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  • 1.
    Ahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Araskog, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Projektmodell för införande av affärssystem: Ett konsultbolags implementeringsprocess i tjänsteföretag2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies acquiring ERP systems are often dissatisfied with the project and therefore consultancy firms wish to make use of project models in order to achieve success in implementations. Since research on ERP implementations in service companies is limited, there is a need for mapping of critical activities in implementation projects in this line of business. Under these premises, the purpose of our master thesis is to develop a model for implementation of ERP systems, specified in activities, which can be used by mid-sized consultancy firms with mid-sized qualified service companies as customers.

    A literature study including project models, modern models and methodologies for ERP implementation, commonly existent activities, success factors and system development methods was carried out. Starting out with this, a theoretical model for ERP implementation was generated. In excess of this, a case study was conducted, where the implementation of the ERP system Microsoft Dynamics AX at the service company Eurostep, performed by the consultancy firm Medius, was studied. A comparative analysis was performed, where the theoretically deduced model of ERP implementation was complemented and revised.

    The result of the master thesis is a consultancy model with four phases, with related activities, for ERP implementation in service companies. In order to fulfill the needs identified in the study, the model includes the following:

    - Clear responsibility distribution

    - Milestones as ending criteria

    - Suitable ways of work within the phases

    During the study the need for an anchoring and commitment process, and the need to consider the customer’s features, emerged. This can contribute to consultancy firms getting enough involvement in the project from their customers, which is important in order to achieve desired quality and to finish the project within the given time frame.

  • 2.
    Ahlström, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strategier och styrsystem för seniorboendemarknaden2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demographic trend in Sweden features a population with a rising average age. According to forecasts, nearly one Swede out of four will be 65 or older by the year 2025. Many individuals in this category of older persons, or seniors, can look forward to an active, healthy and relatively long old age. Studies have shown that tomorrow’s seniors and retirees will be relatively well off as social groups. In addition, attitude and generation surveys have indicated that these groups have high demands and expectations for their old age, future housing and related services. Society will thus face a considerable challenge, which includes maintaining a basic commitment to continue guaranteeing the standard of quality in housing and services for the elderly that is presently taken for granted. Necessary societal priorities, however, may require individuals to take more initiative and assume greater financial responsibility than before in some of these areas. In the 2000’s a new market segment has been established and shown vigorous growth. That segment is the senior housing market, where various housing concepts are offered to the target group, seniors, or persons aged 55+. The number of senior housing units in Sweden has soared in the last few years, from about 10 000 in 2000 to some 28 000 in 2007. In this study, the concept of senior housing, with features of integrated service and care, has been of special interest. What characterizes this housing concept is that housing and related services have been adapted and specially designed for living as an aging individual.

    This dissertation (”the survey”) is reported in the form of a monograph consisting of two separate studies. The research question that has guided the first study is, “What creates a strong market position for a player on the senior-housing market with integrated service, health care and other forms of service and care?” The research question for the second study is, “What production strategies and control systems can be identified for some of the most successful concept-builders?” The two studies are related in that the latter is based on the results of the former. The studies were conducted over a period from 2002 to 2008. The research was done as an exploratory field study. The field-study approach has given priority to breadth and inclusion of many aspects. The instrument of measurement has consisted of set interview questions with open-ended alternative responses. The underlying interviews, together with secondary data, have been presented as a number of case studies. In the survey, a number of successful players have been selected on the basis of the criteria considered typical of successful actors on the senior housing market. Both Swedish and North American organizations have participated in the survey.

    The empirical material of the survey has been analyzed on the basis of the theoretical conceptual frameworks developed for the two respective studies. The first study has been analyzed with a framework based on the concepts of environment, strategy, resources, service and competitiveness. The results have been formulated in a number of strategic choices that are summarized in the concepts of differentiation, focus, integration, collaboration, control, business development, core competence and resources. In this connection, it has been possible to show that actors who operate a successful business follow largely what Porter (1980) has defined as a strategy of differentiation. Moreover, a business-strategy typology of actors on the senior housing market has also been constructed. Also, the tentative conclusions of the first study have been formulated in four strategic ideal types: administrators, concept-builders, entrepreneurs and idealists.

    The point of departure for the second study has been the ideal type referred to as the concept-builder. The conceptual framework has therefore been developed further, based in part on the theoretical framework of Nilsson and Rapp (2005). With certain additions, these foundations have been used to construct a detailed theoretical framework for the study. The conceptual framework has been designed to describe and analyze the causal relationships relating to strategic congruence and integrated control. In this regard, additions and adjustments have been made to include strategies and control systems for the construction of buildings and the production of services. The results of the second study include a case description and an analysis of successful concept-builders. One reason for their success is assumed to be their ability to achieve strategic congruence and integrated control. In light of the findings from the analysis of the data, the conceptual framework has been somewhat modified. This adjustment has consisted in classification along the dimensions of IT, organizational culture and fundamental values. In this connection it has been possible to demonstrate the importance of the physical planning of housing for the production of services. Emphasis has been placed on designing the physical facility and housing right from the beginning so as to facilitate the service-producing operation in a later stage of the life cycle.

    One finding of the survey is that with North American concept-builders there is a high degree of consistency between strategies and control systems. The factors underlying this consistency can be summarized as market knowledge, industry experience, understanding the economies of scale attainable through clustering, organization on a small scale, a clear concept of business, a sense of value creation, a focus on objectives, farreaching delegation of authority and responsibility to the operating level, skilled management, value-oriented operations and a well-developed organizational culture. Through the survey, a number of customer-controlled operations have been illustrated in the case studies. It is apparent that compared to the past, there has been a shift in industry attitude in North America, creating a situation that differs from Swedish conditions in some respects. The North American concept-builders have defined their businesses as hotel operations for seniors. This has automatically shifted the focus toward one where residents have become customers and older people in general are regarded as assets.

  • 3.
    Ahlström, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Olve, Nils-Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Att mobilisera och vårda samverkan i forskning2008In: Gemensamt kunskapande - den interaktiva forskningens praktik, Växjö: Växjö University Press , 2008, 1, p. 115-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I en tid då universitetens kunskapsmonopol är på väg att brytas får en nära samverkan mellan forskare, finansiär och studieobjekt en allt större betydelse (Nowotny et al., 2002, "Re-thinking Science"). Denna typ av samverkan är en central utgångspunkt i interaktiv forskning där ett vanligt syfte är att bedriva praktiknära studier med stor utomvetenskaplig relevans. I denna uppsats diskuteras hur samverkan mobiliseras och vårdas. Frågor som behandlas är hur forskarnas och praktikernas intressen ska förenas samt vad forskarna kan göra för att skapa rimliga förväntningar hos praktikerna och sprida sina resultat. Diskussionen baseras på egna erfarenheter där ett antal minifall får illustrera vad vi uppfattar vara typiska utmaningar i den här typen av samarbeten.   

  • 4.
    Ahlström, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Olve, Nils-Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Mobilising and nurturing collaboration in research - the value of a focused imagination2007In: International Journal of Action Research, ISSN 1861-1303, E-ISSN 1861-9916, Vol. 3, no No 3, p. 297-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       Establishing and nurturing contacts are important and time-consuming elements of interactive research. It is usually the researcher who has to establish and nurture collaboration with practitioners, a task that is not normally part of traditional research. A mutual interest in the subject of the research is a prerequisite for collaboration, but there are quite often other factors that explain why collaboration begins and endures. On the basis of the experience gained in a number of interactive research projects, we address the conditions required for an effective and lasting interplay between collaborating partners. Theoretical inspiration has been provided by studies of so-called imaginary organisations.        

