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  • 1.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Differences in Situational Awareness and How to Manage Them in Development of Complex Systems2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What’s up, Doc? Situational awareness (SA) is about being aware of what is going on. Already when a complex system is developed there is an opportunity to help a future user of the system to form a better SA. Let us make the best out of this opportunity! When assessing SA, differences in SA will sometimes appear. This dissertation is about SA, and how to manage differences in SA in development of complex systems. This topic is highly valid for development of a variety of complex systems, although most examples in this dissertation are from the aviation domain.

    Framed by state of the art literature, suggestions are made on theoretical improvements of SA theory, with a focus on differences. The difference between what you are required to be aware of and what you are aware of is suggested as a SA-indicator. Also, the difference between what you are aware of and what you think you are aware of is suggested as another SA-indicator. Further, differences within a team such as variations in degree of agreement could be used for team SA assessment.

    Also, the term situation management (SM) is suggested, with a proposed wider meaning than SA, including SA and every part of the perception action cycle, the management of mental resources, and external means of managing the situation. SM is a suitable term when developing complex systems due to the focus on the situation and how that could be managed, instead of only focusing on what is perceived by an individual or team.

    Assessing differences in SA and to differentiate between various types of differences are recognised as important prerequisites to effectively manage differences in SA in development of complex systems. Several assessment techniques are reviewed and especially advantages and disadvantages of the use of eye movements for SA assessment are described. With reference to the literature as well as to the appended papers differences in SA due to a) design alternatives, b) roles in the design-use process, c) context, and d) level of analysis, are described. Differences in SA are suggested to be regarded as both quantitative (i.e. high or low SA) and qualitative (e.g. various aspects of a situation are regarded).

    Approaches such as, SM, on-line evaluation of SA, simulator based design, as well as measuring and analysing SA on multiple levels simultaneously, are suggested as means to manage differences in SA in the development of complex systems.

    List of papers
    1. Improvement of tactical situation awareness with colour-coded horizontal-situation displays in combat aircraft
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of tactical situation awareness with colour-coded horizontal-situation displays in combat aircraft
    Show others...
    1999 (English)In: Displays (Guildford), ISSN 0141-9382, E-ISSN 1872-7387, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 171-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the multi-role combat aircraft Gripen, the monochrome head-down displays in the cockpit are to be upgraded in colour. In the present study, the effects of colour-coded displays on visual search and situation awareness (SA) were studied in a real-time simulation of an air-to-air mission with test pilots as subjects. Gripen's monochrome colour scheme was compared to two chromatic (dichrome, polychrome) colour schemes. A 3×2×2 factorial within subjects design was used; the three colour schemes each with two different background conditions (simple and complex) and two different symbol configurations. The pilot had two tasks during the simulation: (1) to track a manoeuvring aircraft within specified limits by using the head-up display (HUD), and (2) to detect the appearance of a priority target on the head-down horizontal-situation display (HSD). Deviations in flight path angle and reaction times for target detection were recorded. After the test runs, the pilot answered questions and ranked the colour schemes in different respects. The pilot also rated them for SA using a subjective rating technique on cognitive compatibility (CC-SART). The results show that colour is advantageous in comparison to the monochrome display: The ranks on situation awareness and preference ratings were higher for the chromatic schemes, and with the complex background, the reaction times were significantly lower for the polychrome colour code. In summary, the results indicate that colour can improve tactical SA in combat aircraft.

    Keywords
    Human factors, Aviation, Moving map cockpit displays, Horizontal-situation displays, Electronic maps, Colour coding
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12751 (URN)10.1016/S0141-9382(99)00022-0 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Pilots’ understanding of situational awareness
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pilots’ understanding of situational awareness
    2000 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, 2000, p. 172-181Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12752 (URN)
    Conference
    10th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, Linköping, Sweden, 21-23 August 2000
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2015-03-02Bibliographically approved
    3. Mode monitoring and call-outs: An eye-tracking study of 2-crew automated flight deck operations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mode monitoring and call-outs: An eye-tracking study of 2-crew automated flight deck operations
    2006 (English)In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 263-275 Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Mode awareness has been suggested as a critical factor in safe operations of automated aircraft. This study investigated mode awareness by measuring eye point of gaze of both pilots during simulated commercial flights, while recording call-outs and tracking aircraft performance. The results of this study show that the compliance to manufacturer or air carrier procedures regarding mode monitoring and call-outs was very low. However, this did not seem to have a negative effect on the flight path or safety during our observations. Crews exhibited a proliferation of strategies to keep track of status and behavior of the automation, often with little reliance on the flight mode annunciations of the primary flight display. The data confirm the limitations of current flight mode annunciator designs, and suggest that mode awareness is a more complex phenomenon than what can be captured by measuring eye point of gaze and communication alone.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2006
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12753 (URN)10.1207/s15327108ijap1603_2 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Effect of task complexity and decision maker separation on shared situational awareness in command and control in network centric warfare
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of task complexity and decision maker separation on shared situational awareness in command and control in network centric warfare
    2007 (English)In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12754 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved
    5. Individual differences in visual behaviour in simulated flight
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual differences in visual behaviour in simulated flight
    2002 (English)In: Proceedings of IS &T/SPIE's 14th Annual Symposium: Vol. 4662. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VII, 2002, p. 494-502Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12755 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2009-02-12Bibliographically approved
    6. Business process reengineering in the automotive area by simulator-based design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business process reengineering in the automotive area by simulator-based design
    2007 (English)In: Simulation and Modeling: Current Technologies and Applications / [ed] Asim Abdel Rahman El Sheikh, Abid Al Ajeeli, Evon M. O. Abu-Taieh, Hershey, PA, USA: IGI-Global Inc. , 2007, 1, p. 337-358Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The science of simulation and modeling (SM) strives to showcase the highest possible level of reality in order to determine the conditions necessary for optimal performance. SM is a multifaceted and complex field due to the numerous applications involved, particularly since SM applications range from nuclear reaction to supermarket queuing. Simulation and Modeling: Current Technologies and Applications includes examinations of current issues related to simulation such as: Web-based simulation, virtual reality, augmented reality, and artificial intelligence. This book combines different methods, views, theories, and applications of simulations into one volume, and offers insight into the computer science aspect of simulation and modeling while integrating the business practices of SM.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hershey, PA, USA: IGI-Global Inc., 2007 Edition: 1
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12756 (URN)978-15-9904-198-8 (ISBN)159-90-4198-7 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2013-06-28Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Alfredson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pilots’ understanding of situational awareness2000In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, 2000, p. 172-181Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Alm, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    How to Put the Real World into a 3D Aircraft Display2001In: Proceedings of People in Control: An International Conference on Human Interfaces in Control Rooms, Cockpits and Command Centres 19-21 June, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Alm, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simulator-Based Design: Methodology and vehicle display application2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-in-the-loop simulators have long been used in the research community as well as in industry. The aviation field has been the pioneers in the use of simulators for design purposes. In contrast, corresponding activities in the automotive area have been less widespread. Published reports on experimental activities based on human-in-the-loop simulations have focused on methods used in the study, but nobody seems to have taken a step back and looked at the wider methodological picture of Simulator-Based Design. The purpose of this thesis is to fill this gap by drawing, in part, upon the author’s long experience in this field.

    In aircraft and lately also in ground vehicles there has been a technology shift from pure mechanics to computer-based systems. The physical interface has turned into screen-based solutions. This trend towards glass has just begun for ground vehicles. This development in vehicle technology has opened the door for new design approaches, not only for design itself, but also for the development process. Simulator-Based Design (SBD) is very compatible with this trend. The first part of this thesis proposes a structure for the process of SBD and links it to the corresponding methodology for software design.

    In the second part of the thesis the focus changes from methodology to application and specifically to the design of three-dimensional situation displays. Such displays are supposed to support the human operator with a view of a situation beyond the more or less limited visual range. In the aircraft application interest focuses on the surrounding air traffic in the light of the evolving free-flight concept, where responsibility for separation between aircraft will be (partly) transferred from ground-based flight controllers to air crews. This new responsibility must be supported by new technology and the situational view must be displayed from the perspective of the aircraft. Some basic design questions for such 3D displays were investigated resulting in an adaptive interface approach, where the current situation and task govern the details of information presentation.

