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  • 1.
    Alvestig, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Jägerud, Filip
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Man måste brinna för att bli utbränd: En kvalitativ studie om orsaker till stress samt dess påverkan på IT-projektledare och IT-projekt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is a growing problem in today's society. Employees suffer from fatigue syndrome andare forced to suffer sick leave for longer periods, which entails costs for both the society andthe employer. Some occupational groups are more vulnerable to stress than others. In the ITindustry, development is very fast, which means that employees must constantly keep up withthe new developments in order to stay in the loop. A project manager has a big responsibilityon his shoulders to lead projects, in our case containing 50 project members, this may be evenmore in larger organizations. Projects of this type may also include large budgets and whensuch a project fails, it has major consequences. Where these two areas overlap, stressfulsituations will undeniably occur.In this paper we have investigated which specific situations are stressing project managers inIT projects, how they are affected by this stress and what what the impact is on the projectsthat they operate. The purpose of this is to prevent stress in the future as well as to show thatthis could be a widespread problem in this industry. This could help project managers to seekhelp if they know that they are not alone in having this problem.To investigate this we have conducted five interviews at two different organizations. Onepublic and one private, however, we will not make a deeper comparison regarding thisparticular aspect since our selection area is too small for that. The interviews weresemi-structured to allow follow-up questions and were conducted in accordance with thedramaturgical model. All respondents have extensive experience in project management inthe IT industry, and the majority currently work as project managers. The empirical data isthen analyzed in conjunction with previous research within stress as well as the project area.Our results show that all the project managers in our interviews feel stress and that the stressis periodical. There are periods, for example, if an unforeseen problem arises where stresslevels can be problematic. A respondent tells of a project leader colleague who was burnedout and where our respondent had to take over the project. But none of the respondents sawthe stress as a reason for a career change, they all plan to continue in the industry. One of themost important methods of counteracting stress that we draw attention to is to prioritize theirduties and perform them in a logical order instead of taking care of everything at once. Wealso discovered that smartphones increases the stress levels of project managers since theyalways carry their work with them in their pocket and thus have trouble relaxing in their sparetime.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hallberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of Crisis Management Operations using Reconstruction and Exploration2008In: Proceedings of the 5th International ISCRAM Conference, Washington, DC: May 4-7 / [ed] Frank Fiedrich and Bartel Van de Walle, ISCRAM , 2008, p. 118-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present the Reconstruction and Exploration approach (R&E) and F-REX tool and their applications in a field exercise with the Swedish Rescue Services Agency with the purpose of investigating features needed for a computer supported approach for evaluation of large scale crisis management operations. After the exercise several interviews and one seminar were held to evaluate R&E as a representative for computer supported evaluation approaches for crisis management operations. Initial results indicate that multimedia presentation of key events from an operation can be very valuable not only to stimulate the participants to reflect on their own performance, but also to document and share lessons learned to non-participants.

  • 3.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Niklas
    Geotelix AB.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nordström, Johan
    Räddningstjänsten Östra Götaland.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tjernström, Richard
    Norrköping Municipality.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Using Semi-professionals in Emergency Response2016In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Andrea H. Tapia, Pedro Antunes, Victor A. Bañuls, Kathleen Moore and João Porto de Albuquerque, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The term semi-professional can be used to denote occupational groups that do not have emergency response as their primary profession but who get additional responsibilities within rescue and response, e.g. by performing a first response or assisting the professional emergency services. In this study, four different groups of possible semi-professional resources are analyzed and compared. Similarities and differences between the four groups are discussed. Factors, important for the successful implementation of a cross-sector collaboration of this kind, are highlighted. The preliminary results show that all four groups have the potential to act as semi-professional resources within emergency response. Interestingly, the basic requirements are the same for all groups, despite different prerequisites.

  • 4.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Yousefi Mojir, Kayvan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effektivt sambruk av kommunala resurser för ökad säkerhet och trygghet2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Användandet av så kallade semiprofessionella resurser i räddningsinsatser har blivit allt vanligare i Sverige. En semiprofessionell är en person som fått utökade arbetsuppgifter inom respons och räddning inom ramen för sitt ordinarie yrke. Det kanske mest kända exemplet är väktare som responderar på den kommunala räddningstjänstens ärenden.

    I det projekt som avrapporteras här, är syftet att undersöka vilka yrkesgrupper som skulle passa bra som semiprofessionella, och vad som krävs för att de effektivt ska kunna utföra de nya arbetsuppgifterna, bland annat i form av utbildning och utrustning. Vidare syftar projektet till att utvärdera vilken samhällsnytta semiprofessionella kan bidra med. Som studieobjekt används Norrköpings kommun, och via en aktionsforskningsinspirerad metodansats är målet att projektresultaten ska kunna bidra till en ökad säkerhet och trygghet i kommunen.

    En kombination av kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder används för att uppnå syftet. Genom workshops identifieras först fyra potentiella yrkesgrupper (räddningstjänstens dagtidspersonal, hemtjänstpersonal, förvaltningsentreprenörer och väktare), för vilka detaljerad data erhålls via fokusgruppsintervjuer. En grupp (räddningstjänstens dagtidspersonal) väljs ut för vidare analys, och ytterligare en workshop genomförs, plus ett experiment i form av en simulerad olycka där semiprofessionella får göra en första insats. En prototyp av ett utlarmningssystem tas fram, inklusive en smartphoneapplikation som de semiprofessionella kan använda för att ta emot och hantera larm. Med hjälp av applikationen utförs ett experiment där historiska larm skickas till potentiella semiprofessionella under två månaders tid, och de får svara på om de kan åka eller inte, samtidigt som deras position noteras. Genom att jämföra deltagarnas uppskattade insatstider med räddningstjänstens historiska, kan möjliga insatstidsförkortningar beräknas. Detta kompletteras med en bedömning av vad de kan bidra med i respektive händelse.

    Bedömningen görs enligt en strukturerad metod av professionell personal från två olika räddningstjänstorganisationer. De beräknade insatstiderna och den skattade förmågan vägs samman till en monetär nytta av den semiprofessionella insatsen.

    Resultatet visar att det finns ett stort antal yrkesgrupper som skulle kunna vara lämpliga att nyttja som semiprofessionella. I rapporten redovisas en lista med 23 grupper som anses ha potential och möjlighet att utföra räddningsinsatser som en del av sitt yrke. Vidare redovisas ett antal utmaningar och möjligheter, baserat på analysen av de fyra utvalda grupperna. En konkret sammanställning har gjorts i form av listor på utbildning och utrustning som krävs för att de effektivt kunna utföra sitt nya uppdrag. Dessa krav är förhållandevis enkla att uppfylla, och handlar om grundläggande utbildning i riskbedömning, brandsläckning och livräddande åtgärder, samt utrustning som tex handbrandsläckare och förbandslåda. Mer utmanande är de organisatoriska förändringar som är nödvändiga för att de semiprofessionella akut ska kunna lämna sina pågående arbetsuppgifter, samt hur utlarmningen ska kunna integreras i de tekniska system som används för professionella räddningsresurser. Vidare visar resultaten att semiprofessionella kan larmas, och förväntas göra nytta på en stor mängd olika typer av händelser, dock främst vid händelser med personskador eller akuta sjukdomsförlopp. Den monetära nyttan av att införa ett fåtal (i snitt 3,4 st) semiprofessionella i Norrköping och Linköpings kommuner beräknades till mellan 600 000 och 2 400 000 kr per år, beroende på hur lång tid det tar för de semiprofessionella ifrån att de får larm tills de påbörjar färden mot händelseplatsen.

    En slutsats från projektet är att semiprofessionella skulle bidra till en ökad säkerhet och trygghet i Norrköping kommun, om de används som förstainsatsresurser, som ett komplement till befintlig professionell räddningspersonal.

  • 5.
    Andréasson, Ester
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Mariana S
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Karin
    Handelshögskolan vid Örebro universitet.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vem är vem på nätet?: en studie av elektronisk identifiering2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att identifiera sig är något vi gör i många olika vardagssituationer; exempelvis när vi ska styrka vår ålder i krogkön, uträtta bankärenden eller bli insläppta av vakten på en bevakad arbetsplats. För att identifiera oss i dessa situationer använder vi oftast någon form av fysisk identitetshandling; ett körkort, pass eller ID-kort. Samtidigt har vi idag ett samhälle där allt fler ärenden går att utföra via nätet, där såväl offentliga som kommersiella aktörer erbjuder elektroniska tjänster (e-tjänster) i ökande omfattning. Vi blir därmed alltmer beroende av informationsteknik (IT) i samhället för att samverka och kommunicera effektivt och enkelt. Vår riskexponering och sårbarhet ökar i takt med att vi utför allt fler ärenden via e-tjänster. Känslig information kan utnyttjas av obehöriga eller missbrukas på olika sätt.