  • 5.
    Alder, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Peterson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Enhanced knowledge utilization for increased project efficiency: A study of knowledge management in a project environment at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the prevailing uncertain and ever-changing business environment knowledge has become the single certain source for sustainable competitive advantage. Learning from past mistakes and avoiding reinventing the wheel are crucial tasks and no organization can today afford not to look for ways to make the best use of its knowledge. With Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB (SIT) being an actor in a complex and high-technology industry managing and leveraging the organization’s knowledge becomes essential. It came to the authors’ attention that the project manager department (GL) within the gas division of SIT experienced a need for improved processes for managing and utilizing the organization’s knowledge-base.

    On the first of January 2010 Siemens carried out a major reorganization, which affected SIT and the GL department by merging two previously separate departments of project managers into one unit. With efforts underway to harmonize the two department’s former working methods the situation implies timeliness for conducting a study on how to improve the company’s knowledge management initiative. This master thesis hence evolved to focus on examining and point out the improvement opportunities that exist with regards to knowledge sharing between projects, and between projects and the organization, and how tools and processes should be designed to collect, preserve, disseminate and reuse experiences, knowledge and lessons learned within a project-based organization in the best possible way.

    The research approach of the study was of a qualitative character including interviews with the 16 project managers of GL and other key employees both at SIT and at Siemens Oil & Gas division’s new CS and IP business units. Combined with meeting participation and observations of the project managers in their daily operations an increased understanding of the current situation at SIT and GL emerged; an understanding needed to identify the reasons and factors affecting the low degree of retention and utilization of the organization’s knowledge-base; an understanding leading up to the development of a model highlighting the important aspects for successful knowledge management initiatives, and how these aspects correlate.

    In order to improve the knowledge utilization a continuous lessons learned gathering throughout the project life-cycle needs to be implemented. This is primarily achieved through collecting lessons learned at the regular project meetings together with special lessons learned workshops. The collection and reutilization of knowledge hence needs to be integrated with the project management process. Improving the different forums available for knowledge sharing is also needed to enable an increased level of transformation of human capital into structural capital; augmenting the organization’s knowledge-base. Providing forums for knowledge sharing together with a visualized management support through actions, feedback and the introduction of a culture aimed at organizational learning further enhance the retention and utilization of the organization’s knowledge-base.

    Although the approach of this study is based on a case study of the SIT organization the conclusions are regarded to be of value for other project-based organizations and thus rending the conclusions to be generalized and used within other lines of business. The generic conclusion of this study is that in order to implement a successful knowledge management initiative all factors of the model need to be considered and attended too.

  • 6.
    Anjou, Annette
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Icke-monetära prestationsmått i incitamentsprogram2006In: Icke-monetär styrning, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2006, p. 33-38Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

       

  • 7.
    Anjou, Annette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson Jannesson, Erik B
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Rapp, Birger
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems.
    Strategi styrning och konkurrenskraft: ett pågående forskningsprogram2007In: Nordisk workshop XII i ekonomi- och verksamhetsstyrning vid Uppsala universitet,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att ge en översikt över programmet med fokus på bakgrund, forskningsfrågor och metod. Uppsatsen avslutas med några korta reflektioner över det pågående programmet (omfattning 9 sidor).

  • 8.
    Appelgren, Leif
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    The Effect of Audit Strategy Information on Tax Compliance - An Empirical Study2008In: eJournal of tax research, ISSN 1448-2398, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 67-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 9.
    Appelgren, Leif H
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    A note on the Erard & Feinstein tax audit model Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a new method for the determination of near-optimal audit strategies with the Erard & Feinstein model. It is demonstrated that the solution method presented by Erard & Feinstein does not lead to optimal audit strategies. The new method simulates taxpayer behaviour for a class of audit functions among which the best function is selected. Using a simple class of functions, the resulting strategies are superior to those obtained with the Erard & Feinstein method.

    The simulation method can easily handle variations of the model, for instance with involuntary taxpayer errors as well as with partially discrete true income distributions.

  • 10.
    Appelgren, Leif H.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Audit strategy for temporary parental benefit2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to study the possibility to apply audit strategies developed for taxation on fraud and involuntary errors in the social benefit sector. The efficiency of different audit strategies is compared using a computer-based optimization algorithm.

    Two types of audit strategies are used in this study. One is to adapt the audit intensity to the propensity for errors and fraud in different segments of the group studied. The other type of audit strategy is based on adaptation of behaviour through information concerning the audit intensity. A model for determination of optimal tax audit strategies of the latter type was developed by Erard & Feinstein in 1994.

    This study is based on data from a large study of temporary parental benefit performed by the Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering, IFAU) in 2006.

    The study has shown that it is possible to apply the Erard & Feinstein model on benefit fraud. However, the solution method developed by Erard & Feinstein has proven to be non-optimal. A new solution method based on simulation has been developed and used in the study.

  • 11.
    Appelgren, Leif H.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kontrollstrategi för tillfällig föräldrapenning2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Arwinge, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Internal Control: A Study of the Concept and Themes of Internal Control2010Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the accounting and auditing approach to control where the concept of internal control has developed along with the theory and practice of accounting and auditing and its stated objectives. In this context, internal control has traditionally been regarded as a means of ensuring financial reporting quality as well as a way of preventing and detecting fraudulent activity.

    We have surveyed scientific research on the subject of internal control and reviewed regulatory texts as well as practical frameworks and standards. Based on this literature study, we have investigated some of the findings from previous research. Components and particular features of internal control were described and discussed. We have also identified and summarized themes and issues that frequently occur in writings on the subject.

    During recent years, demands have been made for greater accountability and transparency in corporate governance. The independent audit activity has become the primary tool for securing accountability. Some regard this as the emergence of an audit society. An important joint development has been the rise of internal control systems. Internal control, once a private matter for technical assurance specialists, has risen to be an autonomous field of expertise and a mode of organizing uncertainty. Traditionally internal control has had a fairly direct relationship to the accounting records. The wider approaches to internal control have expanded its boundaries significantly, far beyond the financial reports and the duties of the accountant. Internal control has become an all-encompassing process.

    Enterprise risk management practices are growing and evolving. An associated development has been that internal control has become more closely tied to these risk management practices, and therefore also to the formulation and execution of strategies. New risk-related regulations and practical frameworks have contributed to the transformation of internal control into a co-extensive with risk management. Internal control is now considered to be a form of risk treatment through which risk may be managed in different ways.

    Internal control is today a primary regulatory and formal olicy object. Lawmakers and supervisory authorities are increasingly concerned with the design and operating effectiveness of internal controls. Disclosure requirements imposed on firms are forcing them to provide public disclosures about their internal control systems, which were previously private to firms.

    Both scientific research and practical writings suggest that internal control designs are contingent upon certain variables. These variables include company objectives and strategies, regulatory characteristics, risk and risk appetite, firm size and managements’ attitudes to risk and control. Building internal control capabilities is important if firms are to be able to design balanced, integrated, dynamic and cost-effective internal controls.

    Internal control is considered to be a key corporate governance mechanism. Some researchers however, have pointed out that there is still much to learn about internal control quality and how internal control is associated with corporate governance quality. The fact that internal control is an inherently complex concept poses a significant research barrier, and while all research methods are valid, it is unlikely that archival studies or experiments are able to measure internal control quality. Instead, we recommend case studies of how firms design, apply and oversee their systems of internal control.