    The thesis also discusses work on situation displays for ground vehicles. The most prominent example may be the Night Vision system, where the road situation ahead is depicted on a screen in the cab. The existing systems are based on continuous presentation, an approach that we have questioned, since there is strong evidence for negative behavioral adaptation. This means, for example, that the driver will drive faster, since vision has been enhanced, and thereby consume the safety margins that the system was supposed to deliver. Our investigation supports a situation-dependant approach and no continuous presentation.

    In conclusion, the results from our simulator-based studies showed advantages for adaptive interface solutions. Such design concepts are much more complicated than traditional static interfaces. This finding emphasizes the need for more dynamic design resources in order to have a complete understanding of the situation-related interface changes. The use of human-in-the-loop simulators and deployment of Simulator-Based Design will satisfy this need.

  • 5.
    Alm, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Business process reengineering in the automotive area by simulator-based design2007In: Simulation and Modeling: Current Technologies and Applications / [ed] Asim Abdel Rahman El Sheikh, Abid Al Ajeeli, Evon M. O. Abu-Taieh, Hershey, PA, USA: IGI-Global Inc. , 2007, 1, p. 337-358Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The science of simulation and modeling (SM) strives to showcase the highest possible level of reality in order to determine the conditions necessary for optimal performance. SM is a multifaceted and complex field due to the numerous applications involved, particularly since SM applications range from nuclear reaction to supermarket queuing. Simulation and Modeling: Current Technologies and Applications includes examinations of current issues related to simulation such as: Web-based simulation, virtual reality, augmented reality, and artificial intelligence. This book combines different methods, views, theories, and applications of simulations into one volume, and offers insight into the computer science aspect of simulation and modeling while integrating the business practices of SM.

  • 6.
    Alm, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kovordányi, Rita
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Continuous versus Situation-dependent Night Vision Presentation in Automotive Applications2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the number of advanced driver assistance systems in modern cars increases the question of possible negative behavioral adaptation is raised. We have investigated this phenomenon for night vision systems in a driving simulator. One common opinion is that there is a risk for using the enhanced visual conditions that come with these systems to increase speed during nighttime driving and thereby eliminate the safety margins the system was designed to provide. In our study two system approaches were compared, one with continuous presentation and one with presentation only when dangerous objects were detected by the system. The latter approach was meant to minimize the risk of negative adaptation, which was partly confirmed in the study. Moreover, the results showed better and more consistent driver performance with the situation-dependent system and all subjects preferred this approach from a workload perspective.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Patrik
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of MSI, Linköping, Sweden.
    Alm, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perception Aspects on Perspective Aircraft Displays2003In: Displays (Guildford), ISSN 0141-9382, E-ISSN 1872-7387, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents two experiments in the area of perspective aircraft displays. The research focus was to explore the possibilities to understand symbolic and symbol relations in the 3D environment. In the first experiment the subjects' ability to distinguish between five different aircraft symbol shapes were investigated together with the perception of their heading in the 3D space. The perspective used in this experiment was egocentric. In the second experiment the judgment of the spatial relation between an own-ship symbol and a target symbol was investigated. Thus, in this case, the perspective was exocentric and two aspect angles were used for the camera position. Both experiments were carried out in non-dynamic scenarios. The display character was topographic with a superposed grid at the ground surface. The overall conclusion from the experiments is that judgment of direction in 3D presentations is very difficult in these static scenarios. Symbol recognition of 3D pictorial symbols is problematic for complicated symbol shapes as well, depending on different appearances for various symbol headings in the 3D space.

  • 8.
    Ayas Alikalfa, Ebru
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Industrial Ergonomics, STH, Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ishihara, Shigekazu
    School of Psychological Science, Hiroshima International University, Hiroshima, Japan.
    Affective Design of Waiting Areas in Primary Healthcare2008In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, E-ISSN 1754-274X, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 389-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper seeks to deal with affective design of waiting areas (servicescapes) and has twofold aims. The first, is to explore affective values for waiting areas. The second, is to identify interactions between physical design attributes and affective values.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study included a free association method for data collection, applying Kansei engineering methodology to extract design solutions relating to specific feelings. The study was undertaken at six primary health centres in Östergötland County, Sweden. In total, 88 participants (60 patients and 28 staff) were interviewed.

    Findings – The selected waiting areas show significant differences for their perceived affective qualities. The most desired feeling for creating affective values is found to be “calm”. The core design attributes contributing to this feeling are privacy, colours, child play-areas and green plants. Good design of lighting, seating arrangements and a low sound level are also important design attributes to give a more complete design solution.

    Research limitations/implications – The study provides useful insights for understanding affective needs in servicescapes, and it provides design suggestions. The results have not been analysed separately for gender or different age groups.

    Practical implications – The paper proposes a framework model to be applied when dealing with affective values in servicescapes.

    Originality/value – This paper makes an original contribution to understand affective values towards the physical environment in servicescape design. It offers a methodology to study complex environments with many alternative design solutions using limited resources. Moreover, this study uses a combination of a free association method and Rough Sets theory in affective design.

  • 9.
    Ayas Pinar, Ebru
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management .
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management .
    Affective Engineering Design of Waiting Areas in Swedish Health Centres2007In: International QMOD Conference,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Berglund, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Projekt upplärning: att lära sig kamma post kräver sin tid2008In: Forskarroller i interaktivt utvecklingsarbete: Om samverkansprocesser för ergonomiska förbättringar, Gunnela Westlander (red.), Linköping: Avdelningen för industriell arbetsvetenskap, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Linköpings universitet , 2008, 1, p. 91-110Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projekt Upplärning är en ”avknoppning” av ett litet experiment om  postsorteringen som gjordes i ett inledande skede av samverkan mellan Posten och forskarlaget vid Linköpings universitet.

  • 11.
    Berglund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Turning Japanese?: Kulturella aspekter av införandet av ett nytt produktionssystem2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att införa ett nytt produktionssystem är ett stort projekt som påverkar arbetssättet för en stor del av de anställda i ett företag. Detta gör att det finns många ytor där problem kan uppstå och viljor kollidera. Stora förändringar kan riva upp invanda mönster och bryta mot den nuvarande kulturen i organisationen och därigenom skapa osäkerhet och ovilja gentemot förändringen.

    Denna rapport är tänkt att fungera som ett stöd för BT och Siemens i deras arbete med att införa nya, lean-baserade produktionssystem genom att försöka finna de kulturella hänsynstaganden som måste tas för att implementeringen av dessa ska bli framgångsrik. Specifikt syftar rapporten till att undersöka varför vissa människor är positiva till lean och varför vissa är kritiska. Vilka aspekter är det som folk finner attraktiva respektive mindre attraktiva?

    Resultaten av undersökningen visar på att medarbetarna finner grundläggande drag inom lean, såsom ständiga förbättringar samt medarbetarnas möjlighet att själva vara med och påverka, som positiva. Dessutom erbjuder lean enkla och effektiva verktyg som snabbt kan visa positiva resultat och därmed påverka de anställdas inställning positivt, exempelvis 5S. Det finns dock ett par frågor som företagen måste arbeta med:

    1) Information till de anställda:

    a. Hur når man på bästa sätt ut med information om det nya produktionssystemet till de anställda så att de får en korrekt bild av vad det innebär.

    b. Hur får man medarbetarna motiverade att disciplinerat arbeta efter de nya metoderna.

    2) Hur ska arbetet vid monteringslinor utformas för att det inte ska upplevas som monotont och styrt? Finns det något sätt att skapa en engagerande lina?

  • 12.
    Björklund, Caroline M.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden..
    Alfredson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mode monitoring and call-outs: An eye-tracking study of 2-crew automated flight deck operations2006In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 263-275 Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mode awareness has been suggested as a critical factor in safe operations of automated aircraft. This study investigated mode awareness by measuring eye point of gaze of both pilots during simulated commercial flights, while recording call-outs and tracking aircraft performance. The results of this study show that the compliance to manufacturer or air carrier procedures regarding mode monitoring and call-outs was very low. However, this did not seem to have a negative effect on the flight path or safety during our observations. Crews exhibited a proliferation of strategies to keep track of status and behavior of the automation, often with little reliance on the flight mode annunciations of the primary flight display. The data confirm the limitations of current flight mode annunciator designs, and suggest that mode awareness is a more complex phenomenon than what can be captured by measuring eye point of gaze and communication alone.

