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  • 1.
    Annerbäck, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sahlqvist, L.
    Research and Development Centre, Sörmlands County Council, S-631 88 Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Work and Environmental Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Child Physical Abuse and concurrence of other types of Child Abuse: associations with health and risk behaviors2012In: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 36, no 7-8, p. 585-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse and health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teen-agers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking behaviors.

    Methods: A population-based survey was carried out in 2008 among all the pupils in two different grades (15 respectively 17 years old) in Södermanland County, Sweden (N=7 262). The response rate was 81.8 %. The pupils were asked among other things about their exposure to child physical abuse, exposure to parental intimate violence, bullying and exposure to being forced to engage in sexual acts. Adjusted analyses were conducted to estimate associations between exposure and illhealth/risk-taking behaviors.

    Results: Child physical abuse was associated with poor health and risk-taking behaviors with adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) ranging from 1.6 to 6.2. The associations were stronger when the pupils reported repeated abuse with OR ranging from 2.0 to 13.2. Also experiencing parental intimate partner violence, bullying and being forced to engage in sexual acts was associated with poor health and risk-taking behaviors with the same graded relationship to repeated abuse. Finally there was a cumulative effect of multiple abuse in the form of being exposed to child physical abuse plus other types of abuse and the associations increase with the number of concurrent abuse.

    Conclusions: This study provides strong indications that child abuse is a serious public health problem based on the clear links seen between abuse and poor health and behavioral problems. Consistent with other studies showing a graded relationship between experiences of abuse and poor health/risk-taking behaviors our study shows poorer outcomes for repeated and multiple abuse. Thus, our study calls for improvement of methods of comprehensive assessments, interventions and treatment in all settings where professionals meet young people.

  • 2.
    Fornander, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Work and Environmental Science.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Kihlström, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Schön, Thomas
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Work and Environmental Science.
    Innate immunity proteins and a new truncated form of SPLUNC1 in nasopharyngeal aspirates from infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection2011In: PROTEOMICS CLINICAL APPLICATIONS, ISSN 1862-8346, Vol. 5, no 9-10, p. 513-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of severe respiratory tract infection in infants. The aim was to identify host defence components in nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) from infants with RSV infection and to study the expression of the novel 25 kDa innate immunity protein SPLUNC1. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanExperimental design: NPAs from infants were analyzed with 2-DE and MS in a pilot study. The levels of SPLUNC1 were analyzed with immunoblotting in 47 NPAs, admitted for RSV diagnosis. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Totally, 35 proteins were identified in NPA, including several innate immunity proteins such as group X phospholipase A(2), different S100 proteins and SPLUNC1. In addition, a new truncated 15 kDa form of SPLUNC1 was identified that was detected in about 50% of the aspirates admitted for RSV diagnosis. RSV-positive boys had significantly less 25 kDa SPLUNC1 than RSV-negative boys while there were no significant differences among girls. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions and clinical relevance: Several important innate immunity proteins were identified in NPA. Notably, a new truncated form of the newly suggested anti-bacterial protein SPLUNC1 was found. It is possible that a decrease in SPLUNC1 in the upper airways may increase the risk for severe pneumonia in boys.

  • 3.
    Fornander, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Graff, Pål
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Work and Environmental Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Airway irritation among indoor swimming pool personnel: trichloramine exposure, exhaled NO and protein profiling of nasal lavage fluids2013In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 86, no 5, p. 571-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Occurrence of airway irritation among indoor swimming pool personnel was investigated. The aims of this study were to assess trichloramine exposure levels and exhaled nitric oxide in relation to the prevalence of airway symptoms in swimming pool facilities and to determine protein effects in the upper respiratory tract.

    Methods

    The presence of airway symptoms related to work was examined in 146 individuals working at 46 indoor swimming pool facilities. Levels of trichloramine, as well as exhaled nitric oxide, were measured in five facilities with high prevalence of airway irritation and four facilities with no airway irritation among the personnel. Nasal lavage fluid was collected, and protein profiles were determined by a proteomic approach.

    Results

    17 % of the swimming pool personnel reported airway symptoms related to work. The levels of trichloramine in the swimming pool facilities ranged from 0.04 to 0.36 mg/m3. There was no covariance between trichloramine levels, exhaled nitric oxide and prevalence of airway symptoms. Protein profiling of the nasal lavage fluid showed that the levels alpha-1-antitrypsin and lactoferrin were significantly higher, and S100-A8 was significantly lower in swimming pool personnel.

    Conclusions

    This study confirms the occurrence of airway irritation among indoor swimming pool personnel. Our results indicate altered levels of innate immunity proteins in the upper airways that may pose as potential biomarkers. However, swimming pool facilities with high prevalence of airway irritation could not be explained by higher trichloramine exposure levels. Further studies are needed to clarify the environmental factors in indoor swimming pools that cause airway problems and affect the immune system.