    Elektronisk identifiering blir i dessa sammanhang en viktig komponent och förutsättning för att kunna erbjuda och använda effektiva och säkra e-tjänster. När man identifierar sig på nätet och i IT-system kan man göra det på många olika sätt; man kan logga in med användarnamn och lösenord, använda elektroniska ID-lösningar (eID) med dosor och koder, scanna fingeravtryck, använda e-tjänstekort och kortläsare eller RFID-teknik. Man skulle kunna betrakta dessa identifieringslösningar som rent tekniska landvinningar, som bara syftar till att man ska kunna nå den e-tjänst man vill använda. Likt en nyckel som används för att låsa upp dörren så att man kommer in i sitt hus. Vi menar dock att det är en alldeles för snäv syn på elektronisk identifiering – den behöver vara vidare än så för att vara fruktbar och kunna sättas i meningsfulla sammanhang av exempelvis design, utvärdering och vidareutveckling.

    Även om det är en teknisk lösning (en artefakt) med en begränsad uppgift vi avser, så kan dess utformning och sättet den införs och används på få stora konsekvenser för hela användningssituationen. Med artefakt menas här konstruerade föremål i form av olika tekniska lösningar och människors meningar kopplade till dessa. Identifieringslösningen påverkar både säkerheten i sig och den bild vi får av den e-tjänst eller det IT-system där vi identifierar oss. Dessutom påverkar den också bilden vi har av det sammanhang där vi använder identifieringslösningen. Om vi använder en e-tjänst som erbjuds av exempelvis den kommun där vi bor, påverkas också vår tilltro till kommunen och samhället av hur vi uppfattar identifieringslösningen och e-tjänsten. Samma resonemang gäller om vi köper en vara av ett privat företag på nätet. Med andra ord påverkas samhällets såväl som företagens legitimitet av hur vi som medborgare eller kunder uppfattar olika IT-lösningar.

    Den här boken handlar därför om de möjligheter och utmaningar som elektronisk identifiering kan innebära för individer, organisationer och samhället. Vi talar inte om isolerade tekniska problem i första hand, utan anlägger ett vidare perspektiv på de möjligheter och problem som kommer med e-tjänster och elektronisk identifiering.

    Vi har skrivit den här boken för att dela med oss av en del av de tankar och insikter som vi fått under projektet. Syftet med boken är att sätta ljuset på ett antal teman som framstår som centrala för utveckling och användning av elektronisk identifiering. Vi beskriver tre exempel som hämtar inspiration från våra studier inom projektet. Utifrån dessa exempel lyfter vi fram ett antal teman och diskuterar dessa samt sammanfattar utmaningar som vi sett i våra studier. Vår förhoppning är att Du som läser vår bok kan använda våra resonemang för att diskutera frågorna vidare i det praktiska sammanhang som Du befinner Dig i. Oavsett om Du finns på ett kommunkontor, i ett landsting, i en myndighet eller i en privat livssituation. Vi har inte haft ambitionen att skriva en vetenskaplig, teorirelaterad text, men Du som vill läsa forskningsbaserade publikationer från projektet hittar lästips i slutet av boken.

  • 6.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Applying an Ethical Perspective on Stakeholder Participation in Public E-service Development2013In: GI Edition Proceedings Band 221: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation / [ed] Wimmer M.A., Janssen M, Macintosh, A., Scholl H.J., and Tambouris, E., 2013, p. 150-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to balance between citizen and agency aspects’ importance and visibility in public e-service development, the question how to involve different stakeholders is often raised. However, identifying and analyzing several internal as well as external stakeholders in relation to e-government development raises some ethical questions: Who should participate and who should not? For what reasons do we involve stakeholders? What will the result of stakeholder participation and involvement be? In this article empirical findings from an egovernment project are revisited and discussed from an ethical perspective. The main conclusion is that we need to consider ethical aspects of stakeholder participation in e-government projects more thoroughly. The ethical discussion in stakeholder participation rhetoric has often been shallow. An important task for e-government researchers is therefore to address this discussion in public e-service development,as the results in terms of quality of the e-services as well as citizen benefits are at stake.

  • 7.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Social Construction of Data Stability: Discovering Tactics for Establishing and Preserving Stability in Data Bases2008In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Information Systems / [ed] Golden W, Acton T, Conboy K, van der Heijden H and Tuunainen VK, Galway: International university of Ireland , 2008, , p. 2257-2268Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper questions the idea of data stability. We focus on core ideas behind an information centric strategy concerning stability in databases (created through enterprise-wide data modeling). We investigate if and how data stability is obtained when an information centric strategy is implemented in practice. We claim that, even though there are many research contributions about information centric strategies, there are still few papers focusing on problems concerning consequences of the strategies’ practical implementation. This is, however, an important issue since data integration is a key element of strategic management in, e.g., ERP-systems, data mining applications, and service-oriented architecture (SOA). It is, thus, most important not to neglect existing experiences, when developing the IT systems of tomorrow. The result of our two case studies reveal four tactics focusing on actions conducted to obtain and maintain stability in databases. The tactics are 1) change avoidance, 2) anticipated generalization, 3) constructive standardization, and 4) expansion to new application areas.

  • 8.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Contextual Factors Influencing Health Information Systems Implementation in Public Sector: Investigating the Explanatory Power of Critical Success Factors2014In: Electronic Government: 13th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2014, Dublin, Ireland, September 1-3, 2014, Proceedings / [ed] Marijn Janssen, Hans Jochen Scholl, Maria A. Wimmer, Frank Bannister, Springer, 2014, p. 59-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we approach the field of critical success factors (CSF) by analyzing a successful case of IT implementation within the public health sector. The purpose of the paper is to gain further understanding of if and how well CSFs can explain a successful case. The main conclusion drawn is that even though the studied organization shows signs of common CSFs, this alone cannot explain the success. An important contribution from this study is thus the focus on contextual factors when trying to understand what makes an implementation project successful.

  • 9.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granath, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    In search of ICT in smart cities: Policy documents as idea carriers in urban development2016In: Electronic government: 15th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2016, Guimarães, Portugal, September 5-8, 2016, Proceedings, 2016, Vol. 9820, p. 215-227Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how policy documents carry and institutionalize smart city ideas from high policy level to concrete policy level in an urban development context. We analyze the national urban development vision for Sweden and documents in a local urban development project in a Swedish city, in order to explore what kind of roles and expectations ICT is given in these documents. We contrast this with views of how social and environmental aspects are discussed in the studied documents. In order to understand and analyze the result we apply the concept of institutional carriers from institutional theory to our findings. Our analysis shows that as carriers of how ICT can contribute to increased sustainabilityin urban development, the policy documents do not function very well. ICT aspects are not put forth by any policy-making actor, neither on national nor on local level. The notion of institutional carriers helped us understand that without a responsible actor focusing on ICT’s role in smart cities, it is easy to forget or lose sight of technology

  • 10.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Developing public e-services for several stakeholders: a multifaceted view of the needs for an e-service2009In: Proceeding of the 17th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS2009) / [ed] Susan Newell, Edgar A. Whitley, Nancy Pouloudi, Jonathan Wareham, Lars Mathiassen, 2009, p. 2804-2815Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how several stakeholders in a public e-service development project consider a future e-service and expected changes in administrative processes and working routines. Our findings indicate a much more multifaceted view than the common win-win situation, with increased quality for citizens and increased efficiency for agencies, which is rhetorically put forth as an effect of public e-service implementation. We have studied a development project resulting in an e-service for handling student anonymity when marking written exams in higher education. In this case we have identified five distinct stakeholder groups related to this e-service; students, teachers, course administrators, exam guards, and the university at an agency level. All of them having certain expectations and fears about the new situation. By presenting this diversity in opinions we add further understanding to the notion of e-services as being more or less beneficial for certain stakeholders.

  • 11.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Public e-services for agency efficiency and citizen benefit: findings from a stakeholder centered analysis2013In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 10-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goals of e-government are to increase agency efficiency and offer benefits to citizens. These goals have often been addressed as two interplaying outcomes of public e-service development, which are possible to achieve in parallel. This article shows that the two frequently applied stakeholders of e-government (agencies and citizens) are much too extensive and heterogeneous in order to be meaningfully addressed in public e-service conceptualization and development. We conduct a stakeholder centered analysis of a public e-service development and implementation process in order to identify stakeholder groups and discuss how they differ in their perceptions and, consequently, also in their feelings of relevance and need related to the e-service. By adopting a multi-faceted perspective on stakeholders, public e-service development can be analyzed and understood in a way that takes several stakeholder groups into account. Our study contributes with deeper insights about a situation where stakeholder salience changes over time, while some stakeholder groups have low salience during the entire process. The result of conducting a stakeholder centered analysis is that we, by visualizing the stakeholder groups' differences, are better prepared to meet and combine different needs related to a planned e-service. Thus, we argue that a stakeholder centered analysis of expectations and opinions concerning the e-service help to develop e-services possible to succeed in offering both external service and internal efficiency.