  • 13.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Failure to adapt or adaptations that fail: Contrasting models on procedures and safety2003In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 233-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces two models on procedures and safety and assesses the practical consequences these have for organizations trying to make progress on safety through procedures. The application of procedures is contrasted as rote rule following versus substantive cognitive activity. It reveals a fundamental double bind: operators can fail to adapt procedures when adapting proved necessary, or attempt procedural adaptations that may fail. Rather than simply increasing pressure to comply, organizations should invest in their understanding of the gap between procedures and practice, and help develop operators' skill at adapting. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Human factors in certification.2003In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 89-93Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Illusions of explanation: A critical essay on error classification2003In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 95-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Error classification methods are used throughout aviation to help understand and mitigate the causes of human error. However, many assumptions underlying error classification remain untested. For example, error is taken to mean different things, even within individual methods, and a close mapping is uncritically presumed between the quantity measured (errors) and the quality managed (safety). Further, error classifications can deepen investigative biases by merely relabeling error rather than explaining it. This article reviews such assumptions and proposes alternative solutions.

  • 16.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Reconstructing human contributions to accidents: the new view on error and performance2002In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 371-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: How can human contributions to accidents be reconstructed? Investigators can easily take the position a of retrospective outsider, looking back on a sequence of events that seems to lead to an inevitable outcome, and pointing out where people went wrong. This does not explain much, however, and may not help prevent recurrence. Method and results: This paper examines how investigators can reconstruct the role that people contribute to accidents in light of what has recently become known as the new view of human error. The commitment of the new view is to move controversial human assessments and actions back into the flow of events of which they were part and which helped bring them forth, to see why assessments and actions made sense to people at the time. The second half of the paper addresses one way in which investigators can begin to reconstruct people's unfolding mindsets. Impact on industry: In an era where a large portion of accidents are attributed to human error, it is critical to understand why people did what they did, rather than judging them for not doing what we now know they should have done. This paper helps investigators avoid the traps of hindsight by presenting a method with which investigators can begin to see how people's actions and assessments actually made sense at the time. (C) 2002 National Safety Council and Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Dekker, Sidney
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Nyce, J.M.
    School of Library/Information Mgmt., Emporia State University, Emporia, KS 66801, United States.
    How can ergonomics influence design? Moving from research findings to future systems2004In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 47, no 15, p. 1624-1639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomics design is about the creation of future work. So how can ergonomics research support and inform design if its findings are cast in a language oriented towards current work derived from field observations or laboratory settings? In this paper we assess instances of three different strands (experimental, ethnomethodological, and surveys) of ergonomics research on paper flight strips in air traffic control, for how they analytically confront future work and how they make the findings relevant or credible with respect to future work. How these justifications come about, or how valid (or well argued for) they are, is rarely considered in the ergonomics literature. All three strands appear to rely on rhetoric and argument as well as method and analysis, to justify findings in terms of their future applicability. Closing the gap between research results and future work is an important aim of the ergonomic enterprise. Better understanding of the processes necessary to bridge this gap may be critical for progress in ergonomics research and for the use of its findings in actual design processes. © 2004 Taylor & Francis Ltd.

  • 18.
    Dekker, Sidney
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Nyce, J.M.
    Sch. of Library and Info. Mgmt., Emporia State University, Indiana Univ. Sch. of Medicine, 9219 1250 N., Albany, IN 47320, United States.
    Hoffman, R.R.
    University of West Florida, IHMC, Department of Psychology, 40 Alcaniz St., Pensacola, FL 32501, United States.
    From contextual inquiry to designable futures: What do we need to get there?2003In: IEEE Intelligent Systems & Their Applications, ISSN 1094-7167, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 74-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designers do not build artifacts or systems so much as they create new ways in which practitioners must handle the challenges associated with work. Involving users in the design and procurement process does not guarantee meaningful design input. Contextual inquiry, as a popular way of involving users, must not mistake informant understanding for analytic senses of work. Like any human performance data gathering, it must be backed up by strong, second-order analysis, lest designers and developers get misguided.

  • 19.
    Eklund, Jorgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sorting and disposing of waste at recycling centres - A users perspective2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 355-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates Swedish recycling centres from the users perspective. The aim was to describe the characteristics and experiences of the users and their activities when sorting and disposing of waste, and to identify improvements for the users. The typical recycling centre user is a recently retired man, living in a house with a garden, having travelled 5 km alone in his own car. The users requested longer opening hours and better information available at home and at the recycling centre. The major difficulty for the users is to understand which fraction their waste belongs to, and consequently into which container they should throw it. The most important sources of sorting information, in addition to experience from earlier visits, are signs and asking the personnel. Although the service at recycling centres is perceived positively by a majority of users. substantial improvements can still be made, and a number of such suggestions are given.

  • 20.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Posten-projektet sett i backspegeln och med vision för framtiden2008In: Forskarroller i interaktivt utvecklingsarbete: Om samverkansprocesser för ergonomiska förbättringar / [ed] Gunnela Westlander,Martina Berglund, Linköping: Avdelningen för industriell arbetsvetenskap, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Linköpngs universitet , 2008, 1, p. 127-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Till en början tog Jörgen ansvar för en rad delprojekt i Postens projekt Brevbärarnas arbetssituation (BAS) och därefter övertog han samordningsansvaret och projektledarskapet. Sedan kom insatserna att växla mellan mycket arbete med samordningen, och en hel del administrativa uppgifter. Han var också expert i delprojekten, och i den mån det handlade om ständiga förbättringar var han projektmedarbetare. Han var också handledare åt studenterna, koordinator och ”informellt kitt” mellan de sju delprojekten.

    När det aktuella projektet började hade Jörgen en hel del kunskap om brevbärarnas arbete inom Posten. Som skyddsingenjör inom företagshälsovården på 1970-talet var han engagerad i lantbrevbärarnas arbetssituation och han gjorde också en studie under senare delen av 1990-talet speciellt inriktad på vilka fordon som brevbäraren bör ha vid utdelningsarbetet. Det var ett tredelat projekt där en del utgick från Industriell arbetsvetenskap vid Linköpings universitet, en annan del sköttes av Roger Wibom från Arbetsmiljöinstitutet (se kap. 3) och en tredje del drevs på VTI (Väg- och Trakfikinstitutet). De tre delarna utmynnade i en utvärdering av elfordon för postutbärning (se kap. 3).

  • 21.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Hansson, Bo
    Lindbeck, Lars
    Neumann, W Patrick
    Karlqvist, Lena
    Arbetsmiljöarbete och effekter - en kunskapsöversikt2006In: Arbete och hälsa, ISSN 0346-7821, Vol. 17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 22.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management .
    Li, Nan
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    The diffusion of lean production: a literature study2007In: International QMOD Conference,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Ergonomics, STH, Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Joint investigation of working conditions, environmental and system performance at recycling centres - development of instruments and their usage2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 336-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling is a new and developing industry, which has only been researched to a limited extent. This article describes the development and use of instruments for data collection within a multidisciplinary research programme "Recycling centres in Swede - working conditions, environmental and system performance". The overall purpose of the programme was to form a basis for improving the function of recycling centres with respect to these three perspectives and the disciplines of: ergonomics, safety, external environment, and production systems. A total of 10 instruments were developed for collecting data from employees, managers and visitors at recucling centres, including one instrument for observing visitors. Validation tests were performed in several steps. This, along with the quality of the collected data, and experience from the data collection, showed that the instruments and methodology used were valid and suitable for their purpose.

  • 24.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reported occupational injuries at Swedish recycling centres – based on official statistics2011In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 357-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish recycling centres are manned facilities for waste collection. There is no special category in the official injury statistics for employees at recycling centres, which precludes a straightforward analysis of reported occupational injuries. This study aimed at identifying the frequency of reported accidents and diseases and the type of events that contribute to such injuries at recycling centres, based on official injury statistics. The employees were identified as being affected by more than three to five times as many accidents compared with the total workforce in Sweden. The reported accidents had occurred during a wide range of situations, but most frequently during manual handling of waste. Reported work-related diseases were mostly associated with musculoskeletal disorders, mainly due to heavy lifting. A more detailed classification of sanitation professions and workplaces in the official injury statistics would facilitate future studies of injuries in a specific professional category, e.g. employees at recycling centres. Suggestions for prevention are given.