    This study was made possible through the research collaboration between my former employer, Skandia, and Linköping University through the Research Programme for Auditors and Consultants. During the final stage, generous funding was provided by the Jan Wallanders and Tom Hedelius foundation as well as the Tore Browaldhs foundation.

  • 13.
    Brytting, Tomas
    et al.
    The Institute of Organisation and Worklife Ethics, Ersta Sköndal University College,Stockholm.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westelius, Ann-Sofie
    Moral Space hb.
    Meaning, Authority, Rationality and Care as “MARCs” of sustainable organisations2008In: Managing in the Pacific Century, 2008, p. 1-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present MARC, a model for assessing – and improving – the health of organisationsfrom a humanistic point of view. It is a part of the quest for sustainability, currently a main theme inorganisations. The components of MARC: Meaning, Authority, Rationality, and Care, are four aspectsthat are all needed, and need to be in balance in an organisation, to provide a work situation wherepeople can sustainably thrive rather than be damaged and consumed for the sake of the organisation.Implications of the model are discussed. A conclusion is that trust is central to this healthy balance.This presents a real challenge for sustainability, as trust takes time to build – but can quickly beerased.

  • 14.
    Cesarini, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gunnarsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Barriers to ERP system use: Overcoming a troublesome post-implementation phase2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a way to broaden its offering Saab Support and Services started to implement a new ERP system in 2009. The main reasons were to be able to handle larger integrated solutions from its customers and achieve synergies between its many programmes; these benefits have only partially been achieved. ERP systems are a subject that has generated a lot of literature which describes how an implementation should be done and what benefits can be had, such as lowered costs, higher auto-mation and better communication. This thesis has attempted to answer what barriers have been present at Saab in the post-implementation phase and what can be done in order to move past these and achieve unrealised benefits. Since there are gaps in the literature regarding the post im-plementation phase an exploratory approach was used in this study with a case being studied at the Support and Services division at Saab. A literature study was performed in parallel with the collec-tion of empirical data in order to let the collected data steer the direction of the research.The three barriers to beneficial use that were identified were lack of vision for continuous improve-ments, lack of formal processes and lack of ease of use. Lack of vision for continuous improvement is a barrier since without it improvement measures will not be aligned and issues will persist. By com-municating common goals and using benchmarks to follow up on those goals improvement can be made and employees can see the importance of the system. The second barrier is lack of formal pro-cesses which has caused bad transparency, creating issues with invoices and resulting in limited knowledge sharing between programmes. By standardising routines they are easier to benchmark it also becomes clearer what issues exist and how they relate to each other. With formalised processes it is easier to assign roles and it becomes easier to understand why data is entered since it is more apparent how it used later on in the process. The last identified barrier is the lack of ease of use of the ERP system. Since the software is difficult to use, training is generally needed in order to be able to use it correctly, but since limited training has been carried out employees still lack a greater un-derstanding of how to adapt it into their workflow effectively. This barrier can be overcome either by further education and training users or by simplifying the interface and improving the usability. By having a well communicated vision, employees can work towards common goals, by standardising processes and simplifying the usability of the ERP system it is easier for new employees to learn, which means that employees can be shared easier within Saab.

  • 15.
    Cöster, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Digital Transformation of the Swedish Graphic Industry2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how IT and the digitization of information have transformed the Swedish graphic industry. The debate concerning the productivity paradox, i.e. if investments in IT contribute to productivity growth, is one important starting point for the thesis. Previous research on this phenomenon has mainly used different types of statistical databases as empirical sources. In this thesis though, the graphic industry is instead studied from a mainly qualitative and historical process perspective. The empirical study is focused on describing the development of internal critical production processes in the graphic industry and its external markets. The aim is to show how innovations based upon IT have influenced the transformation of the Swedish graphic industry and if this has led to changes in productivity. Furthermore, to identify other significant effects and changes in the graphic industry’s markets that also has occurred as a result of the introduction of IT innovations.

    The process study shows that digitization of information flows in the graphic industry began in the 1970s, but the start of the development and use of digitized information happened in the early 1980s. Today almost all types of materials in the industry, for example text and pictures, have developed into a digital form and the information flows are hereby more or less totally digitized. The consequences from use of IT in production processes are identified here as different outcomes and effects. One conclusion drawn from the analysis is that investments and use of IT have positively influenced changes in productivity. The conclusion is based on the appearance of different automational effects, which in turn have had a positive influence on factors that may be a part of a productivity index. In addition to productivity, other mainly informational effects are also identified. These effects include increased capacity to handle and produce information, increased integration of customers in the production processes, increased physical quality in produced products, and options for management improvements in the production processes. The appearance of such effects indicates that it is not always the most obvious ones, such as productivity, that is of greatest significance when IT is implemented in the processes of an industry.

    Also the part of the study using an external perspective shows that IT innovations have had great influence on the graphic industry’s markets. The transformation of markets is analyzed through the use of the Innovation influence model, which is grounded in the Technological systems and Development blocks concepts. It shows that suppliers to graphic companies have played an important role in the IT innovation development process and they have thereby contributed to the ongoing transformation of the industry. Furthermore, IT innovations have been an important tool for graphic companies to handle different structural tensions they have experienced. The innovations introduced have thereby contributed to the development of new products, distribution channels, and markets. At the same time different products have disappeared and old markets contracted. These progresses have also been a result f the digitization of society. Altogether, this development has resulted in a transformation pressure that has come to greatly influence the industry. Because of this there today exist fewer but larger graphic and suppliers companies.

    Altogether the study shows that if a productivity paradox existed in the graphic industry, it is today to be considered as resolved. The pace in which the transformation of the industry, caused by IT innovations, has occurred has been extraordinary compared to previous developments. IT has become an unconditional part of the industry and society. Therefore it is of great importance to include several perspectives, e.g., internal process perspectives as well as external market perspectives, when discussing the value that might be derived from IT investments.

  • 16.
    Cöster, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    Petri, Carl-Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of insight and manoeuvre inertia on information technology investments and strategic change2014In: International Journal of Management and Decision Making, ISSN 1462-4621, E-ISSN 1741-5187, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 250-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IT is transforming the global economy. The technology may inspire as well as hinder the development of business strategies. The concept of organisational inertia highlights factors that prevent organisations from making changes necessary to realise such strategies. In this article, writings on the inertia concept are summarised and used as a framework to analyse how organisational inertia influences decisions on IT investments and strategic change. The empirical data consists of minutes from board meetings regarding investments in information technology (IT) in a Swedish newspaper and printing company during the years 1971-1989. The analysis shows that it was various aspects of manoeuvre inertia that postponed the necessary changes to take place and furthermore that the frame of reference used still is valid in order to analyse and understand organisational inertia. To a manager in a business world that is in a state of constant change (often spurred by various IT innovations), the inertia concept can contribute to deepening the analysis of factors that may influence the change necessary to realise the full potential of an IT investment.

  • 17.
    Deli, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Information sharing practices and the tools to support it: An interview study at ABB2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how information sharing in distributed development projects can be improved through the use of information sharing tools. Work published on this subject has been investigated and ABB employees whose work highly depends on information sharing have been interviewed.

  • 18.
    El Sawy, Omar
    et al.
    USC Marshall School of Business.
    Gosain, Sanjay
    USC Marshall School of Business.
    Malhotra, Arvind
    USC Marshall School of Business.
    Petri, Carl-Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Integrating Supply Chains and Electronic Commerce in a Unified Europe2000Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Fagerberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Occupational fraud: auditors' perceptions of red flags and internal control2008Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to increase the understanding of auditors' perceptions of occupational fraud. The focus is limited to red flags and internal control, i.e. to the indications or symptoms of occupational fraud and the internal control systems which are implemented in order to detect and prevent such actions from being carried out.