  • 12.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stakeholder Salience Changes in an e-Government Implementation Project2013In: Stakeholder Salience Changes in an e-Government Implementation Project: 12th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2013, Koblenz, Germany, September 16-19, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Maria A. Wimmer, Marijn Janssen, Hans J. Scholl, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 237-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we discuss in what ways an e-government project can give both expected and unexpected effects for agency employees and their working tasks. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the fact that, besides the aim to increase agency efficiency and citizen benefit, e-government implementation might also change the salience of involved stakeholders. We do this by focusing on one stakeholder group which was reluctant and hesitating in the beginning of the studied project; marginalized, passive, easily convinced, and old-fashioned. After the e-government implementation, this group had turned to satisfied, proud, influential, active, powerful, and modern IT users. The case shows how stakeholder salience might change over time in an e-government project. Stakeholder influence aspects and IT driven change aspects are intertwined. This makes it necessary for any e-government project to address the notion of stakeholder involvement in decision-making during the development and implementation phases, but also to acknowledge e-services force to change how things and people are perceived during these phases.

  • 13.
    Berg, Jonatan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Magdesjö, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vems behov styr valet av ett standardiserat informationssystem?: En studie över vems behov som styr när ett standardiserat informationssystem ska passa olika behov i organisationen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Informationssystem används i organisationer för att fylla olika slags behov. Den här uppsatsensyftar till att undersöka hur dessa behov påverkar valet av informationssystem, samt hur dessabehov uppfylls av informationssystemet. För att utforska dessa behov användes enlitteraturstudie tillsammans med en empiriskt grundad kvalitativ undersökning. Dendatainsamlingsmetod som användes för att samla in empirin var en fallstudie hos Motalakommun, som genom kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer beskrev de olikaverksamheternas behov i organisationen samt organisationens övergripande behov.

    Behovet som organisationer har av informationssystem beskrivs i teorin, där det ska användasför att stödja användarnas arbetsuppgifter. Arbetsuppgifterna kan sedan skilja sig åt beroendepå i vilken verksamhet inom organisationen som användaren arbetar inom. Litteraturenbeskriver även att de olika verksamheterna kan ha haft olika mycket inflytande på valet avinformationssystem, vilket gör att olika verksamheter fått sina behov mer uppfyllda avinformationssystemet än vad andra verksamheter inom organisationen kan ha fått.

    I den empiriska studien utforskades ett standardiserat informationssystem vilket ska användasav användare i samtliga verksamheter inom organisationen. De olika verksamheterna bidrogmed sina behov vid valet av informationssystemet, där tillgänglighet för organisationensmedborgare och underlag till statistik var två stora och gemensamma behov mellanverksamheterna. Empirin visade även på ouppfyllda behov samt oanade behov sominformationssystemet uppfyllde. De oanade behoven var i form av funktioner sominformationssystemet bidrog med vilka verksamheterna först identifierade vid användandet avinformationssystemet. Empirin gav även bilden av att en särskild verksamhets behov har varitdominanta över övriga verksamheters behov, vilket ledde till att denna verksamhetsarbetsuppgifter fått större stöd av informationssystemet än vad övriga verksamhetersarbetsuppgifter fått.

    Litteraturstudien gav på så vis ett resultat som liknande den empiriska undersökningen.Mycket av det som går att finna i tidigare forskning går att finna i verkligheten, i alla fallinom den organisation som vi studerade.

  • 14.
    Bergvall, Jacob
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Business Intelligence: En inblick i relationen mellan tillgänglig data och hur den används inom marknadsföring2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today there are great opportunities to gather data related to a company’s customers, processes, goods and services no matter what line of business they are in. If you have resources and are interested there are endless opportunities to gather data, analyze it and then use it to develop and optimize the company. The purpose of this study is to examine challenges when it comes to the use of stored data in business intelligence and to look into which factors that affects the process of turning stored data into usable information that can be used when making marketing decisions. I have chosen to focus on the organizational aspects and connections between business intelligence and marketing with the help of a case study. The study uses a qualitative research approach and the empirical data consists of qualitative semi-structured interviews and data collection in terms of clustering. All empirical data has been gathered from a large Swedish IT-company. A thematic analysis of gathered empirical data leads to a result showing that there are a number of challenges when it comes to using stored data in business intelligence at a large Swedish IT-company. These challenges consist of; unclear visions and goals, economic priorities, unclear terminology and the approach to organizational structures. Results from the study also points out several factors that lies behind why all available data at a large Swedish IT-company is not used to its fullest potential within marketing. These factors are; old habits and adaptability to new technology, management and communication and finally time constraints and knowledge management.

    I have been able to see with this study that it takes a fundamental purpose to analyze something and that it is not certain that such a purpose always exists. It is hard to transform data into valuable information and also to optimize decision making if this purpose does not exist. There are many studies which demonstrate either the awareness by companies of the problems facing them in dealing with high volumes of data and/or their admission that they have a long way to cope with these volumes. I have with this study been able to see that this research problem may be useful and that it is highly relevant within a large Swedish IT-company.

  • 15.
    Borg, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ruusvik, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Den engagerade användaren av Business Intelligence: En fallstudie om vad som skapar användarengagemang2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's market is moving towards becoming more and more globalized, leading to constant changes which are more dynamic and more unpredictable than before. Organizations are pressured to adapt meaning that many will invest in business intelligence. We can identify a problem in that the majority of organizations are not getting the desired effect of their investment in business intelligence. Research have shown that user engagement is considered to be one of the most important factors for a successful business intelligence system. In this qualitative paper we have tried to investigate what creates user engagement and how user engagement looks when using BI systems. In response to the research questions, we conducted a case study on one of Sweden's largest banks, where we interviewed four employees. All employees use the organizational BI system daily, making them suitable candidates for our study. While we could see many similarities, we but also identified some differences between previous literature and our collected data. From this we identified a number of factors and factors for the creation of user engagement. In the conclusion, we discuss what creates user commitment to using BI systems, as well as what similarities and differences we found between literature and our own collected data. We explain our knowledge contribution, which is a set factors we consider affect the creation of user engagement to use the BI system, which we have developed based on our empirical and previous literature in the field.

  • 16.
    Breid, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Mehari, Lemlem
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Feral Information Systems i Vårdverksamheter: En fallstudie om risker som kan uppstå när de inte uppfyller vårdverksamheters krav på IT-system2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although healthcare information systems improve healthcare and efficiency they are often complex and provide a limited service. For these and other similar reasons, users often take it upon themselves to create their own solutions. These user created solutions are called feral information systems. It is not always that these feral information systems meet the standard requirements of healthcare information systems and as a result of this they have the potential to create risk that might put the patient, management and the organization at risk.

    This is an undergraduate thesis that aims to research the risks that can rise when feral information systems fail to meet the standard requirements of healthcare information systems. The report is an interpretive case study that focuses on three different feral information system within a regional healthcare organization. Ten standard requirements of healthcare information systems are described and written from three distinctive divisions – Technique oriented, information oriented and user oriented requirements.

    Information is gathered using a semi-structured interview with the developer of the three systems, a user of one of the systems and two managers from the maintenance department of the organization. The data gathered about the feral information system is then interpreted and analyzed using the ten requirements of IT system in healthcare from the perspective of the three different divisions.

    As a result of the research we have come to the conclusion that the failure to meet the user and information and technical oriented requirements have the potential to create certain risk in some aspects but not all. Feral information systems in health care services can pose a risk to patient safety and that there are probably several of these systems that violate the patient data act or personal data law. Failure to handle data integrity and follow the patient data law in feral information systems often results in lacking user traceability. In addition, there is an extra cost to maintain systems that are usually not analyzed by the operations. We see that feral information systems often uses self- defined healthcare terminology which obstructs the ability to integrate with other systems. The lack of documentation obstructs the use of the system without a special training. These trainings take time, resources and are often not free. Making the organization more and more dependent on the experienced users. Furthermore, the lack of documentation also obstructs the possibility of further developing the system. 

    However, the potential of feral information system to cause risk is often neglected and underestimated. This is because feral information systems often fulfill only a small and particular need within a certain division of the organization.