    Statement of Relevance: The present article describes all reported work accidents and diseases among employees at recycling centres from 1992 to February 2005. It also highlights the problem of identifying new working groups in the official statistics and gives advice for a detailed classification to facilitate such future studies of injuries.

  • 25.
    Englund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Röststyrning av aggregatet på en engreppsskördare: En Wizard of Oz-studie2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att utreda hur röststyrning kan användas för kontroll av aggregatet på en engreppsskördare.

     

    För att studera röststyrning genomfördes en så kallad Wizard of Oz-studie. Metoden går ut på att en människa ersätter en funktion i ett system som ännu inte finns eller är färdigutvecklad. I studien var det röstigenkänningen och inmatningen av korrekt respons som utfördes av en människa, trollkarlen. Rollen som trollkarl utfördes av en före detta skördarförare som numera arbetar som forskare på Skogforsk.

     

    Studien genomfördes i Skogforsks skogsmaskinsimulator. I den kan en försöksperson på ett verklighetstroget sätt arbeta med en engreppsskördare. Som försökspersoner användes fem professionella förare.

     

    Innan en förare provade röststyrningen fick han köra simulatorn med konventionell styrning för att vänja sig vid hur maskinen kändes att köra i den simulerade miljön. Därefter fick föraren använda sig av röststyrning. Försökspersonerna som var omedvetna om trollkarlens existens fick endast instruktion om att slutavverka ett bestånd genom att kontrollera aggregatet med rösten. De fick inga förslag på kommandon eller uttryck att använda utan fick själva utforska systemet och använda det som de ville. Kranen kontrollerade de som vanligt med spakarna.

     

    Under studien observerades försökspersonernas agerande av försöksledaren och efteråt genomfördes en intervju om upplevelsen av röststyrningen.

     

    Alla förarna lärde sig snabbt att använda systemet och använde sig av samma princip. En knapptryckning ersattes med ett kommando. Förarna använde sig till en början av uttryck de var bekanta med sedan tidigare. De rationaliserade medvetet uttrycken de använde till att bli korta och nästan alltid bara innehålla ett ord.

     

    Överlag tyckte försökspersonerna att röststyrningen var en positiv upplevelse och tyckte att det fungerade bra men förutsåg att det skulle bli problematiskt att använda vid svårarbetad skog som kräver mycket manuell inblandning i apteringen.

     

    Röststyrningen verkar gynna användning av automatiska sekvenser.

  • 26.
    Filla, Reno
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, Erik M. G.
    Dept. of Public Health and caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Schéele, Bo H. C. von
    Stress Medicien AB, Bergvik, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Case Study on Quantifying the Workload of Working Machine Operators by Means of Psychophysiological MeasurementsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study of eighteen wheel loader operators, test-driving a machine in three different traction force settings, we examine if a workload index derived from psychophysiological measurements of heart rate, finger temperature, skin conductance, respiration rate and end-tidal CO2-concentration in exhaled air can be used to assess operator workload in sufficient detail to use it as a complement to traditional subjective evaluations, and also to use such measurements in a workload-adaptive operator assistance system in a longer perspective.

  • 27.
    Goteman, O.
    et al.
    Goteman, Ö., Scandinavian Airlines Stockholm, Sweden, Flight Operations Standards, STOPS, Scandinavian Airlines, S-195 87 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    HUD with a velocity (flight-path) vector reduces lateral error during landing in restricted visibility2007In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 91-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operational community has assumed that using a head-up display (HUD) instead of conventional head-down displays will increase accuracy and safety during approach and landing. The putative mechanism for this increase in safety is that previously demonstrated improvements in lateral and vertical control of the aircraft in flight should carry over to the landing situation. Alternatively, it is possible that, during approach and landing, the HUD might affect the pilot's ability to assimilate outside cues at the decision height, thereby reducing the success ratio for landings using an HUD. This article reports a pair of experiments that test these competing hypotheses. Taking advantage of the opportunity when an air transport operator introduced HUD in an existing aircraft fleet, we were able to use a Boeing 737-700 full-motion simulator flown by commercial airline pilots. We explored the effects of (a) HUD use, (b) ambient visibility, and (c) length of approach lighting on the size and location of the touchdown footprint. We also explored the effects of HUD use on approach success ratio. HUD use reduced the width of the touchdown footprint in all tested visibility and lighting conditions, including visibility below the minimum allowed. HUD use had no effect on the length of the touchdown footprint. We could not detect any decrease in approach success rate for HUD approaches. Based on these empirical data, the minimum visibility for approaches using HUDs could be set lower than for approaches without an HUD. Copyright © 2007, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

  • 28.
    Hanson, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Individen - kreativitet och kontext2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies and organizations need to take care of their employees’ creative ability. This report gives some examples of work situations that support or prevent creativity. The purpose with this report is to investigate the link between people at work and creativity.

    It was necessary to delimitate the area and decide which sources to be investigated and presented in the report. The main topic is on sources of creativity, but as more organizations seem to introduce efficiency thinking according to Börnfelt (2009), the interaction between efficiency and creativity is also presented.

    In this report theory is compared to industrial designers’ opinions on creativity. The empirical data consists of a survey which includes the answer from 15 industrial designers at two industrial companies. In the analysis it appeared that the empirical data supported the theory on several points.

    Some conclusions that can be drawn are that challenge, trust, low influence from a client, great support and good resources in a workplace can benefit creativity. Factors that can prevent creativity are downsizing in the organization, time pressure, a great extent of top management control, poor group dynamic and high demands. For detailed explanations of these conclusions the entire chapter 7 should be read.

    All individuals are different and this leads to a workplace that affects a person’s creativity and wellbeing in many ways. You have to design the workplace and to make it work, so that as many people as possible enjoy their work. What guidelines you could follow to get the ideal workplace are discussed in this report.

  • 29.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A lighting intervention for postmen – Effects on eyestrain, MSD, and productivity2008In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Det fullskaliga försöket2008In: Forskarroller i interaktivt utvecklingsarbete: Om samverkansprocesser för ergonomiska förbättringar, Gunnela Westlander (red.), Linköping, Sverige: Avdelningen för industriell arbetsvetenskap, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Linköpngs universitet , 2008, p. 41-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föregående kapitel nämndes Roger Wiboms förslag till Posten att göra ett fullskaligt försök i kontorsmiljö. Syftet skulle vara att kunna jämföra gammal och ny utrustning för belysning och märkning med en metod för en före- och eftermätning. Posten föll för förslaget. Det gällde att hitta en lämplig försöksledare. Valet föll på Hillevi Hemphälä.

    Hillevi hade viss kännedom om brevbärararbetet. Femton år tidigare hade hon jobbat extra vid Posten i Lund under jultid. Vid tidpunkten för försöket var allt arbete samlat till en enda lokal i Lunds kommun. Hillevi blev försöksledare för det fullskaliga försöket.

    I detta kapitel ges först en beskrivning hur Hillevi Hemphälä upplevde att leda och genomföra en synergonomisk fältstudie, det fullskaliga försöket, som hade planerats för att undersöka effekterna av ny märkning och ny belysning vid kamfacken på brevbärarnas arbetsplatser. Därefter följer ett utdrag ur den forskningsrapportering som blev resultatet.

  • 31.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    En god visuell arbetsmiljö: ögonbesvär, muskuloskeletala besvär och produktivitet hos brevbärare2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study appears to be one of few intervention studies with focus on eyestrain and lighting on non-computer workplaces. Previous studies have shown strong connections between eyestrain and musculoskeletal strain. The eyes “lead the body” and if the picture on the retina is unfocused the body adjusts the posture, trying to improve the image through changing the viewing distance. This can lead to an unnatural body posture which can contribute in the development of musculoskeletal disorders.

    A good visual environment with proper illuminance, good luminance contrast relationship, good uniformity value of the illuminance and no glare are the best conditions in order to function well at a visually demanding work. Sorting mail is a task that needs good visual ergonomics and can therefore be improved by a change in the visual environment.

