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  • 1.
    Åström, Jennie
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Tvåsamhället: Om att förhålla sig till normer som skaver2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on single peoples construction of their lifes in relation to normative heterosexual coupledom. It is based on five interviews made with single women and men at the age of 24 to 51 who live by themselves. The queer theory which puts the heteronormativity in question is used as a theoretical framework. Discourse psychology functions as an analytic approach. It focuses on the use of language in the construction of reality in a world of determinant discourses. The thesis shows how the life of singles is made understandable where the interviewee´s constructs their reality by either creating their own life's as possible ways of living and distance themselves from coupledom or by striving for the twosome way of living. This is done by a construction of gender and age performance as different in the single and the twosome life. It also shows paradoxes where discourses of advantage independence meet discourses that construct twosome relationships as the only place for the development of real masculinity or of a special form of preferable femininity. The construction of gender and age as performed different in the single and the couple life provides an understanding of the interviewee's creation of self-image in relation to normative heterosexual coupledom.

  • 2.
    Petters, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    "Efter nu aktuell händelse så upplever hon stor skuld och skam"- Konstruktionen av den kvinnliga rattfylleristen i frivårdens personutredningar2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, approximately 17 500 drunk drivers are sued in Sweden. Of these, only 10 percent are women. The women are therefore considered a minority. In this study, I have taken interest in how the female drunk driver is constructed implemented by the probation service. By using critical discourse analysis I have found that the woman in these investigations is contributed the role of a deviant in two senses. She deviates because she is a woman who has committed a criminal deed and also because she often has problems with alcohol as well. I have found that the woman, because of these deviations, is depicted as a victim, both for the situation she is in and for her own actions.

  • 3.
    Collin, Angelica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammarberg, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Röstfaktorer som avslöjar ironi: Akustiska likheter och skillnader mellan sinnesstämningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The word irony is defined as an utterance where the meaning is the opposite of the words. This report is a continuing study of Peder Palmér's study What is ironic speech: to find the auditory clues (2013). The basis for this follow-up study consists of recordings with three different talkers with five sentences in five different moods: happiness, anger, seriousness, irony and sarcasm. Thirty men and women aged 18 to 60 years have been listening to the sentences and categorized them based on interpreted mood. The authors have measured fundamental frequency and intensity, and used these measurements as a basis to elucidate the perception of irony and the ability to perceive mood based on changes in fundamental frequency and intensity. The fundamental frequency has also been compared between the three talkers. An acoustic comparison between the different moods forms the basis for the analysis, which can provide information about the importance of acoustic parameters, as well as other factors such as context, when identifying different moods. The aim is to examine whether the moods that are most similar from an acoustic perspective are the ones that the test subjects most often fail to distinguish. The results show that it is difficult to solely from acoustic parameters interpret mood. Fundamental frequency and intensity appear to be of some importance when confusing irony with other moods. No differences were found between men and women's ability to detect irony and sarcasm based solely on acoustic parameters.

  • 4.
    Malmström, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svedjeholm, Sanna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Heteronormativitet – en begreppsanalys: ”Alla är både offer och supportrar av systemet”2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept heteronormativity was used in the literature for the first time in 1993. This term can be found in dictionaries and encyclopedias from 2006 but only in a few of the most modern publications. The term currently lacks an exact definition. The aim of concept analysis is to identify characteristics for a term by studying its use. Healthcare relations can and should be developed into a caring relation, which is dependent on a connection involving body, mind and soul between the caregiver and the patient. The aim of this work was to describe and deepen the understanding of the term heteronormativity from a healthcare perspective. Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis of 23 scientific papers and common newspapers resulted in seven defined attributes: assumptions, norms, social hierarchies, sanctions for those deviating from the norm, gender roles, sexual relationships and stereotype family apprehension. The analysis also identified what precedes the concept, two women working with the concept and five related concepts: equality, gender, power, discrimination and homophobia. A number of consequences of which all were negative for both individuals and the society were found. Healthcare is negatively influenced in several ways by heteronormativity rendering the caring relation impossible. Conclusion: Heteronormativity leads to a number of problems and everyone are both victims and supporters of the system.

  • 5.
    Trygg, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology.
    Blom, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology.
    Ensamkommande flickor och deras framtid: Unga kvinnor som har kommit till Sverige som ensamkommande flickor, hur de talar om sin framtid samt deras upplevelser av utbildning och arbete i Sverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study have set out to oppose the experience and outlook on future regarding education and work within the group of young women who came to Sweden as unaccompanied refugee children. The purpose of the study is also to increase knowledge about young women who came to Sweden as unaccompanied refugee children. Qualitative in-depth interviews with a hermeneutic research approach characterized by the author’s preconceptions have been used for the study. The key features of the study is that young women after they have moved out of the residential care home to their own apartments experience feelings of loneliness and lack of support. Experiences of segregation in school and knowledge gaps regarding education and work is also key features in the study. In the conclusion of the study possible improvements are suggested to improve young women’s contact network before moving to their own apartments, counteract segregation in school and suggest an establishment of regular dialogues. The improvements aims as a way to increase young women’s abilities to reach their goals, increase their wellbeing and improve integration.

  • 6.
    Hooi, Mavis
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Department of History, Tourism and Media. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Oriental Fantasy: A postcolonial discourse analysis of Western belly dancers’ imaginations of Egypt and dance festivals in Egypt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Belly dance is popularly practised in the West, and every year, thousands of enthusiasts and professionals from around the world travel to attend belly dance festivals in Egypt, which is considered the cultural centre of the dance. This bachelor’s thesis examines the discourses produced by Western or ʽwhiteʼ belly dancers from Sweden and Finland, on the topics of tourism in Egypt and belly dance festivals in Egypt. The texts are analysed using James Paul Gee's discourse analytical framework, combined with postcolonial theory, complemented with an intersectional approach. From the postcolonial and feminist perspectives, belly dance discourse in the West and tourism discourse are problematic, as they perpetuate Orientalist tropes and unequal global power structures, which build on colonial discourse. It is hoped that by identifying and questioning these aspects of discourse that are problematic in terms of equity, this study will make a small contribution towards mitigating its adverse effects, and towards social change.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Vera Nilsson: konstnär, kvinna och mor2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis examines Vera Nilsson's life and artistry from her social position as a woman and single mother. Nilsson was born 1888 and debutated as an artist 1917. 1924 she gives bearth to her daughter Catharina, also called Ginga. During a period of fourteen years the daughter is often seen in her work and Nilsson's portraits of children gets a lot of attention.The study has an historiographical approach and investigates women's condition within the artistic field.

  • 8.
    Hogla, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture.
    Kvinnliga tv-spelshjältar: En kritisk diskursanalys av hur kvinnliga protagonister skildras i tv-spel2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how female protagonists in video games are portrayed. The material analysed consist of two game series of ten games each, which means a total empirical material of 20 games. The game series chosen for analysis are Metroid with its protagonist Samus Aran and Tomb Raider with Lara Croft as its protagonist. These game franchises were chosen because they have the bestselling video game heroines.

    The method used for this study has been a critical discourse analysis and the results show both a validated and contradicted result. The theories and the result from the analysis can confirm that female video game characters and especially protagonists are visually portrayed in an objectified sexualised manner. The contradiction is shown in the descriptions of the two female leads where they are both depicted as strong, confident and independent women in their fields of expertise.

  • 9.
    Gheorghiade, Mihai
    et al.
    Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, USA.
    Greene, Stephen J
    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
    Butler, Javed
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA.
    Filippatos, Gerasimos
    Athens University Hospital Attikon and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Lam, Carolyn S P
    National Health Center, Singapore and Duke, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Maggioni, Aldo P
    Associazione Nazionale Medici Cardiologi Ospedalieri Research Center, Florence, Italy.
    Ponikowski, Piotr
    Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Shah, Sanjiv J
    Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, USA.
    Solomon, Scott D
    Brigham and Women's Hospital Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth
    Charite University Medicine Berlin-Campus Virchow Klinikum, Berlin, Germany.
    Samano, Eliana T
    Bayer, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Müller, Katharina
    Bauer Pharma, Wuppertal, Germany.
    Roessig, Lothar
    Bauer Pharma, Wuppertal, Germany.
    Burkert, Pieske
    Charité University Medicine Berlin–Campus Virchow Klinikum and German Heart Center Berlin, Germany.
    Effect of Vericiguat, a Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator, on Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients With Worsening Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: The SOCRATES-REDUCED Randomized Trial.2015In: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), ISSN 0098-7484, E-ISSN 1538-3598, Vol. 314, no 21, 2251-2262 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE: Worsening chronic heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal dose and tolerability of vericiguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, in patients with worsening chronic HF and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Dose-finding phase 2 study that randomized 456 patients across Europe, North America, and Asia between November 2013 and January 2015, with follow-up ending June 2015. Patients were clinically stable with LVEF less than 45% within 4 weeks of a worsening chronic HF event, defined as worsening signs and symptoms of congestion and elevated natriuretic peptide level requiring hospitalization or outpatient intravenous diuretic.

