liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 55
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Adeback, Petra
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schulman, Abbe
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Children exposed to a natural disaster: psychological consequences eight years after 2004 tsunami2018In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 75-81Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a need for studies that follow up children and adolescents for many years post disaster since earlier studies have shown that exposure during natural disasters constitutes a risk factor for poor psychological health.Aims: The main aim was to examine whether there was an association between severity of exposures during a natural disaster experienced in childhood or adolescence and posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, self-rated health, diagnosis of depression, anxiety or worry, thoughts about or attempted suicide, physical symptoms or daily functioning eight years later in young adulthood. A second aim was to compare psychological distress and self-rated health of exposed young adults with a matched population-based sample.Method: Young adults, who experienced the 2004 tsunami as children between 10 and 15 years of age, responded to a questionnaire eight years post disaster. The results were compared to a matched population sample.Results: The results showed that the likelihood for negative psychological outcomes was higher for those who had been exposed to several types of exposures during this natural disaster.Conclusions: The negative psychological impact on children and adolescents can still be present eight years post-disaster and seems to have association with the type of exposure; loss, physical presence and subjective experience. It is important for clinicians, who meet young adults seeking help, to be conscious about the impact as long as eight years post disaster and to be aware of possible clinical implications associated with severity of exposures.

  • 2.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    A Biopsychosocial Approach to Risk and Resilience on Behavior in Children Followed from Birth to Age 122017In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 584-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on preadolescence behavior. Data from 889 children and mothers from a birth cohort were used. An adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and childrens experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament, social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence. The l/ l genotype of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region was associated with lower internalizing scores, but not mainly related to the level of adversity. An easy temperament was associated with resilience for children exposed to high adversity. Social functioning was found to be promotive independent of the risk level. The results support a multiple-level model of resilience indicating effects, though small, of both biological and psychosocial factors.

  • 3.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Oreland, Lars
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Comasco, Erika
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    A biopsychosocial approach to risk and resilience on behavior in children followed from birth to age twelve2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience in the context of child behavior. Biological factors are seldom considered in psychosocial models of resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on behavior at preadolescence. Data from 889 children and their mothers were used. A cumulative adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and children’s experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament and social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence. Results show that the l/l genotype of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) was associated with lower internalizing scores, especially for children exposed to low adversity. An easy temperament was associated with resilient outcomes for children exposed to high adversity. Child social functioning was found to be more of a general resource variable buffering risk in both high and low adversity groups. The results support a multiple level model of resilience indicating effects, though small, of both biological and psychosocial factors. The present findings call for both preventive actions and further studies on biopsychosocial models in resilience research.

  • 4.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Comasco, Erika
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Oreland, Lars
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Early predictors of behavioural problems in pre-schoolers: a longitudinal study of constitutional and environmental main and interaction effects2016In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The early environment is important for child development and wellbeing. Gene-by-environment studies investigating the impact of the serotonin transporter genelinked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphisms by life events on mental health and behaviour problems have been inconclusive. Methodological differences regarding sample sizes, study population, definitions of adversities and measures of mental health problems obstacle their comparability. Furthermore, very few studies included children. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between a broad range of risk factors covering pregnancy and birth, genetic polymorphism, experience of multiple life events and psychosocial environment, and child behaviour at age three, using a comparably large, representative, population-based sample.

    Methods: A total of 1,106 children, and their mothers, were followed from pregnancy to age three. Information on pregnancy and birth-related factors was retrieved from the Medical Birth Register. Questionnaires on depressive symptoms, child behaviour and child experiences of life events were filled in by the mothers. Child saliva samples were used for genotyping the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the association between psychological scales and genetic polymorphisms.

    Results: Symptoms of postpartum depression increased the risk of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Experience of multiple life events was also a predictor of behavioural problems across the scales. No gene-by-environment or gene-bygene-by-environment interactions were found. Children of immigrants had an increased risk of internalizing problems and parental unemployment was significantly associated with both internalizing and externalizing type of problems.

    Conclusion: This study shows the importance of the psychosocial environment for psychosocial health in preschool children, and adds to  the literature of null-findings of gene-by-environment effects of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF in children

  • 5.
    Aho, Nikolas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gren Landell, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN).
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    The Prevalence of Potentially Victimizing Events, Poly-Victimization, and Its Association to Sociodemographic Factors: A Swedish Youth Survey2016In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 620-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying the extent to which children are exposed to victimizing events is important to fully understand the effect of such exposure in shaping them as adults. The aim of this study was to use self-report by adolescents to measure the prevalence of victimizing events and of poly-victimization. A representative sample of 5,960 students (aged 17) from high schools in Sweden was given the self-administrated version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) along with questions concerning gender, birthplace, parents birthplace and employment, residence, educational program, and municipality size. The results show that 84.1% (83.0% young men and 85.2% young women) of the students had experienced victimization during their lifetime, and 10.3% were categorized as poly-victims (8.1% young men and 12.5% young women; OR = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.35, 1.94]). Adolescents living with both parents were at lower risk of any form of victimization for both genders, while females were at higher risk of maltreatment, peer victimization, and, most significantly, sexual victimization. In conclusion, the vast majority of young people have been victimized during their lifetime. A greater awareness of the impact of these victimizing events on children and adolescents is important as a basis for providing a safer milieu and establishing better interventions, especially for those that have been victimized on multiple occasions. The high-exposure group was determined by using 10 events as a cutoff. Findings on this group corresponded with findings in other international studies regarding distribution, elevated risk for females, and the possibility of limiting the effects of victimization by modifying living conditions.

  • 6.
    Aho, Nikolas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Proczkowska Björklund, Marie
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Peritraumatic reactions in relation to trauma exposure and symptoms of posttraumatic stress in high school students2017In: European Journal of Psychotraumatology, ISSN 2000-8066, E-ISSN 2000-8066, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 1380998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to traumatic events is clearly associated with a diversity of subsequent mental health problems, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as the most prevalent disorder. Epidemiologically, trauma exposure rates are more prevalent than PTSD, indicating that most trauma victims do not develop PTSD. More knowledge is needed to understand the development of the different posttraumatic pathways including the significance of pretraumatic, peritraumatic and posttraumatic risk factors. Objective: To study peritraumatic reactions in relation to trauma exposure and symptoms of posttraumatic stress and to enhance our understanding of peritraumatic reactions as mediators between trauma and later symptomatology. Method: The study was composed of a representative community sample of 5332 second year high school students (mean age 17.3 years) who completed the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (SAQ/JVQ), Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) and answered questions about peritraumatic reactions. Mediation effects of peritraumatic reactions on the trauma exposure relationship to symptoms was tested using the PROCESS macro for SPSS. Results: Traumatic events are common (84.1%) and are accompanied in three-quarters of the students with at least one form of peritraumatic reaction. Peritraumatic reactions, especially peritraumatic dissociative reactions, mediate the relationship between trauma exposure and symptoms, and gender moderates the effect of peritraumatic dissociation. This moderating effect was found to be larger for boys than for girls, indicating gender differences in response to trauma. Conclusions: The results indicate the need to screen for peritraumatic reactions as early as possible after a traumatic event in order to identify those at risk for PTSD.

  • 7.
    Aho, Nikolas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Victimization, polyvictimization , and health in Swedish adolescents2016In: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, ISSN 1179-318X, Vol. 7, p. 89-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization.

  • 8.
    Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris C.
    et al.
    University of Athens, Greece.
    Heberbrand, Johannes
    University of Duisburg Essen, Germany.
    Eliez, Stephan
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Doyle, Maeve B.
    St Davnets Hospital, Ireland.
    Klasen, Henrikje
    Leiden University, Netherlands.
    Crommen, Sofie
    Flemish Assoc Child and Adolescent Psychiat, Belgium.
    Cetin Cuhadaroglu, Fusun
    Hacettepe University, Turkey.
    Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica
    University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Herreros, Oscar
    Hospital University of Virgen de las Nieves, Spain.
    Minderaa, Ruud
    European Soc Child and Adolescent Psychiat, Belgium.
    Karwautz, Andreas
    Medical University of Vienna, Austria.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Raynaud, Jean Philippe
    Centre Hospital University of Toulouse, France.
    Editorial Material: European Society of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: position statement on mental health of child and adolescent refugees in EUROPEAN CHILD and ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY, vol 25, issue 7, pp 673-6762016In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 673-676Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 9.
    Annerbäck, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping. Centre for Clinical Research in Sörmland, Sörmland County Council, Uppsala University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Child physical abuse: factors influencing the associations between self-reported exposure and self-reported health problems: a cross-sectional study2018In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 12, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Child physical abuse (CPA) is an extensive public health problem because of its associations with poor health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine which of the background factors of CPA committed by a parent or other caregiver relates to self-reported poor health among girls and boys (13; 15 and 17 years old): perpetrator, last year exposure; severity and frequency; socioeconomic load and foreign background.

