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  • 1.
    Larsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Profile and perceptions of biogas as automobile fuel: A study of Svensk Biogas2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From an environmental- and health perspective, biogas and other biomass-based fuels have several advantages; nevertheless the majority of motorists fill their cars with petroleum-based fuels. This thesis is designed to explore the profile of biogas in relation to its perceptions. It is a study concerning the communication between the biogas producing company Svensk Biogas and their biogas users and non biogas users. To obtain a thorough understanding of the profile and perceptions of biogas a qualitative approach was considered appropriate. Biogas users and non-users were interviewed at gasoline stations, while Svensk Biogas was interviewed as a group.

    The three interview segments were analyzed and compared in order to identify patterns, similarities and differences. Based on research data the thesis concludes that the profiling arguments of biogas correlates to that biogas is the most environmentally friendly fuel, the least expensive fuel, and locally produced. Furthermore, the company profile of Svensk Biogas is equal to sustainable alternative, locally produced, trustworthy, environmentally friendly and climate smart [klimatsmart]. Given the arguments of the company profile, environmental values seem to be the core communicating value. Profiling Svensk Biogas happens through events and by using communication material such as company logotype.

    Motorists have an overall positive perception of biogas. Biogas users states environmental benefits as the key argument behind their commitment. Non-users are positive toward biogas although expressing a lack of knowledge confusing biogas with ethanol and bio-fuels in general. According to motorists the negative perceptions, in addition to the prerequisites of biogas, are connected to insufficient infrastructure of biogas filling stations, a short range of the biogas tank, a high investment cost of a biogas car, a biogas price increase, scarcity of cars, and information (lack of information and misleading information).

    The overall perception of Svensk Biogas among biogas users is positive. Biogas users express a negative perception concerning the Svensk Biogas filling stations and also wish for a lower biogas price. Non-users express modest perceptions of the company. This research also concludes that perceptions of the biogas producer are correlated to the perceptions of biogas. Furthermore, biogas producer, users and non-users wish to be directed by political decisions, guiding them toward environmentally friendly fuel alternatives.

  • 2.
    Broman, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hägglund, Maria
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A study of dechlorination of organic matter in forest soil using 36Cl as a tracer2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the Fukushima Daiichi power plant incident sea water was used in an attempt to cool reactor Unit 3. Since sea water contains an excessive amount of chloride, 36Cl has likely been formed and spread in the environment. Because of the long residence time and the presumed high mobility in water there is an increased interest to learn more about the biogeochemical cycle of chlorine from a radiation risk assessment perspective. Chlorine occurs in inorganic form as chloride (Clin) or bound to organic matter as organic chlorine (Clorg) and is commonly found in the environment due to both anthropogenic and natural processes. Though there are still uncertainties regarding all of the components of the chlorine cycle in soil, the chlorination of organic matter has been exemplified by research. The reverse process, Clorg mineralizing into Clin, has however not been thoroughly investigated. For this study the objective was to observe at what rate Clorg mineralizes into Clin, this by using 36Cl as a tracer in forest soil. 36Cl was added to the soil and 36Clorg was formed over a period of approximately 100 days. After chlorination the samples were incubated in different conditions and the amount of 36Clorg was observed over a period of time (180 days). The result showed no evident dechlorination during the experiment period which indicates that Clorg can be stable in the organic horizon in forest soil.

  • 3.
    Helander, Gustav
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Regional implementering av nationella uppdrag: Vad begränsar och möjliggör genomförandet?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbar utveckling har sedan åtminstone 20 år tillbaka varit ett mål för miljöpolitiken i Sverige där begreppet ofta tolkats utifrån den ekologiskadimensionen. På nationell nivå bestämmer regering och riksdag inriktningen för miljöpolitiken och nationella myndigheter samordnar och följerupp arbetet. På den regionala nivån svarar länsstyrelserna för samordning, samverkan och uppföljning där arbetet anpassas efter länetsförutsättningar. På den lokala nivån ska kommuner översätta nationella mål till lokala mål och åtgärder. Det handlar alltså om att myndigheter pånationell, regional och lokal nivå ska implementera viktiga politiska beslut. Miljöpolitikens genomförande blir således ett samspel mellanmyndigheter på olika nivåer. Många aktörer är inblandade i och ska samverka inom implementeringen av miljöarbetet varför kommunikation bliren viktig faktor. Men eftersom kommunikation, liksom naturen, är komplex blir det svårt att uppnå en friktionsfri process från politik till praktik(Johansson, 2008). Det är också en utmaning och ett bekymmer för många regeringar att översätta politik till praktik varför det blir intressant attstudera implementeringsprocesser (Saetren, 2005). Det övergripande syftet med studien är att undersöka hur övergången fungerar när nationellauppdrag ska implementeras och utföras på regional nivå genom att ta reda på vad som begränsar och möjliggör implementeringen enligt regionalaoch nationella aktörer. I studien framkommer att ett ökat deltagande i utformningen av uppdragen möjligen skulle kunna underlättaimplementeringen genom en ökad förståelse. Samma uppdrag kan också upplevas på olika sätt. Det som en nationell aktör upplever som frihetoch handlingsutrymme kan en regional uppleva som otydliga instruktioner och bristande vägledning. Förändringar i uppdrag sig innebär problemi arbetet eftersom så mycket tid och kraft måste läggas på att tolka och förstå det nya systemet att det konkreta åtgärdsarbetet blir lidande. Vidareverkar resursbrist vara en hindrande faktor i implementeringen av miljökvalitetsmålen men även att målen är ambitiösa innebär att de inte kanuppnås inom tidsramarna. När det istället gäller klimat- och energistrategin upplevs tillräckliga resurser finnas tillgängliga. Det krävs inom ramenför båda uppdragen en (politisk) vilja hos kommuner och andra aktörer att samarbeta och att arbeta med miljöfrågor regionalt för att samordningoch samverkan ska fungera.

  • 4.
    Sahlberg, Jörgen
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Physical modelling of the Akkajaure reservoir2003In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 7, no 3, 268-282 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the seasonal temperature development in the Akkajaure reservoir, one of the largest Swedish reservoirs. It lies in the headwaters of the river Luleiilven in northern Sweden; it is 60 km long and 5 km wide with a maximum depth of 92 m. The maximum allowed variation in surface water level is 30 m. The temperature field in the reservoir is important for many biochemical processes. A one-dimensional lake model of the Akkajaure reservoir is developed from a lake model by Sahlberg (1983 and 1988). The dynamic eddy viscosity is calculated by a two equation turbulence model, a k-ε model and the hypolimnic eddy diffusivity formulation which is a function of the stability frequency (Hond o et al., 1993). A comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles showed a maximum discrepancy of 0.5-1.0oC over the period 1999-2002. Except for a few days in summer, the water temperature is vertically homogeneous. Over that period of years, a weak stratification of temperature occurred on only one to two weeks a year on different dates in July and August. This will have biological consequences.

  • 5.
    Edoff, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Nilsson, Elvira
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Östgötska jordbrukares medvetenhet om och inställning till växtskyddsmedel: En intervjustudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Av Sveriges totala yta utgörs 10 procent av odlad jord och ängsmark. Det finns både konventionella och ekologiska jordbruk i Sverige. Av Sveriges totala jordbruksproduktion utgör konventionella jordbruk den största delen.

    Dagens jordbruksproduktion går ut på att använda så få resurser som möjligt för att kunna utvinna mesta möjligt vinst. För att göra detta måste växtodlingarna skyddas mot angrepp för att säkerställa produktionsavkastning och god produktkvalitet. Skadeinsekter, ogräs och sjukdomar är tre komponenter som behöver förebyggas med hjälp av effektiva växtskyddsmedel. Används kemiska bekämpningsmetoder kan det få negativa effekter för miljön men även för jordbrukare såväl som för konsumenten. Icke-kemiska bekämpningsmedel har däremot svårigheter att uppfylla ett fullständigt skydd från skadeinsekter och sjukdomar.

    Det finns stadgad lagstiftning om användningen av bekämpningsmedel. Förordningen om växtskyddsmedel stöds av miljöbalken och regeringsformen som bland annat behandlar ämnet integrerad bekämpning. Denna ska begränsa en användning av kemiska medel till den grad där inte ekonomiska förluster eller skador orsakas, men där ändå skadliga organismer hålls på en låg nivå.