    INTERVENTIONS: Placebo (n = 92) or 1 of 4 daily target doses of oral vericiguat (1.25 mg [n = 91], 2.5 mg [n = 91], 5 mg [n = 91], 10 mg [n = 91]) for 12 weeks.

    MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary end point was change from baseline to week 12 in log-transformed level of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The primary analysis specified pooled comparison of the 3 highest-dose vericiguat groups with placebo, and secondary analysis evaluated a dose-response relationship with vericiguat and the primary end point.

    RESULTS: Overall, 351 patients (77.0%) completed treatment with the study drug with valid 12-week NT-proBNP levels and no major protocol deviation and were eligible for primary end point evaluation. In primary analysis, change in log-transformed NT-proBNP levels from baseline to week 12 was not significantly different between the pooled vericiguat group (log-transformed: baseline, 7.969; 12 weeks, 7.567; difference, -0.402; geometric means: baseline, 2890 pg/mL; 12 weeks, 1932 pg/mL) and placebo (log-transformed: baseline, 8.283; 12 weeks, 8.002; difference, -0.280; geometric means: baseline, 3955 pg/mL; 12 weeks, 2988 pg/mL) (difference of means, -0.122; 90% CI, -0.32 to 0.07; ratio of geometric means, 0.885, 90% CI, 0.73-1.08; P = .15). The exploratory secondary analysis suggested a dose-response relationship whereby higher vericiguat doses were associated with greater reductions in NT-proBNP level (P < .02). Rates of any adverse event were 77.2% and 71.4% among the placebo and 10-mg vericiguat groups, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among patients with worsening chronic HF and reduced LVEF, compared with placebo, vericiguat did not have a statistically significant effect on change in NT-proBNP level at 12 weeks but was well-tolerated. Further clinical trials of vericiguat based on the dose-response relationship in this study are needed to determine the potential role of this drug for patients with worsening chronic HF.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01951625.

  • 10.
    Asklöf, Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Slöjan: om "av-slöjning": – En uppsats om unga, obeslöjade, svensk-muslimska kvinnors syn på slöjan och slöjdebatten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay presents four not-/unveiled Swedish Muslim women's perceptions and experiences regarding the headscarf, the choice not to wear a headscarf, and the dominant understanding of the headscarf in Swedish society. Drawing on narratives of these women, this study aims to examine what it is that lies behind the choice not to wear the veil. Qualitative semi-structured interview was used as method for the collection of empirical data, and empirically guided thematic approach to the analysis of it. Moreover, set out from theoretical concepts of identity, classification, symbols, norms and social control, the obtained data is discussed.

    The participants in this study explains that they have never felt forced to wear the veil. They are of the opinion that one does not have to wear a headscarf in order to identify oneself as Muslim women. Islam, or ones level of religiosity, is not connected with a headscarf, rather, ones relationship as a Muslim is between that person and God. Moreover, the result indicates that the informants born in countries categorized as Muslim countries have been more affected by the Swedish secular society and its norms than those born in countries not categorized as Muslim countries. Nevertheless, they all fear potential rejection, negative sanctions and aggressions of society, causing them to stand by the decision not to wear a veil.            

  • 11. Klompstra, Leonie
    et al.
    Jaarsma, TinyStrömberg, Anna
    Playing exergames by heart failure patients.2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Regular daily exercise is recognized as important in patients with heart failure (HF), but adherence to exercise recommendations is low. It is important to search for alternative approaches to motivate patients with HF to be more active. The use of exergames (games to improve physical exercise) might be an encouragement for HF patients, especially for people who may be reluctant to engage in more traditional forms of exercise, such as going to the gym or take a walk outside. The aim of this study is to assess the self-reported time playing on the Wii exergame platform when patients get access to the Wii at home for 12 weeks and the factors related to the time playing.

    Methods: As part of a feasibility study, the Wii was installed in the home of HF patients for a period of 12 weeks and patients were instructed to exergame 20 minutes a day (e.g. virtual bowling or tennis). Patients completed a diary which contained questions about the amount of minutes exergaming, heart failure symptoms and perceived exertion. At baseline and 12 weeks the physical capacity was assessed by 6minute walking test. We compared patients who played more than the median amount of minutes on the Wii with patients who played less than the median time.

    Results:  Thirty-two HF patients (age 64 ± 14, 10 female) were included. The mean time exergaming was 28 (±13) minutes a day (median of 27 minutes). Two patients stopped exergaming during the study. Men played more minutes a day on the Wii (31 minutes) than women (20 minutes), (t =2.243, p <.033) which could not be explained by age. Both male and female patients decreased in time exergaming, comparing the first 6 weeks access to the Wii with the last 6 weeks, but no differences were found in the amount of minutes decrease in exergaming (-5±9) between man and women. Patients who played more than the median time were significant lower educated, had a lower NYHA class and had more often grandchildren than patients who exergamed less than the median time.  No association could be found between the groups in exercise capacity, motivation, self-efficacy, symptoms experience, perceived exertion with time exergaming.

    Conclusion: Patients with HF played a considerable time active games on the Wii during 12 months of access to the Wii. Although women exergamed less than men, they did not decrease more in playing then men during the study. Patients who increased more than the median amount of minutes exergaming had a lower educational level, lower NYHA class, and more patients had grandchildren than patients who exergamed less. Access to exergames seem to be a promising to keep HF patients motivated to be active and to provide social facilitation with grandchildren. 

  • 12. Klompstra, Leonie
    et al.
    Jaarsma, TinyStrömberg, Anna
    Gender differences in participation motives for exercise and exergaming in heart failure patients.2014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Regular daily exercise is recognized as important in patients with heart failure (HF). The use of exergames (games to improve physical exercise) might be an encouragement for HF patients, especially for people who may be reluctant to engage in more traditional forms of exercise. It is known that participation motives are important factors in able to become more physical active. Therefore the purpose of this study is to examine gender differences in participation motives before access to an exergame computer and the exercise motives after access to an exergame computer at home.

    Methods: The Wii was installed in the home of HF patients for a period of 12 weeks and patients were instructed to exergame 20 minutes a day (e.g. virtual bowling or tennis). Patients completed a questionnaire on baseline and 12 weeks which included the exercise motivation index (EMI), which measured participation motives. The EMI consists of 15 statements; each statement is followed by a five-point verbal rating from 0 (not important) to 4 (extremely important). Chi-square test was performed to look in gender in participation motives of the EMI and the ESE. P-values<.05 was considered significant.

    Results:  Thirty-two HF patients (age 64 ± 14, 10 female) were included. The exercise motives which scored important or extremely important on baseline were: ‘I want to be in better shape so that my clothes sit better’, ‘I want the ageing process to slow down and feel younger’, ‘Exercise increases my overall well-being’ and ‘I want to be healthier and live longer’. After 12 weeks access to the Nintendo Wii only the participation motive: ‘I want to be healthier and perhaps life longer’ scored important or extremely inportant. Gender differences were found in participation motives at baseline. Female patients significant agreed more on 6 participation motives compared to men: I want to be in better shape so my clothes fit better (3 vs 1), I am proud of myself when I exercise regularly (3 vs 1), I want to look good (2 vs. 1), I want to be as active as my family and my friends (2 vs 1), I feel successful when I am on better shape (3 vs 1) and I want to feel less physical vulnerable (3 vs 1). At 12 weeks there were fewer differences in participation motives. Difference were found where women agreed more on 2 participation motives than men: I want to be as active as my family and my friends (2 vs 1) and People who are in good shape will be admired, I want to be admired too (2 vs 1).

    Conclusion: This study shows gender differences in the participation motives in becoming physical active and exergaming. Women have more participation motives than men. After 12 weeks access to the Nintendo Wii we found less difference in the participation motives between men and women. Gender differences in participation motives in exergaming were due to social facilitation and I want to be admired, where women agreed more than men. 