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate if a good visual environment have an impact on eyestrain, musculoskeletal strain, productivity, wellbeing, and work induced stress.

    This thesis is based on a literature review and a lighting intervention, with one part before the intervention and two follow-up parts, summer and winter. The results are based on objectively measurements; lighting, time studies, and optometric eye examinations, and two questionnaires. The first questionnaire concerned visual ergonomics and the second had a focus on wellbeing and experience of work related tasks.

    The postmen experienced the new lighting and labeling as improvement. A small decrease in the amount of eyestrain was present, and the younger postmen had a decrease of the musculoskeletal strain. The postmen with eyestrain got a small improvement of the sorting time. When the lighting was improved another factor that could cause strain appeared, the need for good correction in their glasses was identified as the main remaining factor that could cause the observed strain.

    List of papers
    1. Synergonomi vid postsortering
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synergonomi vid postsortering
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, NES, October, Oslo, Norway, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13079 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-03-20 Created: 2008-03-20
    2. Vision ergonomics when sorting the mail
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vision ergonomics when sorting the mail
    2006 (English)In: The 16th World Congress on Ergonomics, International Ergonomics Association, IEA, July, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13080 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-03-20 Created: 2008-03-20
    3. A lighting intervention for postmen – Effects on eyestrain, MSD, and productivity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A lighting intervention for postmen – Effects on eyestrain, MSD, and productivity
    2008 (English)In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13081 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-03-20 Created: 2008-03-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13
  • 32.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synergonomi vid postsortering2005In: Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, NES, October, Oslo, Norway, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Vision Ergonomics when Sorting the Mail2007Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vision ergonomics when sorting the mail2006In: The 16th World Congress on Ergonomics, International Ergonomics Association, IEA, July, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Huddinge, Sweden.
    A visual ergonomics intervention in mail sorting facilities: Effects on eyes, muscles and productivity2012In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 217-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual requirements are high when sorting mail. The purpose of this visual ergonomics intervention study was to evaluate the visual environment in mail sorting facilities and to explore opportunities for improving the work situation by reducing visual strain, improving the visual work environment and reducing mail sorting time. Twenty-seven postmen/women participated in a pre-intervention study, which included questionnaires on their experiences of light, visual ergonomics, health, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Measurements of lighting conditions and productivity were also performed along with eye examinations of the postmen/women. The results from the pre-intervention study showed that the postmen/women who suffered from eyestrain had a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and sorted slower, than those without eyestrain. Illuminance and illuminance uniformity improved as a result of the intervention. The two post-intervention follow-ups showed a higher prevalence of MSD among the postmen/women with eyestrain than among those without. The previous differences in sorting time for employees with and without eyestrain disappeared. After the intervention, the postmen/women felt better in general, experienced less work induced stress, and considered that the total general lighting had improved. The most pronounced decreases in eyestrain, MSD, and mail sorting time were seen among the younger participants of the group. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  • 36.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    Vision Ergonomics and Lighting System at Recycling Centres2007In: xx,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 37.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Ergonomics, Design Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Ergonomics, Design Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Vision ergonomics at recycling centres2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 368-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All municipalities in Sweden offer their inhabitants a service for disposing of large-size and hazardous waste at local recycling centres. Opening hours at these centres include hours of darkness. The aims of this study were to 1) describe user and employee experiences of lighting and signs at Swedish recycling centres, 2) measure and assess the lighting system at the two recently built recycling centres in Linkoping and to assess the legibility and visibility of the signs used and 3) propose recommendations regarding lighting and signs for recycling centres. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess experiences of employees and users, and light measurements were performed. By observing users, activities with different visual demands at different areas within the recycling centres were identified. Based on the literature, standards and stakeholder experiences, recommendations regarding lighting systems and sign design, illuminance, luminance and uniformity are proposed for recycling centres.

  • 38.
    Jansson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Putting "Public" Back Into Public E-services: A Conceptual Discussion2012In: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation: Joint Proceedings of Ongoing Research and Projects of IFIP EGOV and IFIP ePart 2012 / [ed] Hans J. Scholl et al, Trauner Verlag Universitat , 2012, p. 202-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents attempts to contribute to the conceptual refinement of e-government and public e-services by discussing the concept of “public” in relation to public e-services. It does so by building on perspectives from political science and public administration. Bridging the gap to insights made in previous research is here regarded as vital in order to contribute to conceptual, theoretical and practical development of public e-services. In turn, the paper serves as part of on-going research that contributes to the formulation of a wider conceptual framework concerning the essence of public e-services. By putting the “public” of public e-services in the foreground, public e-services are here viewed as a matter of access to governments and governmental output. Consequently, depending on issues such as usability and availability, public e-services can be conceptualized as either the swing door or gatekeeper to public services.

  • 39.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Top-Down Rationalisation in Mail Delivery – Short-term Outcomes2002In: Organization, Intensity of Work, Quality of Work, Paris, France 21-22 November 2002, p. 8-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Post Office is undergoing large-scale restructuring, including outsourcing of the mail service division to an independent market driven organisation. As a consequence of exposure to competition, the local delivery offices were rationalised by introducing a new working concept called “Best Method”. It was a top-down change process that included downsizing the personnel, more standardisation of working and formalisation of delivery time. The changes have influenced the postmen’s working conditions in several ways and they perceive a greater workload. This paper aims to identify the factors that contribute to the increased workload and work intensification due to the rationalisation inherent in the new working concept. The findings emerge from an evaluative investigation conducted during autumn 2001 at fifteen local delivery offices in different parts of Sweden. It was carried out by an independent research team in industrial ergonomics through participant observation, 60 in-depth interviews and a questionnaire answered by 524 postal personnel, mainly postmen. Several factors contributing to the increased workload and work intensification have been identified, such as a faster work pace and greater physical workload, less flexibility for the individual, insufficient participation, shortcomings and contradictions in the new working concept, deficient strategic planning and systems thinking, and a somewhat indistinct organisational philosophy. Further research activities are now taking place and an intervention study is in the planning stage.

  • 40.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Att följa hela Posten-projektet på nära håll2008In: Forskarroller i interaktivt utvecklingsarbete: Om samverkansprocesser för ergonomiska förbättringar, Gunnela Westlander (red.), Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2008, p. 111-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I forskargruppen ingick doktoranden Anette Erlandsson-Karltun. På henne låg en alldeles särskild operativ uppgift, nämligen att på nära håll följa, medverka i och dokumentera hela det förändringsarbete som Servicenätet Posten bedrev inom ramen för projektet ”Brevbärarnas arbetssituation” (BAS), och som utmynnade i förbättringar som slutligen vidtogs vid de totalt 602 utdelningskontoren i landet.

    Anette Erlandsson-Karltuns första uppgift blev att hösten 2001 genomföra en kartläggning av brevbärarnas arbetsmiljö och av införandet på kontoren av det s.k. ”Bästa Metod” konceptet.

    En liknande insats ägde rum från oktober 2003 – maj 2004. Det var en utvärdering av implementeringsprocessen vid ett pilotkontor vad gäller fyra förbättringsåtgärder: belysning, märkning och justering av kamfack, arbetsteknik och nyttjande av ny manual för organisering av innearbetet på utdelningskontoren.

    Ytterligare en utvärdering genomförde hon (tillsammans med Anna Roos) på ett större urval utdelningskontor under våren och sommaren 2005 efter att förbättringarna vidtagits vid samtliga landets kontor.

    Under perioderna mellan dessa tre omfattande undersökningar fungerade Anette Erlandsson-Karltun som kontaktperson och forskarstöd till projektmedarbetare och ledningspersoner inom Servicenätet Posten. I motsats till andra i forskargruppen som inriktade sig på specifika problem och insatser hade Anette Erlandsson-Karltun en bred och långsiktig uppgift, nämligen att följa - och bidra till - Postens satsning på detta projekt från start till mål.

  • 41.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    En utredning om brevbärarpersonalens arbetsförhållanden och införandet av Bästa Metod2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utredningen har utförts på uppdrag av Servicenätet Posten vid Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap, inom forskningsområdet Kvalitet, Människa, Teknik vid Linköpings universitet. Syftet har varit:

    - dels att utvärdera den totala arbetssituationen för brevbärare med i huvudsak utdelning i flerfamiljshus,

    - dels att utvärdera hur införandet av den så kallade ”Bästa Metod” har fungerat, främst vad gäller införandeprocess, acceptans, delaktighet och manual.