  • 4.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Berglund, Marika
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lofman, Owe
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Work and Environmental Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Health effects and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals in a contaminated community2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 44, p. 53-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental measurements carried out by local authorities during the 1970s, 80s and 90s in an area contaminated by hundreds of years of industrial activities have revealed high levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in soil, vegetables, root crops, berries and mushrooms. In 1972, a large quantity of oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was accidentally spilled into the river running through the village. To investigate the possible health effects of exposure from local sources, all cancer diagnoses, registered in 1960-2003 for individuals living in the study area, were collected from the regional cancer register of southeast Sweden. The total cancer incidence was non-significantly decreased both among males and females as compared to national rates (SIR = 0.91) for each gender. Among males, increased risks, of border-line significance, were seen for testicular cancer and lymphomas as well as significantly decreased risks for cancer in the rectum, respiratory system and brain. Information on lifetime residence, occupation, smoking habits, diseases, childbirth and food consumption, was collected via questionnaires from cancer cases and randomly selected controls. In both genders combined, significant associations were found for total cancer and high consumption of local perch, and for lymphomas and high consumption of both perch and pikeperch. Female breast cancer was significantly associated with high consumption of local perch and pike as well as with work in metal production. Mothers residing in the parish before the age of five reported significantly more preterm child deliveries. In spite of study limitations, the results indicate that residing in a rural contaminated area may contribute to the development of certain cancers and reproductive effects. In females, high consumption of local fish was shown to be the strongest determinant for total cancer, while in males, the strongest determinant was residing in the study area the first five years of life. Further research including validation of exposure using biomarkers is required to verify the findings as well as future studies in other polluted areas in Sweden with larger population bases.

  • 5.
    Jones, Christina
    et al.
    ICU, Whiston Hospital, Prescot, UK.
    Bäckman, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Work and Environmental Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Griffiths, Richard D.
    ICU, Whiston Hospital, Prescot, UK.
    Intensive care diaries and relatives' symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder after critical illness: a pilot study2012In: American Journal of Critical Care, ISSN 1062-3264, E-ISSN 1937-710X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 172-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Relatives of patients recovering from critical illness have been shown to be at risk of developing Post Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD).

    Objectives: The primary aim of this pilot study was to test whether the provision of an ICU diary to the patient and their relatives reduced the level of PTSD-related symptoms in the close family members.

    Methods: Observational study of close family members of Intensive care patients, with an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay of more than 72 hrs, recruited in two centres of a 12 centred randomised controlled trial examining the effect of a diary outlining the details of the patients ICU stay on the development of new onset PTSD on patients. The close family members of the patients were recruited to examine the additional effect of the provision of the patient diary on their PTSD-related symptoms.

    Results 36 family members were recruited and 30 completed the study. Where the patient received their diary at 1 month the family members showed lower levels of PTSD-related symptoms (p=0.03) at the 3 month follow-up compared to the control relatives.

    Conclusions: The provision of an ICU diary may be effective in aiding psychological recovery in families after critical illness.

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Helen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Work and Environmental Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Ljunggren, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ahrén, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ljungman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry in studies of nanoparticle-protein interactions2012In: Gel electrophoresis-Advanced Techniques / [ed] Sameh Magdeldin, Rijeka, Croatia: In Tech , 2012, p. 1-32Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years a number of epidemiological studies have shown that PM from combustion sources such as motor vehicles contributes to respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Especially so do the ultra-fine particles (UFPs) with a diameter less than 0.1 micrometer.UFPs from combustion engines are capable to translocate over the alveolar–capillary barrier.  When nano-sized PM (nanoparticles, NP), which are small enough to enter the blood stream, do so they are likely to interact with plasma proteins and this protein-NP interaction will probably affect the fate of and the effects caused by the NPs in the human body. Here, by using a proteomic approach, we present results showing that several proteins indeed are associated to NPs that have in vitro been introduced to human blood plasma.

  • 7.
    Orwelius, Lotti
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bäckman, Carl
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Work and Environmental Science.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Simonsson, Eva
    Ryhov Hospital.
    Nordlund, Peter
    Ryhov Hospital.
    Samuelsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Intensive Care UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Social integration: an important factor for health-related quality of life after critical illness2011In: INTENSIVE CARE MEDICINE, ISSN 0342-4642, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 831-838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine to what extent availability of social integration affects health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in former intensive care unit (ICU) patients and how it relates to corresponding findings in a general reference group. Controlled, multicenter, prospective, explorative study. HRQoL data (SF-36) were collected from three combined medical and surgical ICUs in the south-east of Sweden. Social integration was assessed by the Availability of Social Integration (AVSI) instrument (seven questions related to the social interaction of the patient). As reference group, a random sample (n = 6,093) of people from the uptake area of the hospitals was used. Social integration (AVSI), HRQoL (SF-36), and comorbidity were examined also in the reference group. None. The level of social integration significantly affected HRQoL for the former ICU patients, whereas no such effect was seen for the general reference group. For the ICU patients, social integration affected HRQoL to a larger extent than age, sex, and the ICU-related factors examined, but to a lower extent than the pre-existing diseases. For a comprehensive assessment of HRQoL in former ICU patients, it is mandatory to include the effect of social integration.