    Uppsatsen syftar till att undersöka vilken medvetenhet det idag finns hos jordbrukare i Östergötland gällande olika bekämpningsmetoder och vilken inställning som finns till kemiska bekämpningsmedel och alternativa metoder. Det finns tidigare forskning gjord inom liknande områden som understödjer den här studien bland annat studier om hur kunskap om och attityd till miljöproblem kan leda till beteendeförändringar samt hur jordbrukares inställning kan se ut gentemot biologisk kontroll. Dessutom finns det många studier om hur kemisk bekämpning kan påverka den mänskliga hälsan och miljön.

    För att nå syftet har en kvalitativ intervjustudie genomförts med sex stycken jordbrukare i Östergötland. Under intervjuerna fick jordbrukarna svara på frågor angående medvetenhet, inställning och kunskapsinhämtning. Studiens resultat visar att det finns stor medvetenhet om såväl kemiska bekämpningsmedel som alternativa växtskyddsmetoder hos de intervjuade jordbrukarna i Östergötland. Till mångt och mycket är det de ekonomiska aspekterna som styr valet mellan dessa typer av växtskyddsmedel. Trots att inställningen till alternativa metoder är positiv bland jordbrukarna går åsikterna om dess effekter isär, något som redovisas och analyseras i den här studien. Den här studien kan bidra till en ökad förståelse för hur och varför jordbrukare väljer att använda olika typer av växtskyddsmetoder.

  • 6.
    Vastesson, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Micro-Structuring of New Materials Combined with Electronic Polymers for Interfaces with Cells2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Materials based on novel Off-Stoichiometry Thiol-Ene polymers, abbreviated OSTE, show promising properties as materials forlow cost and scalable manufacturing of micro- and nanosystems such as lab-on-chip devices. The OSTE materials have tunablemechanical properties, offer possibility for low temperature bonding to many surfaces via tunable surface chemistry, and can beused in soft lithography. Unlike the commonly used elastomer poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS, the OSTE materials have lowpermeability for gasses, are resistant to common solvents and can be more permanently surface modified.In this master’s thesis project, the OSTE materials have been evaluated with focus on compatibility with cells, possibility fornanostructuring using soft lithography and the use of OSTE as a flexible support for conducting polymers.Results from cell seeding studies with HEP G2 cells suggest that cells can proliferate on a low thiol off-stoichiometry OSTEmaterial for at least five days. The biocompatibility for this type of OSTE material may be similar to poly(styrene). However, highlevels of free thiol monomers in the material decrease cell viability considerably.By using soft lithography techniques it is possible to fabricate OSTE nanochannels with at least the dimensions of 400 nm x 15nm. Combined with the advantages of using the OSTE materials, such as low temperature bonding and possibility for stablesurface modifications, a candidate construction material for future development of systems for DNA analysis is at hand.OSTE can serve as a flexible support for an adsorbed film of a conducting polymer with the possibility for future applicationssuch as electronic interfaces in microsystems. In this project, a film of PEDOT:PSS with the electrical resistance of ~5 kΩ wascreated by adsorption to an flexible OSTE material. Furthermore, results suggest that it is possible to further optimize theconductivity and water resistance of PEDOT:PSS films on OSTE.

  • 7.
    Haegeland, Veronica
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Sustainable water management in the textile industry – barriers and opportunities: The case of Swedish retail brand policy on water use in the context of Bangladesh, and the prospects of increased efficiency through dialogue2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although Bangladesh is considered to be a water rich country the groundwater levels are decreasing at a steady rate. The pressure on water resources is to a large extent driven by the wet processing of textiles in the country, and this thesis will therefore focus on the issue of water governance in the textile industry. This thesis will argue that the issue is made complex due to the variety of stakeholders from different cultural backgrounds with vested interests in how the water resources are being managed. Based on interviewees from two Swedish retail brands, the Bangladeshi government, suppliers and organization active in the country, the thesis aims at identifying barriers towards increasing sustainable water management practices in the country. The diversity of cultural background will be analyzed through the lens of institutional theory in order to consider the differences in governance strategies and how they might relate to the barriers. The thesis will also present the prospect of an inclusive stakeholder dialogue platform as a means of overcoming barriers and institutional differences in terms of water governance strategies. Building on the findings the thesis concludes that there are several barriers in terms of agreement, knowledge, and social and political structures. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that the stakeholders approach these barriers differently depending on their cultural background. Lastly, the stakeholder dialogue is considered to have the capacity to create a much needed space for stakeholder collaboration in order to overcome these barriers. 

  • 8.
    Ruales Falconi, Alejandra
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Cultural paradigm shifts in socio-technical transitions towards sustainable cities: A case study of the transportation system of São Paulo2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation is a key component of the urban realm due to its high fossil fuel consumption, GHG emissions and pollution generation (among other negative externalities) that have been aggravated by an individual motor vehicle-driven society. In order to achieve a balanced urban growth for the future, the transportation paradigm requires a complete shift that will depend upon a change on people’s behaviors and perceptions about mobility. Being the biggest, most populous city of Brazil and the western hemisphere, as well as the financial motor behind the country’s economy, São Paulo currently faces a very serious transportation problem: an extremely high car per capita ratio in conjunction with a deficient public transport network. Furthermore, socioeconomic disparities exert an additional pressure to this dilemma, limiting the access to mobility and deeply embedding the car from a cultural standpoint. Given its prominence, São Paulo is the ideal city to evaluate how specific cultural and socio- spatial niches can steer a cultural paradigm shift that could ultimately trigger a socio-technical transition towards sustainability. In this case study, the role of policies, technology, and infrastructure as policymaking instruments are analyzed in the context of urban spaces in emergent nations, where political and economic structures are strong social determinants. Moreover, this study has shown how these instruments could not only produce a new set of mobility practices (or a new transportation culture) but also the creation of an equitable and thriving urban environment. 

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.
    Larsson, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.
    Solvärme i Singapore2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world faces big issues regarding its energy supply and its impact on the environment. Something has to be done in order to stop this. One way to do that is to make energy generation more sustainable by shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. Solar energy is one of them, and this report covers hot water produced from it.

    A country that should have good conditions to harvest solar power is Singapore. The country has a very limited land area and almost no natural resources. Because of this, most of its energy is supplied by imported natural gas. In this report, a case has been created to evaluate the performance and profitability of a hot water solar system in a villa in Singapore. In order to do this, literature about the sun, solar heating systems and Singapore has been looked into. Further, thermodynamical correlations have been studied and used in calculations to draw conclusions.

    The result of this report is that an installation of a solar water heating system in a villa in Singapore is feasible and profitable. Other applications of solar thermal power have been evaluated qualitatively and the conclusion is that these also have big potential in Singapore. Ultimately, this could lead Singapore to be less relying on imported energy and also reduce its impact on the environment.

  • 10.
    Didanovic Nilsson, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Är blod tjockare än vatten?: En kvalitativ studie om familjen och den biologiska betydelsen.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

     

    Titel: Is blood thicker than water? A qualitative study of the family and the biological significance.

    Author: Lotta Didanovic Nilsson

     

    The purpose of this study has been to investigate whether, and if so, why it is so important for individuals to get to know their biological parents. The point of departure has been people who have grown up with one of their biological parents and met the other biological parent only as an adult. I have chosen to look at what happens in this meeting and how the people involved reacted and were affected by this. What controls and shapes the individual/group, such as the media, family-policy, social structures and what is considered proper procedure in a certain context and at different levels will also be discussed. The study is qualitative with semi-structured interviews with six informants, myself included. Therefore, this thesis will be an auto-ethnography as my own history and my experience is lifted and analysed together with my informants’. The results show a multi-faceted picture where the conclusion I draw is that the biological plays an important role for the parent- and child-relationship but perhaps for other reasons than we have previously thought. It further requires a social context on a day to day-basis for this relationship to become something significant and deep.

  • 11.
    Haile, Henok Debessai
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Sustainable Phosphorus Management in Sweden: A study of phosphorus recycling from wastewater sludge in several municipalities of the Östergötland County2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Environmental Agency (SEPA) proposed a national target to increase the rate of phosphorus recycling from wastewater sludge in 2013. Reusing phosphorus from wastewater sludge by spreading it on arable lands raises the risk of contamination and substance deposition in soils. In addition to quantifying the targeted rate of recycling, the proposal has also introduced new thresholds that limit the concentrations of undesired substances in wastewater sludge. This thesis assesses the potential challenges and opportunities in implementing the proposed measure in the Swedish municipality settings. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been gathered from three selected mid-sized Swedish municipalities in the Östergötland County and other data sources. The analytical framework of the thesis is based on the Systems Framework for Phosphorus Recovery and Reuse. Several discrepancies between the national goal to increase phosphorus recycling and local circumstances that affect local decision-making have been identified in this thesis. Reducing the flow of undesired substances into the wastewater stream raises goal conflict and is an enormous challenge which requires regulating the way chemicals are consumed in society. From the policy perspective, the national environmental objectives framework is ambiguous with regards to how local decisions should be directed in line with the national goals. The proposed measure should hierarchically be unequivocal and its implementation needs to be coordinated across all geographical scales. The thesis also highlights that there are significant local opportunities for addressing other sustainability goals through phosphorus recycling measures. Sweden’s commitment to creating a resource-efficient phosphorus cycle affirms that the key for a sustainable phosphorus management is the transformation of path-dependent social and technical systems.