    Utredningsarbetet har utförts under hösten 2001. Efter deltagande observation av brevbärare i flerfamiljshus under arbete, gjordes 60 djupintervjuer med såväl brevbärare, SEKO-ombud som postcenterchefer på femton av Posten utvalda utdelningskontor spridda över hela Sverige. Intervjumaterialet låg till grund för en enkät som distribuerades till samtlig personal på de femton utdelningskontoren. 525 enkäter har besvarats (en svarsfrekvens på 90 procent). Ergonomiska studier och fysiska mätningar har utförts på brevbärare under arbete för att identifiera belastningsergonomiska risker och prioritera mellan olika förbättringsförslag.

    Resultaten visar att brevbärarnas arbetsförhållanden i dag är krävande, framförallt i fysiskt avseende, något som understryks av en mycket hög besvärsfrekvens från rörelseorganen. Bästa Metod framstår som en principiellt bra arbetsmetod med stor utvecklingspotential. De flesta brevbärare bedömer metoden som arbetsbesparande och produktivitetsförbättrande men uttrycker farhågor för den fysiska arbetsbelastningen och framtida besvärsrisker samt kvalitetsbrister. Om utvecklingspotentialen skall kunna tas till vara för både verksamhetens och brevbärarnas bästa, erfordras en optimering av arbetssättet.

    Resultaten visar också att det finns stora skillnader i hur väl Bästa Metod fungerar vid de femton utdelningskontor som ingått i studien. Ett antal faktorer som försvårat införandet och tillämpningen av Bästa Metod har identifierats. Brist på delaktighet och lokal anpassning framträder särskilt. Arbetsledningens agerande på såväl lokal som central nivå har visat sig vara en kritisk faktor för hur väl arbetet med Bästa Metod har förlöpt.

    Vi bedömer att åtgärder som fokuserar på att öka brevbärarnas delaktighet och lokalt anpassa Bästa Metod, skulle resultera i bättre arbetsförhållanden för brevbärarna, en ökad effektivitet, bättre produktivitet och kvalitetsvinster. En infrastruktur som befrämjar god informationsspridning och kommunikation både horisontellt och vertikalt i organisationen är då avgörande.

    Med ett åtgärdsprogram och en plan för ständigt förbättringsarbete, skulle verksamheten med Bästa Metod och brevbärarnas arbetssituation på sikt kunna förbättras med åtgärder på såväl lokal som central nivå i organisationen. Utredningen har visat på ett antal önskvärda åtgärder och flera av dessa kan genomföras av Posten själva. De åtgärder som föreslås nedan genomförs av Posten i samarbete med Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap och de kan delas upp i två huvudkategorier:

    I. I rapporten preciserade förbättringsförslag som kan genomföras relativt omgående av Posten med stöd från Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap:

    KAMFACKEN

    • Förbättrad märkning av kamfacken och införande av kompletterande karta (prototyp finns redan klar), för att underlätta kamning på ny slinga samt förbättrad belysning vid kamfacken.

    • Justeringar och optimeringar av kamfacken där så är möjligt.

    • Förbättring av avlastningsytor vid kamfacken.

    SKOR

    • Införskaffande av lämpliga individuellt anpassade skor för både inomhus- och utomhusarbete.

    UTBILDNING

    • Utbildning i arbetsteknik av utvalda representanter från respektive utdelningskontor.

    ARBETSRUTINER

    • Fördelning av arbetsmoment, utveckling av arbetsrutiner som exempelvis slingors sammansättning och anpassad användning av cyklar och motordrivna fordon.

    UTRUSTNING

    • Utveckling av hjälpmedel och utrustning, som exempelvis centralpostfack.

    De ovanstående förändringarna testas på pilotkontor före breddinförande.

    II. Åtgärder som kräver ytterligare planering och utvärdering för att kunna genomföras och som innebär medverkan av Avdelningen för Industriell Arbetsvetenskap

    Lokala åtgärder genom utveckling av den lokala arbetsorganisationen mot välfungerande teambildningar på utdelningskontoren.

    Under sommaren 2001 började man på utdelningskontoren införandet av en teambaserad arbetsorganisation genom att tillsätta teamledare som ansvarar för den löpande verksamheten. En ytterligare utveckling av denna organisations-form föreslås. Man skulle därmed öka delaktigheten bland personalen, vilket på sikt skulle leda till bättre och effektivare arbetsformer med större påverkansmöjligheter över det dagliga arbetet, större ansvarskänsla, större arbetstillfredsställelse och högre yrkesstolthet. Denna arbetsform skulle kunna vidga synen på vad som är ”det egna distriktet” och skulle vidare minska känsligheten för störningar. I samband med detta skulle en plan för ”Ständiga Förbättringar” introduceras, för att bygga in ett kontinuerligt kvalitetstänkande och ökad delaktighet i det dagliga arbetet. Sammantaget skulle man kunna uppnå bättre lokal anpassning, högre produktivitet och bättre kvalitet.

    CENTRALA ÅTGÄRDER

    Utredningen har visat att det funnits kommunikationsglapp mellan de olika nivåerna i organisationen och att brevbärarpersonalen upplever bristande delaktighet, toppstyrning och otillräcklig flexibilitet i fråga om lokala anpassningar. Detta synes ha påverkat arbetet med Bästa Metod negativt.

    En analys behöver göras över hur kommunikationsglapp och delaktighets-brister uppstår, med syfte att utveckla åtgärdsförslag för att förbättra infrastrukturen och kommunikationen mellan de olika organisationsnivåerna. Därigenom skapas förutsättningar att från centralt håll öka delaktigheten och på så sätt skapa en bättre verksamhet. Resultaten matchas sedan mot erfaren-heterna på lokal nivå för vidare åtgärder.

    Framgången med Bästa Metod varierar på de femton utdelningskontor som ingått i studien. Rapporten visar att olika lokala förhållanden och förut-sättningar påverkat utfallet med Bästa Metod. Detta är något som kan utredas närmare.

    Behovet av lokala anpassningar måste vägas mot behovet av en standardisering av arbetet enligt Bästa Metod. Hur denna avvägning kan göras är förknippad med användningen av manualen för Bästa Metod och dess fortsatta nytta. Vi menar att en manual bör tydliggöra vad som är kärnan i det nya systemet och därmed ska gälla överallt, men manualen bör också tydliggöra vad som kan anpassas lokalt, och ge ett stöd för hur detta kan ske. Manualen behöver vidareutvecklas och omarbetas för detta syfte.

    Utredningen visar att det i vissa avseenden finns en bristande överens-stämmelse mellan den bärande tanken bakom Bästa Metod och den ökade flexibilitet som krävs av brevbärarna i praktiken. Det gäller bland annat hur snabbt nyanställda eller ovana brevbärare kommer upp i arbetstakt när man kammar upp post på en ny slinga, hur introduktion av nyanställda sker, vilka kvalifikationer brevbärare bör ha och vilka effekter detta har på yrkes-stoltheten. Den höga medelåldern på brevbärarna i dag kommer att medföra många nyanställningar inom en 10-15-årsperiod. Dessa frågor är då viktiga att utreda inte minst ur produktivitets- och kvalitetshänseende.

    Mot bakgrund av ovanstående föreslås följande åtgärder som hänför sig till punkt II ovan:

    • Att identifiera kommunikationsglapp och delaktighetsbrister för att skapa förbättringsförslag och ledningsstrategier i syfte att förbättra verksamheten.

    • Utbildning i Människa-Teknik-Organisation (MTO) och Life Cycle Cost analyser (LCC), för ökad systemsyn och möjligheter att analysera och utvärdera teknikval och alternativa åtgärder, utifrån konsekvenser för systemprestanda, ekonomi och människorna i systemet. Det finns ett flertal möjliga åtgärder som kan få positiv effekt på inte bara belastnings-situationen för brevbärarna utan också på produktivitet och kvalitet.

    • Att starta en tidsbegränsad kampanj som bygger på delaktighet genom brevbärarnas förslag till och utveckling av hjälpmedel och produkter med syfte att underlätta arbetet.