    The thesis is based on 33 interviews with auditors and experts. In order to increase confidence, triangulation was applied which implied both a qualitative as well as a quantitative methodological approach. The collected data was in turn analysed through two models of analysis - an adjusted version of the so called fraud triangle and the so called COSO-model. The analysis was carried out on the group of auditors as a whole (including subgroups of auditors) as well as compared to a group of experts on fraud and occupational fraud.

    The results from the study indicate several aspects of interest regarding auditors' perceptions of occupational fraud. First, the results indicate a tendency among auditors to emphasise "harder" aspects stronger than "softer" aspects. Seen from the fraud triangle, this was manifested by an emphasis on opportunity; when concerning internal control of control activities in the COSO model, this was emphasised relatively stronger. Second, the results indicate a rather strong heterogeneity among auditors in their perceptions of occupational fraud. Third, all subparts of the applied models were seldom covered on an individual basis. Fourth, the interconnection between harder and softer sides, both concerning red flags and internal control, were not very strongly emphasised. The results were given additional strength from the comparison with the group of experts.

    The study also included a comparison among different subgroups of auditors. The subgroups were constructed based on accumulated working experience as well as whether the respondents primarily audit larger or smaller companies. The results that were based on years of experience indicate a tendency among older auditors with more accumulated working experience to emphasise softer aspects relatively stronger, than auditors with less working experience. This tendency was present for red flags as well as for internal control. More experienced auditors also demonstrated a tendency to emphasise a relatively larger part of the two applied models of analysis. The division based on size of audited companies indicated similar tendencies as were found for both more and less experienced auditors. Hence, auditors who mainly audit larger companies showed a tendency to emphasise softer aspects relatively stronger compared to auditors who mainly audit smaller companies.

  • 20.
    Fagerberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Occupational Fraud: Auditors’ Perceptions of Red Flags and Internal Control2008Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to increase the understanding of auditors’perceptions of occupational fraud. The focus is limited to red flags andinternal control, i.e. to the indications or symptoms of occupational fraud andthe internal control systems which are implemented in order to detect andprevent such actions from being carried out.

    The thesis is based on 33 interviews with auditors and experts. In order toincrease confidence, triangulation was applied which implied both aqualitative as well as a quantitative methodological approach. The collecteddata was in turn analysed through two models of analysis – an adjustedversion of the so called fraud triangle and the so called COSO-model. Theanalysis was carried out on the group of auditors as a whole (including subgroupsof auditors) as well as compared to a group of experts on fraud andoccupational fraud.

    The results from the study indicate several aspects of interest regardingauditors’ perceptions of occupational fraud. First, the results indicate a tendencyamong auditors to emphasise “harder” aspects stronger than “softer”aspects. Seen from the fraud triangle, this was manifested by an emphasis onopportunity; when concerning internal control of control activities in theCOSO model, this was emphasised relatively stronger. Second, the resultsindicate a rather strong heterogeneity among auditors in their perceptions ofoccupational fraud. Third, all subparts of the applied models were seldomcovered on an individual basis. Fourth, the interconnection between harderand softer sides, both concerning red flags and internal control, were not verystrongly emphasised. The results were given additional strength from thecomparison with the group of experts.

    The study also included a comparison among different subgroups of auditors.The subgroups were constructed based on accumulated working experience aswell as whether the respondents primarily audit larger or smaller companies.The results that were based on years of experience indicate a tendency amongolder auditors with more accumulated working experience to emphasise softeraspects relatively stronger, than auditors with less working experience. Thistendency was present for red flags as well as for internal control. More experienced auditors also demonstrated a tendency to emphasise a relativelylarger part of the two applied models of analysis. The division based on sizeof audited companies indicated similar tendencies as were found for bothmore and less experienced auditors. Hence, auditors who mainly audit largercompanies showed a tendency to emphasise softer aspects relatively strongercompared to auditors who mainly audit smaller companies.

  • 21.
    Granath, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Nilsson Jannesson, Erik B
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Coordination mechanisms in complex principal-agent relations: The case of the local authority energy and climate consultancy2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this article is to describe in detail what coordination mechanisms have been used, as well as how they have been used, to achieve an alignment regarding the know-what and know-how of the local authority energy and climate advisors.

    Design/methodology/approach - The results presented in this article are mainly based on observations and interviews, and secondary data in form of previously made evaluations and studies, job descriptions, statues and judiciary documents.

    Findings - This study illustrates an example of how different coordination mechanisms have been used in complex principal-agent relations to achieve alignment of know-how and know-what in a nascent occupation. These mechanisms have been of both structure and process character, and most importantly they are intertwined. However, the main contribution of this article lies in the illustration of the importance of using coordination mechanisms to create an incentive structure that overarches potential conflicts of interests between the competing principals. Such incentive structure also contributes to a common perception of on main principal, which is vital in order to create alignment of know-how and know-what.

  • 22.
    Granath, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beyond a common title: The formation of a professional identity among energy advisers2012In: Journal of Human Resource Costing and Accounting, ISSN 1401-338X, E-ISSN 1758-745X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 210-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore if and how a professional identity can be formed in the wake of the foundation of a new public service. In the article, we focus on how different forces, regulative and emergent, interact and contribute to a development of a coherent understanding of a professional identity in a decentralised service. The case of local authority energy and climate consultancy is an illustrative example of a nascent service occupation in Sweden where the individuals holding the job title are geographically dispersed.  

     

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper has a qualitative approach and relies on three different data sources: participatory observations, written documents, and in-depth interviews with energy and climate advisers working in a particular region in Sweden. The study covers the years 2005 to 2010.

     

    Findings: Our findings suggest that identity formation among geographically dispersed individuals in a nascent service occupation is possible. The development of collective understanding of the professional identity is influenced both by regulative and emergent forces, which interact.

     

    Research limitations/implications: This paper is limited to one particular service occupation in Sweden from which generalisations are limited.

     

    Practical implications: The findings may serve as useful input for management in order to understand facilitation of identity building among professionals in decentralised functions.

     

    Originality/value: The value of this study lies in the comprehensive approach to how different pertinent forces interact with each other in order for a cohesive understanding of a work-related identity to develop in newly established service occupations.

  • 23.
    Granath, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Input or result-oriented management control in public organisations - The case of local authority energy and climate consultancy2008In: Nordisk workshop i ekonomi- och verksamhetsstyrning,2008, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 24.
    Granath, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Professional networks and the use of ICT: the emergence and fostering of a public service network2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    große Osterhues, Dirk
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    The Strategic Value of ICT for Swedish Business Leadership2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology already has a long history of influence in basically all areas of an enterprise. In recent years though, a major discussion emerged whether information and communication technologies (ICT) offer an additional strategic value for a business.

    The different positions maintain reasonable arguments on both sides. One position is that ICT basically has become a commodity, obtainable by everyone. There would be no strategical nor competitive gain, so extra efforts in ICT would be in vain. Another position is that, although, nowadays ICT is easy to acquire, the organisational skills necessary to manage the change and to profit from a good system are a scarce resource and difficult to reproduce.