    Methods

    In a cross-sectional study in a Swedish county (n = 8024) a path analysis was performed to evaluate a model where all background variables were put as predictors of three health-status variables: mental; physical and general health problems. In a second step a log linear analysis was performed to examine how the distribution over the health-status categories was different for different combinations of background factors.

    Results

    Children exposed to CPA reported poor health to a much higher extent than those who were not exposed. In the path analysis it was found that frequency and severity of abuse (boys only) and having experienced CPA during the last year, was significantly associated with poor health as well as socioeconomic load in the families. Foreign background was significantly negatively associated with all three health indicators especially for girls. Neither mother nor father as perpetrator remained significant in the path analysis, while the results from the log linear analyses showed that mother-abuse did in fact relate to poor general health and mental as well as physical health problems among boys and girls. Father-abuse was associated with poor mental health if severe abuse was reported. Poor mental health was also associated with mild father-abuse if exposure during the last year was reported.

    Conclusion

    Despite the limitations that cross-sectional studies imply, this study provides new knowledge about factors associated with poor health among physically abused children. It describes details of CPA that have significant associations to different aspects of poor health and thus what needs to be addressed by professionals within mental health providers and social services. Understanding how different factors may contribute to different health outcomes for exposed children is important in future research and needs further studies.

  • 10.
    Arnison, Tor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Menon, JA
    Department of Psychology, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Malambo, C
    Department of Psychology, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Posttraumatic Stress among women with HIV in Zambia2017In: The Medical Journal of Zambia, ISSN 0047-651X, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 100-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine whether HIV-positive women in Lusaka District, Zambia, displays a higher degree of PTSD-symptoms than a HIV-negative control group.

    Method: The study targeted 50 HIV-positive women from four ART-clinics and 42 HIV-negative women from corresponding VCT-units. All sites were located in Lusaka District, Zambia. The HIV-positive women were compared with the control group in regard for PTSD, PTSD-symptoms, dissociative symptoms and history of traumatic experiences. The instruments used were PCL-C, DES-T and LYLES-A. Prior to the main study, the validity of the instruments were assessed with a pilot-sample.

    Results: Three participants in the HIV-positive group fulfilled the criteria for clinical PTSD (10.7 %), as compared to none in the control group. The HIV-positive group also displayed a significantly higher degree of PTSD-symptoms and previous traumatic experiences, with strong effect sizes, but not for dissociative symptoms. The significant difference in PTSD-symptoms remained while trauma-history was controlled for.

    Conclusions: The results of this study clearly indicates that women with HIV are vulnerable to PTSD and that contracting HIV in itself can constitute a psychological trauma in itself. Since PTSD among persons with HIV has been associated with transmission risk behaviours, reduced treatment adherence and a faster disease progression, these findings are important to consider in actions against HIV and AIDS. 

  • 11.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Berlin, Marie
    National Board Health and Welf, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Fifty moves a year: is there an association between joint physical custody and psychosomatic problems in children?2015In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 69, no 8, p. 769-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background In many Western countries, an increasing number of children with separated parents have joint physical custody, that is, live equally much in their parents respective homes. In Sweden, joint physical custody is particularly common and concerns between 30% and 40% of the children with separated parents. It has been hypothesised that the frequent moves and lack of stability in parenting may be stressful for these children. Methods We used data from a national classroom survey of all sixth and ninth grade students in Sweden (N=147839) to investigate the association between childrens psychosomatic problems and living arrangements. Children in joint physical custody were compared with those living only or mostly with one parent and in nuclear families. We conducted sex-specific linear regression analyses for z-transformed sum scores of psychosomatic problems and adjusted for age, country of origin as well as childrens satisfaction with material resources and relationships to parents. Clustering by school was accounted for by using a two-level random intercept model. Results Children in joint physical custody suffered from less psychosomatic problems than those living mostly or only with one parent but reported more symptoms than those in nuclear families. Satisfaction with their material resources and parent-child relationships was associated with childrens psychosomatic health but could not explain the differences between children in the different living arrangements. Conclusions Children with non-cohabitant parents experience more psychosomatic problems than those in nuclear families. Those in joint physical custody do however report better psychosomatic health than children living mostly or only with one parent. Longitudinal studies with information on family factors before and after the separation are needed to inform policy of childrens postseparation living arrangements.

  • 12.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Rajmil, Luis
    Catalan Agency Health Informat Assessment and Qual, Spain.
    Berlin, Marie
    National Board Health and Welf, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Living in two homes-a Swedish national survey of wellbeing in 12 and 15 year olds with joint physical custody2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The practice of joint physical custody, where children spend equal time in each parent’s home after they separate, is increasing in many countries. It is particularly common in Sweden, where this custody arrangement applies to 30 per cent of children with separated parents. The aim of this study was to examine children’s health-related quality of life after parental separation, by comparing children living with both parents in nuclear families to those living in joint physical custody and other forms of domestic arrangements.

    Methods

    Data from a national Swedish classroom study of 164,580 children aged 12 and 15-years-old were analysed by two-level linear regression modelling. Z-scores were used to equalise scales for ten dimensions of wellbeing from the KIDSCREEN-52 and the KIDSCREEN-10 Index and analysed for children in joint physical custody in comparison with children living in nuclear families and mostly or only with one parent.

    Results

    Living in a nuclear family was positively associated with almost all aspects of wellbeing in comparison to children with separated parents. Children in joint physical custody experienced more positive outcomes, in terms of subjective wellbeing, family life and peer relations, than children living mostly or only with one parent. For the 12-year-olds, beta coefficients for moods and emotions ranged from −0.20 to −0.33 and peer relations from −0.11 to −0.20 for children in joint physical custody and living mostly or only with one parent. The corresponding estimates for the 15-year-olds varied from −0.08 to −0.28 and from −0.03 to −0.13 on these subscales. The 15-year-olds in joint physical custody were more likely than the 12-year-olds to report similar wellbeing levels on most outcomes to the children in nuclear families.

    Conclusions

    Children who spent equal time living with both parents after a separation reported better wellbeing than children in predominantly single parent care. This was particularly true for the 15-year-olds, while the reported wellbeing of 12-years-olds was less satisfactory. There is a need for further studies that can account for the pre and post separation context of individual families and the wellbeing of younger age groups in joint physical custody.

  • 13.
    Chermá, Maria D.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology. Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rydberg, Irene
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Woxler, Per
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Dependency in Linköping.
    Trygg, Tomas
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Dependency in Linköping.
    Hollertz, Olle
    Department of General Psychiatry, Västervik Hospital, Västervik, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Methylphenidate for Treating ADHD: A Naturalistic Clinical Study of Methylphenidate Blood Concentrations in Children and Adults With Optimized Dosage.2017In: European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics, ISSN 0378-7966, E-ISSN 2107-0180, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 295-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Methylphenidate (MPH), along with behavioral and psychosocial interventions, is the first-line medication to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Sweden. The dose of MPH for good symptom control differs between patients. However, studies of MPH concentration measurement in ADHD treatment are limited.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe blood and oral fluid (OF) concentrations of MPH after administration of medication in patients with well-adjusted MPH treatment for ADHD, and to identify the most suitable matrix for accurate MPH concentration during treatment.

    METHODS: Patients were recruited from Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP), General Psychiatry (GP), and the Department of Dependency (DD). Blood and OF samples were collected in the morning before MPH administration as well as 1 and 6 h after administration of the prescribed morning dose of MPH.

    RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients aged between 9 and 69 years, 76 % males. The daily dose of MPH varied from 18 to 180 mg, but the median daily dose per body weight was similar, approximately 1.0 mg/kg body weight. The median MPH concentration in blood 1 and 6 h after the morning dose was 5.4 and 9.3 ng/mL, respectively. Highly variable OF-to-blood ratios for MPH were found at all time points for all three groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Weight is a reliable clinical parameter for optimal dose titration. Otherwise, MPH blood concentration might be used for individual dose optimization and for monitoring of the prescribed dose. Relying only on the outcome in OF cannot be recommended for evaluation of accurate MPH concentrations for treatment monitoring.

  • 14.
    Comasco, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Agnafors, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Aho, Nikolas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Psychiatric symptoms in adolescents: FKBP5 genotype-early life adversity interaction effects2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1473-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychiatric disorders are multi-factorial and their symptoms overlap. Constitutional and environmental factors influence each other, and this contributes to risk and resilience in mental ill-health. We investigated functional genetic variation of stress responsiveness, assessed as FKBP5 genotype, in relation to early life adversity and mental health in two samples of adolescents. One population-based sample of 909 12-year-old adolescents was assessed using the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. One sample of 398 17-year-old adolescents, enriched for poly-victimized individuals (USSS), was assessed using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC). The FKBP5 rs1360780 and rs3800373 polymorphisms were genotyped using a fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR. Most prominently among poly-victimized older male adolescents, the least common alleles of the polymorphisms, in interaction with adverse life events, were associated with psychiatric symptoms, after controlling for ethno-socio-economic factors. The interaction effect between rs3800373 and adverse life events on the TSCC sub-scales-anxiety, depression, anger, and dissociation-and with the rs1360780 on dissociation in the USSS cohort remained significant after Bonferroni correction. This pattern of association is in line with the findings of clinical and neuroimaging studies, and implies interactive effects of FKBP5 polymorphisms and early life environment on several psychiatric symptoms. These correlates add up to provide constructs that are relevant to several psychiatric symptoms, and to identify early predictors of mental ill-health.