    • Utveckling av arbetsorganisationen med inriktning mot flexibla team med ansvar för sitt specifika område med syfte att:

    • öka delaktigheten hos personalen,

    • förbättra informationsspridning och kommunikation,

    • skapa utrymme för lokala anpassningar,

    • öka arbetstillfredsställelsen,

    • skapa förutsättningar för ökad yrkesstolthet,

    • minska den fysiska belastningsproblematiken samt stressrelaterade faktorer,

    • förbättra den arbetsrelaterade hälsan,

    • förbättra kompetensen genom att utveckla en kompetensutvecklingstrappa,

    • optimera förutsättningarna för nyanställda, vikarier och brevbärare som arbetar på nya slingor,

    • utbilda instruktörer i varje team både ergonomiskt och för handledning av nybörjare,

    • minska känslighet för störningar i systemet,

    • öka produktiviteten och kvaliteten i verksamheten.

  • 42.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of intervention measures: a methodological approach2006In: 16th World Congress on Ergonomics, Maastricht, the Netherlands 10-14 July, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is common for researchers to evaluate interventions by having the participants answer standardized questions before and after, and measuring the effect of the intervention as a statistical difference between the two. There is a risk that the results of such a calculation will be misleading due to the subject interpreting the response scales differently on each occasion. This risk has previously been observed by Golembiewski et al, who indicated that we are dealing with a psychometric problem set that is especially evident in interventions. The question is whether the individual’s own yardstick for assessing or valuing a certain circumstance/area is the same before and after the intervention, or whether the yardstick has changed due to the subject gaining new experience within the conceptual framework. Golembiewski calls this phenomenon beta change. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate empirically the occurrence of beta change and its possible consequences for the interpretation of the results, with the aid of a model devised by Terborg et al. The material is taken from a health-promoting intervention project in the mail distribution division of the Swedish Post Office.

  • 43.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forskarstött förändringsarbete i själva verket: Att förbättra arbetssituationen för 15 000 brevbärare2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation illuminates researcher-supported work for change within the “Postal Service Network”, the division within Posten Sverige AB with responsibility for mail distribution to customers. The intervention has been concerned with improving the work situation of 15,000 postmen.

    The theoretical foundation consists in a form of systems thinking in which the con-cept of Man-Technology-Organisation (MTO) is employed to scrutinise the intervention process.

    The overall aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the development of know-ledge in the arena of researcher-supported work for change. It proceeds on the basis of the following objectives 1) to illustrate how systems thinking in the change process

    influences understanding of how the system’s Man-Technology-Organisation (MTO) components interact in practice, 2) to exemplify how this knowledge can be transformed in practice through the development and implementation of MTO-adapted solutions into collaboration between researchers and practitioners, 3) to exemplify empirically how forms for participation can contribute to a successful change process through the analy-sis and synthesis of both process and results.

    The research project has been conducted interactively. The interactive approach has made it possible to illuminate collaboration between researchers and practitioners in a down-to-earth and realistic manner during four project phases spread over a five-year period.

    The introductory project phase involved diagnosis of the problem. A number of proposals for action were presented by the research team, which led on to researcher-supported developmental work during a second project phase when a basis for various improvement measures was created. This involved development of both a technical and work-organisational nature to achieve efficient and healthy work processes for postmen in mail distribution. At a third project phase the entire package of measures was tested and evaluated through implementation in a pilot office. At the fourth and final phase of the project the improvements were implemented in all 602 postal distribution offices in Sweden, and the researchers performed an evaluation.

    The results show how adopting an MTO perspective on work for change increases opportunities to obtain clarity with regard to which factors influence efficiency in a pro-duction system as a whole. The cross-disciplinary research approach, in combination with researcher/practitioner collaboration, proved to be a prerequisite for creating un-derstanding of the interaction between the MTO components. Further, the dissertation shows how different forms of participation in practice can contribute to successful work for change with regard to both process and results. The extensive reporting of the inter-vention process and accounts of the shifting nature of the researcher’s role and of hin-dering and promoting factors in researcher-supported work for change constitute other important contributions to knowledge.

  • 44.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lidingörapporten I: en utvärdering i närtid av brevbärarnas arbetssituation2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna utvärdering har utförts av en forskargrupp vid Avdelningen för Industriell arbetsvetenskap vid Linköpings universitet. Det övergripande syftet var att medverka till att förbättra brevbärarnas arbetssituation (BAS). Utvärderingen genomfördes på uppdrag av Servicenätet Leverans, Posten Sverige AB.

    Syftet var närmare bestämt att ge en samlad bild av de olika BAS-åtgärderna i tre avseenden, nämligen

    1) att utvärdera effekten av förbättringsåtgärder för främjande av brevbärarnas arbetssituation,

    2) att utvärdera hur själva införandeprocessen fungerat samt

    3) att dra lärdomar inför implementering av förbättringsåtgärderna vid övriga postutdelningskontor i landet.

    Arbetet med att ta fram konkreta lösningar påbörjades i fyra delprojekt inom BAS II våren 2003 och avrapporterades under tidig höst 2003. Samtidigt startade förberedelser för att utvärdera helhetseffekten från samtliga åtgärdsförslag enligt BAS II på ett ”pilotkontor”, där valet föll på ett utdelningskontor på Lidingö.

    En projektgrupp med representanter för personalen på pilotkontoret, medlemmar från BAS-projekten samt forskargruppen planerade tillsammans hur de olika förbättringsåtgärderna skulle införas och utvärderas.

    De övergripande förbättringsåtgärderna gällde huvudsakligen

    - införande av manual för organisering av inomhusarbetet,

    - införande av ny märkning av kamfacken,

    - införande av ny arbetsbelysning vid kamfacken samt

    - utbildning i arbetsteknik.

    Dessutom testades och utvärderades en motordriven konstruktion för höj- och sänkbarhet av kamfacken.

    Implementeringen och datainsamlingen genomfördes på Lidingökontoret under perioden oktober 2003 till och med maj 2004. Inledningsvis genomförde forskargruppen deltagande observation av arbetssättet på utdelningskontoret. Därefter deltog 35 brevbärare genom att dels besvara fem delenkäter och dels medverka i fyra gruppintervjuer. Intervjuer genomfördes även med de två teamledarna, dirigenten samt postcenterchefen. Utvärderingen av förändringsarbetet handlar om hur resultaten upplevts, hur själva förändringsarbetet eller införandeprocessen fungerat och vilka lärdomar som kan dras av detta.

    Resultaten visar att förbättringsåtgärderna i sin helhet upplevdes mycket positivt av såväl brevbärare som kontorsledningen. Förbättringen av belysning och märkning var de åtgärder som lättast lät sig utvärderas på kort sikt eftersom de upplevdes ge en omedelbar och påtaglig förbättring. Arbetet med Manualen fordrade däremot organisatoriska förändringar av arbetsprocesserna på utdelningskontoret. Denna typ av förändringar kräver mer tid för att nå rättvisande resultat än vad projektplanen medgav. Detsamma gäller utbildningen i arbetsteknik som kräver en förändring i arbetssätt, vilket tar längre tid att lära sig.

    Brevbärarnas åsikter varierade beträffande själva införandeprocessen men generellt upplevdes vissa brister. Dessa minskade deras positiva upplevelser av förbättrings-åtgärderna.

    I ett pilotprojekts natur ligger att man vill dra lärdomar inför framtiden, i det här fallet lärdomar som andra postutdelningskontor kan dra nytta av vid införandet av BAS-åtgärderna men också lärdomar för personer som har ledningsansvar i projekt- och förändringsarbete. Som grund för de råd som ges i det avslutande avsnittet ligger de erfarenheter som medarbetarna på Lidingökontoret har delat med sig av.

  • 45.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perceived Participation: a Key Factor for Successful Implementation of a New Working Concept2002In: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Congress of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, 1-3 of October 2002, Norrköping, Sweden, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling , 2002, p. 229-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Post Office is undergoing large-scale restructuring including outsourcing of the mail service division to an independent market driven organisation. As a consequence of exposure to competition, the local delivery offices were rationalised by introducing a new working concept called “Best Method”. The implementation process varied substantially in terms of success at the local delivery offices. The aim of this paper is to identify factors crucial to the success of the process. The findings emerge from a study performed during autumn 2001 at fifteen local delivery offices in different parts of Sweden. It was carried out by participant observation, 60 in-depth interviews and a questionnaire answered by 524 postal personnel. A number of factors related to a successful implementation process have been identified as vital, such as participation, local and central managerial support and local adaptation of a managerial tool. In order to arrive at a more participative approach, an infrastructure is suggested that will improve information flow and communication both horizontally and vertically in the organisation. This calls for further research activities, which are planned in a second phase.