    As much as this discussion has been the subject of many academic articles, as little has the research on the views of practitioners emerged. What is their opinion on the strategic relevance of information and communication technology? Do they consider it as merely a necessary commodity, only used to stay competitive, or do they think that there is a competitive advantage to gain in a sophisticated and possibly leading-edge system? Also, a third view is conceivable, in which practitioners regard ICT as just a tool, which serves best by reconsidering the intensity of its use in every new venture.

    In order to get answers to these questions, semi-structured telephone interviews with leading ICT officers were conducted. The outcome gives a broad overview on what practitioners consider as strategically important in ICT systems and what the current view of the academic guild on this question looks like. An analysis on where, how and why the academic- and the business-views overlap or differ from each other, together with an interpretation of the interview results, concludes the work.

  • 26.
    Gullberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Puzzle or Mosaic?: On Managerial Information Patterns2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Managers and information are key components in most management control literature, and a range of tools and concepts have been developed to better accommodate the information needs of managers so as to ensure efficient action and intelligent decisions. At the same time, the managerial work is often described as highly fragmented, unstructured and interpersonal, with little time for planning and isolated reflection. It is therefore relevant to explore how and to what extent new technologies come into play in managerial information patterns. Furthermore, new management concepts and tools could potentially give rise to new control practices, resulting from e.g. novel relations between managers and other actors, new influential roles, and alternative forms of information flows.

    These issues are addressed in three papers. The first paper examines the portfolio of information that managers use in their daily work, thereby putting formal information systems into the context of less formal sources. The study is based on interviews with a variety of managers in different organisations. The second paper discusses the interplay between formally designed information-based practices, and the individual perceptions and habits that emerge in relation to the formalised. People at different levels in two public-sector organisations form the basis of the second paper. The third paper explores how various control practices operate together in a government agency, thereby providing new perspectives on how management control is exercised in a knowledge-intensive organisation.

    It is suggested that managerial information patterns evolve slowly compared to the technological development. Obtaining an overview of one’s area of responsibility is mainly achieved through dialogue and interaction with others. However, new technologies have influenced the more routine exchange of information, thereby causing increased dispersion among users and creating new roles. Subordinates constitute a vital influence on the managerial role and on how managers reason concerning their use of information. This people-oriented type of management results in the use of a multitude of pieces of information that is sometimes very subtle and retrieved in spontaneous interaction. The multidimensional and emerging nature of information provides insight into both the strengths and the limitations of formalising managerial information patterns. Furthermore, various information patterns are interrelated, e.g., they complement each other, substitute each other, or serve different purposes at different times. In total, managerial information patterns resemble a mosaic rather than a puzzle that can be solved by specific pieces. Management information should therefore be viewed from a broader perspective in order to better understand managers’ information needs, how control practices emerge and how information systems come into play.

    List of papers
    1. Backbone or helping hand?: On the role of information systems and non-systematic information in managers’ work
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Backbone or helping hand?: On the role of information systems and non-systematic information in managers’ work
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems are often described as horizontal integrators, supporting and integrating core processes and providing vast amounts of real-time data in organisations. However, previous research indicates that managers use an “information mosaic” - a variety of pieces of information and information sources, rather than one centrally planned and unified information system - to control their work. In this paper, we explore recurring work activities among a number of managers with different responsibilities, and the use of information associated with these activities. The purpose is to put the formal computerised information system into the context of the information mosaic, thereby providing insight into how formal information systems support and do not support these managers’ work. Personnel responsibility is a uniting factor in the way these managers handle information and is an area where information systems seem to mainly support minor activities. Furthermore, the use of formal and informal information sources appears to be intertwined. The main contribution of this paper lies in charting managerial information behaviour in the light of technological development.

    Keywords
    Information use; information sources; managerial work; management information
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67618 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-04-20 Created: 2011-04-20 Last updated: 2011-04-20Bibliographically approved
    2. Systems, roles and relationships in the governance ecology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systems, roles and relationships in the governance ecology
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into how individuals perceive a management information and control milieu and how these perceptions influence the control practices.

    Design/methodology/approach – By applying the concept of role, we highlight alternative aspects of management information and control practices found in two public sector organisations; aspects that are often obscured in the traditional literature.

    Findings – Contrary to the formalised, depersonalised and top-down inspired practices often found in the management control literature, our findings indicate that bottom-up forces play an important role in the management landscape, that some key individuals serve to reinforce information flows and articulate expectations, and that signals can be faint yet still govern behaviour.

    Research limitations/implications – The paper is intended to inspire further research into how structural and individual aspects of management control operate together. The empirical content, representing two organisations only, limits the strength of the conclusions.

    Originality/value - Our findings add to the conventional understanding of management control, and the term governance ecology appears illustrative of the interplay among managers, information systems and other actors.

    Keywords
    Management control; management information; information behaviour; governance; role theory
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67619 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-04-20 Created: 2011-04-20 Last updated: 2011-04-20Bibliographically approved
    3. Controlling the Unmanageable?: On Management Control in a Knowledge-intensive Organisation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controlling the Unmanageable?: On Management Control in a Knowledge-intensive Organisation
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores and conceptualises the management of knowledge-intensive organisations by focusing on the interplay between classical top-down (cybernetic) management control forces, and the (bottom-up) control created by codes of conduct that guide knowledge workers in carrying out their work.

    The emerging Management Control as a Package framework, a hitherto relatively unexplored concept, is applied to a case study of a Swedish government agency. With this perspective, the interplay between several horizontal and vertical management control dimensions is in focus, something that has been researched by interviewing knowledge workers in various organisational positions.

    The findings indicate that, contrary to a wide-spread assumption of knowledge workers being difficult to manage, various aspects of control may intermix in a manner that makes a certain degree of top-down control feasible. The idea of management control as a package articulates opportunities to create a mutual reinforcement between top-down imposed cybernetic controls and bottom-up cultural controls where the knowledge workers are allowed to act in accordance with their personal interests while still conforming to the overriding goals of the organisation. Few explicit attempts to normative control were found. The results underline the role of clans and origination structure in sustaining certain values in the organisation.

    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel undersöks styrmekanismer i kunskapsintensiva organisationer. Samspelet mellan traditionell top-down-styrning, och den bottom-up-styrning som sker genom uppförandekoder som vägleder kunskapsarbetare, är i fokus.

    Malmi och Browns modell Management Control as a Package har applicerats på en fallstudie av en svensk myndighet med en hög andel medarbetare med hög utbildning. Med denna modell som utgångspunkt analyseras samspelet mellan horisontella och vertikala styrningsdimensioner. Intervjuer med medarbetare i olika positioner utgör här ett viktigt empiriskt underlag.

    Resultaten indikerar att olika styrningsaspekter samverkar på ett sätt som gör top-downstyrning ändamålsenlig. Tidigare forskning har betonat svårigheterna med att tillämpa topdown-styrning i organisationer med en hög grad av kunskapsarbetare. Package-modellen understryker möjligheten att skapa en styrning där top-down- och bottom-up-mekanismer samverkar och möjliggör för enskilda medarbetare att agera utifrån egen övertygelse och samtidigt bidra till att organisationen når sina övergripande mål. Vi fann få försök till normativ styrning. Studiens resultat understryker den roll som klaner och organisationsstruktur har i att upprätthålla viktiga värden i en organisation.

    Keywords
    Management control as a package; Control practices; Knowledge-intensive; Knowledge worker; Government agency
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67620 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-04-20 Created: 2011-04-20 Last updated: 2011-05-13Bibliographically approved
  • 27.
    Gullberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Parment, Anders
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen,Stockholms universitet.
    Controlling the Unmanageable?: On Management Control in a Knowledge-intensive OrganisationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores and conceptualises the management of knowledge-intensive organisations by focusing on the interplay between classical top-down (cybernetic) management control forces, and the (bottom-up) control created by codes of conduct that guide knowledge workers in carrying out their work.