  • 13.
    Forsberg Lind, Alice
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olsson, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Förväntar sig kvinnor och män olika ingångslön?En studie utförd på studenter vid en humanistisk- och teknisk utbildning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning har visat att kvinnor ofta får en lägre ingångslön än män. I Sverige baseras lönehöjningar generellt på en procentsats av ens nuvarande lön, vilket innebär att kvinnor får det svårt att komma i kapp männen lönemässigt. En svensk undersökning från 2014 visar att kvinnliga studenter i snitt förväntar sig 2 054 kronor lägre i ingångslön än manliga studenter. Olika förväntningar på ingångslön mellan könen kan vara en möjlig förklaring till varför kvinnor också får en lägre ingångslön. Utländsk forskning har visat att det finns skillnader mellan kvinnliga och manliga studenters löneförväntningar, dock finns det få svenska studier som behandlar ämnet. Utifrån detta är syftet med denna uppsats att undersöka om det finns skillnader mellan kvinnliga och manliga studenters förväntningar på ingångslön, samt vad löneförväntningar och eventuella skillnader mellan könen kan bero på. Uppsatsen ämnar även att undersöka om det finns en mer framträdande skillnad på en teknisk än en humanistisk utbildning. Detta eftersom det är intressant att undersöka om kvinnors förväntningar påverkas av att de är i minoritet i en generellt sett manlig yrkeskategori.

    Studien genomfördes med en webbaserad enkätundersökning som skickades till studenter på en teknisk och en humanistisk utbildning vid Linköpings universitet. Utifrån studiens resultat kan slutsatsen dras att kvinnorna på den tekniska utbildningen förväntar sig en lägre ingångslön än männen på utbildningen. Samma slutsats kan inte dras för studenter på den humanistiska utbildningen, då resultaten visar att förväntningar på ingångslön inte skiljer sig åt mellan könen. En möjlig förklaring till skillnaden mellan könen på den tekniska utbildningen kan vara att kvinnor på den tekniska utbildningen är utsatta för en negativ stereotyp, att de är mindre lämpade att studera en teknisk utbildning än män. En annan potentiell förklaring kan vara att det eventuellt finns en större variation av yrkesområden, med olika ingångslön, för studenterna på en teknisk utbildning. Resultaten av studien visar sammantaget att på den tekniska utbildningen påverkas studenternas förväntningar på ingångslön av; vilket kön en person har, nivå på självförtroende samt konkurrensbenägenhet i matematik. Självförtroende och konkurrensbenägenhet påverkar löneförväntningarna positivt. På den humanistiska utbildningen beror studenternas förväntningar på ingångslön enbart på om de är villiga att förhandla, vilket har en positiv påverkan på förväntningarna.

  • 14.
    Svahn, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    von Wachenfelt, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedersrelaterat våld i Socionomen: En innehållsanalys2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hedersrelaterat våld är idag ett samhällsproblem som det saknas kunskap om. Problemati-ken uppmärksammades av media i samband med de hedersmord som skedde under 1990-talet och framåt. Hedersrelaterat våld handlar om att kontrollera flickan/den unga kvinnans sexualitet. Ett vanligt förekommande för att kontrollera henne är att gifta bort flickan/den unga kvinnan.

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur hedersrelaterat våld konstrueras i tidningen Socio-nomen. För att uppnå detta syfte har vi valt att göra en innehållsanalys av artiklar från Socionomen där hedersrelaterat våld benämns. Vi har gjort en tematisk analys av artiklarna och formulerat ett antal återkommande teman. Studiens teoretiska utgångspunkter är social-konstruktivism, vilken genomsyrar hela uppsatsen, feministisk teori, Foucaults teori om makt samt kulturalisering.

    Studiens resultat är att flickor/unga kvinnor konstrueras som de utsatta för hedersrelaterat våld samt att våldet anses ha med kultur att göra. Författare kulturaliserar våldet i sina tex-ter vilket leder till en andrafiering av personer med annan kulturell bakgrund än svensk.

  • 15.
    Fahlström, Zara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Askestad, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Vem gynnas av föräldraskap?: Ett vinjettexperiment vid Linköpings universitet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that parenting is important for an individual's career development. In both Sweden and the US there has been support for a pay gap between individuals who have children and those who do not have children. Mothers have a lower wage than women without children, while it is not clear if dads have a better or worse career development than men without children. Research indicates that it may be caused by individuals' different attitudes, perceptions and behavior towards individuals with family which differs based on a social norm concerning the parents' careers. The decision to start a family may therefore affect an individual's finances and long-term career. To promote equal pay for equal work, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms for this development in order to design effective measures to reduce the pay gap. The purpose of this paper is therefore to analyze parenthood’s importance to an individual's career in terms of hiring, compensation and promotion.

    In a vignette experiment 11,059 full-time program students in grades two to five, at Linköping University, were asked to answer an online questionnaire. The questionnaire has been designed based on the status characteristic theory (SCT) to investigate whether parenting is seen upon as having a negative or positive status that may explain differences in career outcomes. Based on the identity economics a number of background questions were included to investigate whether there is a connection between respondents' backgrounds, personal traits, and thereby potential identities. Collected primary data has been analyzed using hypothesis testing and regression analysis. The results indicate that employability, wage and promotion, are not affected by parenting but of perceived competence. However, support is found for that respondents' background, mainly gender and age, but also in some cases faculty affiliation, affect the outcome of the variables. The results thus contributes to a deeper understanding of what affects the seemingly inexplicable career differences. 

  • 16.
    Bergström, Emelie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bilismen ur ett genusperspektiv: En kvantitativ studie i Norrköping om mänsoch kvinnors förhållande till fordonet bil ochexisterande normer kring kvinnor och män2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims is to look at car traffic, which contributes to a significant environmental impact, from a gender perspective. The purpose of the study is also to compare with previous studies and to analyze how this is corresponds with frame and situation of people living in Norrköping. In order to approach this suitably, a quantitative study in the form of surveys have been conducted - with a sample of 100 respondents to represent Norrkoping. This method assisted in the raised questions. To best get a perspective of correlation between the sexes and between different questions in the questionnaire, a chi-square test was applied.

    The results of the study showed that different expectations about men’s and women’s behavior and relationship to the usage of vehicles in society exists, in Norrköping, yet also that the habits around the usage reflects additional differences. Men and women have similar approaches to the usage of vehicles, with an environmental consciousness, with regards to the given car or such, in a comparable degree independent of their gender. This study has found that both men and women, to a notable degree, regard men to be more interested in cars and that they are more prone to drive one. It also shows that several of the respondents, regard women to be over-all more environmentally aware than men. This would align with the contemporary norms of society based on previous research. However, in contrast, the results also highlight that both genders, in Norrköping, spend the comparable amount of time driving a car and have similar awareness of environmental factors. The differences in the expectations around the given behavior of men and women are there but their reported behavior does not necessarily follow those predictions.

  • 17.
    Larsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Department for Orofacial Pain and Jawfunction, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    John, M. T.
    Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, Department of Diagnostic and Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
    Hakeberg, M.
    Department of Behavioral and Community Dentistry, Institute of Odontology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg,.
    Nilner, K.
    Department of Oral Prosthetics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    List, T.
    Department for Orofacial Pain and Jawfunction, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    General population norms of the Swedish short forms of Oral Health Impact Profile2014In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 41, no 4, 275-281 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We reported the development and psychometric evaluation of a Swedish 14-item and a five-item short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile. The 14-item version was derived from the English-language short form developed by Slade in1997. The five-item version was derived from the German-language short form developed by John etal. in 2006. Validity, reliability and normative values for the two short form summary scores were determined in a random sample of the adult Swedish population (response rate: 46%, N=1366 subjects). Subjects with sufficient OHRQoL information to calculate a summary score (N=1309) were on average 50 center dot 1 +/- 17 center dot 4years old, and 54% were women. Short form summary scores correlated highly with the 49-item OHIP-S (r greater than= 0 center dot 97 for OHIP-S14, r greater than= 0 center dot 92 for OHIP-S5) and with self-report of oral health (r greater than= 0 center dot 41). Reliability, measured with Cronbachs alpha (0 center dot 91 for OHIP-S14, 0 center dot 77 for OHIP-S5), was sufficient. In the general population, 50% of the subjects had greater than= 2 OHIP-S14 score points and 10% had greater than= 11 points, respectively. Among subjects with their own teeth only and/or fixed dental prostheses and with partial removable dental prostheses, 50% of the population had greater than= 2 OHIP-S14 score points, and 10% had greater than= 11 points. For subjects with complete dentures, the corresponding figures were 3 and 24 points. OHIP-S5 medians for subjects in the three population groups were 1, 1 and 2 points. Swedish 14-item and 5-item short forms of the OHIP have sufficient psychometric properties and provide a detailed overview about impaired OHRQoL in Sweden. The norms will serve as reference values for future studies.