  • 17.
    Bremstedt Pedersen, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att marknadsföra IT med IT: – Utmaningarna med att som svenskt IT-konsultföretag marknadsföra och sälja tjänster med stöd av interna IT-system2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här magisteruppsatsen undersöker jag hur ett svenskt IT-konsultföretag använder sitt interna IT-system för att marknadsföra och sälja de IT-baserade konsulttjänster som företaget erbjuder, det vill säga konsultbemanning till olika IT-projekt såsom implementering eller uppgradering av affärssystem. Med marknadsföring menar jag exempelvis proaktiva aktiviteter för att stärka varumärket och med försäljning menar jag till exempel merförsäljning på redan befintliga kunder.Bakgrunden till uppsatsens ämne kommer ifrån identifierade utmaningar med detta från de personer inom företaget som arbetar med marknadsföring och försäljning, exempelvis utmaningen i att följa den allt snabbare utvecklingstakten av IT-system (till exempel nya versioner som släpps) för att vara konkurrenskraftig på den svenska konsultmarknaden.Uppsatsens syfte är dels att undersöka användandet interna IT-system hos ett svenskt IT-konsultföretag för att förbättra det genom konfigurering eller utveckling. Den syftar även till att se över och eventuellt förbättra de verksamhetsprocesser som finns på företaget, det vill säga hur de arbetar med försäljning och marknadsföring, för att bli bättre på att nå rätt kunder inom branschen. Genom detta ämnar även uppsatsen också ge vägledande/rådgivande kunskap till andra svenska IT-konsultföretag till hur de kan åstadkomma detta genom analys av undersökningen som beskrivs ovan.För insamling av empirisk data används en kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer av verksamhetspersoner på ett svenskt IT-konsultföretag. Insamlat material ställs i uppsatsen mot befintliga teorier inom marknadsföring, e-marknadsföring, Sociomaterialitet samt internprojekt, eftersom jag anser att dessa teorier är viktiga komponenter för att uppnå uppsatsens syfte.Resultatet innehåller en rad utmaningar och framgångsfaktorer på hur ett internt IT-system för hantering av marknadsförings- och säljfunktioner i ett svenskt IT-konsultföretag kan anpassas. Utmaningar som identifierats är dels brist på tid, pengar och resurser, intern kommunikation samt ökad konkurrens inom branschen men också ett ökat inflöde av e-mail vilket gör att kampanjutskick via e-email riskerar att försvinna i mängden.De framgångsfaktorer som bör eftersträvas är dels att hålla en långsiktig och god relation till kunden, använda uppföljning och rapportering av kampanjer/säljmöten. Detta tillsammans med att använda en lösningsorienterad försäljning med professionalism och kvalité som ledord i de levererade tjänsterna är viktigt för att nå ut till kunder på marknaden för IT-konsulttjänster i Sverige. Förutom detta har marknadsföringsstrategier såsom Cross-selling och Word-of- mouth identifierats som mest lyckosamma inom branschen, varpå dessa bör eftersträvas.För att upprätthålla bra funktionalitet och rätt strategier för marknadsföring och försäljning av IT-konsulttjänster bör man förvalta även interna funktioner som om de vore IT-system. Kort och gott; Man måste underhålla IT för att sälja IT.

  • 18.
    Bruce, Johanna
    et al.
    På AB, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Florinus, Anna
    På AB, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Åkesson, Cecilia
    På AB, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Nordström, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. På AB, Stockholm.
    Bibehållna SOX-kontroller med hjälp av pm32007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Iden till denna rapport väcktes i samband med att TeliaSonera använt tsm3 i arbetet med att SOX-säkra verksamheten. tsm3 ar en förvaltningsmodell inom TeliaSoneras som används for styrning av systemförvaltningsverksamhet och baseras på referensmodellen pm3 (Nordström och Welander, 2006). Underlag for rapporten presenterades även på Dataföreningskonferensen "Diskutera systemförvaltning" i mars 2007. Denna rapport grundar sig på presentationen, men är utvecklad till att omfatta grundmodellen pm3. I samband med konferensen uttryckte andra organisationer, i samma situation som TeliaSonera, intresse for denna frågeställning.

    Syftet med rapporten är att beskriva på vilket sätt förvaltningsmodellen pm3 kan användas for att upprätthålla etablerade kontroller i en organisation som lyder under SOX. Rapporten innehåller även ett praktikfall som beskriver hur pm3 använts for att etablera SOX-kontroller inom TeliaSonera.

  • 19.
    Brännström, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    IT-tillämpning och utmaningar i autonoma fordon: En fallstudie om självkörande bussar och utmaningar kopplade till dess IT-tillämpning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional vehicle manufacturers are no longer sole players on the market — IT companies like Apple and Alphabet have increased their R&D-funding and are working on their own commercialized self driving technologies. Due to more involved IT companies and an increase of IT in the vehicles, our onset is to view the autonomous vehicle as an IT product, which could result in different forms of risks and challenges.

    Autonomous vehicle testing is taking place around the world. In Sweden, a new legislation introduced in 2017 has made it possible to test autonomous vehicles on public roads. As a result, a number of projects involving autonomous vehicles have been initiated around the country. In Linköping, for example, there's a planned project that focuses on testing four autonomous buses of a model called Olli in a specific district. To examine risks and challenges related to autonomous vehicles we decided to do a case study of Olli.

    The result shows a number of risks and challenges, some of them are unique to the project but still applicable on other types of autonomous vehicles. The challenges involves both technical and non-technical aspects, and judging from these we have noticed that the balance between both parts are important to have in mind during the design process of the vehicles.

  • 20.
    Carlson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vallé, Troy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Användarmedverkan vid utveckling av offentliga e-tjänster: En studie av tre svenska offentliga organisationer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Informationsteknik har blivit en betydande del av samhället, vilket bland annat tar sig i uttryck politiskt via bland annat statsförvaltningen. För att underlätta medborgarnas vardag satsar regeringen på att utveckla den så kallade e-förvaltningen och i denna ingår utvecklingen av offentliga elektroniska tjänster. Målet med e-förvaltningen är att både kunna bidra till att effektivisera offentlig verksamhet, men också förenkla medborgares kontakt med den offentliga sektorn. Det finns exempel som visar hur bristen på hänsyn till medborgares behov och önskemål leder till tjänster som inte utnyttjas, något som visar att det är viktigt att offentliga organisationer tillskansar sig kunskap om användare och deras önskemål.

    Användarmedverkan ses av forskare som ett användbart verktyg i syfte att skapa relevanta och tillgängliga e-tjänster, men i praktiken förefaller användares behov vara något som bortprioriteras vid e-tjänsteutvecklingen inom offentlig sektor. Syftet med denna uppsats var att närmre undersöka tre offentliga organisationer för att få större kunskap om deras inställning till användarmedverkan, deras praktiska tillvägagångssätt vid tillämpandet av användarmedverkan och bidraget det medför på utvecklingen av offentliga e-tjänster, samt undersöka möjligheter för förbättring av denna tillämpning. Detta gjordes genom att vi utförde en kvalitativ studie hos Skatteverket, Centrala studiestödsnämnden och Norrköpings kommun.

    Resultatet visade att inställningen till användarmedverkan var positiv och att de tre organisationerna hade uppfattningen att det kunde leda till bättre e-tjänster. Däremot skiljde sig syftet med e-tjänsteutvecklingen sig åt och det sträckte sig mellan en syn på e-tjänsteutveckling med fokus på nytta för medborgare, och e-tjänsteutveckling med fokus på verksamhetsnytta. Även arbetssätten tenderade att skilja sig åt och den organisation som hade starkast medborgarperspektiv arbetade även mest konsekvent och mest etablerat med användarmedverkan, medan organisationen som hade starkast verksamhetsperspektiv inte alls involverade slutanvändare under utvecklingen.

    Vi kunde dra slutsatsen att användarmedverkan hade positiva effekter på utvecklingsprojektens resultat eftersom det fångade problem tidigt i utvecklingen och e-tjänsterna blev bättre anpassade för medborgarnas behov. Av intervjuerna framgick de att organisationerna i vissa fall saknade kunskap om användarmedverkan och skulle behöva tydligare styrning, och att det är viktigt att arbeta för att inkludera en bredare användargrupp istället för att tvinga personer med låg datorvana att välja andra kanaler. Kunskapen om användarmedverkan skulle öka genom att skapa större samverkan inom offentlig sektor för att kunna dela med sig och dra nytta av andra verksamheters metoder och erfarenheter vid tillämpning av användarmedverkan. Vi anser att en plattform för en sådan samverkan skulle kunna bidra mycket till de organisationer som aktivt vill arbeta med initiativ till förbättrad e-tjänsteutveckling.

  • 21.
    Christiansson, Marie-Therese
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Inter-organizational Public e-Service Development: Emerging Lessons from an Inside-Out Perspective2015In: ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT (EGOV 2015), SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2015, Vol. 9248, p. 183-196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-service development has grown to become a daily practice in most public organizations as a means for realizing digital agendas and e-government initiatives on different levels (local, regional, national and transnational governmental levels). Public e-service development is often an inter-organizational (IO) effort with multiple actors and organizations involved in the multi-faceted dimensions of design, development and delivery decisions. Still, there is a lack of research focusing on IO public e-service development practices in particular. In order to address this lack we elaborate on reported challenges and their implications for IO public e-service development in practice. By returning to two empirical cases of IO public e-service development, the IO dimension is evolved. Our purpose is to highlight challenges in IO public e-service development with implications for research and practice. Findings are presented as eight emerging lessons learned from an inside-out perspective related to phases in IO public e-service development processes.