    The emerging Management Control as a Package framework, a hitherto relatively unexplored concept, is applied to a case study of a Swedish government agency. With this perspective, the interplay between several horizontal and vertical management control dimensions is in focus, something that has been researched by interviewing knowledge workers in various organisational positions.

    The findings indicate that, contrary to a wide-spread assumption of knowledge workers being difficult to manage, various aspects of control may intermix in a manner that makes a certain degree of top-down control feasible. The idea of management control as a package articulates opportunities to create a mutual reinforcement between top-down imposed cybernetic controls and bottom-up cultural controls where the knowledge workers are allowed to act in accordance with their personal interests while still conforming to the overriding goals of the organisation. Few explicit attempts to normative control were found. The results underline the role of clans and origination structure in sustaining certain values in the organisation.

  • 28.
    Gullberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Backbone or helping hand?: On the role of information systems and non-systematic information in managers’ workManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems are often described as horizontal integrators, supporting and integrating core processes and providing vast amounts of real-time data in organisations. However, previous research indicates that managers use an “information mosaic” - a variety of pieces of information and information sources, rather than one centrally planned and unified information system - to control their work. In this paper, we explore recurring work activities among a number of managers with different responsibilities, and the use of information associated with these activities. The purpose is to put the formal computerised information system into the context of the information mosaic, thereby providing insight into how formal information systems support and do not support these managers’ work. Personnel responsibility is a uniting factor in the way these managers handle information and is an area where information systems seem to mainly support minor activities. Furthermore, the use of formal and informal information sources appears to be intertwined. The main contribution of this paper lies in charting managerial information behaviour in the light of technological development.

  • 29.
    Gullberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Backbone or helping hand? On the role of information systems and non-systematic information in managers' work2011In: Informing Science: The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline, ISSN 1547-9684, E-ISSN 1521-4672, Vol. 14, p. 140-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems are often described as horizontal integrators, supporting and integrating core processes and providing vast amounts of real-time data in organisations. However, previous research indicates that managers use an “information mosaic” - a variety of pieces of information and information sources, rather than one centrally planned and unified information system - to control their work. In this paper, we explore recurring work activities among a number of managers with different responsibilities, and the use of information associated with these activities. The purpose is to put the formal computerised information system into the context of the information mosaic, thereby providing insight into how formal information systems support and do not support these managers’ work. Personnel responsibility is a uniting factor in the way these managers handle information and is an area where information systems seem to mainly support minor activities. Furthermore, the use of formal and informal information sources appears to be intertwined. The main contribution of this paper lies in charting managerial information behaviour in the light of technological development.

  • 30.
    Gullberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Systems, Roles and Relationships in the Governance Ecology2011In: The Future of Work and Organisations, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how individuals perceive a management information and control milieu and how these perceptions influence the control practices. The paper is based on a case study of a public sector organisation. By applying the concept of role, we intend to contribute to the management control literature. Contrary to the formalised, top-down-inspired practices often found in the management control literature, we find that bottom-up forces play an important role in the management landscape and that signals can be faint yet still govern behaviour. We introduce the term “governance ecology” to illustrate the interplay among managers, other actors and structures, and to inspire further research into how structural and individual aspects of management control interact. 

  • 31.
    Gullberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Systems, roles and relationships in the governance ecologyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into how individuals perceive a management information and control milieu and how these perceptions influence the control practices.

    Design/methodology/approach – By applying the concept of role, we highlight alternative aspects of management information and control practices found in two public sector organisations; aspects that are often obscured in the traditional literature.

    Findings – Contrary to the formalised, depersonalised and top-down inspired practices often found in the management control literature, our findings indicate that bottom-up forces play an important role in the management landscape, that some key individuals serve to reinforce information flows and articulate expectations, and that signals can be faint yet still govern behaviour.

    Research limitations/implications – The paper is intended to inspire further research into how structural and individual aspects of management control operate together. The empirical content, representing two organisations only, limits the strength of the conclusions.

    Originality/value - Our findings add to the conventional understanding of management control, and the term governance ecology appears illustrative of the interplay among managers, information systems and other actors.

  • 32.
    Gullberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trust and the notion of rationality: perspectives on information-seeking behaviour in practice2009In: NFF 2009 The 20th Nordic Academy of Management conference: Business as usual, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Hedman, Jonas
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Köpenhamn.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inledning2009In: Temperaturen på affärssystem i Sverige, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 1:1, p. 17-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Affärssystem har stor betydelse för hur verksamheter leds och organiseras. De utgör ryggraden i många organisationers informationsbehandling och styrning. Boken riktar sig till praktiker, studenter och forskare genom att visa på affärssystemområdets bredd och lyfta fram relevanta - och vetenskapligt intressanta - situationer och frågeställningar. Den syftar till att ta temperaturen på affärssystem i Sverige! I boken diskuteras vad affärssystem är, hur utvecklingen av dem förhåller sig till utveckling av skräddarsydda system, varför vi behöver dem och hur de bidrar till att skapa värde. På vilket sätt kan ett affärssystem underlätta införandet av en mer strategisk ekonomistyrning och vilken roll har controllern i arbetet med att ta tillvara systemets möjligheter? Vad kan vi lära oss av de företag som lyckats och varför är det troligt att affärssystem blir politiska verktyg i dragkampen om hur organisationen ska styras? Inte minst i den offentliga sektorn ställs många av dessa frågor på sin spets.

  • 34.
    Hedman, Jonas
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Köpenhamn.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sammanfattning och slutsatser2009In: Temperaturen på affärssystem i Sverige, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 1:1, p. 269-276Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Affärssystem har stor betydelse för hur verksamheter leds och organiseras. De utgör ryggraden i många organisationers informationsbehandling och styrning. Boken riktar sig till praktiker, studenter och forskare genom att visa på affärssystemområdets bredd och lyfta fram relevanta - och vetenskapligt intressanta - situationer och frågeställningar. Den syftar till att ta temperaturen på affärssystem i Sverige! I boken diskuteras vad affärssystem är, hur utvecklingen av dem förhåller sig till utveckling av skräddarsydda system, varför vi behöver dem och hur de bidrar till att skapa värde. På vilket sätt kan ett affärssystem underlätta införandet av en mer strategisk ekonomistyrning och vilken roll har controllern i arbetet med att ta tillvara systemets möjligheter? Vad kan vi lära oss av de företag som lyckats och varför är det troligt att affärssystem blir politiska verktyg i dragkampen om hur organisationen ska styras? Inte minst i den offentliga sektorn ställs många av dessa frågor på sin spets.

  • 35.
    Hedman, Jonas
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Köpenhamn.
    Nilsson, FredrikLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.Westelius, AlfLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Temperaturen på affärssystem i Sverige2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Affärssystem har stor betydelse för hur verksamheter leds och organiseras. De utgör ryggraden i många organisationers informationsbehandling och styrning. Boken riktar sig till praktiker, studenter och forskare genom att visa på affärssystemområdets bredd och lyfta fram relevanta - och vetenskapligt intressanta - situationer och frågeställningar. Den syftar till att ta temperaturen på affärssystem i Sverige! I boken diskuteras vad affärssystem är, hur utvecklingen av dem förhåller sig till utveckling av skräddarsydda system, varför vi behöver dem och hur de bidrar till att skapa värde. På vilket sätt kan ett affärssystem underlätta införandet av en mer strategisk ekonomistyrning och vilken roll har controllern i arbetet med att ta tillvara systemets möjligheter? Vad kan vi lära oss av de företag som lyckats och varför är det troligt att affärssystem blir politiska verktyg i dragkampen om hur organisationen ska styras? Inte minst i den offentliga sektorn ställs många av dessa frågor på sin spets.