  • 46.
    Karltun Erlandsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utvärdering av interventionsarbete med hälsofrämjande åtgärder: en metodologisk ansats2007In: Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 130-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Författaren arbetar som doktorand med en avhandling om förändringsarbete inom postutdelningsverksamheten, Servicenätet Leverans, Posten Sverige AB. Verksamheten har sedan mitten av 1990-talet har varit föremål för genomgripande omstrukturering och effektivisering för att möta kraven på konkurrens från andra aktörer på marknaden. För brevbärarpersonalen har detta medfört introduktion av ett nytt arbetskoncept, vilket har påkallat insatser för att främja brevbärarpersonalens hälsa och välbefinnande under arbetsutförandet.

  • 47.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics.
    Towards the mitigation of cultural barriers to communication and cooperation2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis combines theories from cross-cultural psychology with literature on group faultlines to understand cultural barriers to communication and cooperation experienced in multinational emergency management teams. The aim is to investigate whether the faultline concept is a viable theoretical vocabulary for addressing cultural differences in communication and cooperation (in the domain of emergency management). Culture is defined as a relatively organized system of shared meanings which influences people’s cognition, values, behaviors, and so on. Group faultlines are hypothetical dividing lines that may split a team into homogeneous subgroups based on demographic characteristics. Three papers are included in the thesis, all of which investigate various aspects of group behavior in relation to emergency management. Results suggest that faultlines can be formed not only by demographic characteristics, but also by culturally-driven behavior. The results presented in the papers and in this thesis are meant to supply emergency management personnel with general knowledge of cultural differences and ideas for future ‘cultural awareness’ training. The thesis contributes to the scientific community by taking cross-cultural research into the applied domain so that its findings can be made relevant to people in multinational organizations.

    List of papers
    1. A case study of information and communication technology in emergency management training
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A case study of information and communication technology in emergency management training
    2006 (English)In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 332-347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the roles of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in training for effective emergency management and inter-organisational coordination. Collocation can encourage the development of common ground and trust and, in turn, result in greater efficiency and effectiveness. We expect to find communication and artefact use during collocated training that cannot readily transfer to the ICT used to link distributed work settings. This expectation makes the reliance on ICT and distributed work during emergency management operations suspect. To test these claims, we observed a large-scale, real-time exercise designed to facilitate cooperation among electricity and telecommunications companies. The exercise scenario was similar to the January 2005 windstorm that left much of southern Sweden without electricity or telephone service and revealed the need for better cooperation among utility providers. The observations suggest that while collocation is clearly beneficial, a mismatch in ICT use between collocated training and distributed emergency management operations is likely to be detrimental for preparedness.

    Keywords
    emergency management; training; artefact use; collocated work; distributed work; real-time exercise; inter-organisational coordination; cooperation; information technology; communications; ICT; Sweden; electricity companies; telecommunications companies
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12838 (URN)10.1504/IJEM.2006.011300 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-12-19 Created: 2007-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14
    2. Using Microworlds to Understand Cultural Influences on Distributed Collaborative Decision Making in C2 Settings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using Microworlds to Understand Cultural Influences on Distributed Collaborative Decision Making in C2 Settings
    2006 (English)In: Proceedings from the 11th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium , Cambridge, UK, 26-28 September, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a means to facilitate coordination of international relief teams during sudden onset disasters, the UN has formed a structure called the On Site Operations Coordination Center (OSOCC). The main objective of the OSOCC is to coordinate international relief teams and help local authorities re-establish control in the affected area. As with any operation where people from different parts of the world are involved, multiculturalism can become an issue. Differences in values, norms and attitudes can create problems in communication, planning and execution of the operation. We use the C3Fire microworld and the Schwartz Value Survey as our main instruments to study cultural influences in command and control decision making in simulated OSOCC. The C3Fire microworld has been used extensively in research on networked-based command and control. Augmented with observation of a real OSOCC exercise, the experimental studies provide the basis for formulating clusters of behavioral differences in command and control that one can expect to encounter during an international operation. Results show that culturally-driven differences in planning and leadership style can pose potential barriers to efficient decision making in multicultural command-and-control centers.

    Keywords
    C2 Experimentation, Social Domain Issues, Cognitive Domain Issues
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12839 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-12-19 Created: 2007-12-19 Last updated: 2014-12-19
    3. Identifying Cross-Cultural Group Faultlines
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identifying Cross-Cultural Group Faultlines
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12840 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-12-19 Created: 2007-12-19 Last updated: 2010-01-13
  • 48.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Hirsch, Richard
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Language and Culture.
    Berggren, Peter
    Department of Command and Control Systems Swedish Defence Research Agency FOI.
    It takes three points to define a common ground: breathing apparatus fire-fighters' communication during rescue operations2007In: Journal of pragmatics : an interdisciplinary quarterly of language studies, ISSN 0165-2516, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 1482-1502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares two styles of communication used by fire-fighters during breathing apparatus (BA) rescue operations. BA rescue is a risky business and while performing a BA rescue operation, effective communication is essential for the operation to be successful. This communication involves information sharing, coordination, safety, and so on. How this communication is supposed to be carried out is not regulated. To study the establishment and maintenance of common ground between fire-fighters, communication in two pairs of BA fire-fighters was analyzed. One pair did well, while the other performed less successfully. The pair that performed better communicated using a three-step procedure: step I was an informative utterance by speaker A; step II was a confirmation by speaker B of step I; and step III was an acknowledgment by speaker A of B's confirmation. The less successful pair seldom communicated using more than two steps.

  • 49.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using Microworlds to Understand Cultural Influences on Distributed Collaborative Decision Making in C2 Settings2006In: Proceedings from the 11th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium , Cambridge, UK, 26-28 September, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a means to facilitate coordination of international relief teams during sudden onset disasters, the UN has formed a structure called the On Site Operations Coordination Center (OSOCC). The main objective of the OSOCC is to coordinate international relief teams and help local authorities re-establish control in the affected area. As with any operation where people from different parts of the world are involved, multiculturalism can become an issue. Differences in values, norms and attitudes can create problems in communication, planning and execution of the operation. We use the C3Fire microworld and the Schwartz Value Survey as our main instruments to study cultural influences in command and control decision making in simulated OSOCC. The C3Fire microworld has been used extensively in research on networked-based command and control. Augmented with observation of a real OSOCC exercise, the experimental studies provide the basis for formulating clusters of behavioral differences in command and control that one can expect to encounter during an international operation. Results show that culturally-driven differences in planning and leadership style can pose potential barriers to efficient decision making in multicultural command-and-control centers.

  • 50. Lowden, A
    et al.
    Akerstedt, T
    Wibom, Roger
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Suppression of sleepiness and melatonin by bright light exposure during breaks in night work2004In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 37-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Night work is non-optimal for performance and recuperation because of a lack of circadian influence that fully promote a night orientation. Our study assessed, in an industrial setting, the effects of bright light exposure (BL) on sleepiness, sleep and melatonin, during night work and during the following readaptation to day work. In a crossover design, 18 workers at a truck production plant were exposed to either BL (2500 lx) during breaks or normal light during four consecutive weeks. Twenty minute breaks were initiated by 67% of the workers between 03:00 and 04:00 hours. Sleep/wake patterns were assessed through actigraphs and ratings were given in a sleep/wake diary. Saliva melatonin was measured at 2-h intervals before, during and after night shift weeks. A significant interaction demonstrated a reduction of sleepiness in the BL condition particularly on the first two nights at 04:00 and 06:00 hours. Day sleep in the BL condition was significantly lengthened. Bright light administration significantly suppressed melatonin levels during night work and most strongly at 02:00 hours. Daytime melatonin during the readaptation after night work remained unaffected. The present findings demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of photic stimulation in industrial settings to increase adaptation to night work.

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