  • 8.
    Rönn, Monika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Work and Environmental Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Berglund, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Filio
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lind, Monica P
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bisphenol A exposure increases liver fat in juvenile fructose-fed Fischer 344 rats2013In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 303, p. 125-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce obesity in rodents. To evaluate if exposure also later in life could induce obesity or liver damage we investigated these hypothesises in an experimental rat model.

    Methods

    From five to fifteen weeks of age, female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to BPA via drinking water (0.025, 0.25 or 2.5 mg BPA/L) containing 5% fructose. Two control groups were given either water or 5% fructose solution. Individual weight of the rats was determined once a week. At termination magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess adipose tissue amount and distribution, and liver fat content. After sacrifice the left perirenal fat pad and the liver were dissected and weighed. Apolipoprotein A-I in plasma was analyzed by western blot.

    Results

    No significant effects on body weight or the weight of the dissected fad pad were seen in rats exposed to BPA, and MRI showed no differences in total or visceral adipose tissue volumes between the groups. However, MRI showed that liver fat content was significantly higher in BPA-exposed rats than in fructose controls (p = 0.04). BPA exposure also increased the apolipoprotein A-I levels in plasma (p < 0.0001).

    Conclusion

    We found no evidence that BPA exposure affects fat mass in juvenile fructose-fed rats. However, the finding that BPA in combination with fructose induced fat infiltration in the liver at dosages close to the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) might be of concern given the widespread use of this compound in our environment.

  • 9.
    Rönn, Monika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lind, Monica
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Work and Environmental Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Cvek, Katarina
    The Swedish university of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Filip
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Quantification of total and visceral adipose tissue in fructose-fed rats using water-fat separated single Echo MRI2013In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 21, no 9, p. E388-E395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to setup a rodent model for modest weight gain and an MRI-based quantification of body composition on a clinical 1.5 T MRI system for studies of obesity and environmental factors and their possible association. Design and Methods: Twenty-four 4-week-old female Fischer rats were divided into two groups: one exposed group (n=12) and one control group (n 12). The exposed group was given drinking water containing fructose (5% for 7 weeks, then 20% for 3 weeks). The control group was given tap water. Before sacrifice, whole body MRI was performed to determine volumes of total and visceral adipose tissue and lean tissue. MRI was performed using a clinical 1.5 T system and a chemical shift based technique for separation of water and fat signal from a rapid single echo acquisition. Fat signal fraction was used to separate adipose and lean tissue. Visceral adipose tissue volume was quantified using semiautomated segmentation. After sacrifice, a perirenal fat pad and the liver were dissected and weighed. Plasma proteins were analyzed by Western blot. Results: The weight gain was 5.2% greater in rats exposed to fructose than in controls (P=0.042). Total and visceral adipose tissue volumes were 5.2 cm(3) (P=0.017) and 3.1 cm(3) (P=0.019) greater, respectively, while lean tissue volumes did not differ. The level of triglycerides and apolipoprotein A-I was higher (P=0.034, P=0.005, respectively) in fructose-exposed rats. Conclusions: The setup induced and assessed a modest visceral obesity and hypertriglyceridemia, making it suitable for further studies of a possible association between environmental factors and obesity.

  • 10.
    Ungerbäck, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Belenki, Dimitri
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jawad Ul-Hassan, Aksa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Work and Environmental Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fransén, Karin
    Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Health and Medical Science, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Elander, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Verma, Deepti
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Genetic variation and alterations of genes involved in NFκB/TNFAIP3- and NLRP3-inflammasome signaling affect susceptibility and outcome of colorectal cancer2012In: Carcinogenesis, ISSN 0143-3334, E-ISSN 1460-2180, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 2126-2134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colorectal tumors are continuously exposed to an inflammatory environment, which together with mitogenic signals sustain several cancer hallmarks. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) is a major regulator of inflammation and variation in NFκB-associated genes could potentially be used as biomarkers to identify patients with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development, and/or a rapidly progressing disease. In this study, 348 CRC cases and 806 randomly selected healthy individuals from southeastern Sweden were examined with regard to seven polymorphisms in NFκB pathway-associated genes. Log-rank-tests and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis examined the association between the polymorphisms and CRC-specific survival, whereas chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis were used to test for associations between the polymorphisms and CRC susceptibility. Gene expression and loss of heterozygosity analyses of TNFAIP3 were carried out in a subset of tumors to assess its role as a tumor suppressor in CRC. Heterozygous and polymorphic TNFAIP3 (rs6920220), heterozygous NLRP3 (Q705K) and polymorphic NFκB -94 ATTG ins/del genotypes were found to be associated with poorer survival in patients diagnosed with invasive CRC (aHR = 5.2, 95% CI: 2.5-10.9, P < 0.001). TNFAIP3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in tumors compared with adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa (P < 0.0001) and loss of heterozygosity of 6q23.3 (TNFAIP3) was detected in 17% of cases, whereas only 2.5% of the investigated specimens displayed TNFAIP3 gene mutations. We propose that TNFAIP3 (rs6920220), NLRP3 (Q705K) and NFκB -94 ATTG ins/del polymorphisms are associated with poor survival in patients with advanced CRC and may be used as prognostic markers. Experimental results indicate that TNFAIP3 may act as a tumor suppressor in CRC.

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