  • 12.
    Holgerson, Line
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Exploring the role of multi-functional solutions when planning for climate change: A case study of stormwater management in a Swedish city2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Managing stormwater sustainably in the face of extreme weather events has increasingly been recognized as a strategy for climate adaptation in the urban planning context. Sustainable stormwater management intends to reduce urban vulnerability while ensuring the overall sustainability and robustness of future cities. To add to the emerging research field of green infrastructure, the objective of the study is to explore the role of multi-functional solutions as a climate change response in urban planning and development. This study has been driven by an inductive research process and draws on empirical data collection through workshops and interviews with City Hall officials in Motala City. The study concludes that despite the lack of preventative planning to anticipate climate change, city renewal and urban development of Motala City presented a window of opportunity to implement potential multi-functional stormwater solutions in the urban environment through urban planning. Further, increased focus on internal and external collaboration through the process of envisioning the future of the city have enabled new forms of governance and facilitated arenas for public acceptance and an integrative planning-approach. Lastly, discourses on attractiveness enabled greenery to be viewed from a social, economic and environmental perspective, supporting multi-functional stormwater solutions as a strategy for climate adaptation and urban sustainability.

  • 13.
    Vallgren, Rikard
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vem ska rädda världen?: En textanalys av faktaböcker för barn om klimatförändringarna 2000-20152015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the message of non-fiction books on climate change for children, published in Swedish 2000-2015. The purpose of the study is to investigate how the message is communicated in relation to how recent research shows that it should be done. The study also aims to analyze the similarities and differences in the book's message compared to the message in the public debate during the period. The issues that the study intends to answer is what message is being communicated, how it is done and if the message and the way to communicate has changed over the time period.

     

    The study was conducted in the form of a text analysis where qualitative content analysis and visual text analysis have been combined. The interpretation strategy is interpreter-related. The empirical material consists of sixteen non-fiction books, devised by searching in Swedish Children's Book Institute's catalog.

     

    The results indicate that the speech in the literature changed in a significant way during the 2000s first fifteen years, and that the changes broadly follows the changes in the contemporary Swedish climate debate. Meanwhile, clear differences are interpreted regarding what messages and symbols are highlighted in children's literature compared to the rest of society. Certain discrepancies between the speech of children's literature and research findings concerning appropriate communication strategies can also be interpreted in the analysis.

  • 14.
    Lönnerud, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effekter av kalkning på fosforhalten i en kalkrik sjö – ett mesokosmexperiment i Tåkern2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major current environmental issues is eutrophication of aquatic environments. Measures to reduce eutrophication of lakes and streams are of high priority in Sweden. There are several negative implications of eutrophication such as lowered water quality, reduced biodiversity and loss of recreational values. These negative effects can be correlated to high phosphorus concentrations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of reducing the amount of available phosphorus during spring using liming in Lake Tåkern in southern Sweden. The study was conducted in April of 2015 in five mesocosms, three were treated with a mixture of limestone powder (CaCO3) and slaked lime (Ca(OH)2) to pH and two were untreated (controls). The aim of the liming was to precipitate calcite, to which phosphorus adsorbs. The variables used to document effects of liming include particulate phosphorus (PP), total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and complementary water chemistry. In addition to this experiment, samples of TP from a previous mesokosm experiment in July 2014 were analysed for comparison. Results showed no significant effects of liming on either PP, TP or SRP. The lack of effects from liming was most likely a result of low concentration of SRP in Lake Tåkern. Conclusions from this study were that liming at one occasion is not suitable for control of phosphorus concentration, the low observed concentrations of SRP over a longer period also indicates that repeated liming’s would not affect phosphorus concentration in Lake Tåkern.

  • 15.
    Wolmerud, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Real-Time Fluid Simulation and Visualization2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a method based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to simulate sparse particle systems with fluid like properties in real-time. The simulation supports interactions with terrain and objects and is scaled depending on activity of the fluid. We use a carpet method on the GPU to visualize the water surface with translucency, reflection, refraction and added topology. Splash effects and foam are imitated and added as a last step.

  • 16.
    Lundmark, linda
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Definitionen och tolkningen av miljöproblemen och möjliga lösningar: En studie kring Svenska miljöorganisationers argument och perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, four different Swedish environmental organizations are examined and compared in order to highlight how they view theenvironmental problems and possible solutions. People from the environmental organizations Naturskyddsföreningen, Klimataktion, Fores andHela Sverige ska leva were interviewed. Additional information was gathered from the various environmental organizations' websites andcatalogs. To get an in-depth discussion and to relate the analyzed material to a larger theoretical context, the arguments of the environmentalorganizations have been analyzed in relation to different environmental discourses. Two relevant theoretical frameworks for this study is Hajersdiscursive theory, which relate to environmental problems and environmental conflicts, and Swyngedouws view of how today's symbolization of"Nature" affect and limit environmental policy. The result shows that the various environmental organizations have a different approach toenvironmental problems and possible solutions. Fores perspective can be related to the ecological modernization discourse, where theenvironmental problem is seen as something that could be dealt with within the current socio-economic frames with a continued economicgrowth. Naturskyddsföreningen do not criticize economic growth, but they believe that the economic systems should be driven in a moreenvironmentally conscious direction. Their perspective can be related to the ecological reconsideration discourse (den ekologiska omprövningensdiskurs). Both Klimataktions and Hela Sverige ska levas approach to environmental problems can be related to the system criticism discourse(Systemkritikens diskurs), where market-based solutions and technological developments are not considered to be enough to solve environmentalproblems. Instead we need to extensively change our way of life with reduced consumption and energy use.

  • 17.
    Wallstedt, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. 630307-3354.
    Hassel (Corylus avellana) som indikator på markanvändningshistorik2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hazel (Corylus avellana L.) is a common feature of meadows and pastures where it can grow in large populations and become very old. Is it possible to use the size of hazel stools for age determination and is it possible to use the size distribution of a population to provide information about how the land has been used? Hazel populations on ground where the lake-water level had been lowered, has been studied to validate an already developed growth model of hazel clones. Different hazel populations, on wooded meadows affected by mowing or grazing or overgrown meadows, were studied to evaluate the method utilizing hazel as land use indicator. The growth model was used to compare the size distributions of hazel populations with historical periods, which has been important for changes in agriculture or demography. The results show that the current growth model needs to be refined, but the method itself with a growth model based on the circumference of hazel bushes seems feasible. Additional studies about the influence of, for example, soils of different fertility are needed. The results also show that the size distribution in a population depends on how much meadows have been affected by mowing or grazing and that areas with similar land use have similar size distribution. Finally, some examples are reported about how a growth model can be used to compare historical periods of changes in agriculture, for example reduced livestock, with variations of the size distribution in a hazel population.

  • 18.
    Marliden, Nina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Variability of GHG emissions from emergent aquatic macrophytes in mixed boreal and Equisetum dominated communities2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Plants (macrophytes) growing in lake and wetland sediments are known mediators of greenhouse gases (GHG), specifically methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Current studies have emphasized the potential risk of underestimation regarding emissions of plant-mediated GHGs from terrestrial systems including lakes, streams and other freshwater bodies. In order to differentiate the possible sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon and nitrogen in aquatic environments, this study aims to investigate the spatial variability of GHG fluxes in stands of common wetland macrophytes. Field samplings were carried out in the summer of 2012 where 24-hour diel measurements were conducted with the static chamber method in a boreal lake in south western Sweden. Two macrophyte communities were studied; one mixed-species stand and one species-specific stand of water horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile). Spatial variability was confirmed at several stages, both between and within stands. The species-specific stand emitted more CH4 than the mixed stand, from 0.17 to 8.99 mmol m-2 h-1, compared to 0.63 – 1.95 mmol m-2 h-1 maximum measured. Within stand variability was confirmed as variable CH4 flux per strand of E. fluviatile was established. No significant differences were observed regarding CO2 and N2O, other than weak correlation in diel patterns, e.g. daytime uptake and night time respiration/emission for both gases.