  • 15.
    Cooper, Karen
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Quayle, Ethel
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Adolescents and self-taken sexual images: A review of the literature2016In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 55, no part B, p. 706-716Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite increasing public interest and concern about young peoples involvement in the self-production of sexual images (or sexting), there remains a dearth of research into their reasons for making and sending images, the processes involved, and the consequences arising from their experiences. This article reviews the motivational, lifestyle and personality factors influencing adolescent sexting practices and explores the research evidence within the wider context of debates around contemporary social and visual media cultures and gender. A systematic search of databases was conducted and eighty-eight records were identified for inclusion in the review. The findings reveal that sexting is remarkably varied in terms of context, meaning and intention, with the potential for consensual and non-consensual aspects of the activity. Whilst sexting can be a means of flirting or enhancing a sexual relationship, it can highlight potential vulnerabilities to victimisation or to participation in risky sexual practices. Sexting is also inextricably linked to social expectations of gendered sexual behaviours, with females often deriving less satisfaction from their experiences and being perceived more negatively by their peers. Further research linking adolescent motivations, well-being, relationships and lifestyles with the broader socio-cultural and media landscape will ultimately help drive understanding about the subject forward. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Emilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Health Science, Section of Nursing Graduate Level, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per A
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Öhnström, Gisela
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Beliefs regarding medication and side effects influence treatment adherence in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder2017In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 559-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adherence to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment is important because, when untreated, it may have serious consequences with lifelong effects. In the case of adolescents on long-term medicine prescription, more knowledge is needed regarding adherence and factors influencing adherence, which was the purpose of this study. Adolescents (n = 101) on ADHD medication ≥6 months were administrated questionnaires at a monitoring appointment: Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS), beliefs about medicines (BMQ) and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Adherence was high, the mean value was 88% of the maximum MARS score, and correlated positively with the “BMQ-necessity-concerns differential” but negatively with “BMQ-concerns” and “BMQ-side effects”. Adolescents with more belief in the necessity of the medication, less concerns and less experience of side effects tended to be more adherent to medication prescription (“intentional non-adherence”), while “unintentional non-adherence” (forgetfulness) was associated with how much they perceived that their ADHD affected their lives. In a multiple regression model, the variance of MARS total (R2 = 0.21) and “intentional non-adherence” (R2 = 0.24) was explained by the “BMQ-necessity–concern differential” and “BMQ-experienced side effects”. The variance of “unintentional non-adherence” (R2 = 0.12) was explained by the “BMQ-necessity–concern differential” and “B-IPQ-consequences of ADHD”. In conclusion, adolescents on long-term medication reported good adherence, mainly influenced by more beliefs in the necessity versus concerns of the medications, less experienced side effects and more perceived consequences of ADHD. BMQ could be useful to identify risks of low adherence, which should be counteracted by partially gender-specific interventions.

  • 17.
    Fredlund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Pribe, Gisela
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Adolescents motives for selling sex in a welfare state - A Swedish national study2018In: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 81, p. 286-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to money or other compensation, other motives for selling sex may be important in a welfare country such as Sweden. The aim of this study was to carry out an exploratory investigation of adolescents motives for selling sex in a population-based survey in Sweden. A total of 5839 adolescents from the third year of Swedish high school, mean age 18.0 years, participated in the study. The response rate was 59.7% and 51 students (0.9%) reported having sold sex. Exploratory factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to identify groups of adolescents according to underlying motives for selling sex. Further analyses were carried out for characteristics of selling sex and risk factors. Three groups of adolescents were categorized according to their motives for selling sex: Adolescents reporting; 1) Emotional reasons, being at a greater risk of sexual abuse, using sex as a means of self-injury and having a non-heterosexual orientation. 2) Material but no Emotional reasons, who more often receive money as compensation and selling sex to a person over 25 years of age, and 3) Pleasure or no underlying motive for selling sex reported, who were mostly heterosexual males selling sex to a person under 25 years of age, the buyer was not known from the Internet, the reward was seldom money and this group was less exposed to penetrative sexual abuse or using sex as a means of self-injury. In conclusion, adolescents selling sex are a heterogeneous group in regard to underlying motives.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-05-05 00:01
  • 18.
    Fredlund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Pribe, Gisela
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Self-reported frequency of sex as self-injury (SASI) in a national study of Swedish adolescents and association to sociodemographic factors, sexual behaviors, abuse and mental health2017In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 11, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex as self-injury has become a concept in Swedish society; however it is a largely unexplored area of research, not yet conceptualized and far from accepted in the research field. The use of sex as a way of affect regulation is known in the literature and has, in interviews with young women who sell sex, been compared to direct self-injury, such as cutting or burning the skin. The aim of this study was to investigate the self-reported frequency of sex as self-injury and the association to sociodemographic factors, sexual orientation, voluntary sexual experiences, sexual risk-taking behaviors, sexual, physical and mental abuse, trauma symptoms, healthcare for psychiatric disorders and non-suicidal self-injury.

  • 19.
    Gren Landell, Malin
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekerfelt Allvin, Cornelia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bradely, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Teachers' views on risk factors for problematic school absenteeism in Swedish primary school students2015In: Educational Psychology in Practice, ISSN 0266-7363, E-ISSN 1469-5839, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 412-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present online survey, 158 teachers in regular and special education teaching in grades six to nine were asked to rate the importance of probable reasons for problematic school absenteeism. On average, the teachers estimated that among their students, 19 students had presented with problematic school absenteeism over the last five years. Teachers viewed school absenteeism as a multifactorial problem. Family factors were considered to contribute most and low mood or depression were rated as one of the five most contributing factors. Teachers in special education viewed school factors as more influential than teachers in mainstream education did (t156 = −3.94, p < 0.05). The current findings stress the importance of collaboration between the school, parents and the student to be able to address all factors that may lead to problematic school absenteeism.

  • 20.
    Gustafsson, Berit M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN). Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Högland Hospital, Sweden; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Proczkowska, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Hospital Jönköping, Sweden.
    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for preschool childrena Swedish validation2016In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 70, no 8, p. 567-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, 80-90% of children aged 1-5 years attend preschool, and that environment is well suited to identify behaviours that may be signs of mental health problems. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a well-known short and structured instrument measuring child behaviours that indicate mental health problems well suited for preschool use.Aim: To investigate whether SDQ is a reliable and valid instrument for identifying behavioural problems in children aged 1-3 years and 4-5 years in a Swedish population, as rated by preschool teachers.Methods: Preschools situated in different sized municipalities in Sweden participated. The preschool teacher rated each individual child. Concurrent validity was tested using the Child-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF) and Child Engagement Questionnaire (CEQ). Exploratory factor analysis was conducted for age groups, 1-3 years and 4-5 years.Results: The preschool teachers considered most of the SDQ items relevant and possible to rate. For the children aged 1-3 years, the subscales Hyperactivity (Cronbach alpha=0.84, split half=0.73) and Conduct (Cronbach alpha=0.76, split half=0.80) were considered to be valid. For the age group 4-5 years, the whole original SDQ scale, 4-factor solution was used and showed reasonable validity (Cronbach alpha=0.83, split half=0.87).Conclusion: SDQ can be used in a preschool setting by preschool teachers as a valid instrument for identifying externalizing behavioural problems (hyperactivity and conduct problems) in young children.Clinical implications: SDQ could be used to identify preschool children at high-risk for mental health problems later in life.

  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Berit
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Högland Hospital, Sweden; Jonköping University, Sweden; Hogland Hospital, Sweden.
    Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Hospital Jonköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Emotional and behavioural problems in Swedish preschool children rated by preschool teachers with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)2017In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 17, no 110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a high risk that young children who show early signs of mental health problems develop symptoms in the same or overlapping areas some years later. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is widely used to screen externalizing and internalizing problems early in life. In Sweden 80-90% of all children aged 1-5 years go to preschool and preschool is thus an appropriate context for finding early signs of mental health problems among children. Methods: This study is part of a longitudinal project too investigate the frequency of emotional and behavioural problems for children between 1 and 5 years of age in Sweden. The SDQ including the impairment supplement questions were rated by preschool teachers too establish Swedish norms for SDQ in preschool children. Results: The sample involved 815 children with a mean age of 42 months (SD = 16, range 13-71 months). 195 children were followed longitudinally for three years. There were significant differences between boys and girls on all subscales except for the Emotional subscale. The prevalence of behavioural problems was similar to other that in European countries, except for Prosocial behaviour, which was rated lower, and Conduct problems, rated higher. Swedish children were estimated to have more problems in the preschool setting, scored by preschool teachers. The development of behaviour over time differed for the different subscales of SDQ. Conclusions: The teacher version of the SDQ, for 2-4 year-olds, can be used as a screening instrument to identify early signs of emotional distress/behavioural problems in young children. Preschool teachers seem to be able to identify children with problematic behaviour with the use of SDQ at an early age. The development of behaviour over time differs for the different subscales of SDQ. The Swedish norms for SDQ are to a large extent, similar to findings from other European countries.