  • 18.
    Algotsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transgression and Tradition: Redefining Gender Roles in Elizabeth Gaskell´s North and South2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay argues that Elizabeth Gaskell challenges the limiting gender roles of the Victorian era through giving her heroine, Margaret Hale in North and South, both the traditionally female qualities of virtue and selflessness and the traditionally masculine qualities of independence and action. The essay also argues that Gaskell’s heroine balances between the feminine and the masculine world as to not appear “unwomanly”, but rather subtly influencing the readers and calls for changing gender norms. Concrete examples of the heroine’s gender transgressions are put forward, but also her compliance to the traditional gender roles summed up in three roles or themes: the angel in the house, the female visitor and the refined lady.

    This essay also provides a didactic approach on working with North and South and the topic of Victorian gender norms in the upper secondary school. The relevance of and reasons for reading literature in school are also presented. The didactic chapter offers a concrete lesson plan on how to work with the theme of Victorian gender norms, which may develop students’ emphatic skills and also make them aware of ties between themselves and people that lived a long time ago.

  • 19.
    Drugge, Jessica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Svensson, Elizabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Biståndets framgång i Ghana: En jämförande fallstudie av Hungerprojektet och ActionAids biståndsarbete i Ghana2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the world today there are 842 million people hungry, which corresponds to the population of the US, Japan and Europe combined. The reason for their hunger is not lack of food, according to the UN, there are enough resources in the world for everyone to be satisfied. The majority of the hungry live in developing countries; in rural or slum areas and its mainly women and children.1 In order to among other things, to correct this untenable situation the Millennium Development Goals were created. Foreign aid would solve the victim's problems, but few issues are so controversial as foreign aid. Where does the money go? Do they make any difference to the individuals? What distinguishes a functioning foreign aid?

    The aim is to try to locate the factors leading to a successful assistance. This has been developed through a qualitative comparative case study. The selected organizations has been compered to the established theories in the field, these are mostly based on William Easterly and Jeffrey Sachs. The work focuses on ActionAid and The Hunger Project's work in Ghana with emphasis on implementation.

    One of the conclusions we have made in this paper is that there need to be good communication between the organizations and the local population. If those who live in the community do not recognize the problems or if the solution is not designed to fit the local conditions, then it will not be a long-term change. It is also important that all groups in the society are involved in the work process and especially the marginalized groups that usually consist of women and children. This work can be seen as a first step to locating aid organizations' success factors, but also illustrates common problems with foreign aid. 

  • 20.
    Gayibor, Agnes
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Integration of immigrants into the Swedish labor market: An intersectional perspectiv2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As an immigrant in Sweden, I connect this study to my embodied experiences in the labor market and reflect throughout this research as I discuss the experiences of other immigrants who struggle with labor market integration. This qualitative study focuses on the phenomenon of the integration of immigrants in the Swedish labor market from an intersectional perspective and from my position as an immigrant which enriches the discussions. I analyzed how immigrants are integrated into the Swedish labor market and how gender intersects with other human factors to influence labor market integration. The study was based on a reflexive ethnography methodology in which interviews and documentation studies were used in collecting the empirical data. A semi-structured interview guide was used during the interviews and the documentation study was focused on scrutinizing integration policy documents in Sweden.

    The findings provide a detailed account on the genesis of immigration policies and how they have evolved into integration policies in Sweden. It traces this from the 1950s when integration policies were intertwined with immigration policies. Also it provides an account of how the integration policies are implemented in Sweden focusing on the activities of two main organizations namely Arbetsförmedlingen and the Linköping’s municipality.

    Furthermore the findings highlights that, men and women experience labor market integration differently therefore there is the need for this subject to be studied from a heterogeneous perspective instead of a homogenous perspective. It also highlights that women’s gender intersects with other human endowments factors such as education, gender roles, marital status, language and skills that complicate their labor market integration. In addition the findings highlight the transnational lives of some of the participants who hold on to traditional ideologies from their countries of origin. Furthermore, immigrants conceptualized labor market integration according to their own understanding. The results shows that the conceptualization of some of the immigrants was similar to what is common in the literatures but there was one new conceptualization of the term labor market integration that can be added to the already existing conceptualizations.

  • 21.
    Ebintra, Emma
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Intersectional Stigmatization of the Piranha in Prostitution: A case study of young women in prostitution  in central Lima2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is constructed upon narratives of fourteen young women, who have been working in prostitution since they were street children in central Lima, and acknowledges their stigmatization in the Peruvian society, and how they challenge their socially constructed position. By combining narrative method with an intersectional analysis I have, through a multi-layered loupe, interpreted the young women’s interpretation of themselves and their social world. I will bring forward how these young women view their subordinate and stigmatized position through their narratives surrounding their bodies as shameful, culpable, sexual and fixed. This stigmatization is intersectional as it surrounds all parts of their lives and situatedness within the Peruvian society. This situatedness is complex, involving hierarchical structures that have been present in Peru since colonization and imperialism (cf. Wade 2009). In addition, I will bring forward how the young women engage in strategies to challenge this stigmatization by applying measures to increase their respectability (cf. Skeggs).

  • 22.
    Johansson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En vit kvinna som har ett svart hembiträde kan inte vara rasist: En diskursanalytisk studie av afrobrasilianska kvinnors tal om ras och kön2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Brasilien är ett land som historiskt och kulturellt har präglats av kolonialisering och slaveri, vilket har bidragit till en befolkning som kännetecknas av mångfald när det kommer till ras och kultur. Andra konsekvenser av det historiska arvet är att den patriarkala familjen kommit att få central betydelse i samhället samt att vithet kommit att idealiseras när det gäller ras och hudfärg. Mot denna bakgrund utgör afrobrasilianska kvinnor en utsatt grupp då de riskerar att drabbas av både sexism och rasism i sin vardag.     Syftet med den här studien var att med en socialkonstruktionistisk ansats och utifrån ett intersektionellt perspektiv undersöka hur afrobrasilianska kvinnor talar om ras och kön utifrån upplevelser och erfarenheter av fördomar och diskriminering. Intervjuer har gjorts med tio deltagare uppdelade i två fokusgrupper. Den ena gruppen bestod av kvinnor i åldrarna 50 till 77 år och den andra gruppen utgjordes av tonårstjejer mellan 14 och 15 år. Intervjuerna har analyserats med hjälp av diskursiv psykologi, vilket är en kvalitativ analysmetod inom det diskursanalytiska fältet.     Mest framträdande i deltagarnas tal var upplevelser och erfarenheter av fördomar och diskriminering på grund av ras, medan motsvarande för kön förekom i begränsad utsträckning. En övergripande och till synes dominerande diskurs identifierades i hur deltagarna pratade om ras och hudfärg. De använde sig av ett språkbruk där ras och hudfärg syftade till att beskriva, definiera och värdera. Vidare tydliggjordes att benämningen negro kan användas både på ett neutralt sätt och i syfte att nedvärdera och förolämpa. Intervjudeltagarna pratade om upplevelser och erfarenheter av fördomar och diskriminering på grund av ras på i huvudsak två olika sätt. Dessa sätt kan ses som konflikterande tolkande repertoarer under benämningarna det harmoniska samhället och det rasistiska samhället. Dessutom identifierades retoriska strategier för att hantera den utsatthet som det rasistiska samhället medför.     Tal om upplevelser och erfarenheter av fördomar och diskriminering på grund av kön framstod som mindre tillgängligt för deltagarna. Dock framträdde vad som beskrivs som en dominerande diskurs där traditionella könsroller ses som självklara. Utifrån ett mer uttalat intersektionellt perspektiv riktades avslutningsvis fokus mot de skärningspunkter och överlappningar som synliggjordes mellan ras och kön. Som ytterligare en viktig social kategorisering i deltagarnas tal identifierades klass, varför även denna kategori inkluderades i analysen. Den bild som framträdde var den av den afrobrasilianska kvinnan som unik i sin utsatthet i förhållande till både kvinnor av annan ras och hudfärg samt män av samma ras och hudfärg. 

  • 23.
    Weijland, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Culture, Society and Media Production - KSM. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skillnader och likheter mellan kvinnliga actionhjältar under 1970-, 1980- & 2010-talet: En analys av kvinnliga karaktärer i actionfilmer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Laura Mulvey was the first to suggest that women and men have different positions on the screen; men drives the plot forward, and the women are objects of masculine desire and lust.

    The purpose of this report was to look at and compare the two characters from the 70’s - and 80's with two characters from the 00’s - and 2010’s to gain a deeper understanding and insight into how female action heroes are presented. This will be done with the help of the questions; How is the female action heroes that are analyzed in the paper?

    What are the differences and similarities between the past and the present-day action heroes? Just how stereotypical are the women in their genre? The four female action heroes that were analyzed were; Princess Leia Star Wars, Sarah Connor Terminator and Lisbeth Salander Men Who Hates Women and Katniss Everdeen The Hunger Games.