  • 22.
    Crusoe, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Open Data Ecosystem: The Data Market between Municipalities and Businesses2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inside an open data ecosystem, between municipality and business, there exists an unexplored data market based on open data sets. As actors works towards a functioning ecosystem, resistance is expressed. In this study, we explore and expand the insight of an open data ecosystem and bring forth actors’ resistance expression. This paper is the result of a case study about three municipalities, five business and their relation towards the data market in aSwedish context. From interviews, observations, documents, and thorough analysis we found that municipalities have limited knowledge, resources and political leadership, while businesses are affected by the lacking technical infrastructure on many levels, where open data products never become reality and are in a constant fear. The lacking collaboration infrastructure makes it impossible for municipalities to hear the prayers chanted by businesses. And nowhere to be found is the political leadership needed to move this chaos into order. From this, a deadlock is condensed where no one can act.

  • 23.
    Crusoe, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Investigating open government data barriers: A literature review and conceptualization2018In: Electronic Government: EGOV 2018 / [ed] Parycek P., Springer Verlag , 2018, p. 169-183Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When focusing on open government data (OGD) publishing and related barriers, there are several complexities present. Largely, current research is focused on publishing and usage of OGD; and we argue that there are a need to investigate and to systematise OGD barrier research in order to understand and outline an expanded scope of the phenomenon. We expand by clarifying barriers linked to the release decision and the data’s organisational context. To investigate the OGD barriers, we conduct a systematic literature review, identifying 34 articles as a point of departure for our analysis. From these articles we create, present and discuss illustrations on historical development, barrier types, and different research focuses on OGD. When analysing the articles, we identify a focus on technical, organisational, and legal barrier types, while studies on open data usage and systems are less frequent. Our analysis also identifies some possible open data research barriers. In the article we also relate barriers to an expanded OGD process (Suitability, Release, Publish, Use, and Evaluation), identifying 46 barriers with possible linkages. The results is an expanded scope and a conceptual illustration of OGD barriers. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2018.

  • 24.
    Dervisevic, Majda
    et al.
    På i Stockholm AB.
    Nordström, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Förvaltning av IT-infrastruktur2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten beskrivs en studie om förvaltning av infrastruktur, baserad på magisteruppsatsen med samma namn (http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51616). I rapporten återfinns också fördjupade erfarenheter av att implementera pm3 för IT-infrastruktur, i samklang med ITIL-ramverket.   

  • 25.
    Donnerin, Oscar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Mouwafi, Adham
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Kommuner i interorganisatorisk samverkan: Att säkert och effektivt styra informationssäkerhetsarbete2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Samverkan mellan kommuner är något som varit en aktuell fråga för svenska myndigheter under en längre tid. Mer specifikt har en tydlig ökning identifierats sedan kommunallagen trädde i kraft 1991 och samverkansformen visade sig möta reella politiska behov på ett positivt sätt. Samtidigt har offentliga organisationer de senaste 15 åren gått från att förespråka skyddandet av information till att bli mer öppna och utbyta information över organisatoriska gränser.

    Denna kvalitativa fallstudie undersöker informationssäkerhet i en interorganisatorisk samverkan mellan svenska kommuner. Teorier som behandlas i uppsatsen är informationssäkerhet, information security governance och samverkan.

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka utmaningarna med styrning av informationssäkerhetsarbete i en interorganisatorisk samverkan mellan svenska kommuner. Vi ämnar således bidra till forskningen genom att dels förfina befintliga teorier kring de separata ämnesområdena men även utveckla teori där dessa ämnen möts. Vi syftar även till att bidra till praktiken genom att generera värdefull kunskap för de studerade organisationerna men även generalisera resultatet för liknande organisationer.

    Resultatet visar att vi identifierat ett antal centrala utmaningar där vissa är svårare att hantera än andra. En central utmaning är att det politiska självstyret är tydligt uttalat vilket sätter begräsningar för vad som är möjligt att realisera gemensamt. Vi kan även konstatera att resurser och prioriteringar påverkas av detta. Vi har presenterat ett antal förslag på behov som kan beaktas, både internt i kommunerna men även gemensamt över kommunala gränser. De rekommendationer vi har till kommunerna är att ta ett steg tillbaka gällande samverkan, detta då de ligger på så pass olika nivåer och kan få svårt att skapa en gemensam grund. Kommunerna bör även fokusera på den interna verksamheten och öka säkerhetsmedvetandet för att bli mer redo för att ingå i en samverkan. Uppfylls detta kan de börja fokusera på att anta principer och andra gemensamma aktiviteter som till exempel utbildningar. Detta gör att informationssäkerhetsarbetet går från att vara reaktivt till att bli mer proaktivt. Detta är något som vi anser att både offentliga- och privata organisationer borde sträva mot men även forskare borde ta hänsyn till. 

  • 26.
    Emma, Hammarström
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sandra, Puekker
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vad är Internet of Things inom medicinteknik?: Hur påverkar det vården och patienterna ur ett framgångs- och säkerhetsperspektiv?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is written by two students at Linköping University, studying the Systems Science program. It is a qualitative study in the form of case study where empirical data is collected from Region Östergötland. We conducted three interviews where everyone had a connection to the Internet of Things within medical technology. The positions of the interviewees are IT Security Officer, Unit Manager on Test and Innovation and MT Strategist.The study is about what the Internet of Things within medical technology and how it affects the healthcare and patients from a success and safety perspective. There is no clear definition of Internet of Things within medical technology. Is Internet of Things medical technology or is it a part of medical technology? Our definition is that if data is collected and sent on to the Internet's architecture for analysis and have a medical purpose, it’s a medical product that uses Internet of Things.We also have identified a number of advantages and disadvantages with this type of technology in healthcare. It allows, among other things, aftercare at home in a new way, and the collection of data about a patient in a simplier way. The disadvantages are the unsafety in these products as they lack many security measures. Most likely, the security has been lost because of pressure from the consumer market to always have the latest technology in healthcare. There are two parties that are responsible for the safety of a medical device that uses the Internet of Things and these are the healthcare and the supplier. Internet of Things has revolutionized medical technology and in the future we will see more of these types of products within the healthcare sector. 

  • 27.
    Enehage, Josefin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wetterhed, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att vara, eller icke vara, GDPR kompatibel: En kvalitativ studie om arbetet med att efterleva de krav GDPR ställer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is highly current today when the law comes into force one month after our study is completed. The GDPR aims to create a unified regulation for people within the European Union's personal data. The uncertainty about what the GDPR will entail is high and there is a general concern in the corporate world about what happens on May 25, 2018. This has given us a unique opportunity to investigate how companies work to adapt to the GDPR and create a current situation analysis of it.

    Previous research on the GDPR is very limited and has focused primarily on what changes the law brings, as well as how it should be implemented. Research about the challenges that occurred during the implementation has not been done before. We conducted a case study where we interviewed two people in two different organizations. These people both work with the implementation of the GDPR. Using these interviews, we were able to find the primary challenges in implementing the requirements of GDPR in an organization's existing systems. We performed the work of the research abductively, which meant we worked iteratively with the information we found in our empirical evidence and earlier research. In conclusion, we found that there are mainly three major issues regarding the implementation of the GDPR; communication difficulties, resource-intensive work and that the change is extensive. There is no simple solution to these problems, but with previous research we have found a number of factors that can make it easier for companies to become compliant. In order to improve communication, we recommend introducing a communication plan. The communication plan creates order and gives both parties in the conversation a chance to think about what is important in the conversation, potential obstacles and how these can be prevented. We also concluded that a prioritization of the work is to be recommended as well as a project plan. By prioritizing and implementing a project plan, it will create a system and structure of the work. It clarifies what needs to be done, when it is to be performed and how. As our study has shown, the work to reach compliance with GDPR is both extensive and resource-intensive which is why we believe that companies have much to earn by following the recomendations our study has produced.

  • 28.
    Enocson, Julia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderholm, Linnéa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Prevention of Cyber Security Incidents within the Public Sector: A qualitative case study of two public organizations and their way towards a sustainable cyber climate2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Prevention of Cyber Security Incidents within the Public Sector - A qualitative case study of two public organizations and their way towards a sustainable cyber climate

    Authors: Julia Enocson and Linnéa Söderholm

    Supervisor: Ida Lindgren

    Keywords: Cyber Security, Incident, Prevention, Public Sector, IT Security, Information Security

    Background: In today’s digital environment it has become crucial for organizations to protect themselves against cyber security attacks and incidents. Emerging technologies pose security risks and the number of cyber security incidents are increasing. Within the public sector it is considered as one of the most challenging phenomenons that governments face today, and awareness is limited. However, studies show that a majority of cyber security incidents could have been prevented. In addition, evidence indicates that incidents often occurs due to internal actions, and not external threats.

    Purpose: The purpose of our study is to identify factors that may impact public organizations’ capability to prevent cyber security incidents, and subsequently how they could work towards maintaining a proactive prevention.

    Methodology: This study has adopted a qualitative research strategy with the design of a case study of cyber security incident prevention in the public sector, examined through two organizations. In order to collect empirical data, semi-structured interviews were conducted.