  • 36.
    Horzella, Åsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Balanserad styrning av IT: s effekter2006In: Icke-monetär styrning, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2006, p. 41-48Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Hökfelt, Carl
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Bör konjunkturen påverka företagsekonomiska styrning?2006In: Icke-monetär styrning, Linköping: Linköpings Universitet , 2006, p. 23-30Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Ivarsen, Ove
    et al.
    UsersAward, Stockholm.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    UsersAward, Stockholm.
    Olve, Nils-Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Walldius, Åke
    KTH, Stockholm.
    Sundblad, Yngve
    KTH, Stockholm.
    Sandblad, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet.
    Slutrapport UsersAward2: Utvecklad kvalitetssäkring av IT-användning2011Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Iveroth, Einar
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petri, Carl-Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olve, Nils-Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cöster, Mathias
    Gotland University, Visby.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University.
    How to differentiate by price: Proposal for a five-dimensional mode2013In: European Management Journal, ISSN 0263-2373, E-ISSN 1873-5681, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 109-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the repertoire of possible price models that organisations may deploy for their products and services. This is attained by developing the SBIFT model that suggests that organisations can differentiate by price along five dimensions. Previous research on pricing has been dispersed across different academic disciplines. This article offers a more integrated perspective, derived from earlier theory as well as discussions in a collaborative research project with the international telecom company Ericsson. The model can be used as a tool for price modelling in a descriptive and prescriptive sense. Altogether, this article uncovers implicit features of price models, and by doing so it illustrates how an organisation can differentiate and re-invent their offering based on price.

  • 40.
    Jannesson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att styra och sätta ord på vad man gör2012In: Att lära av mirakel: att vända arbetslöshet till hållbart företagande : en antologi om arbetsintegrerande socialt företagande / [ed] Andersson, R., Stockholm: Tillväxtverket , 2012, p. 284-Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antologin behandlar olika aspekter av arbetsintegrerande socialt företagande i Sverige.Arbetsintegrerande sociala företag är inte lösningen på allt. Men en del. Den här antologin hoppas vi kan hjälpa till att visa på hur. Att lära av mirakel behandlar tretton olika områden och aspekter av arbetsintegrerande socialt företagande. Boken tar upp sådant som finansiering, delaktighet, rekrytering, stödstrukturer, hållbarhet och social franchising. Förhoppningen är att den ska bidra till större förståelse för de arbetsintegrerande sociala företagens villkor. I de arbetsintegrerande sociala företagen såväl som i olika projekt växer det fram kunskaper om arbetssätt som kan bidra till effektivare framtida satsningar på arbetsintegrerande sociala företag såväl som bidra med viktiga lärdomar för annat företagande såväl som för arbetslivet i stort. Det gäller såväl arbetets organisering som konsten att driva och utveckla företag när inte maximal avkastning på kapital är främsta målet, utan i stället maximal avkastning i arbetstillfällen för använda resurser.Den här boken finns även i form av en bok som passar perfekt att läsa i läsplattan. Tänk på miljön innan du beställer en pappersupplaga.

  • 41.
    Jannesson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Skoog, MattiFöretagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Perspektiv på ekonomistyrning2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken är strukturerad i tre övergripande teman. I det första diskuteras och problematiseras det huvudsakliga området för ekonomistyrning: olika typer av ekonomiska ansvarsenheter. Dessutom behandlas två specialfall av detta, nämligen ekonomistyrning av projekt och ekonomistyrning i nätverk.Bokens andra tema inriktas på några grundläggande styrverktyg och styrprocesser som förekommer på ett eller annat sätt i många organisationer. Här behandlas kalkylering, budgetering, nyckeltal, balanced scorecard och affärssystem.Bokens tredje och avslutande tema fokuserar på några viktiga aktuella ekonomistyrningsfrågor; antingen sådana som funnits under lång tid men som kommit att bli extra uppmärksammade på senare tid, eller sådana som helt enkelt är relativt nya frågor inom ekonomistyrningsområdet. Här behandlas intern kontroll, CSR, belöningssystem, shared services och förtroendets betydelse i ekonomistyrningen.

  • 42.
    Joshi, Raoul
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hammarström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bridging the Broadband Divide through Universal Service Funds: Key Principles for Broadband Connectivity Projects in Underserved Areas2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid emergence of broadband, or always-on Internet, during the course of the last decade, has increased the importance of the so- called information society in urban and industrialized societies world- wide. Liberalized information and communications technology (ICT) market forces worldwide have however failed to supply these services to rural and low-income regions resulting in the so-called digital divide. One financial tool, adopted by many developing nations to drive broadband investments in underserved areas, is the universal service fund (USF), a public fund mainly levying its resources from ICT market players. USFs have previously been used to fund telecom networks but with the growing importance of broadband, structural and regulatory discrepancies are preventing USFs from adequately supporting broadband investments.

    Currently, little up-to-date academic theory exists within this field; thus, this thesis serves to outline principles that policy-makers and regulators need to consider when designing or reforming universal service fund mechanisms. The research is based on a series of qualitative country case studies investigating policy, procedural, and executional aspects related to USFs and rural broadband. Publicly available material has been complemented with interviews of stakeholders from various levels to establish a holistic empirical base upon which conclusions have been drawn.

    The conclusions outline principles governing public involvement in USFs, roles played by various stakeholders in the broadband ecosystem, and strategies for rural broadband network deployment.

  • 43.
    Jägeberg, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Lindeberg, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Bredband och Internet i Sverige: en kartläggning av faktisk tillgång och användning ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globally speaking, Sweden is a leading country in information technology. Both national and international statistics indicate growing broadband availability and increasingly frequent use of Internet services. Such figures, however, often originate from the provider's perspective and are based on theoretical performance. This thesis surveys actual broadband availability in Sweden, and evaluates implications for continued development of Internet utilisation from an economic perspective. Furthermore, future potential of currently available connection types are analysed.

    The empirical study includes the wired connection types xDSL, cable and fiber LAN, as well as a number of wireless techniques. Data has primarily been provided by The Internet Infrastructure Foundation (.SE), an independent organisation for the benefit of the public that promotes a positive Internet development in Sweden. The study is comprised of mainly quantitative data on broadband access, actual performance of different broadband services and Internet usage in Sweden. Interviews with representatives of Swedish Internet service providers have also been conducted. Based on a review of literature, we construct a theoretical framework that illustrates the link between broadband access and economic development, through Internet applications that are enabled by broadband technology.

    According to our analysis, broadband availability in Sweden appears to be more uneven than what other surveys indicate, when the geographical dispersion of connection types and their capacities are considered. High-speed connections, by our coeval definition of the term, are theoretically possible by all wired and by some mobile technologies, but to date such performance only appears realistic for cable and fiber LAN. Combined, these two connection types are available to half the population.