  • 19.
    Renström, Klara
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Automatic age estimation of children based on brain matter composition using quantitative MRI2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a child can be monitored by studying the changes in physical appearance or the development of capabilities e.g. walking and talking. But is it possible to find a quantitative measure for brain development? The aim of this thesis work is to investigate that possibility using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) images by answering the following questions:

    • Can brain development be determined using qMRI? If so, what properties of the brain can be used?
    • Can the age of a child be automatically detected with an algorithm? If so, how can this algorithm function? With what accuracy?

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect properties in the brain changing with age, based on MRI images. These properties have e.g. been changes in T1 and T2 relaxation time, i.e. properties in water signal behavior that can be measured using multiple MR acquisitions. In the literature this was linked to a rapid myelination process that occurs after birth. Furthermore the organization and growth of the brain is a property that can be measured and monitored.

    This thesis have investigated several different properties in the brain based on qMRI images in order to identify those who have a strong correlation with age in the range 0-20 years. The properties that were found to have a high correlation were:

    • Position of the first histogram peak in T1 weighted qMRI images,
    • Fraction of white matter in the brain,
    • Mean pixel value of PD weighted qMRI images,
    • Volume of white matter in the brain,

    Curves on the form f(x) = ae^(-bx) +c are fitted to the data sets and confidence intervals are calculated to frame the statistical insecurity of the curve. The mean error in percent for the different properties can be seen in the list below:

    Property, Mean error [%] 0-20 years, Mean error [%] 0-3 years

    Peak position: 53.84, 98.17

    Fraction of WM: 118.97, 71.67

    Mean pixel value: 200.89, 126.28

    Volume of WM: 241.72, 72.58

    The conclusions drawn based on the presented results are that there are properties in the brain that correlates well to aging, but the error is too large for making a valid prediction of age over the entire range of 0-20 years. When decreasing the age range to 0-3 years the mean error becomes smaller, but it is still too large. More data is needed to evaluate and improve this result.

  • 20.
    Bergström, Emelie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bilismen ur ett genusperspektiv: En kvantitativ studie i Norrköping om mänsoch kvinnors förhållande till fordonet bil ochexisterande normer kring kvinnor och män2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims is to look at car traffic, which contributes to a significant environmental impact, from a gender perspective. The purpose of the study is also to compare with previous studies and to analyze how this is corresponds with frame and situation of people living in Norrköping. In order to approach this suitably, a quantitative study in the form of surveys have been conducted - with a sample of 100 respondents to represent Norrkoping. This method assisted in the raised questions. To best get a perspective of correlation between the sexes and between different questions in the questionnaire, a chi-square test was applied.

    The results of the study showed that different expectations about men’s and women’s behavior and relationship to the usage of vehicles in society exists, in Norrköping, yet also that the habits around the usage reflects additional differences. Men and women have similar approaches to the usage of vehicles, with an environmental consciousness, with regards to the given car or such, in a comparable degree independent of their gender. This study has found that both men and women, to a notable degree, regard men to be more interested in cars and that they are more prone to drive one. It also shows that several of the respondents, regard women to be over-all more environmentally aware than men. This would align with the contemporary norms of society based on previous research. However, in contrast, the results also highlight that both genders, in Norrköping, spend the comparable amount of time driving a car and have similar awareness of environmental factors. The differences in the expectations around the given behavior of men and women are there but their reported behavior does not necessarily follow those predictions.

  • 21.
    Elm, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hur arbetar tre Östgötakommuner med klimatanpassning?: En intervjustudie kring klimatanpassningsarbete över tid.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a changing climate, we face great pressure in the future. In order to adapt to both the current and future climate we need to work with climate adaptation. Climate change can have a large impact on the functioning of society and thus create great damage on society. In this paper, we have chosen to look at climate change adaptation at the municipal level. We have chosen three different municipalities to interview, Norrköping, Linköping and Söderköping. The purpose of this paper is to examine how three municipalities in Östergötland are dealing with climate adaptation and determine if this has changed over time, with a lot of focus on the official’s perception of the problem. The method that has been used is a semi- structured interview study and the respondents has been officials who work or who have worked with climate adaptation. After completing the interviews a compilation of responses was made and analysed more profound. The results of the study show that the prioritization of climate adaption differs between the municipalities. In Norrköping and Linköping the climate adaptation work is considered to be well prioritized, and is rising on the agenda. It is less prioritized in Söderköping and has been so over the years. Based on the interviews, there is an interest in working more with climate adaptation than is done in the current situation, and there are several factors that affect climate adaptation efforts, which can be seen as both barriers and driving forces depending on situation. Those are for example: amount of resources, politics, size of the municipality, experience of past climate related events, knowledge, support from higher levels and distribution of responsibilities.

  • 22.
    Kyhlbäck, Måns
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kling, Josefin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Klimatanpassningen i Sverige, Finland och Holland: Styrningens uppbyggnad, problem och möjligheter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to manage anticipated effects from future climate change, adaptation is needed. Which implies protecting society against risks and take advantage of possible new opportunities. Different countries, are using different methods to steer adaptation, which generally can be described the top-down and bottom-up approaches. However, there are different problems and opportunities with those arrangements. For example, control through top-down is often weak in implementation at local level, while on the other hand local actors in the bottom-up system often lacks resources to carry out implementation. In this literature- and document study, we examine current research and policy document with the support of the Environmental Governance theory, in order to clarify the structure, effectiveness, problems and opportunities of this steering approaches for the implementation of adaptation. The countries Sweden, Finland and Netherlands, were selected as case countries since they have chosen different approaches and have relatively developed climate adaptation systems. The results show, among other things, that a combined model in which both control methods are used is the best model to guide adaptation. There are also differences, top-down tend to lack clear guidelines from the national level, despite the national plans, while the bottom-up system often is affected by lack of financial resources, instruments and information resources. But those arrangements also have similarities, such as problems with the inclusion of private actors in the implementation of adaptation.

  • 23.
    Melander, Linnea
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Koj, Razan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Omställning mot en cirkulär ekonomi: En studie om svenska kommuners påbörjade arbete med cirkulär ekonomi2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens samhälle präglas av en linjär ekonomi som resulterar i utarmning av jordens resurser och ökande avfallsmängder. Cirkulär ekonomi är en alternativ modell till den linjära ekonomin som syftar till cirkulerande flöden av resurser och en övergång till hållbara energikällor. Denna studie undersöker hur och varför svenska kommuner arbetar med cirkulär ekonomi, vilka förutsättningar som krävs för en implementering samt vilka drivkrafter och svårigheter som identifierats i arbetet med att påbörja en implementering av cirkulär ekonomi. Studien bygger på kvalitativa intervjuer med tjänstemän som varit aktiva inom kommunala projekt som har en koppling till cirkulär ekonomi. Resultatet visar att de främsta drivkrafterna för en kommun att implementera cirkulär ekonomi är att jordens resurser håller på att utarmas och att det därför krävs förändrade resursflöden för att nå ett gott hållbarhetsarbete. Minskade avfallsmängder och att cirkulär ekonomi är nytänkande när det kommer till att se lösningar för dagens miljöproblem är andra drivkrafter som identifierats. Viktiga förutsättningar som krävs för en övergång mot cirkulär ekonomi på lokal nivå är politiskt stöd, finansiering, kunskapsspridning, god samverkan samt goda exempel.

  • 24.
    Lunden, Madelene
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    An evaluation of a newly developed method with required beneficial qualities for measuring pCO2 from fresh water: Test-study performed in a small boreal stream network, south west of Sweden during March – October 2013 and 20142015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have concluded that streams emit CO2, which indicates that natural sources of Greenhouse Gases can contribute to climate changefeedback. Why this is of interest is to be able to make reliable climate models. These studies are however debated, since there are differentmethods to measure CO2 evasion from streams which conclude that different hydrological and chemical factors are affecting the gas exchange themost. It is based on an upside-down-placed chamber in the streams, containing a sensor which is able to directly measure the partial pressure ofCO2 (pCO2) in streams. An advantage with this method is that it is built on cheap equipment and therefore can be afforded to cover a bigcatchment with differing hydrological factors. The aim for the thesis is to evaluate the usefulness of this new method by running several statisticalanalyses on the collected data and also by comparing the trend from the statistical results to other methods statistical trends of pCO2. What can beconcluded by this study is that discharge affects the pCO2 in streams and it often appears with a negative correlation. Also, diurnal patterns ofpCO2 seem to appear, with a peak before lunch and minimum levels in the afternoon, which could indicate that pCO2 are dependent onphotosynthesis/respiration and/or temperature. These conclusions are of interest to understand how C acts in freshwater and respond to the climatechange. The study has to be extended with investigation of how more factors affect pCO2 and also some improvement for the method, before itcan be fully used.