  • 22.
    Jonsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Barn utsatta för sexuella övergrepp på nätet2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna fördjupningsrapport fokuserar på barns erfarenheter av sexuella övergrepp på nätet. Rapporten baseras på den tredje epidemiologiska undersökningen om ungdomars sexuella beteenden och erfarenheter på Internet. Unga sex och Internet – i en föränderlig värld är en enkätstudie från 2014 där 5 839 elever i gymnasiets tredje år deltog. Deltagarna tillfrågades om erfarenheter av olika övergrepp av sexuell karaktär på nätet såsom nätgrooming, sexuella övergrepp och sexuella övergreppsbilder.

    Resultaten i denna rapport är nya och unika. De ska tolkas med försiktighet då det behövs mer studier inom området. Dock visar resultaten tydliga mönster, som vi till viss del känner igen från både nationell och internationell forskning samt kliniska erfarenheter vi fått ta del av.

    Såväl de ungdomar som blivit nätgroomade (23,2 %) som de som blivit utsatta för sexuella övergrepp över nätet senaste året (32 ungdomar av de 330 ungdomar som hade haft sex på nätet) uppvisade en tämligen likartad bild av utsatthet för andra sexuella övergrepp, känslomässig och fysisk misshandel, känslomässig och fysisk mobbning samt olika former av självskadebeteenden. Till detta kommer att de rapporterade en sämre känslomässig relation till sina föräldrar under uppväxten även om de sociodemografiskt inte skiljde sig från andra ungdomar med få undantag.

    Ett viktigt resultat från studien är att vi har kunnat konstatera att dokumentation i form av fotografering och filmning av sexuella övergrepp påverkar den psykiska hälsan negativt. Även osäkerheten om det skett eller inte är förknippad med en ytterligare försämrad psykisk ohälsa jämfört med när övergrepp inte dokumenterats. För de barn/ungdomar vars bilder spritts ökar den psykiska ohälsan ytterligare.

    Bilden som målas upp är att denna grupp av ungdomar har en komplex bild av traumatiska erfarenheter och ohälsa och närmast är att betrakta som polytraumatiserade.

    Forskningens uppgift är att på ett vetenskapligt sätt belysa olika fenomen i samhället och att utifrån genererade data dra slutsatser och ge rekommendationer för att som i detta fall bidra till en bättre hjälp som i detta fall till en utsatt och belastad grupp barn- och ungdomar.

    Vi kan se att dessa ungdomar behöver såväl förebyggande som rehabiliterande insatser.

    På det förebyggande planet behövs bättre kunskap om våld och andra former av övergrepp bland alla som arbetar med barn. Utan denna kunskap och professionell utveckling kommer de barn som riskerar att utsättas eller redan blivit utsatta riskera att inte upptäckas i tid, och att inte heller kunna erbjudas adekvata insatser. Detta gäller sannolikt än mer de mest utsatta, bl.a. de grupper som denna fördjupningsrapport fokuserat på.

    Barn och unga måste tidigt få kunskap om vad ett sexuellt övergrepp är, vilka rättigheter man har och vad man kan göra om man blir drabbad. Skolan är en utmärkt plats att genomföra denna typ av utbildning. Vi kan se ett behov av en förändrad, moderniserad, sexualundervisning med fokus på relationer, ömsesidighet och respekt för att stärka barn och ungdomars sexuella integritet.

    Kunskap om våld och andra övergrepp mot barn behöver integreras i samtliga utbildningar som riktar sig till personer som kommer att arbeta med barn och ungdomar. Detta sker lämpligast genom att ämnet införs i respektive examinationsordningar. Det är också angeläget att fortbilda redan anställd personal inom rättsväsende, socialt arbete, hälso- och sjukvård och skola om våld och sexuella övergrepp mot barn.

    Utsatta barn/och ungdomar vänder sig oftast till kompisar och andra jämnåriga för att prata om övergreppen och för att få ett initialt stöd (Svedin et al., 2015; Landberg et al., 2015). Därför måste det till stora satsningar vad gäller kunskap om kompisstöd, vad man t.ex. ska göra om en kompis utsatts. Redan idag finns bra framtaget material (se www.dagsattprataom.se) som behöver spridas vidare till bland annat ungdomsmottagningar och skolan.

    Erfarenheterna från intervjuer med ungdomar i EU-projektet SPIRTO (Jonsson et al, 2015c) visar att främsta anledningen till att unga undviker att prata med sina föräldrar om vad de gör på nätet är för att de upplever att föräldrarna kan för lite. Unga efterlyser kunskapsspridning till föräldrar och lärare och andra som arbetar med barn om nätet. Hur nätet fungerar som källa till information och glädje såväl som till de risker som finns på nätet.

    Förövarna behöver hjälp och behandling för att minska risken att de utsätter nya barn. Därför är det ytterst viktigt med behandlingsenheter spridda i landet som alla har möjlighet att kontakta.

    Resultaten gällande det markant allvarliga hälsoläget för de barn som drabbats av övergrepp på nätet av sexuell karaktär ställer krav på skola, hälso- och sjukvård samt rättsväsende. De drabbade barnen måste prioriteras genom att få snabba utredningar från både polis och socialtjänst följt av möjlighet till bra stöd och behandling. Precis som i huvudrapporten från 2015 (Svedin et al., 2015), finns det anledning att understryka att om barn och ungdomars psykosociala ohälsa är så nedsatt som här framkommer, måste samhället säkerställa att de erbjuds professionellt stöd och hjälp. Många kan behöva högspecialiserad vård. Detta gäller en stor del av de barn och unga som utsatts för våld eller andra övergrepp och är extra angeläget för en polyviktimiserad grupp som den som denna rapport fokuserar på.

    I framtiden behövs fler studier med olika metodik för att få en bättre bild och en djupare förståelse för hur övergrepp på nätet av sexuell karaktär påverkar de drabbade barnen.

  • 23.
    Jonsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Pribe, Gisela
    Department of Psychology, IKV, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Fredlund, Cecilia
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Similarities and differences in the functions of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and sex as self-injury (SASI)2017In: Journal of Suicide and Life-threatening Behaviour, ISSN 0363-0234, E-ISSN 1943-278XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differences and similarities were studied in the functions of two different self-injurious behaviors (SIB): nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and sex as self-injury (SASI). Based on type of SIB reported, adolescents were classified in one of three groups: NSSI only (n = 910), SASI only (n = 41), and both NSSI and SASI (n = 76). There was support for functional equivalence in the two forms of SIB, with automatic functions being most commonly endorsed in all three groups. There were also functional differences, with adolescents in the SASI only group reporting more social influence functions than those with NSSI only. Adolescents reporting both NSSI and SASI endorsed the highest number of functions for both behaviors. Clinical implications are discussed, emphasizing the need for emotion regulation skills.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-10-26 15:38
  • 24.
    Kastbom, Åsa A.
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Larsson, I.
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Parents?: Observations and Reports on the Sexual Behaviour of 7 to 13 Years Old Children2012In: Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders, ISSN 2161-038X, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 2-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate sexual behaviours, types and frequencies, among Swedish children in the age group of 7-13 years, as observed and reported by their parents and to give professionals in different areas a greater knowledge of sexual behaviour among younger school children.

    Methods: The parents of 418 children answered questionnaires about their child's behaviour, both general and sexual, and about their own attitudes.

    Results: We found that most sexual behaviours we asked about were reported by the parents as common, and are in part related to, or vary with, age and gender. A small number of sexual behaviours often referred to as problematic behaviour were found to be very unusual in this normative group of Swedish children.

    Conclusion: Behaviours usually referred to as sexualized and problematic were rare in this normative sample of children at 7-13 years of age. The results are of importance for clinicians' evaluation of sexual behaviours reported by parents.

  • 25.
    Kastbom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Comparing quality of life between Swedish adolescents and young adults from sexual minorities and heterosexual groups2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between sexual identity and socio- demographics, sexual experience, health, experience of child abuse, sexual exploitation and present behavior among Swedish adolescents and young adults.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey with 3,503 adolescents completing a  survey  about their sexuality, health and abuse at a mean age of 18.3 years. In addition, 362 members of the Swedish Federation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights completed the same survey at a mean age of 21.4 years.

    Results: Sexual minority respondents were more likely to say that their parental relationship was based on low care and high overprotection and they used alcohol and other drugs to a significantly higher extent than their heterosexual peers. Multivariate analysis showed a positive correlation between sexual minority and  low  self-esteem, poor mental health and experience of sexual abuse, physical abuse and sexual exploitation.

    Conclusion: The sexual minority group had a lower quality of life than their heterosexual peers and professionals need to be more aware that they are more vulnerable in a number of respects, including an increased risk of having experienced child abuse, and offer them different forms of support.