    Conclusion: In this study we have, based on previous literature and empirical data, identified seven influential factors that may be of importance for public organizations to take into consideration when working with cyber security incident prevention. Our findings have subsequently resulted in insights that may inspire public organizations as to how they could work proactively towards preventing incidents. The identified factors revolve around the importance of performing internal and external analyses, defining roles and responsibilities, formulating goals and regulatory documents, educating and communicating to employees, the aspect of organizational culture, and consistent evaluation. How, and to what extent, public organizations work with these factors, indicate the level of preparation to prevent future cyber security incidents.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Owen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Dept Informat & Media, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Agerfalk, Par J
    Dept Informat & Media, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rethinking the Meaning of Identifiers in Information Infrastructures2010In: Journal of the AIS, ISSN 1536-9323, E-ISSN 1536-9323, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 433-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifiers - such as personal identification numbers, student numbers, and license numbers - are used for identifying individual objects and constitute an important part of the information infrastructures of organizations and society. The design, choice, assignment, withdrawal, and replacement of identifiers are significant economic and political issues with more profound consequences than are perhaps commonly perceived. Use of identifiers can result in significant costs because they may include descriptive information, because an inappropriate identifier may be chosen for the object in question, or because there may be a lack of institutional control of the identifier. The objective of this paper is to elaborate on these problems by explaining the identifier construct from a technical, institutional, ontological, and information infrastructural perspective. Based on this understanding, we provide guidelines for how identifiers should be designed, chosen, replaced, and controlled. Accordingly, we address the practical need for improved design principles relating to the increasingly important infrastructural character of computerized information systems that stems from the importance of appropriate identifiers for information infrastructures and society as a whole. In order to understand the role, function, and meaning of identifiers, it is important to acknowledge that the identifier is fundamentally a linguistic construct used when referring to socially constructed institutional objects. Institutional objects are symbolic entities that represent institutional and brute facts, which are the results of human actions.

  • 30.
    Eriksson, Owen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Preconditions for public sector e-infrastructure development2013In: Information and organization, ISSN 1471-7727, E-ISSN 1873-7919, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 149-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interoperability in e-government has been recognized as a key factor in the quest of administrations at national, local and international level to achieve the provision of one-stop services to citizens and businesses. Interoperability in e-government should enable efficient information exchange between applications from different agencies with the help of IT-services. Interoperability in networked IT-service delivery is accomplished by e-infrastructures. However, knowledge of how to develop e-infrastructures in the public sector is still limited. In this paper we report a design science case study of the initial stage of the design of a public sector e-infrastructure in the social welfare sector, especially addressing the bootstrap problem, i.e. the initial problem of starting-up the development of an e-infrastructure. Six types of preconditions for the development of the e-infrastructure are examined and explained: legal, economical, organizational and the installed base of the as-is e-infrastructure consisting of technical, informational and contractual preconditions. From a design and action oriented perspective we claim that a basic understanding of the design context, within which the six types of preconditions have to be analyzed and understood, are essential for e-infrastructure development in an e-government context. The paper highlights the fundamental role of regulations as a precondition for the design, and the fundamental role of lawyers as designers of e-infrastructures in the public sector.

  • 31.
    Ferm, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kollaborativa Webbtjänster: En studie av framgångsfaktorer för utveckling av kollaborativa webbtjänster2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Verktyg skapade för att stödja företags kollaborativa processer, även kallat "groupware", har funnits i olika former sedan början av 90-talet. I dag är webbtjänster ett allt mer nyttjat alternativ bland organisationer på grund av dess många fördelar – såsom lägre kostnader och ökad cross-platform-tillgänglighet. Med teknologiska framsteg har det på senare år blivit möjligt att utveckla program för webbläsare som inte tidigare varit möjligt. Syftet med den här studien är att ta reda på hur man i dagens webbmiljö och i dagens moderna organisationer utvecklar framgångsrik kollaborativ programvara genom att försöka identifiera ett antal riktlinjer för detta ändamål. Detta är en kvalitativ studie där jag använt mig av en abduktiv ansats, gjort intervjuer samt en tematisk analys. Med hjälp av existerande litteratur som berör området, har jag identifierat ett antal hypotetiska framgångsfaktorer för denna sortens programvara. Dessa framgångsfaktorer har jag sedan jämfört med empirisk data som jag samlat in på tre olika företag som alla utvecklar och levererar kollaborativa webbtjänster för att sedan återkoppla till teorin och utveckla den. Studien har lett mig till en slutsats bestående av 5 punkter:

    Utveckla kollaborativa webbtjänster som är flexibla och anpassningsbara. Tjänsten bör låta kunden bestämma – inte tvärt om.

    Utveckla kollaborativa webbtjänster som erbjuder någonting unikt. Identifiera svagheterna i befintliga produkter.

    Se Webb 2.0 som en central riktlinje för en modern och användarcentrerad produkt. Även befintliga Webb 2.0-koncept kan stärka en kollaborativ webbtjänst.

    Utveckla en enkel och tydlig lösning för att bygga upp en kundgrupp. Specificera sedan tjänsten ytterligare efter kundgruppens gemensamma önskemål.

    Utveckla kollaborativa webbtjänster med responsiv design.

  • 32.
    Franc, Karolina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vårdanställdas efterlevnad av informationssäkerhetspolicys: faktorer som påverkar efterlevnaden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information security has grown into a field of study that has gained increasingly attention within organizations. In the early days focus of the field has primerly been on technical solutions in order to protect information. Only recently information security has come to be seen as a complex area including both technical, organizational and human factors. In order to strive for a high degree of information security within the organization, emphasis has to be placed on developing a functional information security policy. Just as important is that security managers continually educate and create awareness amongst employees with regards to existing threats if information security rules are not respected.

    The main purpose in regards to this study has been to investigate the determinants of employees' compliance with information security policies. A further aim of the study has been to examine how the actual compliance of information security regulations is reflected in two healthcare clinics in the county council of Östergötland. In order to fulfill the purpose of the study, case studies were carried out in the clinics, where both filed studies and interviews with staff members formed the basis for data collection.

    The results show that security awareness and compliance with safety regulations within the surveyed organizations are fairly good, but there are differences in the level of compliance. The results show that employees to some degree overlook safety rules in order to make their work more efficient. The most common security rule that showed non-compliance was where employees occasionally did not logg off or lock the computer as it was left unattended.

    Determinants that showed to have an influence on whether or not employees comply with information security policys are among other factors to what extent the employee belives that the behavior is being monitored, awareness about conseqences from not complying with the security rules, as well as to what extent one belives that the actual threat occurs. Additional determinants that were found to have an influence on the actual behavior with regards to compliance is to what extent the employee considers the regulations to be in conflict with other interests, such as efficiency or convenience. In order to introduce effective policy measures knowledge is needed where policy makers understand what motivates employees to comply with safety rules, as well as the values that underlie their behavior.

  • 33.
    Garatli Nygren, Katarina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Multi‑Channel Service Management in Public Sector … Three Interpretative Frames Illustrating E‑government and Work Practice in a Swedish State Agency2014In: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 112-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to deliver services to citizens, public sector agencies of today offer various types of channels for interaction. In this article we aim to develop an understanding of the reciprocal relation between multi‑channel services and work prac tice. By showing how actors at different organizational levels in an agency differ in their interpretation of multi‑channel services we have generated knowledge that is essential in multi‑channel strategy formulation. The study illustrates an example of a n agency that works actively and in a mature way with e‑government and e‑services. This qualitative case study illustrates that the top level management, middle management and the case officers need to confront and discuss their understanding of e‑governm ent and their work practice in order to reach a situation where strategies actually are influencing daily work more explicitly. An important aspect is the decision to adopt an internal or external perspective on multi‑channel service management. The resul t of this decision might be to view multi‑channel service management as a way of reaching either internal agency efficiency or external citizen benefits.

  • 34.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    et al.
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public e-services from inside: a case study on technology's influence on work conditions in a government agency2013In: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 455-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the consequences of citizens' increased use of public e-services for agency employees' work situation.

    Design/methodology/approach – In order to accomplish the purpose of the paper the authors focus on the way in which the increased use of public e-services also implies internal process and routine changes in public administration. The authors analyze work conditions for case officers at a government agency in Sweden by applying occupational ideal types to identify the specific work conditions in the studied case. The case study is based on qualitative data collected with a back office perspective.

    Findings – The findings indicate a new hybrid organization where the increased use of e-services challenges earlier demands for competence. The transformation of e-government has implications for job codification, rule observation, job specification, and interaction with the general public.

    Originality/value – The paper extends the knowledge on how the increased use of public e-services affects back-office work conditions, with an increased high level of complexity in work content, but with low level of work autonomy. It argues that studying back-office work conditions is an important management issue in public administration research as well as practice.

  • 35.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Action research vs. design research: using practice research as a lens for comparison and integration2013In: IT Artefact Design & Workpractice Improvement (ADWI-2013), 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Action research and design research are two prominent research approaches in information systems. These two research approach have been claimed to be similar according to several conducted comparisons. There are, however, other claims that they are decisively dissimilar. Some scholars have proposed integrations of these two research approaches, which however show great diversity. These diversities in views of similarities, differences and integration possibilities are the main impetus for this work. This conceptual inquiry takes a new angle in comparing and integrating action research and design research. It uses a third position, the research approach of practice research as a yardstick and integration instrument. Action research and design research are studied and compared using practice research. This comparison has been driven further to a proposed integration within the conceptualisation of practice research. An integrated model of action research and design research is presented and given the label practice research through intervention and design (PR-ID).