    The four female action heroes were analyzed based on Rikke Schubarts categories (Moderarketypen, Amazon, Dotterarketypen, Hämnerskan and Dominatrix), the character's personal development, the character's violence and the reason for the character's.

    Characters from the past were more often presented as more uncertain and fragile than the modern confident characters. The female action heroes of modern times was more independent, strong, and in no need of a man in comparison with contemporary female action heroes. The older films' characters were more stereotypical than the newer films. 

  • 24.
    Ronnberg, A. K.
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ostlund, I.
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Fadl, H.
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden.
    Gottvall, Tomas
    Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, K.
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Intervention during pregnancy to reduce excessive gestational weight gain-a randomised controlled trial2015In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 122, no 4, 537-544 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveTo evaluate if a feasible, low-cost intervention could decrease the percentage of women gaining weight above the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations on gestational weight gain (GWG) compared with standard maternity care. DesignA randomised controlled interventional design. SettingAntenatal clinics (n=14) in orebro county, Sweden, participated. PopulationHealthy women with a body mass index (BMI) 19kg/m(2), age 18years and adequate knowledge of Swedish language who signed in for maternity care at 16weeks of gestation. MethodsStandard care was compared with a composite intervention consisting of education on recommended GWG according to IOM, application of personalised weight graph, formalised prescription of exercise and regular monitoring of GWG at every antenatal visit. OutcomeThe proportion of women gaining weight above IOM guidelines (1990) and mean GWG (kg) was compared between groups. ResultsIn all, 445 women were randomised and 374 women remained for analysis after delivery. A majority of the women analysed were normal weight (72%). The intervention reduced the proportion of women who exceeded the IOM guidelines (41.1% versus 50.0%). The reduction was, however, not statistically significant (P=0.086). Mean GWG was significantly lower among women receiving the intervention, 14.2kg (SD 4.4) versus 15.3kg (SD 5.4) in the standard care group (P=0.029). ConclusionsThe low-cost intervention programme tested did significantly reduce the mean GWG but the proportion of women who exceeded the IOM recommendations for GWG was not significantly lower. ClinicalTrials.gov Id NCT00451425

  • 25.
    Ryngmark, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ”I så fall skulle det stå: – ’prata med mig!!!!’” : En studie om förlossningsbrevets betydelse för nyblivna föräldrar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor Thesis discusses expectant parents' experiences regarding the use of a birth plan. Prospective parents who chose not to write a birth plan did so because they felt that the letter would steer them in a specific direction, and moreover, that trying to control something that is beyond their control won't help. Parents who chose to write a birth plan did so because they had specific requests that were not consistent with standard Swedish hospital practices.

    Those women who expressed any sort of fear of childbirth also chose to write a birth plan. During the study, the focus has also been aimed at exploring other preparations for childbirth. The essay's conclusion is that birth plans aid women in playing a less passive role during the birth process, as well as the partner becoming more involved in the birth. Birth plans maintain and reaffirm the norms surrounding "normal" vaginal birth, but also help parents to gain more control and plan childbirth on their own terms.

    A birth plan may therefore be a useful method for parents who want more control and involvement during both pregnancy and childbirth.

  • 26.
    Knapasjö, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Klindt, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Double Standard towards Men's and Women's Violent Behaviour: En kvantitativ experimentell studie angående människors attityder till våldsbrott i förhållande till kön2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study tested the prediction that male offenders are judged more harsly than female offenders for involving in a violent crime. Three-hundred and fifty-four adult students (163 men, 190 women, 1 unspecified gender) evaluated a hypothetical crimescenario describing a violent conflict between two parties, as part of a 2 (Informants Gender: Male/Female) x 3 (Offender Gender Triad: Male/Female/Neutral) x 3 (Victim Gender Triad: Male/Female/Neutral) between-subjects design. In situations involving male offenders, compared to female offenders, the informants judged the male offenders more harshly which exposed a double standard, as we expected. Informants also believed that it was more likely that a male offender was a recidivist.

  • 27.
    Lundin, Agnes
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Historie(be)skrivning: En textanalytisk studie om hur kvinnan beskrivs i läroböcker för historia2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is a text analysis regarding high school students study material. The starting point and the purpose of the essay is to analyze how history is written and what distinguishes the common history writing from the writing of women’s history.I will execute my essay by trying to answer how women are presented in the study material regarding the subject of history. I will embrace gender theories and discourse theories to fortify my analysis.My findings are linked to how history is presented in the criteria of the school subject in today’s school, to develop how this can be understood as a current discourse in what is seen as relevant history in a contemporary perception.

  • 28.
    Franciscus, Margaret
    et al.
    Department of Pediatric Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Nucci, Anita
    Department of Nutrition, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Bradley, Brenda
    Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Suomalainen, Heli
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Greenberg, Ellen
    Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center, Columbia University, New York, USA.
    Laforte, Diane
    Montreal Children’s Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Kleemola, Paivi
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyytinen, Mila
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Salonen, Marja
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Martin, Mary Jean
    Department of Endocrinology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ONT, Canada.
    Catte, Daniel
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
    Catteau, Jacki
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Recruitment and retention of participants for an international type 1 diabetes prevention trial: a coordinators' perspective.2014In: Clinical Trials, ISSN 1740-7745, E-ISSN 1740-7753, Vol. 11, no 2, 150-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Trial to Reduce Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) is the first multicenter international type 1 diabetes (T1D) prevention trial to be undertaken. A unique feature of TRIGR has been recruitment of eligible pregnant women and enrollment of newborns for long-term follow-up assessments.

    PURPOSE: Our purpose is to summarize the recruitment and retention strategies used to conduct TRIGR from the perspective of the study coordinators.

    METHODS: TRIGR was designed to test whether weaning to formula containing hydrolyzed versus intact cow's milk protein would be efficacious in decreasing risk for development of T1D-associated autoantibodies and T1D among infants identified to be at increased risk for T1D based on their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) profile and family history. Multiple strategies tailored to local issues were required to enroll and follow the target number of infants.

    RESULTS: This study was conducted in the United States, Canada, Australia, and 12 countries in Europe. Of the 5606 mothers registered worldwide, 5000 of their infants were randomized. Of these, 2159 were HLA eligible and enrolled in the 8-month intervention and 10-year follow-up phases of this study. The TRIGR study met the accrual goal after 4.7 years of recruitment, 2.7 years longer than projected initially. Challenges included difficulty in finding fathers with T1D, a higher than expected rate of premature delivery among T1D mothers, and implementation of new privacy regulations mid-trial. The majority of participants were recruited from primary care antenatal clinics located near the study centers and from a general hospital or pediatric center that was affiliated with a TRIGR Study center. Internet and magazine advertisements were found to be useful for recruitment of families. Alternative follow-up strategies are offered to families who wish to reduce or discontinue participation.

    LIMITATIONS: Our experience is limited to a single international multicenter trial.

    CONCLUSIONS: TRIGR coordinators played key roles in the recruitment and intervention periods and continue to be instrumental in retaining families and children during the 10-year follow-up period for each child.

  • 29.
    Nyberg White, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Preventing maternal mortality: - Nurses’ and midwives’ experiences from Tanzanian maternal health care services.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Half a million women died during pregnancy or childbirth in 2005. Bleeding, infections, high blood pressure, obstructed labor, unsafe abortions, malaria and HIV/Aids were the main causes. Tanzania is a highly affected country with 460 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. Nurses and midwives play an important role in preventing maternal mortality.

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore and analyze nurses’ and midwives’ experiences of maternal mortality prevention on the Tanzanian island of Unguja.

    Method: Interviews with nine nurses and midwifes from four different hospitals and health care facilities were conducted with the assistance of an interpreter. A structural analysis designed by Ricoeur was undertaken.

    Results: The findings suggest that family planning, a more accessible health care, referral of severe cases, medical interventions, health education, community resource persons and involving fathers in maternal health care are preventive strategies that can reduce maternal mortality.

    Conclusion: To further improve the quality of maternal mortality prevention further knowledge aboutindividual differences in learning from health education is needed.  Involvement of all fathers in maternal health care should also be considered. Training of unskilled personnel is believed to improve early identification of life-threatening complications and thereby reduce maternal mortality.

  • 30.
    Vrotsou, Christina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies.
    Stories about sex trafficking in Greece: A productive power play2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The theme of this thesis regards power manifestations in sex trafficking in Greece, through the context of a particular women’s NGO situated in Athens, Greece. The stories that are analysed here are in one way or the other drawn from that NGO context, specifically: the story of the president of the NGO, the story of an activist in that NGO and the story of a woman who has been sex trafficked. What this thesis explores, under a poststructuralist road, influenced by a genealogical approach and inspired by Foucault’s notions of power, is how power can be productive in sex trafficking and the relevant anti-sex trafficking activism. Additionally, using intersectionality as an analytical tool, it explores which social markers are part of that productive play. Situated in crisis Greece, where several issues/problems are intensified, entangled, spread and spilled over in several areas, I find that there is relevance in research concerning how power, in the respective context, can work in productive ways.