  • 26.
    Kastbom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Department of Psychology, Linnæus University, Växjö, Sweden; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: a cross-sectional study2016In: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, ISSN 1179-318X, Vol. 7, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Empirical research about late sexual debut and its consequences is limited, and further research is needed.

    Objective: To explore how students who had not had intercourse by the age of 18 years differed in terms of sociodemographic factors, physical and psychological health, sexual behavior, and history of sexual abuse from those who had.

    Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional survey involving 3,380 Swedish 18-year-olds. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate different types of sexual behavior. Ordinal data concerning alcohol consumption, self-esteem, sexual and physical abuse, parental relationships, sense of coherence, and health were analyzed, and multiple regression was carried out to identify the most important factors associated with no sexual debut.

    Results: Just under a quarter of the adolescents had not had oral, anal, or vaginal sex by the age of 18 years, and they comprised the index group. They were characterized by being more likely to have caring fathers, parents born outside Europe, lower pornography consumption, lower alcohol and tobacco consumption, less antisocial behavior, and above all lower sexual desire (sometimes, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.8; never/seldom, aOR 13.3) and fewer experiences of sexual abuse (aOR 25.5). Family structure and culture matters when it comes to the age of sexual debut.

    Conclusion: Adolescents with no sexual debut at 18 years of age seemed to live a more stable and cautious life than more sexual experienced peers, exemplified by fewer antisocial acts, less smoking and alcohol/drug consumption, less sexual desire, and less experience of sexual abuse.

  • 27.
    Kastbom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Lund University, Sweden; Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Sexual debut before the age of 14 leads to poorer psychosocial health and risky behaviour in later life2015In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study investigated the relationship between sexual debut before 14 years of age and socio-demographics, sexual experience, health, experience of child abuse and behaviour at 18 years of age.

    Methods: A sample of 3432 Swedish high school seniors completed a survey about sexuality, health and abuse at the age of 18.

    Results: Early debut was positively correlated with risky behaviours, such as the number of partners, experience of oral and anal sex, health behaviours, such as smoking, drug and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviour, such as being violent, lying, stealing and running away from home. Girls with an early sexual debut had significantly more experience of sexual abuse. Boys with an early sexual debut were more likely to have a weak sense of coherence, low self-esteem and poor mental health, together with experience of sexual abuse, selling sex and physical abuse. A multiple logistic regression model showed that a number of antisocial acts and health behaviours remained significant, but early sexual debut did not increase the risk of psychiatric symptoms, low self-esteem or low sense of coherence at 18 years of age.

    Conclusion: Early sexual debut was associated with problematic behaviours during later adolescence, and this vulnerability requires attention from parents and healthcare providers.

  • 28.
    Kjellgren, Ceclia
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Thulin, Johanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Sweden.
    Implementering av en strukuterad behandlingsmetod vid barnmisshandel-ett tioårsperspektiv2017In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 4, p. 457-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten years ago an evidence based treatment model for families where phy-sical abuse had occurred (CPC-CBT, Combined Parent Child-Cognitive Be-havioral Therapy) was introduced in Sweden. The project was a bottom-up project initiated by social workers. Four teams were initially trained and pro-mising results by treatment follow-up were identified in a pilot study. Further implementation started and so far additional hundred therapists has been trained in the model. More than thousand families have completed treat-ment. Ongoing research examines treatment effects as well as experiences among children who have received treatment. Experiences of referring so-cial workers as well as the process of implementation are reported in this pa-per. Findings are discussed, obstacles as well as supportive factors during the implementation process

  • 29.
    Kloppen, Kathrine
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Haugland, Siren
    Uni Research Heatlh, Norway.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Maehle, Magne
    Sogn og Fjordane University of Coll, Norway.
    Breivik, Kyrre
    Uni Research Heatlh, Norway.
    Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in the Nordic Countries: A Literature Review2016In: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, ISSN 1053-8712, E-ISSN 1547-0679, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 37-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review examined child sexual abuse in the Nordic countries focusing on prevalence rates and victims age and relationship to the perpetrator. The results show a prevalence of child sexual abuse (broadly defined) between 3-23% for boys and 11-36% for girls. The prevalence rates for contact abuse were 1-12% for boys and 6-30% for girls, while 0.3-6.8% of the boys and 1.1-13.5% of the girls reported penetrating abuse. The findings suggest an increased risk of abuse from early adolescence. In adolescence, peers may constitute the largest group of perpetrators. The results highlight the need for preventive efforts also targeting peer abuse. Future research should include cross-national and repeated studies using comparable methodology.

  • 30.
    Landberg, Åsa
    et al.
    Stiftelsen Allmänna Barnhuset, Stockholm.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Lunds universitet.
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Fredlund, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Det gäller en av fem: fakta om barn, sexuella övergrepp och sexuell exploatering i Sverige 20142014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här är den tredje stora undersökningen som gjorts om av samma forskargrupp. De tidigare undersökningarna genomfördes 2004 och 2009. Det gör att vi kan jämföra svaren och se utveckling över tid. Undersökningen har genomförts av forskare från Linköpings och Lunds universitet på uppdrag av Stiftelsen Allmänna Barnhuset och har finansierats av regeringen. Den här skriften sammanfattar delar av undersökningen från 2014. Den som är intresserad av att läsa mer om resultaten eller om hur undersökningen är upplagd, kan ta del av den fullständiga rapporten, Unga, sex och internet - i en föränderlig värld, via Stiftelsen Allmänna Barnhusets hemsida www.allmannabarnhuset.se eller via Linköpings universitet www.barnafrid.se.

    Statistiska Centralbyrån har gjort ett urval av skolor som är representativt. Några av de utvalda skolorna föll bort för att de lagt ned, inte ville delta eller inte svarade. Det var frivilligt att delta, och det fanns elever som valde att avstå, eller helt enkelt inte var i skolan den dag som undersökningen genomfördes.

    Sammanlagt medverkade 5 873 elever från 171 skolor. Eleverna besvarade enkäten under lektionstid, med en av skolan utvald, ansvarig person i klassrummet. Elever, ansvariga lärare och rektor fick information om studien i form av ett informationsbrev. Där fanns också uppgifter om vart eleverna kunde vända sig för att få stöd och hjälp.

    Vi ställde frågor på en rad olika områden. Det gör att vi vet mycket om de elever som svarade. Frågorna handlade om sociodemografi (bakgrundsfaktorer som till exempel ålder, kön, födelseland, ekonomi eller föräldrarnas utbildningsnivå), sport/idrottsutövande, sexualitet, erfarenhet av frivilligt sex, alkohol och droganvändning, antisocialt beteende, fysiska, psykiska och sexuella övergrepp, erfarenheter av vård för psykiatriska besvär, självskadebeteende, självskada genom sex, sälja sex, människohandel, kontakt med socialtjänsten, mobbning samt användande av internet, mobiler och pornografi.

    Enkäten innefattade även ett antal standardiserade mätinstrument som mäter hur eleverna uppfattar relationen till sina föräldrar, deras självkänsla, symtom på posttraumatisk stress och självskadebeteende. De ungdomar som svarat gick tredje året på gymnasiet 2014. Åldern varierade mellan 16 och 23 år med en medelålder på knappt 18 år. Något fler tjejer än killar deltog och en grupp på 0,9 procent tyckte inte att indelningen kille/tjej passade dem. Vad den grupp som inte tycker att könsindelningen passar dem har svarat på frågorna redovisas på några områden.

  • 31.
    Lindgren, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Werko, Sophie
    Swedish Agcy Hlth Technol Assessment and Assessment, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    A Systematic Literature Review of Experiences of Professional Care and Support Among People Who Self-Harm2018In: Archives of Suicide Research, ISSN 1381-1118, E-ISSN 1573-8159, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 173-192Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-harm is an increasing phenomenon among young people, with potentially fatal outcomes. Patients perceptions of treatment and support are poorly documented. The aim was to synthesise the experiences of those who self-harm, with special reference to professional care and support by family, friends, and the school system. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Following retrieval of 1,623 abstracts, 14 studies were included in the final analysis, 11 of which are reported here. Two quantitative studies as well as 1 mixed method study on self-care could not be reported on here due to word limitations. Adult people who self-harm described the importance of quality in the caring relationship and a tailored care designed for each individual. There is a need for more studies into adolescents who self-harm but of importance is the adolescents need for support from the adult world. A positive relationship between patient and healthcare professional can be crucial in motivating continued treatment of people who self-harm. A major priority is radical improvement in the attitudes of healthcare personnel.