  • 36.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Design Research in e-Government2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates if design research in e-government should be conducted in some special way compared with standard models for design research. It reviews literature in e-government and design research in order to generate an answer to this research question. The result is affirmative that the policy character of e-government should have consequences for the way that e-government design research is conducted. A tentative e-government design research model, consisting of different activities is formulated. This model consists of the activities: theorizing, policy analysis, workpractice analysis, co-design and co-evaluation of IT artefact and workpractice. One important result from this paper is the formulation of the concept of the policy-ingrained artefact as an important empirical result from e-government design research.

  • 37.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    E-government design research: Towards the policy-ingrained IT artifact2016In: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 444-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether design research in e-government should be conducted in some special way compared with standard models for design research. It reviews literature in e-government and design research in order to generate an answer to this research question. The result of this review affirms that the policy character of e-government should determine the way that such design research is conducted. A tentative e-government design research model, consisting of different activities is formulated. This model consists of the following activities: theorizing, policy analysis, workpractice analysis, co-design and co-evaluation of IT artifact and workpractice. Three specific e-government design research principles are formulated: The policy principle, the co-design principle and the theorizing principle. One important result from this paper is the formulation of the concept of the policy-ingrained artifact as an important empirical outcome from e-government design research. A design research case study on social welfare allowances has been used for the generation as well as the validation of the proposed e-government design research model.

  • 38.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    From ensemble view to ensemble artefact – An inquiry on conceptualisations of the IT artefact2013In: Systems, Signs & Actions, ISSN 1652-8719, E-ISSN 1652-8719, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 49-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the notion of an ensemble artefact. This concept is proposed by Sein et al (2011) in their description of the Action Design Research method. This concept is based on the ensemble view of IT artefacts, which is described by Orlikowski & Iacono (2001) together with four other views. The conceptual journey from ensemble view to ensemble artefact is found problematic and is the impetus for a conceptual inquiry conducted in this paper. The conceptual investigation is supported by the use of a case illustration of an IT artefact in the social welfare sector. The different views from Orlikowski & Iacono are analysed and com-pared. The suggested conceptualisation of IT artefacts based on the ensemble view, made by Orlikowski & Iacono, is also analysed. Based on these analyses an alternative view is articu-lated: A communication tool view of IT artefacts. This view is compared with the ensemble view, especially in a design research context. The notion of ensemble artefact is contested, as is the suggested use of it as a main conceptual basis in design research.

  • 39.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Möten mellan institution och situation i tjänstestyrning: studier av organisatorisk förmåga2014In: Lärande i arbetslivet: möjligheter och utmaningar : en vänbok till Per-Erik Ellström / [ed] Henrik Kock, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2014, p. 90-107Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samtidigt som många hävdar att vi går mot ett ökat tjänstesamhälle, så har vi aldrig tidigare i historien varit så översköljda av ting, tekniska prylar och andra materiella artefakter (Castells, 1996). Det finns en till synes paradox i samhällsutvecklingen; en ökad tjänstefiering och en ökad tingifiering. Detta bidrag kan placeras mitt i denna ”paradox”; om hur tjänster formas, styrs och produceras avseende informationstekniska artefakter. Moderna organisationer är för sin verksamhet ofta helt beroende av olika IT-system. Det är helt enkelt så att många verksamhetskritiska uppgifter genomförs idag i och genom IT-system. Det blir därmed viktigt att dessa system är väl fungerande; både tekniskt och funktionellt. IT-system behöver successivt anpassas till nya förutsättningar i verksamheten. För detta krävs IT-relaterade tjänster av olika slag. Det kan handla om leverans/utbyte av tekniska komponenter, driftssupport, användarhandledning, felkorrigeringar i system, mindre ändringar, tillägg av nya funktioner, införande av nya programvaror eller nya releaser eller andra liknande insatser för att vidmakthålla och vidareutveckla verksamhetens samlade IT-portfölj.

  • 40.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Socio-instrumental service modelling: An inquiry on e-services for tax declarations2009In: The Practice of Enterprise Modeling: Second IFIP WG 8.1 Working Conference, PoEM 2009, Stockholm, Sweden, November 18-19, 2009. Proceedings / [ed] Persson A, Stirna J, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 207-221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A socio-instrumental service modelling approach is presented through a tax declaration case study. Three different service alternatives have been investigated (two paper form alternatives and one e-service). These service alternatives have been studied through service interaction modelling, contextual service definitions and service pattern analysis. Service effects have been identified at both service parties; the service provider (the Tax Agency) and the service clients (companies). These service effects were dependent on affordances of services and service pre-conditions. These affordances can be of both social and technical-instrumental character. This study has contributed with service modelling methods and a new socio-instrumental conceptualisation of services. Important new notions are: reciprocal service effect, interdependence of services and service pre-conditions, unintended service affordances, reciprocal facilitation through service interaction. These concepts lead to the new concept of co-service.

  • 41.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The empirics of design research: Activities, outcomes and functions2013In: 2013 International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2013), AIS eLibrary , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design research (DR) has matured as an important research approach within information systems. It can be seen as a response to the quest of more focus on the IT artefact. Besides the IT artefact, there are other important artefacts to build and study in DR. There are models and prototypes which are produced during information systems development. This paper has investigated the empirics of design research, especially activities and outcomes. Based on a conceptual inquiry of design research literature and two cases of design research, a conceptual clarification of design research empirics has been established. Two cases of public e-service design form the empirical bases for this conceptual development. The empirics of design research (i.e. a design practice) is distinguished from the theorizing part of DR. Empirical data of DR to be used for theorizing consist of produced artefacts, embedded data collection for design and theory-required data collection. Three types of evaluation in DR are distinguished: Embedded evaluation in design activities, explicit formative evaluation with data from use settings and theory-required evaluation in order to assure theoretical validity of results.

  • 42.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The IT artefact: An ensemble of the social and the technical? – A rejoinder: An ensemble of the social and the technical? – A rejoinder2013In: Systems, Signs & Actions, ISSN 1652-8719, E-ISSN 1652-8719, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 90-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is part of a discourse on the conceptualisation of the IT artefact. It is commentary paper based on the prior papers of Goldkuhl (2013), Silver & Markus (2013) and Purao et al (2013). It especially addresses the issues of how demarcate the IT artefact and how to concep-tualise it in relation to the social and the technical. As a part of this conceptual inquiry, the paper investigates the notion of the artefact. An artefact has always functions and it has always a context where the use of the artefact and its functions is intended to contribute to some goals. As soon as we speak of an artefact, some use context is implied. Based on these premis-es, the paper articulates a view on the IT artefact to be a social artefact. Social does not mean that there are any humans as part of the artefact; humans appear as the users in the implied context of the artefact. Social means that the IT artefact is a semiotic artefact intended for communication between people. The IT artefact is sociotechnical artefact, which means that it is a combined technical and semiotic artefact and the use of it (by a user) implies combined technical and communicative actions. As a consequence of this view the paper also argues for co-design of IT artefact and work context. This is done in opposition to a techno-centric de-sign of the IT artefact, which will imply a restricted design of context purely through artefact design.

  • 43.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Agerfalk, Par
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sjostrom, Jonas
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    A Design Science Approach to Information Systems Education2017In: DESIGNING THE DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION, DESRIST 2017, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2017, Vol. 10243, p. 383-397Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems (IS) education is concerned with design and management of information systems. To be prepared to work as an IS practitioner, there is a need for training in design issues during education. This paper investigates what a design science approach would imply for IS education. Such an IS education approach is elaborated and synthesized in eight principles: (1) Exploit resonance between IS research and IS development, (2) conduct theory-informed design-exercises, (3) conduct practice-inspired design-exercises, (4) alternate between the concrete and the abstract, (5) reflect based on experiences for own design-theoretical synthesis, (6) evaluate design processes and design products, (7) archive design reflections in a knowledge diary, (8) compile design artifacts into a portfolio. One key characteristic of design science (DS) is the integration of research and design. A DS approach to IS education means an integration of design and learning. This education approach is theoretically grounded in IS design science literature and also broader in literature of design inquiry (Dewey), experiential learning theory (Kolb) and education of the reflective practitioner (Schon).