    The relationships between broadband penetration, Internet utilisation and economic development are far from unequivocal, but the thesis states that new market forces operate today, compared to only a few years ago. Whereas the development of Internet applications used to be driven by broadband expansion in itself, increasingly demanding applications reaching larger target audiences can be seen as the main drivers today. The current broadband infrastructure risks creating social gaps when it comes to the possibility of accessing different forms of digital content in various parts of the country. The challenge lies both in providing equal access throughout the country, and in managing the performance requirements of growing amounts of data traffic. Today, there are no long-term alternatives to fiber-based connections in terms of capacity and speed. This claim is based on an analysis down to basic physical principles. Availability and mobility of wireless techniques, however, suggest a substantial future need for those as well.

  • 44.
    Lindvall, Jan
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Från traditionell till strategisk ekonomistyrning: kan affärssystemet hantera utmaningen?2009In: Temperaturen på affärssystem i Sverige, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, 1:1, p. 95-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Affärssystem har stor betydelse för hur verksamheter leds och organiseras. De utgör ryggraden i många organisationers informationsbehandling och styrning. Boken riktar sig till praktiker, studenter och forskare genom att visa på affärssystemområdets bredd och lyfta fram relevanta - och vetenskapligt intressanta - situationer och frågeställningar. Den syftar till att ta temperaturen på affärssystem i Sverige! I boken diskuteras vad affärssystem är, hur utvecklingen av dem förhåller sig till utveckling av skräddarsydda system, varför vi behöver dem och hur de bidrar till att skapa värde. På vilket sätt kan ett affärssystem underlätta införandet av en mer strategisk ekonomistyrning och vilken roll har controllern i arbetet med att ta tillvara systemets möjligheter? Vad kan vi lära oss av de företag som lyckats och varför är det troligt att affärssystem blir politiska verktyg i dragkampen om hur organisationen ska styras? Inte minst i den offentliga sektorn ställs många av dessa frågor på sin spets

  • 45.
    Lindvall, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Role of IT Systems in the Strategy Process: A Case Study2009In: Accounting & Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand 2009, Adelaide samt i Accounting and Management Information Systems International Conference 2009, Bucharest., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One primary purpose of the strategy process is to establish consensus among managers and employees on a clear direction for the firm’s business (Ocasio and Joseph, 2008). It is therefore a central aim of the strategy process to channel attention and distribute it to areas of special importance for the firm’s competitive strength (cf. Ocasio, 1997). Today researchers are largely agreed that management control can and should be an important element of the structure for this discussion on strategy. The development of new IT systems (ITS) in the last decade, primarily in the form of various enterprise resource planning systems (ERP systems), has helped to open up new possibilities for strategically oriented management control (cf. Piccoli and Ives, 2005).

    Almost all ITS are intended to facilitate the collection, analysis, and distribution of large quantities of data. Automation of transaction processing, which requires considerable resources, frees up resources for analysis of internal and external information of strategic and tactical significance (Davenport and Harris, 2007). Although these systems have considerable potential for making management control more strategically oriented, and above all for supporting and facilitating the efforts devoted to strategy, there are few empirically oriented studies on the use of ITS in this important part of the control process. The purpose of our work, therefore, is to increase knowledge and understanding of the role of ITS in the strategy process.

    We have chosen to study a globally involved enterprise that has undergone, and continues to undergo, major strategic changes. At this point, six interviews have been held with key participants in the firm’s strategy process – primarily controllers, IT executives, and their equivalents. These individuals represent the corporate group and one business unit. In addition, written materials in the form of newspaper articles, annual reports, and internal presentations have been studied. Based on these sources, there is a description and analysis of changes (1) in the orientation of group and business strategy, and (2) in management control, highlighting the strategy process and the role of ITS in it.

    Our findings show that the company has been moving away from a corporate strategy characterized by portfolio management toward one that seeks increasingly to capitalize on synergies through transfer of knowledge and to some extent through activity sharing. At the business unit level there is a clearly growing emphasis on product differentiation, while continuing to give low production costs high priority. The strategy process appears to play a significant part in the changes currently under way. In this endeavor, management seeks to call attention to the following strategically important changes in company operations: (1) a new group perspective, from part to whole; and (2) a new business perspective, from costs alone to both costs and value. The findings show that ITS have played a part in the effort to focus attention on the changes in strategies and management control. It may be noted, however, that the design and use of ITS lag to some extent behind the visions and models communicated by management. For example, many of the routines in the changed strategy process are still manual. Widespread underutilization of the possibilities opened up by ITS is probably one of the main reasons why a more strategic form of management control is a vision rather than a reality in many organizations today.

  • 46.
    Lindvall, Jan
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen Uppsala universitet.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Underlättar affärssystemet en strategisk ekonomistyrning?2008In: Nordisk workshop i ekonomi- och verksamhetsstyrning,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsats vars syfte är att diskutera och analysera i vilken utsträckning affärssystem kan förmodas ha potential att underlätta en strategisk ekonomistyrning (Omfattning 14 sidor).    

  • 47.
    Lundmark, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Entrepreneurship: Elixir of Life or Mutagen2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The establishment of entrepreneurship as a research discipline has brought research traditions and assumptions that carry the risk of screening out important aspects of the phenomena involved. This paper contrasts the describing and perceiving of entrepreneurship using an elixir metaphor with a metaphor of entrepreneurship as a mutagen. The elixir metaphor can present it as a panacea, a revitaliser, a sweet medium for bitter medicine, or a substance transmuting base metals into gold. The mutagen metaphor implies that entrepreneurship induces changes in the basic scripts of organisations and that entrepreneurial action can reasonably be modelled ex ante as stochastic.

  • 48.
    Lundmark, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Internet-Based Changes in Organizational Communication2008In: Handbook of Research in Global Diffusion of Broadband Data Transmission: Eds: Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Anastasia Papazafeiropoulou, Jyoti Choudrie, Hershey: IGI-Global , 2008, 1, p. 637-654Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Large investments have been made by various governments for the deployment of broadband within their respective nations; however, the citizens of such countries have demonstrated a slow adoption of this technology.

    The Handbook of Research on Global Diffusion of Broadband Data Transmission explores broadband adoption and the digital divide through a global perspective, providing up-to-date research on constructs such as relative advantage, utilitarian outcomes, hedonic outcomes, and service quality. Compiling cutting-edge research from over 100 noted experts in nearly 30 countries, this invaluable reference source allows policy makers, internet service providers, and others to gain multicultural insight into what factors actively influence consumers decisions to adopt broadband

  • 49.
    Lundmark, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Saraste, Daniel
    CMA Contiki, Sweden.
    Adoption of Discretionary Public Information Systems with Digital Use Patterns: Barriers and Driving Forces2008In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 87-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a new model, AKAM, for analysing adoption of discretionary, public information systems (PIS) with digital use patterns (such as use or non-use, as opposed to frequency of use, or degree of engaged or compliant use). The model is based on Rogers’ innovation diffusion theory (IDT) and Nilsson’s user centred access model (UCAM). The model is an alternative to the general technology acceptance model (TAM). The AKAM model (Awareness, Knowledge, Access and Motivation) identifies six prerequisites for use and four management approaches and describes how these are related. To illustrate its applicability, the AKAM model is used to analyse the adoption of a specific module, the YAF-module, in the Swedish Sports Confederation’s (SSC) system Swedish Sports Online. We present empirical results that indicate the frequency and importance of the barriers and driving forces as experienced by the YAF module users and the potential YAF module users.

  • 50.
    Moberg, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Rapp, Birger
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Stoltz, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    Petri, Carl-Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economic Information Systems.
    How can one minus one equal three? - The dynamics in an e-work district in Sweden2001In: Proceedings of the 8th International Assembly on New Ways to Work, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
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