change carbon footprints (LUC‐CFPs) for agricultural commodities and illustrate this methodology by applying it to three of the most prominent agricultural commodities driving tropical deforestation: Brazilian beef and soybeans, and Indonesian palm oil. We estimate LUCCFPs in 2010 to be 66 tCO2/tCW for Brazilian beef, 0.9 tCO2/t for Brazilian soybeans, and 8.6 tCO2/t for Indonesian palm oil. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is its flexibility: it can be applied in a tiered approach, using detailed data where it is available while still allowing for estimation of LUC‐CFPs for a broad set of countries and agricultural commodities; it can be applied at different scales, estimating both national and sub‐national LUC‐CFPs; it can be adopted to account both for direct (proximate) and indirect drivers of LUC. It is argued that with an increasing commercialization and globalization of the drivers of land‐use change, LUC‐CFPs could help leverage the power needed to alter environmentally destructive land‐use practices within the global agricultural system by providing a tool for assessing the environmental impacts of production, thereby informing consumers about the impacts of consumption and incentivizing producers to become more environmentally responsible.

  • 43.
    Augier, Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dulman, Russell S.
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, USA.
    Singley, Erick
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    A Method for Evaluating the Reinforcing Properties of Ethanol in Rats without Water Deprivation, Saccharin Fading or Extended Access Training2017In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 119, e53305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operant oral self-administration methods are commonly used to study the reinforcing properties of ethanol in animals. However, the standard methods require saccharin/sucrose fading, water deprivation and/or extended training to initiate operant responding in rats. This paper describes a novel and efficient method to quickly initiate operant responding for ethanol that is convenient for experimenters and does not require water deprivation or saccharin/sucrose fading, thus eliminating the potential confound of using sweeteners in ethanol operant self-administration studies. With this method, Wistar rats typically acquire and maintain self-administration of a 20% ethanol solution in less than two weeks of training. Furthermore, blood ethanol concentrations and rewards are positively correlated for a 30 min self-administration session. Moreover, naltrexone, an FDA-approved medication for alcohol dependence that has been shown to suppress ethanol self-administration in rodents, dose-dependently decreases alcohol intake and motivation to consume alcohol for rats self-administering 20% ethanol, thus validating the use of this new method to study the reinforcing properties of alcohol in rats.

  • 44.
    Allen, John
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Scania CV AB.
    A Method for Reducing Ash Volume in Wall-Flow Diesel Particulate Filters: Water Injection as a Service Tool to Improve Fuel Consumption and Particulate Filter Service Life2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 45.
    Mukwaya, Anthony
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lindvall, Jessica M.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Xeroudaki, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Peebo, Beatrice
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Ali, Zaheer
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lennikov, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jensen, Lasse
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    A microarray whole-genome gene expression dataset in a rat model of inflammatory corneal angiogenesis2016In: Scientific Data, ISSN 1012-0602, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 3, UNSP 160103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In angiogenesis with concurrent inflammation, many pathways are activated, some linked to VEGF and others largely VEGF-independent. Pathways involving inflammatory mediators, chemokines, and micro-RNAs may play important roles in maintaining a pro-angiogenic environment or mediating angiogenic regression. Here, we describe a gene expression dataset to facilitate exploration of pro-angiogenic, pro-inflammatory, and remodelling/normalization-associated genes during both an active capillary sprouting phase, and in the restoration of an avascular phenotype. The dataset was generated by microarray analysis of the whole transcriptome in a rat model of suture-induced inflammatory corneal neovascularisation. Regions of active capillary sprout growth or regression in the cornea were harvested and total RNA extracted from four biological replicates per group. High quality RNA was obtained for gene expression analysis using microarrays. Fold change of selected genes was validated by qPCR, and protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We provide a gene expression dataset that may be re-used to investigate corneal neovascularisation, and may also have implications in other contexts of inflammation-mediated angiogenesis.

  • 46.
    Delisle Nystrom, Christine
    et al.
    Novum, Sweden.
    Forsum, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Larsson, Christel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Maddison, Ralph
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Novum, Sweden.
    A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 1, 50- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 +/- 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 +/- 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 +/- 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (r = 0.665-0.896, p &lt; 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  • 47.
    Jönsson, Anette
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A model study of suspended sand due to surface waves during a storm in the Baltic Proper2006In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, Vol. 63, no 3-4, 91-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During 28 November–5 December 1999 three storms passed the Baltic Sea area. The modelled surface waves in the Baltic Proper during this period have been used to calculate the amount of suspended sand in the water mass. Different parameterisations depending on the flow regimes (rippled bed flow or sheet flow) have been used for the suspended sediment calculations.