  • 44.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Reflection/Commentary on a Past Article: "Adding Theoretical Grounding to Grounded Theory: Toward Multi-Grounded Theory"2018In: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, ISSN 1609-4069, E-ISSN 1609-4069, Vol. 17, no 1, article id UNSP 1609406918795540Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 45.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Owen
    Institutionen för Informatik och Media, Uppsala universitet.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Röstlinger, Annie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Offentliggemensamma digitala resurser: Utmaningar i samstyrning och samanvändning inom svensk e-förvaltning (RESONANS slutrapport)2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projekt RESONANS har bedrivits i nära samverkan mellan Linköpings universitet, E-delegationen, Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting (SKL) och Uppsala universitet. Ekonomiskt stöd har erhållits från VINNOVA (dnr 2013-04936). Projektfokus har varit offentlig-gemensamma digitala resurser, dvs sådana IT-resurser som berör flera offentliga förvaltningar. Projektet har drivits av frågor som: Hur sker samstyrning av sådana digitala resurser? Vilka möjligheter och restriktioner finns i samanvändning av digitala resurser? Inom projektet har en bred kartläggningsstudie genomförts över olika offentliggemensamma initiativ. Huvudparten av projektet har utgjorts av diagnostiska fallstudier av utvalda offentliggemensamma digitala resurser. Vi har studerat digitala resurser av olika typer (gemensam webbplats, gemensamma komponenter i webbplatser, gemensamma/likartade back-office system, informationsytbyte mellan förvaltningar). Följande åtta digitala resurser har studerats: 1177 Vårdguiden, ekonomiskt bistånd, e-recept, gemensam gymnasieantagning i Stockholms län, kommunala e-tjänsteplattformar, Ladok, Mina meddelanden/Min myndighetspost, verksamt.se. I projektet har vi analyserat fallstudierna utifrån sju sam-verkansdimensioner. En normativ dimension om mål och värden, en regulativ om regelverk, en relationell om aktörsrelationer och rollfördelning, en performativ om verksamhets-processer och digital funktionalitet, en semantisk om språkbruk (begriplighet och precision), en presentativ om digitala möten och användargränssnitt samt en teknisk om samband mellan digitala resurser/komponenter i digitala landskap. I denna rapport presenteras jämförande tväranalyser av de studerade digitala resurserna utifrån dessa sju samverkans-dimensioner. Utifrån vår analys av dessa samverkansdimensioner har vi formulerat arbetet med att utveckla den sammanhållna e-förvaltningen som en "sjukamp". En sjukamp i grenarna: målstyrning, funktionell lagstiftning, organisering av aktörsrelationer, design av verksamhetsprocesser och digital funktionalitet, språklig tillgänglighet, begriplighet och precision, organisering och design av digitala möten samt arkitektonisk design av digitala landskap.

  • 46.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Handelshögskolan, Örebro universitet.
    Att lära om innovation i offentlig sektor: Studier i Action Innovation2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för innovation i offentlig sektor ökar på flera fronter. Policymakare talar om innovation i ökad utsträckning. Allt fler konkreta innovationsinsatser genomförs i statliga myndigheter, regioner/landsting och kommuner. Med detta ökande intresse följer behov av både kunskapsutveckling och kompetensutveckling. I denna rapport redovisar vi resultat från ett praktikinriktat forskningsprojekt som har arbetat integrerat med både kunskapsutveckling och kompetensutveckling avseende innovation i offentlig sektor. Under ett år (höst 2013 – vår 2014) har Linköpings universitet och Governo AB tillsammans bedrivit projektet "Action Innovation – gemensamt kunskapsbyggande för stärkt innovationskraft i offentliga verksamheter" med finansiellt stöd från VINNOVA (dnr 2013-02747). I detta projekt har 13 organisationer från offentlig sektor deltagit. Dessa organisationer har deltagit i två samlärandeprogram (under hösten respektive under våren) för att öka sina kunskaper om innovation samtidigt som bidrag till generell kunskaps-utveckling ges. Dessa samlärandeprogram har genomförts med stöd av metoden Action Innovation som utvecklats av Governo i tidigare VINNOVA-projekt. En huvudpoäng i upplägget är att medlemmar från en organisation går ut och studerar hur innovationsarbete går till i en annan organisation. Varje organisation har deltagit med 3-4 personer som då bildat ett undersökningsteam. Processen Action Innovation utgörs av tre gemensamma seminarier och mellanliggande arbete av intervjuer i besökt organisation och därpå följande analys och rapportskrivning. Kunskapsdelning sker på gemensamma seminarier genom "spegling" och dialog. I första undersökningstillfället studeras exempel på en innovation; i det andra studerades förutsättningar för innovationsarbete.

    I forskningsprojektet har ingått att studera användningen av Action Innovation som metod för undersökningar och samlärande. Metoden består av olika kunskapsstöd som bl.a analysmodell, intervjuguide, undersökningsinstruktioner, rapportmall och presentations-mall. Metoden har successivt vidareutvecklats under projektet baserat på empiriska observationer och teoretisk analys. I rapporten beskrivs metoden Action Innovation. Redovisning sker av olika svårigheter och utmaningar som deltagarna haft och som föranlett vidareutveckling av metoden. Artikulering av bakomliggande lärprinciper för Action Innovation görs också. Förslag till fortsatt vidareutveckling av Action Innovation ges. Rapporten avslutas med reflektioner om innovationer i offentlig sektor. Dessa reflektioner har stimulerats av genomförda studier i Action Innovation.

  • 47.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lagsten, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Örebro Universitet.
    In search for an innovation theory: A practical theory for inquiry and co-learning2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovations are usually conceived as new technical products aimed for commercial markets. However, the interest for innovations in the public sector is increasing and accompanying this interest follows a need for deeper knowledge about public sector innovation. A co-learning program among public sector organisations has been carried out in order to enhance innovation knowledge among public administrators. One of the main ideas of this learning program is that members from one organisation study innovation work in another organisation and then share their learnings to all participants of the learning program. In order to conduct such an inquiry the participants have used different innovation concepts structured in an innovation model. This supportive knowledge has been framed as a practical theory (following pragmatist epistemology) in this paper. The paper presents how this practical theory on public sector innovation has been continually improved during the learning program. The practical theory consists of three parts: An innovation concept, a description of the innovation process and the innovation context (internal and external preconditions). The development of the practical theory has been done following principles of multi-grounding (theoretical grounding, empirical grounding and internal grounding).

  • 48.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordström, Malin
    Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset.
    Challenges in IT service management: institution vs. improvisation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many organisations the work of delivering IT services in order to maintain and improve the IT portfolio is a complex task. Different models for IT service management have been developed and they are widely in use. An ITSM model is a way of institutionalising processes, activities and roles of IT service delivery. This research studies the use of an ITSM model (an adaptation of ITIL) in a municipal IT department. A qualitative case study has been conducted. The adapted ITSM model has been investigated and compared with several instances of IT service deliveries. Six cases of IT service deliveries (of both failure and success character) have been studied. This inquiry uses a storytelling approach and a combination of different data sources (workshop discussions, interviews, documents, records and the functionality of used IT artefacts). The analysis of these cases is conducted in a theory-informed way. A conceptual model has been developed describing an ITSM model as an organisational institution manifested in different institutional carriers. Based on rich empirical data we have clarified positive and negative effects of both ITSM model compliance and deviation through improvisation. A dialectical model is developed showing a possible synthesis of ITSM model compliance and improvisation.

  • 49.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Perjons, Erik
    Stockholm Universitet, Sweden.
    Focus, goals and roles in e-service design – five ideal types of the design process2014In: e-Service Journal, ISSN 1528-8226, E-ISSN 1528-8234, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 24-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New technology means new opportunities for both the private and public sectors. Serviceoriented solutions based on e-services are no exception. Such solutions can support efficient and flexible collaboration between actors, as well as enable opportunities for the design of new and highly innovative services. However, service-oriented solutions also mean a number of challenges. In order to successfully design e-services, a number of strategic choices have to be made by the service provider organization, such as deciding on the roles to be played by the provider and customers in the design process, and deciding which focus should govern the design. For example, should the e-service design focus on fit into the provider’s IT architecture; should the e-service design focus on fit into the provider’s internal processes; or should the e-service design focus on the interactions with the customers? In this paper, we present five different ideal types of e-service design that can support such choices. The five types differ in their views on the main goals of the e-service design; their views on the service providers’ and customers’ roles and responsibilities in the design process; and their views on the focus of the e-service design process. We also present the benefits and drawbacks of the different ideal types, and describe how real cases of e-service design can be categorized according to these types.

  • 50.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Röstlinger, Annie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Visionary Design Research: Renewing e-government Support for Business Set Up2015In: NEW HORIZONS IN DESIGN SCIENCE: BROADENING THE RESEARCH AGENDA, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2015, Vol. 9073, p. 55-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To set up a new business can be a complex and demanding task in a highly regulated society. There is a need for many contacts with and applications for permits to different public authorities. There exists e-government support for new businesses, e.g. business link portals with information and services based on a life-event approach. This presented research contains formulation of a vision for a renewed e-government support for business set up (an assemblage information system; joined-up support for application processes; a reversed application process). This is characterized as visionary design research, which is argued to be a legitimate research approach. The paper articulates a visionary design research approach based on multi-grounding principles. Grounding of the emergent vision is done in theoretical pre-knowledge, internally through vision coherence and empirically in identified problematic situations, articulated goals and opinions/assessments from knowledgeable practitioners.

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