    What is shown through the stories are several contradictions regarding conceptualizations of the role of the police, law, justice, and their relation with rights, religion, ethnicity, race, sex and gender. I treat these contradictions as key illustrators of the productive power play, visualized as a network that entangles different elements and draws its power through their relations. Productive power is seen through corrupt police officers; the accusation of the president of the NGO; through subjects of law, religion and debt; through gender performances; through prolific captivity and so on. What is shown is that the manifestations of power through these stories vary according to the context, but the productive element of power is their joint effect. 

  • 31.
    Olsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Conceptual Female Hygiene Product: Developed from Needs and Prerequisites in an Agricultural East African Context2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Menstruation is a large problem for females in development countries today. Studies have shown that around 40 percent of menstruating girls have been absent from school due to their menstruation. One of the challenges that need to be solved is the absence of female hygiene products amongst women, especially in low income and developing countries due to the cost of commercial products. In countries where the national economy is unstable or poorly comes a problem with importing products, it would be better if they could produce their own products so that the national economy is supported. Small factories and production sites that produce female hygiene products have started to form in some areas. This shows that it is possible to produce in the context where the product is going to be sold. One of the advantages of this system is from the environmental perspective, many of the local production sites use environmentally friendly materials and some products are up to 95 percent bio-degradable. The purpose of this thesis is to develop a concept for a sustainable female hygiene product that women in developing countries can afford to buy, this so that social effects can be enabled due to the security that a functioning protection can bring. To be able to do so a field study in Uganda has been conducted. During the study users and local producers were interviewed to find out what demands and prerequisites there are to create a female hygiene product that can be produced and used locally. The field study gave a deeper understanding and knowledge about both the subject as whole and the technical aspects to take into consideration when developing a female hygiene product. The study confirmed that female hygiene products, or rather the lack of them, are a big problem that needs to be solved quickly. It also revealed that the possibilities for producing in the context existed but was not developed enough. Through an analysis of the empirical findings as well as theories about, for example, material and production, six concepts were developed. The concepts and already existing products were evaluated and correlated to requirements collected in the field study. One concept was chosen for further development from this evaluation. This concept consists of a disposable napkin that is fastened by putting it in holders sewn in the panty. The panty can be bought as a product with existing holders or the holders can be sewn into the users own panties. The final concept has taken both technical aspects and social effects into account. Lists of requirements on material for the concept as well as the production of it are also included in the work. A prototype of the concept has been sewn and tested. The final concept in this work is not a finished product and needs further developing before being released as a product. More work need to be done on specifying the production and specific materials to implement the concept. For further developing, it is also important to have in mind in what context the product would be used due to the different possibilities and demands that the setting gives.

  • 32.
    Sjöström, Dick
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Proteomic study of microbiopsies from women with trapezius muscle pain and from healthy women2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trapezius myalgia is a pain condition that usually develops in people with repetitive and stressful work tasks, which can lead to chronic widespread pain (CWP). This work compares protein expression levels in healthy women with those in women who have chronic widespread pain, including pain in the trapezius muscle, by using a proteomic approach.  Twodimensional gel electrophoresis and silver staining with a subsequent digital quantification of protein spots was used to detect spots which had significantly higher protein levels in either group. Preparative gels were made and stained with SYPRO Ruby, the protein spots that were significantly different between the groups were picked from the SYPRO Ruby gels and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF.

    The optical density of seven protein spots were significantly decreased in the trapezius muscle of the CWP subjects; however the standard deviations were notably high. Five of the seven proteins could be identified as desmin, creatine kinase B-type, serum albumin, heat shock protein beta-1 and slow skeletal muscle troponin T. Apart from serum albumin, all these proteins can possibly be responsible for pain in the trapezius muscle in CWP.

    In conclusion, this study demonstrates that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to identify potential biomarkers of musculoskeletal pain in subjects with CWP. The results may provide new insights into the mechanisms and patho-physiology of trapezius myalgia.

  • 33.
    Frankenstein, Katri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundberg, Loviisa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    LAURA: Kognitiv beteendeterapi för kvinnor med psykisk ohälsa till följd av en traumatisk förlossning: En randomiserad kontrollerad studie av internetadministrerad vägledd självhjälpsbehandling2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to investigate the effect of internet- administered guided self-help for women suffering from psychological problems following traumatic childbirth. The eight-week treatment program consisted of written chapters based on cognitive behavioral therapy. 56 participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n = 28) or a waiting list group (n = 28).The results showed that post-traumatic symptoms decreased as a result of the treatment, with large within-group effects measured by both the Traumatic Event Scale (TES) (d = 1.33) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) (d = 1.3). The difference between the groups was only significant when measured by the IES-R in which case the between-group effect was large (d = 0.97). The proportion of the participants who showed clinically significant improvement was considerably greater in the treatment group than in the waiting list group. For other measured outcomes, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), the difference between the groups were not significant,however the treatment group showed significant improvements between pre-and post measurements on all accounts.LAURA is most likely the first study to examine the treatment of psychological problems following traumatic childbirth. The results are promising and overall show that internet-administered cognitive behavioral therapy reduces post-traumatic symptoms following a traumatic childbirth, indicating a decrease in symptoms of anxiety and depression, and an improvement in quality of life.

  • 34.
    Düringer, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    “Yeah but we are doing ok, but it is not enough”: A study on how actors from civil society in Namibia regard the implementation of gender equality2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to do research on how selected individuals from civil society in Namibia, working with human rights or democracy, see gender equality in a Namibian context and how they regard their own role in the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Interviews have been carried out and grounded theory has been used to analyse the data. Theoretical concepts such as gender equality, civil society and globalization have been used to support the analysis along with theories regarding implementation. Three categories are being presented in the analysis, Theory equality, Distribution of responsibilities, and Male-streaming. The conclusion of the thesis is that the work that is carried out to implement gender equality is not enough. 

  • 35.
    Ek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Culture, Society and Media Production - KSM. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gros, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Culture, Society and Media Production - KSM. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Könsstereotyper i reklam, Gender stereotypes in commercials: En analys av genus i ICAs och H&Ms reklam, gender analysis of the commercials from ICA and H&M2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We are constantly being fed information. Everything and everyone we come into contact with may somehow make a new impression on us, whether we are aware of it or not. One of the ways that people in today’s society in Sweden are being given information is via different types of media, for example through commercials. Whether it’s a video clip or a still-frame picture, a commercial is an effective way for a company to reach out to potential customers.

    However, it is not only the messages or signals that may appear obvious that these companies send out when advertising with commercials. When taking a closer look at a commercial, it becomes clear that these pictures or video clips may make more impressions than it may first appear. Commercials mirror the society that we are living in, yet at the same time they send out signals about what the society could be like. Creating expectations, longing and ideals; commercials have a larger impact on their public than it may first seem.

    In this essay we have chosen to focus on two Swedish brands: the grocery store Ica and the clothing brand Hennes & Mautriz (H&M). Focusing on three different time periods – the 1990’s, 2000’s and 2010’s – we have studied the development of these two companies commercials and analyzed what possible messages these commercials send out. Our main focus has been to study these brands from a gender critical perspective and analyzing how men and women are portrayed, comparing differences and similarities. 