  • 25.
    Hassan, Mao
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pastoralist Way of Life Under Threat:: Assessing the vulnerability risks faced by pastoralist communities as well as their potential to adapt to climate change in the Horn of Africa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis was to examine the main causes of pastoral  vulnerability to climate change as well as assess their adaptive capacity to withstand future climate disturbances in the Horn of Africa. By studying two of the most iconic pastoralists’ communities in Africa – the Somali and the Massai’s in Kenya, the study intended to use the communities as representative to the overall pastoralist’s situation in the Horn of Africa. The study used the 2007 IPCC Vulnerability Assessment framework that entails exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity to climate change as a guiding instrument to comprehend the complexities of the pastoral livelihood. The participants of the study included pastoralists, officials from the government, NGO’s and research Institutions. Major findings of this study were, in addition to climate manifesting in destructive forms, pastoralism faces political marginalization, shrinking pastureland, sprawling urbanization, exponential growth of population and conflicts. Despite the challenges, the study also finds strong adaptive capacity by the pastoralists. Adaptation strategies include traditional methods of rangeland management and migration. The study also shows new modern methods adaptation to climate mainly instigated by the pastoralists with assistance from external actors, these methods include; Ecological Based Adaptation and technology driven approaches as well as a mixture of agriculture and pastoralism – agro-pastoralism. It was also found that the two communities studied face different climate challenges and adaptation approaches.

  • 26.
    Molin, Johan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Present and Future Role of Energy Recovery in Waste Management - A Case Study of Linköping and Norrköping2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Union 500 million tonnes of waste are either incinerated without energy recovery,or deposited in landfills, which could have been recycled instead. The European Union initiated theCircular Economy Package in order to decrease the amount of waste being generated, lost inlandfills, and to increase the recycling and usage of recycled material. However, the CircularEconomy Package did not contain any targets focusing on energy recovery, and only mentionedenergy recovery as having a role in decreasing the amount of waste deposited in landfills. TheCircular Economy Package was in the end of 2014 withdrawn but will come back with moreambitious targets. In Sweden energy recovery is treating more than 50% of the municipal waste andwould then be affected by the targets of the Circular Economy Package when it comes back.This thesis focuses on Linköping and Norrköping to identify the what role energy recovery have inthese municipalities, both present and future, as well as asking the questions of how waste is valuedas a resource.The results were that both municipalities thought that it was important to have separate sorting ofmunicipal waste, to separate organic waste from the rest, in order to use it in material recycling andthe rest in energy recovery. In both municipalities the energy recovery had the role of treating themunicipal waste which was found to be not recyclable, as well as to deliver heat and electricity. Allof the organisations were identified to have a high environmental value on waste, but the economicvalue of waste were low or negative. The municipalities also knew little of the Circular EconomyPackage, but were aware of it, while the energy companies knew a little more of it, but still littlecompared to their national interest organisations Avfall Sverige and Svensk Fjärrvärme. All of theorganisations had identified similar challenges such as increased focus on recycling, minimisationof waste, but also a focus on decreasing amount of hazardous substances in products in order todecrease the amount of waste which needed to be deposited in landfills.

  • 27.
    Eriksson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of catchment processes in sediments from Bolgoda Lake, Sri Lanka2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom sediment is an archive of the historical changes in a lake and its catchment. This thesis is apalaeoenvironmental reconstruction of catchment processes in Bolgoda Lake situated in western SriLanka. We studied a sediment core retrieved from this lake. In our study, we focus on multiplephysical and chemical proxies: grain-size, loss-on-ignition, total organic carbon content, C:N ratio,and δ13C stored in the organic matter. The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understandingof the palaeoenvironmental conditions in the region and allow a comparison between this site andothers.In the deepest part of the core, we see an overall high sand content, which indicates a period ofhigher discharge into the lake compared to what the other core parts indicate. This is probably aresult of higher precipitation. This is followed by a decline in C:N and a rise in TOC in the second partwhich indicates an increase of primary production in the lake. In the third part we again see a shift inthe C:N indicating a source change back to more terrestrial runoff. The increase in TOC and LOIvalues together with decrease in C:N ratio and a steady increase in δ13C indicate an increase inlacustrine productivity in the upper part of the core.By reconstructing the palaeoenvironmental history in Bolgoda Lake we can conclude that it isprobable that some other factor than diagenetic change affects the lake. Our results indicate thatthese changes most likely are due to more wet periods and anthropogenic activity, mainly throughland use changes.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rundström, Robin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Kommunikation av ekologiskt livsmedel: En intervju- och textanalysstudie av hur ekologiskt livsmedel kommuniceras mot konsumenter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the rhetorical rendering of organic foods, within the research area of environmental communication and ecological theories. The aim is to analyse which renderings are connected to the concept organic foods. Further on Swedish authorities and organisations views on organic foods are examined, in comparison to the grocery retailer’s rhetorical rendering of organic foods. The methodology is based on two methods of data collection. Qualitative research interviews have been conducted with the following authorities: the Swedish Food Agency, the Swedish Consumer Agency and the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Interviews were also conducted with the organisations KRAV and the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation. The interviews were conducted with the intention of making visible the underlying rendering of the concept of organic foods. A textual and metaphor analyses of ICA, Coop and Axfood’s combined communication of organic foods were performed. The aim with these analyses is to examine the grocery retailer’s rhetorical rendering of the concept. The study highlights that there are two main attitudes towards the rendering of organic foods among the actors. Additionally this study clarifies that the authorities, organisations and grocery retailer’s use of the concept differ. Partly the authorities rendering of organics are mainly focused around environmental benefits. While the grocery retailers rendering of organic foods is based on metaphors and idyllic nature values. The study also shows that organic labels is part of green consumerism and thereby legitimize consumption as a solution of environmental and social problems. 

  • 29.
    Zeeshan, Jafer
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    U.S. Governmental incentives and policies for investment in electric vehicles and infrastructure2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of study is to research the development of electric vehicle technology in the United States. This study describes the United States public policies towards electric vehicle technology and system of innovation approaches. The government roles with the help of national system of innovation have been also covered in this study.

    The point of departure was the study of available literature and U.S energy policy acts which illustrates that the break-through in electric vehicles still not only depended on better battery technology and infrastructure for charging stations but also on social, economic and political factors. The important actors involved in the process are both at local and international level are private firms, governmental departments, research and development (R&D) institutes, nongovernment organizations (NGO’s) and environmental organizations etc. The arguments which are put forward in the background of development of such technologies are to reduce dependence on foreign oil and to reduce emissions of harmful gasses.

  • 30.
    Brown, Philip
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Identification of Chlorinated Fatty Acids in Standard Samples and Fish Lipids: Verification and Validation of Extraction, Transesterification and GC-MS/XSD2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorine gas bleaching was a common method used in pulp industries. As a consequence, significant amounts of chlorine were discharged into surrounding aquatic ecosystems, affecting the biota. Chlorinated organic pollutants are formed when chlorine react with organic material.

    Octadecanoic acid (stearic acid) is one of the most common saturated fatty acids in aquatic biota. In a naturally occurring process two and four chlorine atoms, respectively, are added over the unsaturated bonds, forming 9,10-dichloro octadecanoic acid and 9,10,12,13-tetrachloro octadecanoic acid. These are the chlorinated fatty acids (ClFA) under investigation in this Bachelor’s Thesis.

    The methodological framework for measuring ClFA is investigated in this essay. The scope is to evaluate the method of isolating and quantifying the compounds as described in Åkesson-Nilsson’s (2004) dissertation. The method includes: extraction of the lipid, transesterification (where the fatty acids, including the ClFAs, are separated from the lipids and transformed into their respective methyl esters through two methods, acidic catalysis with BF3 or H2SO4), separation (by solid phase extraction) and determination of ClFA concentration with a halogen specific detector (GC-XSD/MS). Furthermore, the scope is to investigate collected fish samples (from Norrsundet) with the abovementioned method.

    By making a dilution series with known concentrations it was possible to establish calibration curves, to give in an indication of the effectiveness of the method. BF3 is in need of updating due to being experienced as slower and less stable than the H2SO4-method. However, it was concluded that the H2SO4-method was more effective on the standard samples and that the BF3-method was more effective on the fish lipid samples.