  • 32.
    Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Plenty, Stephanie
    Inst Futures Studies IFFS, Sweden; Swedish Inst Social Res, Sweden.
    Laftman, Sara B.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Bergstrom, Malin
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Berlin, Marie
    Natl Board Hlth and Welf, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    School Contextual Features of Social Disorder and Mental Health ComplaintsA Multilevel Analysis of Swedish Sixth-Grade Students2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed school-contextual features of social disorder in relation to sixth-grade students experiences of bullying victimization and mental health complaints. It investigated, firstly, whether the schools concentrations of behavioural problems were associated with individual students likelihood of being bullied, and secondly, whether the schools concentrations of behavioural problems and bullying victimization predicted students emotional and psychosomatic health complaints. The data were derived from the Swedish National Survey of Mental Health among Children and Young People, carried out among sixth-grade students (approximately 12-13 years old) in Sweden in 2009. The analyses were based on information from 59,510 students distributed across 1999 schools. The statistical method used was multilevel modelling. While students own behavioural problems were associated with an elevated risk of being bullied, attending a school with a higher concentration of students with behavioural problems also increased the likelihood of being bullied. Attending a school with higher levels of bullying victimization and behavioural problems predicted more emotional and psychosomatic complaints, even when adjusting for their individual level analogues. The findings indicate that school-level features of social disorder influence bullying victimization and mental health complaints among students.

  • 33.
    Mörelius, Evalotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nelson, Nina
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Norrköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Neonatal Intensive Care and Child Psychiatry Inpatient Care: Do Different Working Conditions Influence Stress Levels?2013In: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437, Vol. 2013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. Nurses often experience work-related stress. High stress can negatively affect job satisfaction and lead to emotional exhaustion with risk of burnout.

    Aim. To analyse possible differences in biological stress markers, psychosocial working conditions,health, and well-being between nurses working in two different departments.

    Methods. Stress was evaluated in nurses working in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (𝑛 = 33) and nursesworking in a child and adolescent psychiatry inpatient ward (CAP) (𝑛 = 14) using salivary cortisol and HbA1c. Salivary cortisol was measured three times a day on two consecutive days during two one-week periods, seven weeks apart (= 12 samples/person). Psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being were measured once.

    Results. NICU nurses had better social support and more self-determination. CAP nurses had a lower salivary cortisol quotient,poorer general health, and higher client-related burnout scores.

    Conclusion.When comparing these nurses with existing normdata for Sweden, as a group their scores reflect less work-related stress than Swedes overall. However, the comparison between NICU and CAP nurses indicates a less healthy work situation for CAP nurses.

    Relevance to Clinical Practice. Healthcare managers need to acknowledge the less healthy work situation CAP nurses experience in order to provide optimal support and promote good health.

  • 34.
    Mörelius, Evalotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, H.K.H. Kronprinsessan Victorias barn- och ungdomssjukhus.
    Ivars, Katrin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, H.K.H. Kronprinsessan Victorias barn- och ungdomssjukhus.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Nelson Follin, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Salivary cortisol circadian rhythm in infants at psychosocial risk showed more variations than previous studies of healthy full-term infants2017In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 106, no 12, p. 2060-2061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 35.
    Nilsson, Doris
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    Uppsala Psykoterapimottagning, Smedsgränd.
    Trauma Symptom Inventory™ -2 TSI-2: Svensk Version2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    TSI-2 är ett självrapporteringsformulär som mäter posttraumatisk stress och relaterade symptom och beteenden. TSI-2 syftar till att identifiera symptom som kvarstår hos individen efter en eller flera svåra livshändelser. Mer specifikt är instrumentet avsett att användas för vuxna som har upplevt traumatiska händelser i livet såsom exempelvis fysiska eller sexuella övergrepp, olyckor, katastrofhändelser, traumatiska förluster, dödsfall av närstående, medicinska trauman eller bevittnat hot och våld. TSI-2 mäter ett brett spektrum av traumatiska symptom och lämpar sig framförallt för screening men kan också användas för att utvärdera effekter av psykoterapeutiska interventioner.

    TSI-2 består av 136 påståenden som ger resultat på:

    Två validitetsskalor

    Underrapportering eller förnekande av symptom, samt en skala gällande överrapportering av traumarelaterade symptom.

    Fyra faktorer

    Självförvirring, Posttraumatisk stress, Externalisering och Somatisering.

    Tolv kliniska skalor

    Ångestfylld spändhet, Depression, Ilska, Invaderande återupplevande, Undvikande, Dissociation, Somatisk upptagenhet, Sexuella svårigheter, Självmordsbenägenhet, Osäker anknytning, Skadad självkänsla, Spänningsreducerande beteende.

    Den svenska versionen av TSI-2 är standardiserad och normerad vid Linköpings universitet och Uppsala universitet under åren 2012-2014. Normgruppen består av sammanlagt 693 individer i åldrarna 18-65 år. En klinisk grupp med 83 individer ingår också i valideringen av den svenska versionen av TSI-2. Utvecklingsarbetet och den svenska versionens psykometriska egenskaper beskrivs i manualen, som även innehåller anvisningar för administrering, poängsättning och tolkning samt köns- och åldersspecifika normtabeller.

  • 36.
    Nilsson, Doris
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Johansson, Erika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Larsson, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Näslund, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The experience of internal and external supporting objects from the perspective of six young women who have lost a parent to cancer: An interpretative phenomenological analyisis2017In: Annals of Psychiatry and Treatment, Vol. 2, no (2), p. 24-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adolescents losing a parent are a risk group for future complications in their ongoing live such as higher rate of mortality, self- harm and other mental health problems. There is a lack of knowledge in what, how and when to offer help as well as no concluding theoretical model to understand the whole process of losing a parent. The objective of this study was to examine how the relationships of some young people are affected by the loss of a parent to cancer during their teenage years.

    Method: Six women aged between 18 and 25 participated in the study. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) method was used.

    Result: The theme of loneliness was cemented with the two main themes, into loneliness and out of loneliness and sub-themes such as, cancer comes along, silence, hold on to and miss, those closest, the supporters, independence, closeness and distance.

    Conclusion: The parent who has died lives on as an inner object and the support from the remaining parent is viewed very important. The process to be back on track seems diverse and continues for a long time and outside help needs to tune in with this.

  • 37.
    Nilsson, Doris
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Lejonclou, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Jonsson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Somatoform dissociation among Swedish adolescents and young adults: The psychometric properties of the Swedish versions of the SDQ-20 and SDQ-52015In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 152-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Somatoform dissociation is supposed to be a vital aspect of the general concept of dissociation. The Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire-20 (SDQ-20) and the brief version SDQ-5 are self-report instruments constructed to identify somatic dissociation. Aim: In the present study, the psychometric qualities of the Swedish version of the SDQ-20 and its brief version, the SDQ-5, were examined among adolescents and young adults. Reliability and concurrent validity were investigated. Methods: A total of 512 adolescents and young adults participated in the study: 461 adolescents from a non-clinical sample and 50 adolescents and young adults from a clinical eating disorder outpatient unit. They completed the self-report instruments the SDQ-20, the SDQ-5 (part of SDQ-20), the Linköping Youth Life Experience Scale (LYLES, a trauma history scale) and the Dissociation Questionnaire-Sweden (Dis-Q-Sweden). Results: Both internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Swedish version of SDQ-20 were good in both the non-clinical (α = 0.83) and the clinical groups (α = 0.84); the reliability for the SDQ-5 was, however, lower (non-clinical α = 0.50, clinical α = 0.64). Significant differences were found between the clinical and non-clinical groups on both somatoform and psychoform dissociation. Correlations between the Dis-Q-Sweden, SDQ-20 and SDQ-5 were generally high. The criterion and convergent validity was acceptable for both scales but somewhat better for SDQ-20 than for SDQ-5. Conclusion: The advantage with both the SDQ-20 and the SDQ-5 is that they are short questionnaires, but the results suggests that SDQ-20 is preferable based on the higher-quality psychometric properties of the SDQ-20.

  • 38.
    Nilsson, Doris
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Nordås, Elvira
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Child physical abuse: High school students’ mental health and parental relations depending on who perpetrated the abuse2017In: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 70, p. 28-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to contribute to the research of child physical abuse (CPA) by examining if there were any differences in high school students’ mental health (in this study symptoms of depression and anxiety, self-esteem and sense of coherence) and/or, in how they perceive their parents, depending on whether or not they had been subjected to CPA during childhood. In addition, if high school students reported different mental health and/or, relationships with their parents, depending on if their mother, father or both parents were the perpetrators of CPA.

    A representative national sample of high school students (N = 3288, data collected 2009) participated in the study. Participants completed the following: questions about CPA and alleged perpetrators, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Sense of Coherence Scale and Parental Bonding Instrument.

    The results showed students who reported experiences of CPA were more likely to report symptoms of mental illness and negative perceptions of their parents’ parenting. However, there were no mental health differences depending on whether their mother, father or both parents were the perpetrators of CPA. Still, there were differences in perceived parenting indicating that mothers’ parenting was perceived as more negative when mothers only or both parents were perpetrators of the abuse than when only fathers were perpetrators.