  • 36.
    Home, P.D.
    et al.
    Newcastle Diabetes Centre, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Pocock, S.J.
    Medical Statistics Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Beck-Nielsen, H.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Odense, Denmark.
    Curtis, P.S.
    GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Greenford, United Kingdom.
    Gomis, R.
    Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Hanefeld, M.
    Zentrum für Klinische Studien Forschungsbereich Endokrinologie und Stoffwechsel, Dresden, Germany.
    Jones, N.P.
    GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Harlow, United Kingdom.
    Komajda, M.
    Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Département de Cardiologie, Paris, France.
    McMurray, J.J.
    British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes in oral agent combination therapy for type 2 diabetes (RECORD): a multicentre, randomised, open-label trial2009In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 373, no 9681, 2125-2135 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rosiglitazone is an insulin sensitiser used in combination with metformin, a sulfonylurea, or both, for lowering blood glucose in people with type 2 diabetes. We assessed cardiovascular outcomes after addition of rosiglitazone to either metformin or sulfonylurea compared with the combination of the two over 5-7 years of follow-up. We also assessed comparative safety. Methods: In a multicentre, open-label trial, 4447 patients with type 2 diabetes on metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy with mean haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c) of 7·9% were randomly assigned to addition of rosiglitazone (n=2220) or to a combination of metformin and sulfonylurea (active control group, n=2227). The primary endpoint was cardiovascular hospitalisation or cardiovascular death, with a hazard ratio (HR) non-inferiority margin of 1·20. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00379769. Findings: 321 people in the rosiglitazone group and 323 in the active control group experienced the primary outcome during a mean 5·5-year follow-up, meeting the criterion of non-inferiority (HR 0·99, 95% CI 0·85-1·16). HR was 0·84 (0·59-1·18) for cardiovascular death, 1·14 (0·80-1·63) for myocardial infarction, and 0·72 (0·49-1·06) for stroke. Heart failure causing admission to hospital or death occurred in 61 people in the rosiglitazone group and 29 in the active control group (HR 2·10, 1·35-3·27, risk difference per 1000 person-years 2·6, 1·1-4·1). Upper and distal lower limb fracture rates were increased mainly in women randomly assigned to rosiglitazone. Mean HbA 1c was lower in the rosiglitazone group than in the control group at 5 years. Interpretation: Addition of rosiglitazone to glucose-lowering therapy in people with type 2 diabetes is confirmed to increase the risk of heart failure and of some fractures, mainly in women. Although the data are inconclusive about any possible effect on myocardial infarction, rosiglitazone does not increase the risk of overall cardiovascular morbidity or mortality compared with standard glucose-lowering drugs. Funding: GlaxoSmithKline plc, UK. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Knutsson, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Blueprint for Women’s Fulfilment: A Reading of Three Novels in the Early Fiction of Margaret Drabble2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will argue that Margaret Drabble has developed a pattern, that there is a blueprint for fulfilment in the life of the modern independent woman to be found inher early work. Three of Drabble's novels will be examined, moving from The Millstone(1965) and The Waterfall (1967), with their descriptions of two young heroines'pregnancies and lives with infant children, on to the more mature main character of TheRealms of Gold (1975). These three books form a chronology, both in regard to whenthey were written and, more importantly, to the different stages of a woman’s life thatthey represent. This will make it possible to see how Drabble perceives the demands ofsociety and different relationships influencing a woman's actions, her search foridentity, and the direction and fulfilment of her life. The pattern will be traced throughthree themes which are made visible in the novels in varying degrees. These are singlemotherhood and the role of the family, missing husbands and sexual fulfilment, andcareer and social interaction.The method is an analysis of the texts where the selected novels form the basis andstructure of the essay.

  • 38.
    Idrizi, Idriz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Culture, Society, Media Production. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Levin, Anna
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Culture, Society, Media Production. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Man Slår: En studie i mäns våld mot kvinnor2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats tar upp mäns våld mot kvinnor i nära relationer. Med utgångspunkt i biografiska berättelser har vi, med hjälp av teorier om samhällsstrukturer och om våldets normaliseringsprocess, försökt närma oss en förståelse för och förklaring till hur våldet uppstår och varför. Uppsatsen syftar till att ur ett samhälleligt perspektiv försöka se sammanhanget mellan de rådande patriarkala strukturerna och hur våldet kan uppstå ur dessa samt på mikronivå gå in närmare på hur situationen i våldsamma relationer ser ut. Vi kommer analysera fem biografiska berättelser, tre i skrift och två ljudproduktioner, där vi med hjälp av kodningsscheman väljer ut ofta förekommande teman i dessa berättelser. Vidare analyserar vi dem utifrån normaliseringsprocessen samt återkopplar det till teorier om patriarkala samhällsstrukturer.

  • 39.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skeppstedt, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skilda världar – Herrklubben kontra föredömet: En studie om rekryteringsprocessen till bolagsstyrelser i börsbolag och statligt helägda bolag2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Female representation on boards is an ongoing debate. The European Parliament voted in November 2013 in favour of a proposal that it should be at least 40 percent women on company boards by 2020. Jens Spendrup, president of the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise, was interviewed on Swedish Radio in February 2014 and stated that there are not enough qualified women to recruit to the company boards. The listed companies in Sweden only have 22 percent of women in their company boards and given Jens Spendrup’s statement should they have difficulty reaching up to 40 percent by 2020. Nevertheless, the state-owned companies has shown that it is possible with a female representation of 50 percent. The question then is what the private companies are doing wrong?

    Aim: The study aims to investigate the recruitment process within listed companies and state-owned companies in Sweden to see if it affects the representation of women on corporate boards. This study intends to explain why female representation is so low in the private sector relative to the state sector.

    Methodology: The study is qualitative in nature where empirical data is primarily collected through interviews with representatives that have insight in the recruitment process in each sector. Theory and empirical data were alternately collected which implies an iterative approach.

    Conclusion: We have distinguished organizational differences in the recruitment process, which is crucial for female representation. Time and resources have been identified as key parameters and age as well as experience affects the selection of candidates. We also discovered that normative regulations do not work in the private sector and therefor there is a need for a mandatory regulation.

  • 40.
    DEFFOIN, Emilie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Towards A Radical Feminist Change: The Empowerment Of Survivors From Prostitution, Transgression Of Normativities And The Abolition Of Power Differences.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis is an attempt to illustrate the role of a feminist and abolitionist organization towards the enhancement of women’s social conditions and their representation in society. The study is based on my three months training at an Icelandic organization, Stígamót, which is an “Education and Counselling Centre for Survivors of Sexual Abuse and Violence”. My stay there included a series of interviews with social workers and survivors of prostitution and sexual trafficking.  The centre has a multi-faceted approach, using feminist empowerment as a methodological process for the purpose of increasing the quality of life. Together with feminist theories on intersectionality and empowerment as methodological tools, I am researching the relations between survivors’ empowerment, their agency, with a radical political change, leading to gender-equal society.

  • 41.
    Karlsson, Lise-Lott
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Prenatal Testing and Reproductive Freedom: A Mother´s Right to Choose2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse and examine the debate on prenatal testing in Western countries, with a special focus on my own country, Sweden. In the near future it might be possible for a pregnant woman to profile the DNA of her foetus with a simple blood test early in pregnancy. This method of prenatal testing – Non Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis (NIPD) – could potentially detect the genetic causes of almost every disease. I will argue that prenatal testing should be offered by society to all pregnant women, not only to those at highest risk of giving birth to children with severe conditions. I will do that from a perspective of reproductive freedom. Furthermore, I will argue that offering prenatal testing for some conditions (such as Downs’s syndrome) and not for others, is conflicting with the autonomous choice of the pregnant woman.

  • 42.
    Landin, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Torbacke, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    My, Carlsson
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Är borderline personlighetsstörning en kvinnlig diagnos?: En kvalitativ studie om borderline personlighetsstörning och könsskillnader2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to investigate how clinicians in psychiatric care for adults consider borderline personality disorder to be manifested in men and women, respectively. Could there be a tendency to over-diagnose women and under-diagnose men? In addition, the purpose of the study is to bring clarity to the reasons for gender differences within borderline personality as perceived by the clinicians. The study is based on an inductive approach, in which interviews have been conducted with twelve clinicians working with borderline personality disorders to gain a deeper understanding of how the clinicians consider the manifestations of gender differences.

    The clinicians described tendencies for women to deliberate self-harm, have mood swings and problems in relations. Men with borderline personality disorders are described as having a higher degree of e.g. aggressiveness, addiction and criminal behaviour than women with the same diagnosis. Half of the informants think men are under- diagnosed for borderline personality disorders. This may indicate that other diagnoses are given to men instead or that men end up in other treatments. Possible explanations to the gender differences are discussed, such as societal factors, gender roles or criteria for diagnosis based on gender.

  • 43.
    Azadi, Sahar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alternativ splicing: Mutationer i BRCA1 och BRCA2 orsakar bröstcancer2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decade it has been shown that alternative splicing is a important mechanism for the proteome diversity. AS is a mechanism that generates a large amount of protein isoforms from a low number of human genes. Alternative splicing is regulated by four groups of cis-regulatory elements and different splicing factors. Even though AS is important for the diversity and complexity of different organisms it is also a source for different genetic diseases like cancer. This review article will focus on breast cancer and its connection to the mechanism of alternative splicing. Breast cancer is a common disease in women. In recent years many studies have shown an important relationship between mutations in the alternative splicing mechanism and the two most important genes involved in breast cancer BRCA1 and BRCA2. This article will also present different efforts against this disease. 