    In one of the lipid samples (lavaret transesterified with BF3) a detectable concentration of 9,10,12,13-tetrachloro octadecanoic acid was discovered. Therefore, we question SEPAs decision to cancel investigations in Norrsundet. Our results could indicate that ClFAs are still an issue that could affect the ecosystem’s biota. 

  • 31.
    Fredsberg, Jessica
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vattenskydd och markanvändning: Hanteringen av ersättningar till markägare och verksamhetsutövare vid två svenska vattentäkter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna fallstudie har Flästa vattentäkt i Bollnäs kommun samt Ljung vattentäkt i Linköpings kommun studerats. Det som studerats är hur myndigheterna i dessa två fall hanterat frågor kring ersättningar till markägare samt arrendatorer och andra nyttjanderättsinnehavare i samband med att vattenskyddsområdet inrättats. Studien är genomförd som en fallstudie där strukturerade analyser gjorts av utvalda dokument. En ansats har också gjort att relatera det studerade problemet till Ulrich Becks teorier om risksamhället. Studien är avgränsad till att enbart studera hur ersättningar till jordbruket hanterats. Andra typer av verksamheter inom de berörda områdena har inte studerats.

    Det svenska jordbruket är något vi är stolta över, likaså vårt rena dricksvatten. Tyvärr genererar delar av jordbruket en del oönskade effekter. Som exempel kan nämnas övergödning och bekämpningsmedelsrester. Målet med EU:s ramdirektiv för vatten är att alla vatten ska uppnå god status till 2015.  För att uppnå detta inrättas vattenskyddsområden för att skydda de vatten som nyttjas eller kan komma att nyttjas som vattentäkt. Eftersom hela tillrinningsområdet bör innefattas i vattenskyddsområden när dessa inrättas berörs ofta stora markområden av de nya skyddsföreskrifterna. Dessa markområden används idag för andra ändamål, till exempel jordbruk. Då ett vattenskyddsområde inrättas förändras förutsättningarna för jordbruket i det berörda området. Exempelvis kan bekämpningsmedelsanvändningen i de flesta fall inte fortsätta på samma sätt som förut och ibland läggs också förbud eller restriktioner på att använda växtnäringsämnen i området. Både vattenförsörjning med vatten av god kvalitet och produkter från jordbruket är viktiga för landet. Jordbruk och vattenskydd har här till viss del skilda intressen inom samma markområden.

    Av slutsatserna framgår att ersättningen till markanvändare i samband med inrättande av vattenskyddsområden kan hanteras på olika sätt beroende på i vilket lagrum beslutsfattarna tar sin utgångspunkt. De båda kommunerna har hanterat detta på olika sätt. Utfallet är att i Bollnäs fick markägare och brukare ersättning för värdeminskning på marken eller ersättning för produktionsbortfall medan detta inte är aktuellt för lantbruket i Linköping. Att det saknas en reservvattentäkt i Bollnäs kommun är sannolikt en av de största anledningarna till att kommunen valt att helt förbjuda kemiska bekämpningsmedel inom vattenskyddsområdet. För Linköpings kommun finns ytterligare en vattentäkt vilket minskar sårbarheten. Studien visar också på att vi till viss del lever i den typ av risksamhälle som Beck talar om i sin teori. Men också att vi delvis fortfarande befinner oss i gränslandet mellan det klassiska industrisamhället och risksamhället.

  • 32.
    Magiera, Sylwia
    et al.
    Silesian Technical University, Poland.
    Baranowski, Jacek
    Determination of carnitine and acylcarnitines in human urine by means of microextraction in packed sorbent and hydrophilic interaction chromatography-ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry2015In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 109, 171-176 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method using semi-automatic microextraction by packed sorbent (eVol (R)-MEPS) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography-ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-UHPLC-MS/MS) was described for the simultaneous determination of carnitine and acylcarnitines in human urine. The optimal conditions of MEPS extraction were obtained using C2 of M1 (C8 + SCX) phase as a sorbent Chromatographic separation of the analytes was achieved within 2.5 min on Acquity UPLC BEH HILIC column using a gradient elution program with water containing 5 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in a positive ion mode via electrospray ionization (ESI). The linearity of the calibration curves for all compounds was found over a range from 0.1 ng/mL to 500 ng/mL. The method afforded satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy, recovery as well as stability of the analyte under various conditions. The method was used successfully for determination of carnitine and acylcarnitines in human urine.

  • 33.
    Bardh, Julia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlsson, Emma
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ”…economically and socially. And confidence and decision-making. Everything that we could not do before.”: A Minor Field Study on Fair Trade in India and Sri Lanka2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fair Trade is an international movement which aims to strengthen the livelihoods of producers in the South, and to give the opportunity for conscious customers in the North to buy socially and environmentally friendly products. The conventional trade system is criticised, as well as the efficiency of aid to support developing countries. The core idea of Fair Trade is therefore “Trade not Aid”, where marginalised producers are given the chance to improve their living conditions by fair wages, market access and improved working conditions. The aim of the thesis is to investigate the potential of Fair Trade to contribute to sustainable development and empowerment, which therefore also act as the theoretical frameworks for this thesis. Sustainable development is investigated by its division into economic, social and environmental sustainable development. Fair Trade is furthermore investigated through specific key elements connected to these theories, by performing interviews with managers and producers within five separate Fair Trade organisations in India and Sri Lanka.  The main findings within this study reveal how Fair Trade does have the potential to contribute to sustainable development and empowerment to a certain degree. It is specifically prominent regarding social development and empowerment, while economic development occurs mainly on an individual level. The contribution to environmental development is also possible to detect, even though it remains clear how the initiative to do so might not always be fully related to environmental causes.

  • 34.
    Jansson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optical properties of free-standing cubic silicon carbide2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of free-standing cubic silicon carbide for optoelectronic applications are explored in this work. The main focus of the work is on boron doped cubic silicon carbide, which is proposed as a highly useful material in several optoelectronic applications. The material is grown using sublimation epitaxy and the doped material is grown homoepitaxially on nominally undoped seeds. It is characterized using the experimental setups of photoluminescence spectroscopy, Nomarski interference spectroscopy and absorption spectroscopy.

    I have studied seed growth of nominally undoped cubic material on hexagonal (4H) substrates, and the influence on the grown material from the different faces of the substrate. It is found that it is not possible under the explored conditions to completely cover the growth area with the cubic polytype on the carbon face, but it can be done reproducibly on the silicon face. Reasons for this are discussed. Different doping setups are also explored. The influence on the material properties from growth conditions is explored. It is shown from absorption measurements that it is possible to grow boron doped cubic silicon carbide using this growth method, whereas optical microscopy studies show that the sample quality degrades with high doping concentrations.

    I have explored the luminescence properties of the material. No boron related emission is found with either room temperature or low temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. Reasons for this are discussed using results from absorption measurements and optical microscopy.

  • 35. Varelogianni, Georgia
    et al.
    Hussain, Rashida
    Strid, Hilja
    Oliynyk, Igor
    Roomans, Godfried M
    Johannesson, Marie
    The effect of ambroxol on chloride transport, CFTR and ENaC in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.2013In: Cell Biology International, ISSN 1065-6995, E-ISSN 1095-8355, Vol. 37, no 11, 1149-1156 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambroxol, a mucokinetic anti-inflammatory drug, has been used for treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF). The respiratory epithelium is covered by the airway surface liquid (ASL), the thickness and composition of which is determined by Cl(-) efflux via the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Na(+) influx via the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). In cells expressing wt-CFTR, ambroxol increased the Cl(-) conductance, but not the bicarbonate conductance of the CFTR channels. We investigated whether treatment with ambroxol enhances chloride transport and/or CFTR and ENaC expression in CF airway epithelial cells (CFBE) cells. CFBE cells were treated with 100 µM ambroxol for 2, 4 or 8 h. mRNA expression for CFTR and ENaC subunits was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); protein expression was measured by Western blot. The effect of ambroxol on Cl(-) transport was measured by Cl(-) efflux measurements with a fluorescent chloride probe. Ambroxol significantly stimulated Cl(-) efflux from CFBE cells (a sixfold increase after 8 h treatment), and enhanced the expression of the mRNA of CFTR and α-ENaC, and of the CFTR protein. No significant difference was observed in β-ENaC after exposure to ambroxol, whereas mRNA expression of γ-ENaC was reduced. No significant effects of ambroxol on the ENaC subunits were observed by Western blot. Ambroxol did not significantly affect the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Upregulation of CFTR and enhanced Cl(-) efflux after ambroxol treatment should promote transepithelial ion and water transport, which may improve hydration of the mucus, and therefore be beneficial to CF-patients.

  • 36.
    Kardell, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automatic Segmentation of Tissues in CT Images of the Pelvic Region2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In brachytherapy, radiation therapy is performed by placing the radiation source into or very close to the tumour. When calculating the absorbed dose, water is often used as the radiation transport and dose scoring medium for soft tissues and this leads to inaccuracies. The iterative reconstruction algorithm DIRA is under development at the Center for Medical Imaging Science and Visualization, Linköping University. DIRA uses dual-energy CT to decompose tissues into different doublets and triplets of base components for a better absorbed dose estimation. To accurately determine mass fractions of these base components for different tissues, the tissues needs to be identified in the image. The aims of this master thesis are: (i) Find an automated segmentation algorithm in CT that best segments the male pelvis. (ii) Implement a segmentation algorithm that can be used in DIRA. (iii) Implement a fully automatic segmentation algorithm.

    Seven segmentation methods were tested in Matlab using images obtained from Linköping University Hospital. The methods were: active contours, atlas based registration, graph cuts, level set, region growing, thresholding and watershed. Four segmentation algorithms were selected for further analysis: phase based atlas registration, region growing, thresholding and active contours without edges. The four algorithms were combined and supplemented with other image analysis methods to form a fully automated segmentation algorithm that was implemented in DIRA.

    The newly developed algorithm (named MK2014) was sufficiently stable for pelvic image segmentation with a mean computational time of 45.3 s and a mean Dice similarity coefficient of 0.925 per 512×512 image. The performance of MK2014 tested on a simplified anthropomorphic phantom in DIRA gave promising result. Additional tests with more realistic phantoms are needed to confirm the general applicability of MK2014 in DIRA.

  • 37.
    Rannamaa, Jonas
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En kristisk studie av metoder för skattningar av CO2 från vägtrafik med diesel som drivmedel.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is now no doubt about that it is humans, and our usage of fossil fuels, that contributes to the global warming. Accurate methods of measuring greenhouse gases are vital for future decision making. Road traffic is one of the major sources for greenhouse gases and it is increasing in volume. This study focus on different methods, used to estimate carbon dioxide emissions from road traffic by first estimating the quantity of diesel, from a critical point of view. For that purpose an alternative method used to estimate diesel consumption from road traffic in Sweden is created. The results show differences between methods estimates, some of them in contradiction to each other. The study shows that the results from the model HBEFA 3.1 covariate with both sources of statistics on delivered diesel in Sweden but show lower volumes. The alternative methods created in this study can explain the decrease of diesel consumption in the year 2008-2009 but can’t explain the decrease in the years 1999-2000 and 2011-2012. More studies on differences between the results in the National inventory report Sweden and statistical information on deliveries of diesel, and what is causing them, are needed.

  • 38.
    Wiréhn, Lotten
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate Suitable Energy Crops and Biomass Energy Potentials: Assessment of the Current and Future Prospects in Estonia2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Development of biomass energy plantations is one approach to mitigate and adapt to climate change and the energy challenges related to it; however, climate change will affect the climate conditions and in turn the selection of crops and trees suitable for renewable energy sources. In Estonia, electricity is mainly based on oil shale but since their integration in the European Union they are required to increase the share of energy from renewable sources. In this study, the possible changes of suitable species are assessed by examining the current and the future prospects and potentials with biomass energy derived from energy plantations in Estonia, taking climate change into consideration. The biomass energy potentials for the species that are climate suitable in current and future time are manually estimated, using a case study approach when determining the yields. The study result suggests that biomass energy from crops and trees have great development possibilities and that climate is not a key limitation for the selection of suitable species; in addition, the energy crops and trees appear to suit the future climate conditions better than the current. The results indicate that the established national target of 25% of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy by 2020 could be achieved to a large extent by putting energy plantations into practice.

  • 39.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB.
    Sundberg, Carina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Ziels, Ryan
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. University of Washington, USA.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Abu Al-Soud, Waleed
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Sörensen, Sören
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Umeå Universitet.
    Micronutrients and microorganisms in biogas processes: fundamentals and experiences2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40. Ullah, Sami
    Carbon Capture and Storage: Major uncertainties prevailing in theFutureGen project2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an old technology matrix with new concept to mitigate climate change while utilizing fossil fuels by advancing the technology. The various level of advancement in technology has been successfully demonstrated in some part of the world. However the technology has inherent uncertainty of not having commercial CCS plant. Efforts to make CCS commercially viable unfold uncertainties in numerous aspects of CCS technology. Beside the uncertainties in technology many barriers restrain CCS to become a successful climate mitigation technology. However the growing energy demand and urgent need to mitigate climate change through emission reduction favours CSS as transition to clean energy production. FutureGen 2.0 is the only large commercial scale CCS project, initiated in 2003 to test the commercial viability of the technology and to meet the U.S energy demands besides emission reductions target. The project resurrection in 2010 as FutureGen 2.0 after FutureGen termination in 2008 provides an opportunity to understand and analyse numerous uncertainties. However through document analysis only major three uncertainties i.e. policy and regulatory, economic and financial and public acceptance uncertainties are identified and analysed. The interlinkages between these uncertainties are also analysed. The study results show that above uncertainties constrained the project engendering new uncertainties i.e. timeframe uncertainties. This study also provides an insight about the sustainability implication of CCS by evaluating economic, environmental and social impact of CCS technology. It is still early to term the CCS as Sustainable technological innovation however for many years CCS would upset and restrain investment in other clean energy technologies like Renewable technology system. This study gives an input in sustainability of CCS and technological assessment study. This study is helpful in managing uncertainties and planning new CCS projects. 

  • 41.
    Haglund, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Systematisk bedömning av våtmarksväxter som substrat för biogasproduktion2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two environmental problems today are the increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and eutrophication.  Therefore, two challenges are reducing greenhouse gas emissions and fluxes of nutrients. Another challenge is to secure the energy supply in a world where energy demand is increasing. New renewable energy sources need to be developed both to secure the energy supply, but also to reduce the use of fossil energy. A renewable energy source is biogas that can be used for electricity, heating and as vehicle fuel. It is predicted that substrate for biogas production will be a limitation in the future, therefore, new substrate need to be evaluated. Wetland plants are an alternative substrate for biogas production and evaluated in this study.  Wetlands and it is plants are interesting to study because they can reduce the concentration of nutrients and therefore help to reduce the problem of eutrophication.  The study was performed within a project at Biogas Research Center and was a literature study with the study of a case. The method used has been developed in the project and is a Multi Criteria Assessment (MCA), which means that there are several different areas being studied. Areas taking into account the biological, economic, chemical, environmental and technological aspects. In order to structure the data, a matrix consisting of the different key areas was used. To clarify the opportunities and obstacles a semi-qualitative assessment was done for each key area. The case studied was a wetland in an agricultural landscape. The wetland is 5 ha and was constructed a few years ago to work as nitrogen and phosphorous trap. There is no vegetation in the wetland because it is relatively new. The plants that were studied during the study was therefore plants that are potential to grow in the wetland in the future. The studied plants were reed, reed canary grass and cattail. In the wetland it is possible to regulate the water and thereby drain the water to facilitate harvesting.   The results showed that the technology available today for the harvesting and chopping needs to be developed because it does not meet the required standards. There are various techniques for digestion, but since the dry matter is high for the plants dry fermentation is preferable, or a two-stage system in which the first step is dry digestion. A wetland provides a relatively small amount of biomass and therefore it is better to co-digest the plants on a farm biogas plant.  Wetland plants are not approved substrates for certification of bio fertilizer, which can be an obstacle. The bio fertilizer also has a low value because the plants contain low levels of nutrients.Wetlands reduce the amount of nutrients and harvest of wetland plants contributes to the retention of phosphorus increases. Wetlands emit methane and nitrous oxide that affect global warming.Today, there is no economic viability of harvesting wetlands. A system in which compensation is obtained for the environmental benefit that harvest provides is an option to increase profitability.

  • 42.
    Wicksell, Filip
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att framgångsrikt reflektera: En litteraturstudie om framgångsfaktorer för kompetensutveckling av lärare i naturvetenskap2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete handlar om bakomliggande faktorer för framgångsrik kompetensutveckling av lärare inom naturvetenskap. Det är en litteraturstudie av tidigare forskning inom området. Syftet med studien är att kritiskt granska vad tidigare studier belyser som viktiga faktorer vid framgångsrik kompetensutveckling och sammanställa dem för att visa på överlappningar och särskiljande drag mellan dem. Metoden som använts är sammanställning samt analys av tidigare publicerad forskning i relation till skollag och övrig relevant litteratur inom området.

     

    Resultaten visar på sex olika framgångsrika metoder för kompetensutveckling av lärare inom naturvetenskap. Genom en vidare analys framträder fem faktorer som verkar för att de sex metoderna ger framgångsrik kompetensutveckling. Dessa är, utan inbördes ordning: Deltagarnas inställning, antal timmar avsatta för kompetensutveckling, möjlighet till reflektion, möjlighet till kollegialt lärande samt anpassning efter faktiska behov. Resultaten diskuteras sedan ur ett kritiskt perspektiv i relation till ämnet, det ges även förslag till vidare forskning inom området. Studiens slutsats är att huruvida kompetensutveckling blir framgångsrik till stor del beror på i vilken mån de fem faktorerna uppfyllts. Av dessa fem är reflektion den faktor som har störst påverkan, men det återstår att undersöka reflektionens inre liv och de olika processer som uppstår.

  • 43.
    Lundell, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Water simulation for cell based sandbox games2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work presents a new algorithm for simulating fluid based on the Navier-Stokes equations. The algorithm is designed for cell based sandbox games where interactivity and performance are the main priorities. The algorithm enforces mass conservation conservatively instead of enforcing a divergence free velocity field. A global scale pressure model that simulates hydrostatic pressure is used where the pressure propagates between neighboring cells. A prefix sum algorithm is used to only compute work areas that contain fluid.

  • 44.
    Broman, Christine
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lilja, Emma
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kommunens kommunikation till invånarna: En fallstudie på Norrköping och Finspångs kommuns kommunikation av avfallshantering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att undersöka Norrköping och Finspångs kommuns kommunikationsprocesser gällande hållbar avfallshantering. Genomintervjuer med tjänstemän från Norrköping och Finspångs kommun klarläggs kommunernas uppfattning samt tillvägagångssätt förkommunikationen av avfallshantering till sina invånare. En textanalys på kommunernas kommunikativa material om avfallshantering utredervidare vilka strategier som används för att nå ut till invånarna. Studien klargör även hur kommunerna definierar och förmedlar en hållbaravfallshantering. För att sätta studien i ett större perspektiv diskuteras studiens analys sedan i förhållande till tidigare forskning. Resultatet av studien visar bland annat att Norrköping och Finspångs kommuns planering av kommunikationen börjar i olika skeden avkommunikationsprocessen. Det klargörs även att kommuners organisering påverkar kommunikationen med invånarna. En tidig strategisk planering av kommunikation till invånarna underlättar för kommuners kommunikationsprocess. I Norrköping och Finspångs kommuns kommunikativa material används det tydliga strategier för att nå ut till invånarna, dessa strategier anses också vara bra utifrån tidigare forskning. Kommuner bör därmed använda sig av en kommunikation som är målgruppsanpassad, involverar individen, har ett lokalt perspektiv, samt har en positiv framtoning. Gällande hållbar avfallshantering finns det i båda kommunerna ett fokus på tredje steget i EU:s avfallshierarki, återvinning. Studiens resultat kan användas av andra kommuner för att förbättra kommunikationen till invånarna.

  • 45.
    Akhter Feroz, Raisin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Sustainable Urban Development: A Study on Slum Population of Kota, India2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The urban centres are becoming more vulnerable to climate change because of the rapid urbanization and the inequality of urban development. This study assesses the urban vulnerability in an integrated approach focusing the slum people as the targeted group. The slum people are severely exposed to climate risks in terms of city‟s overall development. The negative indications of the indicators of person‟s vulnerability represent their high sensitivity to the adverse impact of climate change. The determinants of adaptive capacity also confirm that the slum people are more vulnerable to climate change with having lower adaptive capacity; though, the city is possessing high development indexes. In this context, an institutional structure is developed to build multi-level urban climate governance with the involvement of all relevant stakeholders based on the case study and literature review to integrate the vulnerable group in development planning for climate change adaptation.

  • 46.
    Hellstadius, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hero, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Orsaker och förebyggande åtgärder mot vattenskador i bostadskök2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Med dagens teknikutveckling blir det allt vanligare med nya fräscha maskiner och bekvämligheter. I köket väljer fler och fler att ha diskmaskin, frys med ismaskin, kaffemaskin med mera. Detta leder till ökat antal vattenanslutningar i ett kök. Risken för att en vattenskada ska uppstå är i stort sett lika stor som i ett badrum, ändå klassas inte kök som ett våtrum, vilket ger en stor risk för att omfattande vattenskador ska uppstå. Länsförsäkringar Södermanland har tyckt sig märka att de genomsnittliga skadekostnaderna hos företaget har ökat de senaste åren. De är därför intresserade av att få en liten bild av vad detta kan bero på och vart den största ökningen sker. Rapporten kommer behandla vattenskador i bostadsvillors kök. Därför har följande frågor ställts: ”Vilka är de vanligaste orsakerna till fuktskador i kök?” och ”Vilka åtgärder kan man utföra för att förebygga de vanligaste fuktskadorna i befintliga kök?”. För att kunna besvara dessa frågor har en litteraturstudie genomförts för att se hur dagens branschregler ser ut och hur de sett ut under de undersökta åren, vilka är 2013, 2008 och 2005. Även enkla skadeförebyggande åtgärder som kan utföras i befintliga kök har undersökts. Därefter sammanställdes statistik från Länsförsäkringar Södermanlands skadesystem och jämfördes med nationell statistik ifrån Vattenskadecentrum. Denna statistik har analyserats med hjälp av teorin och den största ökningen som kunde ses var hos diskmaskinen. Detta har stor grund i att allt fler hushåll väljer att installera diskmaskin, vilket är förståeligt. Det är bekvämt och enkelt, speciellt om familjen är stor. En annan del som ökat är rören. De blir gamla och slitna och börjar då läcka. Eftersom rör ofta är svårtillgängliga är det bristande underhåll på dessa, och det är svårt att upptäcka om de läcker. Koppling/fog bidrar med en ganska stor andel skador, men denna post verkar vara på nedåtgående, vilket tyder på att det idag finns bättre kopplingar och folk är mer noggranna, då dessa ofta är ganska synliga. Hur ska då dessa skador förebyggas? Enkla åtgärder är att använda vattentäta skydd under kyl, frys och diskmaskin samt vattentätt ytskikt i diskbänksskåpet, för att leda fram läckande vatten så det blir synligt och kan åtgärdas. Vidare finns olika vattenlarm, vattenfelsbrytare, tryckslagsdämpare med mera som hjälper hushållet att vara vattensäkert.

  • 47.
    Bäcklund, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danesten, Mathias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Östersjölaxen, ett förslag och enrad aktörer - vad kan gå fel?: En innehållsanalytis k studie kring olikaaktörers ståndpunkt gällande Europarlamentens och Europarådets förslag till en långsiktig förvaltningsplan förlaxbestånden i Östersjön och dess älvar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the Atlantic salmon in the Baltic Sea is threatened by substantial anthropogenic activities, and in practice, an action plan hasbeen missing for almost a decade. A proposal for a multi annual action for the Baltic salmon stock was presented by the EU-commission 2011,this plan aimed to aid attempts of reaching a sustainable exploitation of the salmon stock, and to sustain the genetic integrity and diversity of thespecies. The main purpose of this thesis is to examine selected statements of opinion in regards of mentioned proposal, these statements areofficial recommendations carried out by concerned authorities and NGO’s, and have been delivered to the Swedish government. Content analysiswill be used on the statements of opinion and the two interviews. The analysis shows that various actors are generally positive towards theproposal of a multiannual action plan, but disagreements and critique of proposed approaches tend to be dominant in several statements. This isvery clear in terms of the phasing out of the salmon releases and the smolt production goals, which the proposal deals with. A large number ofproposed measures and associated processes are very time consuming, and thus, changes in matters like these happen over extended periods oftime. It is therefore of great importance that actions are put in motion long before the risks of reaching irreversible damages becomes evident.

  • 48.
    Bohman, Anna
    Umeå Universitet.
    The presence of the Past: a retrospective view of the politics of urban water supply and sanitation in Ghana.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Bohman, Anna
    Umeå Universitet.
    How frames matter: continuity and change in Ghana´s urban water sector.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Bohman, Anna
    Umeå Universitet.
    Framing the Water Challenge.: Institutional Change within the water and sewerage sector in Ghana 1957-2005.2007In: 5th IWHA CONFERENCE Tampere Finland 2007 Pasts and Futures of Water, University of Tampere 13 – 17 June 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
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