  • 39.
    Nilsson, Doris
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Ängarne-Lindberg, Teresia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Children who lose a parent suddenly: what kind of assistance do they feel provides relief?: a content analysis study of children and their parents2016In: Child Care in Practice, ISSN 1357-5279, E-ISSN 1476-489X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 197-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are few studies that have investigated children and adolescents’ own perceptions of early intervention following the death of a parent, and even fewer that focus on children and adolescents who have lost a parent suddenly. The aim of this study was to use interviews to identify what children and the surviving parent perceived to be helpful or unhelpful in terms of the interventions they received when a parent died suddenly. The children and young people in the study had received help from a team whose work involves early intervention for children and adolescents affected by the sudden death of a parent. Fourteen adolescents and 15 parents were interviewed for this purpose. The interview material was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results identified one theme (perception of support), two categories (feeling confident and secure; and receiving help to bring about order), and six subcategories (a feeling of being noticed and attended to; a feeling that they knew what they were doing; a feeling of being able to hand over; a feeling of being in a free zone; a feeling of recovery and inner order; and a feeling of clarity and structure).

  • 40.
    Perini, Irene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Hamilton, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kämpe, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    The salience of self, not social pain, is encoded by dorsal anterior cingulate and insula2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 6165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human neural correlates of social rejection have attracted significant research interest, but remain subject to vigorous debate. Specifically, it has been proposed that a matrix of brain regions overlapping with the classical pain matrix, and including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the anterior insular cortex (AI) is critical for processing of social rejection. The present study expands on this conceptualization, by showing that these areas are involved in processing of self-relevant social evaluation, irrespective of valence. Forty healthy adolescents (N = 20 females) were tested in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. We used a novel paradigm that balanced participants experience of rejection and acceptance. In addition, the paradigm also controlled for whether the social judgment was towards the participants or towards other fictitious players. By creating a "self" and "other" distinction, we show that right AI and dACC are involved in processing the salience of being judged by others, irrespective of the quality of this judgment. This finding supports the idea that these regions are not specific to social rejection or even to pain or metaphorically painful experiences, but activate to self-relevant, highly salient information.

  • 41.
    Quayle, Ethel
    et al.
    Univ Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Cooper, Karen
    Univ Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Traynor, James
    NCA CEOP Command, England.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Children in Identified Sexual Images - Who Are they? Self- and Non-Self-Taken Images in the International Child Sexual Exploitation Image Database 2006-20152018In: Child Abuse Review, ISSN 0952-9136, E-ISSN 1099-0852, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 223-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Child sexual abuse and exploitation material has drawn concern and legislative attention since the turn of the century, and the work to identify children in the images has been a prioritised task through international cooperation. The International Child Sexual Exploitation Image Database (ICSE DB) includes more than 8000 identified victims from nearly 50 countries. The database contains considerable important information about child abuse image crimes. The general aim of this study was to quantify the characteristics of children in identified illegal images from the UK ICSE DB (n = 687) with the subsidiary aim to describe differences between cases of self-taken images and those whose images had been taken by others. The analysis showed an increase in identified victims during the study years 2006-2015. Almost two-thirds were female, the majority were white and 44.3 per cent of images were self-taken (34.4% taken in a coercive and 9.9% in a non-coercive relationship). Since 2010, the number of self-taken images each year has exceeded more than 40 per cent of the total number of images in the database. Although self-taken images may be perceived as less worrisome, two-thirds were classified as coercive. This is an important argument in favour of continuing to investigate these cases under victim identification programmes. The general aim of this study was to quantify the characteristics of children in identified illegal images from the UK ICSE DB Key Practitioner Messages The ICSE DB includes more than 8000 identified victims and contains important information about child abuse image crimes. A majority of the identified victims were female and white children. Almost half of all images were self-taken and had been taken in a coercive relationship. Parents and practitioners need to recognise that even if a child sends sexual images these should be considered worrisome and therefore investigated further.

  • 42.
    Rajan, Gita
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Ljunggren, Gunnar
    Stockholm County Council, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wandell, Per
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Wahlstrom, Lars
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Diagnoses of sexual abuse and their common registered comorbidities in the total population of Stockholm2017In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 592-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Prior research based on self-reports has proven sexual abuse to be a risk factor for pain and psychiatric disorders. However, less is known about how this is reflected within the healthcare system. The aim of this study was to study the 2-year prevalence of diagnosis of sexual abuse and concomitant conditions. Methods Using data from VAL, the study population included all living persons in Stockholm County, Sweden, between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2014 (N=2 549 496). Diagnoses of sexual abuse were identified during 2013-2014, with information on the concomitant conditions somatic pain, depression, anxiety, psychotic disorders and bipolar disorders, stress disorders and alcohol and substance abuse. All diagnoses were prospectively registered. Age and neighbourhood socioeconomic status-adjusted ORs with 95% CIs for individuals with a diagnosis of sexual abuse, using individuals without sexual abuse as referents, were calculated. Results Girls at the ages 13-17 years had the highest 2-year prevalence (0.69%) of sexual abuse followed by girls 5-12 years (0.11%), and girls 0-4 years (0.04%). For women 45 years and older the 2-year prevalence rates were substantially lower (0.008-0.004%). The highest 2-year prevalence of sexual abuse in men was seen in boys 5-12 (0.03%) years. The total 2-year prevalence of diagnoses of sexual abuse among the population in the material was 0.04%. The highest ORs of comorbidities for girls (ages 017 years) with sexual abuse versus those without sexual abuse were: Stress disorder; 15.7 (13.1 to 18.9), drug abuse; 10.0 (7.7 to 13.0), and alcohol abuse; 9.7(7.8 to 12.0). For boys (ages 0-17 years), the highest ORs of comorbidities were: Stress disorder 12.4 (6.0 to 25.7), anxiety disorders; 5.5 (2.6 to 11.5), and alcohol abuse; 3.9 (1.4 to 11.3). The highest ORs of comorbidities for women (18-) with sexual abuse versus those without sexual abuse were: alcohol abuse; 19.3 (12.6 to 29.6), drug abuse; 16.7 (10.7 to 26.1) and psychotic disorders; 15.3 (8.0 to 29.4). For men (18-) the highest ORs of comorbidities were: alcohol abuse; 25.8 (15.2 to 43.9), anxiety disorders; 14.3 (8.5 to 24.2) stress disorder; 12.9 (7.5 to 22.1) and drug abuse; 12.9 (6.9 to 24.1). Conclusions Diagnoses of drug and alcohol abuse, psychotic, bipolar, stress anxiety disorders, depression and somatic pain are more common among individuals with a diagnosis of sexual abuse than among individuals without a diagnosis of sexual abuse.

  • 43.
    Sikirica, Vanja
    et al.
    Shire, Wayne, PA, USA.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Makin, Charles
    IMS Health, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Treatment Patterns among Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder with or without Psychiatric or Neurologic Comorbidities in Sweden: A Retrospective Cohort Study2017In: Neurology and therapy, ISSN 2193-6536, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 115-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children/adolescents and occurs frequently with psychiatric/neurologic comorbidities. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of psychiatric/neurologic comorbidities on pharmacotherapy patterns among patients with ADHD in Sweden.

  • 44.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Priebe, Gisela
    Institutionen för psykologi, Lunds universitet.
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Fredlund, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Unga sex och Internet – i en föränderlig värld2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avdelningen för barn och ungdomspsykiatri vid Linköpings universitet fick i uppdrag av Stiftelsen Allmänna Barnhuset att tillsammans med Statistiska Centralbyrån (SCB) genomföra en kvantitativ studie bland unga i gymnasieskolans år 3. Avtalets huvudfokus var att samla in kunskap om ungdomars sexualitet, erfarenheter av övergrepp, sexuell exponering, sexuell exponering via digitala medier i enlighet med Regeringsbeslut S2013/8825/FST. Inom ramen för uppdraget skulle samråd med Ungdomsstyrelsen och Folkhälsomyndigheten tas och undersökningen skulle ske i samarbete med Lunds Universitet.

    Samtidigt med detta gavs ett uppdrag från socialförvaltnings utvecklingsenhet i Stockholms stad, om en komplettering genom en vidgad datainsamling i Stockholms stad. Detta uppdrag skulle framför allt fokusera på barn och ungdomar i sexhandel/prostitution samt de som skadar sig själva med sex. Då de två studierna använt en identisk enkät och det i analyserna av materialet visat sig vara väldigt små skillnader mellan de två dataseten så redovisas i denna rapport det sammanlagda materialet.

    Detta är den tredje stora nationella studien på området om ungdomars sexualitet och utsatthet för sexuella övergrepp och sexuell exploatering. Den första studien Ungdomars sexualitet –attityder och erfarenheter (Svedin &Priebe, 2004) var ett uppdrag inom ramen för den statliga utredningen Sexuell exploatering av barn i Sverige (SOU, 2004:71). Den andra undersökningen Unga, sex och internet (Svedin & Priebe, 2009) genomfördes på uppdrag av Ungdomsstyrelsen i avsikt att genomföra en kvantitativ studie bland unga i gymnasieskolans år 3 samt bland Riksförbundet för homosexuella, bisexuella och transpersoners rättigheters (RFSL) medlemmar i relevant ålder. Dessa två studier, vars vetenskapliga publikationer presenteras i bilaga 1, har inom centrala områden använt samma enkät vilket möjliggör en jämförelse med den aktuella studien men också att studera trender över tid. Att just kunna jämföra olika undersökningar med varandra och över tid är tämligen unikt vilket ofta rekommenderas från olika håll. Samtidigt som centrala frågeområden som t.ex. sexuella övergrepp och sexuell exploatering behållits så har andra områden bytts ut. I denna rapport är områden som själskadebeteende, sex som självskadebeteende, människohandel för sexuella syften samt mobbing nya (enkäten bilaga 2).