    The study shows that the shallow areas along the eastern and southern sides of the Baltic Proper were most exposed to the wave induced resuspension during this period. The resuspension events lasted for about 6–12 h, thereafter the sediment settled again within an hour. During each low passage, about 2.5 Mton sand were suspended, releasing about 0.5·106 m3 earlier trapped interstitial water. This might have a large effect on the nutrient concentrations in the water mass above these bottoms.

  • 48.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rahm, Lars
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A model study of the effects of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (Beggiatoa spp.) on phosphorus retention processes in hypoxic sediments: implications for phosphorus management in the Baltic Sea2011In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, Vol. 16, no 3, 167-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing eutrophication increases phosphorus storage in surficial sediments of the Baltic Sea which can then be released during hypoxic/anoxic events. Such sediments are suitable habitats for sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, Beggiatoa spp. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of these bacteria on the P retention processes in hypoxic sediments using a diagenetic model. This model simulates interactions of the processes controlling P mobility in the sediments with redox reactions from the Beggiatoa metabolism. Modeling results demonstrate that P retention capability is limited when dissolved iron is mineralized as iron sulfides in the sediments. In this regard, sulfide consumption by Beggiatoa spp. potentially decreases the rate of iron sulfide formation and consequently increases the P retention capability in local-scale sediment.

  • 49.
    Malusek, Alexandr
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    A model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm DIRA using patient-specific tissue classification via DECT for improved quantitative CT in dose planning2017In: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 44, no 6, 2345-2357 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate-in a proof-of-concept configuration-a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm (DIRA) for quantitative determination of elemental composition of patient tissues for application to brachytherapy with low energy (amp;lt; 50 keV) photons and proton therapy. Methods: DIRA was designed as a model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm, which uses filtered backprojection, automatic segmentation and multimaterial tissue decomposition. The evaluation was done for a phantom derived from the voxelized ICRP 110 male phantom. Soft tissues were decomposed to the lipid, protein and water triplet, bones were decomposed to the compact bone and bone marrow doublet. Projections were derived using the Drasim simulation code for an axial scanning configuration resembling a typical DECT (dual-energy CT) scanner with 80 kV and Sn140 kV x-ray spectra. The iterative loop produced mono-energetic images at 50 and 88 keV without beam hardening artifacts. Different noise levels were considered: no noise, a typical noise level in diagnostic imaging and reduced noise level corresponding to tenfold higher doses. An uncertainty analysis of the results was performed using type A and B evaluations. The two approaches were compared. Results: Linear attenuation coefficients averaged over a region were obtained with relative errors less than 0.5% for all evaluated regions. Errors in average mass fractions of the three-material decomposition were less than 0.04 for no noise and reduced noise levels and less than 0.11 for the typical noise level. Mass fractions of individual pixels were strongly affected by noise, which slightly increased after the first iteration but subsequently stabilized. Estimates of uncertainties in mass fractions provided by the type B evaluation differed from the type A estimates by less than 1.5% for most cases. The algorithm was fast, the results converged after 5 iterations. The algorithmic complexity of forward polyenergetic projection calculation was much reduced by using material doublets and triplets. Conclusions: The simulations indicated that DIRA is capable of determining elemental composition of tissues, which are needed in brachytherapy with low energy (amp;lt; 50 keV) photons and proton therapy. The algorithm provided quantitative monoenergetic images with beam hardening artifacts removed. Its convergence was fast, image sharpness expressed via the modulation transfer function was maintained, and image noise did not increase with the number of iterations. c 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-05-04 12:54
  • 50.
    Braun, Martin W.
    et al.
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Rivera, Daniel E.
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Stenman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A 'Model-on-Demand' Identification Methodology for Nonlinear Process Systems2001In: International Journal of Control, ISSN 0020-7179, E-ISSN 1366-5820, Vol. 74, no 18, 1708-1717 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An identification methodology based on multi-level pseudo-random sequence (multi-level PRS) input signals and 'Model-on-Demand' (MoD) estimation is presented for single-input, single-output non-linear process applications. 'Model-on-Demand' estimation allows for accurate prediction of non-linear systems while requiring few user choices and without solving a non-convex optimization problem, as is usually the case with global modelling techniques. By allowing the user to incorporate a priori information into the specification of design variables for multi-level PRS input signals, a sufficiently informative input-output dataset for MoD estimation is generated in a 'plant-friendly' manner. The usefulness of the methodology is demonstrated in case studies involving the identification of a simulated rapid thermal processing (RTP) reactor and a pilot-scale brine-water mixing tank. On the resulting datasets, MoD estimation displays performance comparable to that achieved via semi-physical modelling and semi-physical modelling combined with neural networks. The MoD estimator, however, achieves this level of performance with substantially lower engineering effort.

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