  • 44.
    Isaksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Elias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Röst och hörselnedsättning: Akustisk analys av röst hos sju hörapparatsanvändare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies have been made to examine several aspects of voice production in individuals with different types of hearing impairments. Most of the studies were made to explore the impact that hearing aids have for people with severe or congenital hearing impairment. So far it has been confirmed that there are changes regarding voice production in these individuals. A group that has not been investigated regarding voice production to a larger extent are hearing aid users with an acquired hearing impairment. In the present study the voice production of seven individuals, four men and three women, with a moderate acquired hearing impairment is examined. The individuals had an age span ranging from 55-71 years and had used hearing-aids for one year at the most. The participants were recorded as they completed three different tasks; reading aloud, spontaneous speech and production of sustained vowels. These tasks were performed twice; with and without hearing aids. An acoustic analysis of the recordings was performed in order to examine possible changes in mean fundamental frequency and vocal effort. Analysis on an individual level shows that throughout the different tasks, no participant demonstrated constant, audible differences regarding both fundamental frequency and vocal effort. However there were noticeable changes for a few participants in some of the tasks. Since the differences for most of the participants were negligible and inconsistent, no impact of the hearing aids or compensatory strategies was seen.

  • 45.
    Heed, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roeger, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av att vårdas tillsammans, både män och kvinnor, på en akut sjukvårdsavdelning inom nedre kirurgi2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed sex-wards, where you mix men and women, occur in hospitals around Sweden and should be recognized by the patient´s perspective when they are in a position of the medical and healthcare environment. Today it is becoming increasingly common for hospitals to have mixed sex-wards, this is usually because the lack of time and space. The study's purpose was to describe patients' experiences of care in a mixed sex-ward on an acute medical department of the lower surgery. The study was qualitative with a phenomenological approach. An interview study with fifthteen patients who had been cared for in a mixed sex-ward was conducted. The result showed that most patients felt positive when cared for in mixed sex ward. It turned out that they experienced a better atmosphere, softer jargon and a calmer ambience. It also emerged that some had not reflected on the mixed sex ward. They argued that there was something quite normal and that all patients towards the same goal, to get well. However, it was a few who felt traumatized by the experience and felt a violation of integrity. In conclusion, the study´s results showed that the mixed sex-wards were seen as a positive experience and something that many patients would consider in the future.

  • 46.
    Claar, Moa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ironi: Akustikens roll vid uppfattande av ironi och andra emotionella uttryck2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Have you ever experienced doubt in whether a person is being ironic? It is hard to identify irony, especially when you don't know the context. Acoustic features, such as pitch, intensity and duration, have in previous studies been detected to explain differences between emotions. Irony and sarcasm have been found to have a higher pitch, intensity and longer duration than other emotions. In this study 20 people listened to 26 samples, from the test material made by Peder Palmér from the Institution of Behavioral science and Teaching in the University of  Linköping, and were asked to determine which emotion that was used in each sample. Irony, sarcasm, anger, happiness and seriousness were portrayed emotions in the audio files. The results showed that the emotion happiness was the easiest and women were better able to determine this emotion. Acoustic differences were analyzed in Praat, the acoustic parameters used were based on previous surveys. Lower pitch, intensity and a longer duration were found to be characteristic for irony and sarcasm in this research. The outcome does not correlate with several of previous studies, probably because previous studies are not made in Swedish but one survey in German shows similar results. Another acoustic feature that was found in our survey is that the penultimate word has longer duration in irony and sarcasm than in other expressions.

  • 47.
    Gustafsson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Uppror och solidaritet: 1960- och 1970-talets politiska uttryck i den svenska affischkonsten2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under det svenska 1960- och 1970-talet engagerade sig det svenska folket i en rad olika ideologiorienterade organisationer, internationella frågor eller folkrörelser, något som även tog sitt uttryck i kulturen. Mitt syfte med denna uppsats är att undersöka ett urval politiska affischer, utifrån Michael Baxandalls teori "The period eye", hur 1960- och 1970-talets konst påverkades av samtidens samhällstrukturer och politiska engagemang. Min tyngdpunkt kommer att ligga i de politiska affischer som på något sätt hade en anknytning till en alternativ rörelse, såsom Miljörörelsen, Kvinnorörelsen och Vietnamrörelsen. Men även den den svenska konstscenen i stort kommer att tillföras till undersökningen som en komplettering till förståelsen av affischernas uttryck och funktion, som ofta fabricerades utanför institutionella sammanhang.

    Dessa frågeställningar vill jag besvara med hjälp av den historiska bakgrunden och min analys: Vilka orsaker ligger bakom användandet av konstnärliga affischer vid spridningen av politisk propaganda? Det vill säga: Vilka faktorer gjorde att affischen användes flitigt som medium av de alternativa rörelserna istället för annan bildkonst? Hur kan den politiska andan från decennierna urskiljas konkret i affischerna? Hur skiljer sig affischkonsten från den mer institutionella konsten under dessa två decennier?

    Utifrån mina frågeställningar kommer jag att analysera tre politiska affischer genom att sätta in dem i ett historiskt perspektiv, vilket är deras samtid, 1960- och 1970-tal. Viktigt i det historiska perspektivet kommer att vara; de ekonomiska förutsättningarna, politikens uttryck i de olika sociala rörelserna, de internationella frågorna som präglade den svenska inrikespolitiken, synen på kulturarbetarnas politiska ansvar och konstnärens roll som politisk aktör.

  • 48.
    Gavanas, Anna
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society.
    Migrant domestic workers, social network strategies and informal marketsfor domestic services in Sweden2013In: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, Vol. 36, 56-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the dynamics of migration, working conditions and in/formalization in the domestic service sector in Sweden. Based on an interview study conducted in Stockholm 2009/2010, the article identifies crucial aspects of a range of large scale social and economic shifts in Sweden. Especially in focus are the conditions of migrant domestic workers (from Eastern Europe, Russia, Mongolia, Africa and South America) within a global division of labor. Compared to other European countries, Sweden is a unique case due to its social democratic welfare state traditions encouraging female work participation and public solutions for care, as well as its longstanding controversies around policies encouraging private domestic services (Gavanas, 2006; Gavanas, 2010a). Due to its hierarchical connotations in line with gender, class and ethnicity, proposals for tax deduction for domestic service have been highly contested in Sweden. The mere idea of a private domestic service goes against the grain of social democratic and feminist traditions as well as cultural preferences for public care (Gavanas, 2006; Öberg, 1999). However, since tax reductions for domestic services were introduced in 2007, rapid transformations have taken place in Sweden. In addition to the tax reductions, the Swedish market for domestic service is also expanding as a result of welfare state cutbacks, as well as privatization of public care, deregulation, internationalization and flexibilization of labor markets (Gavanas, 2006; Platzer, 2003; de los Reyes, 2002). In this article I am arguing that the domestic service market is undergoing segmentation based on social network segregation, as opposed to the policy ambition that a formal sector, as a result of the tax reductions, is replacing an informal sector.

  • 49.
    Gavanas, Anna
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society.
    Elderly care puzzles inStockholm; strategies on formal and informal markets.2013In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 3, no 2, 57-116 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    • In “ageing Europe”, there have been widespread developments aimed at the privatisation of elderly care. In tandem, the demand for private domestic services is expanding all over Europe, and elderly citizens are a major part of this demand. Simultaneously, migrant women are increasingly considered the solution to the labour force deficit in the wake of the “care crisis”. This article explores the dual privatisation process in the context of New Public Management reforms and glocalisation in Stockholm/Sweden: namely, what are the consequences to providers and consumers in the elderly care sector and domestic services? In particular, the article highlights the purchase of informal services among the elderly as a part of the “elderly care puzzle”.
  • 50.
    Danial Khyio, Josef
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wergnert, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    En undersökning om fallolyckor med gångtrafikanter2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate different relations between the damages of falls and background variables as well as the relation between the falls and the weather condition to later be able to use this report to expand the knowledge among workers at VTI about the pedestrian fall injuries. All of the fall injuries in the data that this study is based on have occurred in Sweden during the time period between January 2003 and December 2011.

    To be able to answer the questions that this report is based on several statistical methods are used. The statistical methods that have been used during the making of this report are multiple linear regression, binary logistic regression, correlation analysis, association analysis and descriptive statistics as well as visual analysis.

    The results of the study show that women around menopause age have a tendency to get a big increase in the amount of injuries compared to men of the same age. The study also suggests that men on average tend to have a lower level of injury compared to women.

    Age also seems to affect both the amount of injuries and the level of injury negatively. The study suggests that the most likely reason for this is both that the intake of ”Fall Risk Increasing Medicine”, which is medicine that increases the drowsiness, is higher among older individuals as well as lower estrogen levels among older women and lower amount of testosterone among older men, which causes a loss of bone density in both sexes.

    The weather seems to have a strong effect on how many injuries occur but also a noticeable effect on the scale of the injury. Snow and wind seems to cause an increased risk of falling as well as an increase of the injury scale.

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