  • 45.
    Thulin, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnéuniveristet.
    Kjellgren, Ceclia
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Children's experiences with an intervention aimed to prevent further physical abuse2018In: Child & Family Social Work, ISSN 1356-7500, E-ISSN 1365-2206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many children across cultures are victims of physical abuse, few treatment models target these children and their parents. In Sweden, Combined Parent–Child Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for families at risk for child physical abuse has been successfully used according to pretreatment and posttreatment studies. However, few studies have explored how physically abused children experience treatment. This study includes 20 physically abused children aged 9–17 who completed Combined Parent–Child Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Children had a positive overall impression of the treatment and highlighted addressing the abuse, as well as processing their experiences as particularly essential. Children described a positive transformation in their family life as a result of treatment, including violence cessation and bonding among family members. Children experienced the intervention as inclusive and child‐friendly. The implications of the promising findings are discussed.

  • 46.
    Thulin, Johanna
    et al.
    Department of Social Work, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Kjellgren, Ceclia
    Department of Social Work, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Youth Reports of Parental Strategies and sense of Coherence: Are experienced of Being Victim of Physical Abuse Reflected2018In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores adolescent’s reports of parental strategies and sense of coherence (SOC). Building on the suggested impact of child physical abuse, this study compares reports from a group of physically abused youth and a group of non-abused youth. Independent t-test, correlations and hierarchical linear regression analysis were computed. Findings indicate that parents’ use of corporal punishment could affect how youth report their parent’s parental strategies. Physically abused youth report less parental involvement and positive parenting as well as more inconsistent parenting than non-abused youth. Furthermore, physically abused youth report a significant lower SOC than non-abused youth. Being a victim of physical abuse had a unique contribution on SOC, even after controlling for other parental strategies. Taken together, the results suggest that child physical abuse affects both the youth’s inner SOC as well as their reports of parental strategies in several ways. Implications for practice are discussed in this article.

  • 47.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Center for Public Health.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Kowalski, Jan
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Bargoria, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Moi University, Kenya.
    Mountjoy, Margo
    McMaster University, Canada.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Protocol Design for Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Studies of Sexual Abuse and Associated Factors in Individual Sports: Feasibility Study in Swedish Athletics2015In: Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM), ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 179-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure health and well-being for their athletes, sports organizations must offer preventive measures against sexual abuse. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate feasibility of a research protocol for cross-sectional epidemiological studies of sexual abuse in athletics. Examination of the requirements on the study of sexual abuse in athletics was followed by iterated drafting of protocol specifications and formative evaluations. The feasibility of the resulting protocol was evaluated in a national-level study among elite athletics athletes (n = 507) in Sweden. The definition of sexual abuse, the ethical soundness of the protocol, reference populations and study of co-morbidity, and the means for athlete-level data collection were identified as particularly complex issues in the requirements analyses. The web-based survey defined by the protocol facilitates anonymous athlete self-reporting of data on exposure to sexual abuse. 198 athletes (39%) fully completed the feasibility survey. 89% (n = 177) reported that they agreed with that the questions in the survey were important, and 95% (n = 189) reported that they answered truthfully to all questions. Similarly, 91% (n = 180) reported that they did not agree with that the questions were unpleasant for them. However, 16% (n = 32) reported that they did not find the survey to be of personal value, and 12% (n = 23) reported that the survey had caused them to think about issues that they did not want to think about. Responding that participation was not personally gratifying was associated with training more hours (p = 0.01). There is a scarcity of research on the prevention of sexual abuse in individual sports. The present protocol should be regarded as a means to overcome this shortcoming in athletics. When implementing the protocol, it is necessary to encourage athlete compliance and to adapt the web-based survey to the particular infrastructural conditions in the sports setting at hand.

  • 48.
    Topooco, Naira
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Berg, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Liljethörn, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Radvogin, Ella
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vlaescu, George
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zetterqvist, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chat- and internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy in treatment of adolescent depression: randomised controlled trial2018In: Bjpsych Open, ISSN 2056-4724, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 199-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Depression is a major contributor to the burden of disease in the adolescent population. Internet-based interventions can increase access to treatment.

    Aims

    To evaluate the efficacy of internet-based cognitive–behavioural therapy (iCBT), including therapist chat communication, in treatment of adolescent depression.

    Method

    Seventy adolescents, 15–19 years of age and presenting with depressive symptoms, were randomised to iCBT or attention control. The primary outcome was the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II).

    Results

    Significant reductions in depressive symptoms were found, favouring iCBT over the control condition (F(1,67) = 6.18, P < 0.05). The between-group effect size was Cohen's d = 0.71 (95% CI 0.22–1.19). A significantly higher proportion of iCBT participants (42.4%) than controls (13.5%) showed a 50% decrease in BDI-II score post-treatment (P < 0.01). The improvement for the iCBT group was maintained at 6 months.

    Conclusions

    The intervention appears to effectively reduce symptoms of depression in adolescents and may be helpful in overcoming barriers to care among young people.

    Declaration of interest

    N.T. and G.A. designed the programme. N.T. authored the treatment material. The web platform used for treatment is owned by Linköping University and run on a non-for-profit basis. None of the authors receives any income from the programme.

  • 49.
    van Vliet, J. S.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Duchén, Karel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nelson Follin, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Social inequality and age-specific gender differences in overweight and perception of overweight among Swedish children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, no 628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight among children and adolescents related to social inequality, as well as age and gender differences, may contribute to poor self-image, thereby raising important public health concerns. This study explores social inequality in relation to overweight and perception of overweight among 263 boys and girls, age 7 to 17, in Vaxjo, Sweden. Methods: Data were obtained through a questionnaire and from physical measurements of height, weight and waist circumference [WC]. To assess social, age and gender differences in relation to overweight, the independent sample t- and chi-square tests were used, while logistic regression modeling was used to study determinants for perception of overweight. Results: Social inequality and gender differences as they relate to high ISO-BMI [Body Mass Index for children] and WC were associated with low maternal socioeconomic status [SES] among boys less than 13 years [mean age = 10.4; n = 65] and with low paternal education level among boys = 13 years [mean age = 15.0; n = 39] [p less than 0.05]. One suggested explanation for this finding is maternal impact on boys during childhood and the influence of the father as a role model for adolescent boys. The only association found among girls was between high ISO-BMI in girls = 13 years [mean age = 15.0; n = 74] and low paternal occupational status. Concerning perception of overweight, age and gender differences were found, but social inequality was not the case. Among boys and girls less than 13 years, perception of overweight increased only when overweight was actually present according to BMI or WC [p less than 0.01]. Girls = 13 years [mean age = 15.0] were more likely to unrealistically perceive themselves as overweight or "too fat," despite factual measurements to the contrary, than boys [p less than 0.05] and girls less than 13 years [mean age = 10.4; n = 83] [p less than 0.001]. Conclusions: The association between social inequality and overweight in adolescence in this study is age-and gender-specific. Gender differences, especially in perception of overweight, tend to increase with age, indicating that adolescence is a crucial period. When planning interventions to prevent overweight and obesity among children and adolescents, parental SES as well as age and gender-specific differences in social norms and perception of body weight status should be taken into account.

  • 50.
    van Vliet, Jolanda S.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Nelson Follin, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Feeling ‘too fat’ rather than being ‘too fat’ increases unhealthy eating habits among adolescents – even in boys2016In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 60, article id 29530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adolescence is a period of gender-specific physical changes, during which eating habits develop. To better understand what factors determine unhealthy eating habits such as dieting to lose weight, skipping meals and consumption of unhealthy foods, we studied how physical measurements and body perception relate to eating habits in boys and girls, before and during adolescence.

    Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we obtained data from both written questionnaires and physical measurements of height, weight and waist circumference (WC).

    Results: Dieting to lose weight and skipping breakfast were more common among adolescents than among younger boys and girls (p<0.05). The strongest risk factor for dieting in both boys and girls was perception of overweight, which persisted after adjusting for age and for being overweight (p<0.01). Another independent risk factor for dieting behaviour was overweight, as defined by body mass index (BMI) among boys (p<0.01) and WC among girls (p<0.05). In both boys and girls, skipping breakfast was associated with both a more negative body perception and higher BMI (p<0.05). Skipping breakfast was also associated with age- and gender-specific unhealthy eating habits such as skipping other meals, lower consumption of fruits and vegetables, and higher consumption of sweets and sugary drinks (p<0.05).

    Conclusion: Body perception among adolescents is an important factor relating to unhealthy eating habits, not only in girls, but even in boys. Focus on body perception and eating breakfast daily is crucial for the development of healthy food consumption behaviours during adolescence and tracking into adulthood.

12 1 - 50 of 55
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf