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  • 1.
    Abo Al Ahad, George
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    Gerzic, Denis
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    A Study on the Low Volatility Anomaly in the Swedish Stock Exchange Market: Modern Portfolio Theory2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates, with a critical approach, if portfolios consisting of high beta stocks yields more than portfolios consisting of low beta stocks in the Swedish stock exchange market. The chosen period is 1999-2016, covering both the DotCom Bubble and the financial crisis of 2008. We also investigate if the Capital Asset Pricing Model is valid by doing a test similar to Fama and Macbeth’s of 1973.

    Based on earlier studies in the field and our own study we come to the conclusion that high beta stocks does not outperform low beta stocks in the Swedish stock market 1999-2016. We believe that this relationship arises from inefficiencies in the market and irrational investing. By doing this study we observe that, the use of beta as the only risk factor for explaining expected returns on stocks or portfolios is not correct.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Co-ethnic preferences in a cooking game: a study based on Come Dine With Me in Sweden2013In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 2220-2236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines ethnic preferences using data from the television cooking show Come Dine With Me in Sweden. Amateur chefs compete by hosting dinner parties. Contestants rate each others performance and the host with the highest ratings wins a cash prize. The show gives an unorthodox opportunity to study ethnic preferences in a high-stakes game environment. The analysis of the collected data shows that native Swedish contestants rate co-ethnic hosts significantly more favourably than they rate other hosts, demonstrating the existence of co-ethnic preferences. This observation seems to be an outcome of own-group favouritism rather than dislike against other groups. Also, the observed co-ethnic preference is assumed to be subtle or non-conscious based on the nature of the analysed data.

  • 3.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Commentary: Some thoughts on field experiments on housing discrimination from a European view2015In: Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, ISSN 1936-007X, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 149-154Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Etnisk diskriminering - vad vet vi, vad behöver vi veta och vad kan vi göra?2015In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 18-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Diskriminering är ett avsevärt hinder på arbetsmarknaden, bostadsmarknaden och andra marknader för personer med utländsk bakgrund. I Sverige finns lagstiftning som förbjuder diskriminering och en myndighet som har tillsyn över problematiken. Men vad säger forskningen om etnisk diskriminering i Sverige? Denna översikt redogör för nationalekonomiska undersökningar som entydigt har funnit belägg för etnisk diskriminering. I ljuset av denna översikt förs en diskussion kring det vi känner till och det vi behöver känna till. Slutligen framförs förslag om hur arbetet mot etnisk diskriminering kan förbättras.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aldén, Lina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnéuniversitet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Perceptions of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence among undergraduates in Sweden2013In: International Journal of Conflict and Violence, ISSN 1864-1385, E-ISSN 1864-1385, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 249-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study of perceptions about gay, lesbian, and heterosexual domestic violence in Sweden. Undergraduate students (N = 1009) read one of eight fictitious scenarios of domestic violence in married couple relationships, where sexual orientation, sex of victim and batterer, and severity of violence were varied. Perceptions of seriousness of the described incident and attitudes toward women, gays and lesbians were measured. Domestic violence was perceived as more serious in cases where: the respondent was a woman, the batterer was a man, the victim was a woman, or the battering was severe. Wife-battering in a heterosexual relationship was considered the most serious case in both the less and more severe battering scenario. Where battering was less severe, domestic violence in gay and lesbian relationships was perceived as more serious than heterosexual husband-battering; this difference disappeared in the severe battering scenario. Negative attitudes toward gays, lesbians, and women were associated with less concern about domestic violence in all types of relationships. The findings suggest that stereotypes about gays, lesbians, and women affect perceptions of domestic violence, but mainly when violence is less severe.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Are gay men and lesbians discriminated against in the hiring process?2013In: Southern Economic Journal, ISSN 0038-4038, E-ISSN 2325-8012, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 565-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the first field experiment on sexual orientation discrimination in the hiring process in the Swedish labor market. Job applications were sent to about 4000 employers in 10 different occupations in Sweden. Gender and sexual orientation were randomly assigned to applications. The results show that sexual orientation discrimination exists in the Swedish labor market. The discrimination against the gay male applicant and the lesbian applicant varied across different occupations and appears to be concentrated in the private sector. The results also show that the gay male applicant was discriminated against in typical male-dominated occupations, whereas the lesbian applicant was discriminated against in typical female-dominated occupations. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  • 7.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Lina
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Sexual orientation and full-time monthly earnings, by public and private sector: evidence from Swedish register data2013In: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 83-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore annual earnings as well as full-time monthly earnings differentials resulting from sexual orientation. We observe that gay males are at an earnings disadvantage compared to male heterosexuals regardless of which earnings measure we use. This earnings disadvantage is found to be larger when we compare gay and heterosexual males who are working full-time. In addition, the disadvantage is larger in the private than in the public sector. Lesbians, however, earn more than heterosexual females. This earnings advantage is considerably smaller when we study full-time monthly rather than annual earnings but an earnings advantage for lesbians at the top of the earnings distribution is documented regardless of which earnings measure we use. In addition, lesbians are doing better than female heterosexuals in the public sector. To sum up, the results indicate that gay males face obstacles on the labor market that hinder them from reaching top-level positions and high earnings. The earnings advantage observed for lesbians is likely to stem from the fact that lesbians devote more time to market work than heterosexual females do.

  • 8.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Does having ones own place to live make someone more employable?2017In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 24, no 18, p. 1327-1330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article encapsulates the findings of a randomized correspondence test field experiment investigating whether job candidates home status influences their employability. More than 2000 employers with vacancies in the Swedish labour market received a job application from a fictitious candidate. A job candidates home status (his or her own place to live or temporary housing with a friend) was randomized across employers. Results show that home status indeed affected the number of positive employer responses received by job candidates, mainly in low-skilled occupations. Not having a place to live at the time of the application proved a disadvantage when applying for positions within but an advantage when applying for positions outside the city of residence at the time of the application.

  • 9.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish Def Res Agcy FOI, Sweden.
    Victimized Twice: A Field Experiment on the Employability of Victims2019In: Victims & Offenders, ISSN 1556-4886, E-ISSN 1556-4991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do employers discriminate against victims? We address this question and present the findings of a field experiment on hiring discrimination against victims. Matched pairs of written job applications for fictitious victims and nonvictims were sent to 1,117 employers in various labor market sectors. The probability of receiving a job interview invite or a job offer from employers was then estimated. Differences in this probability between the victim and nonvictim applicants were interpreted as discrimination. Results show that victims had a significantly lower probability of receiving a job interview invite or a job offer from employers than nonvictims. The extent of discrimination varied with applicants sex and occupational characteristics.

  • 10.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The employability of ex-offenders: a field experiment in the Swedish labor market2017In: IZA Journal of Labor Policy, ISSN 2193-9004, E-ISSN 2193-9004, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the findings of a field experiment on hiring discrimination against ex-offenders in the Swedish labor market. Matched pairs of written job applications for fictitious male and female applicants with and without a past conviction of assault were sent to employers for nine different occupations. Results show that discrimination against ex-offenders exists, but the extent of it varies across occupations. The past conviction of assault was associated with 7–18 percentage point lower probability of receiving a positive employer response. Discrimination against ex-offenders was pronounced in female-dominated and high-skilled occupations. The magnitude of discrimination against ex-offenders did not vary by applicants’ sex.

  • 11.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Centre for Labour Market Policy Research (CAFO), School of Management and Economics, Växjö University Sweden.
    Skogh, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Choices at various levels of uncertainty: An experimental test of the restated diversification theorem2006In: Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, ISSN 0895-5646, E-ISSN 1573-0476, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 183-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our "Restated diversification theorem" (Skogh and Wu, 2005) says that risk-averse agents may pool risks efficiently without assignment of subjective probabilities to outcomes, also at genuine uncertainty. It suffices that the agents presume that they face equal risks. Here, the theorem is tested in an experiment where the probability of loss, and the information about this probability, varies. The result supports our theorem. Moreover, it tentatively supports an evolutionary theory of the insurance industry-starting with mutual pooling at uncertainty, turning into insurance priced ex ante when actuarial information is available. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2006.

  • 12.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Salas, Osvaldo
    School of Public Administration, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Religious context and prosociality: an experimental study from Valparaíso, Chile2013In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, ISSN 0021-8294, E-ISSN 1468-5906, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 627-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are people more prosocial in a religious context? We addressed this question through an experiment. We randomly placed participants in the control group in a neutral location (a lecture hall), and we placed participants in the experimental group in a religious location (a chapel). The participants then took part in a one-shot three-person public goods game, which measured participants' degree of cooperativeness. The results showed that participants in the experimental group cooperated significantly more than did participants in the control group. Furthermore, participants' beliefs about other participants' cooperativeness were more positive in the experimental group than they were in the control group. Improved expectations of others partially explained the enhanced cooperation in the religious context. We found no main or interaction effect of self-reported religiosity in the experiment.

  • 13.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sohag, Kazi
    Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia.
    Biomass energy, technological progress and the environmental Kuznets curve: Evidence from selected European countries2016In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 90, p. 202-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the causal relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions in a panel of 24 European countries from 1980 to 2010. Using an analytical framework that considers pooled mean group estimations in a dynamic heterogeneous panel setting, we show that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth in the long run and that there is no such relationship in the short run. In particular, we find that biomass energy is insignificantly linked to CO2 emission. However, technological innovation significantly facilitates reduction of CO2 emissions in the investigated countries. Altogether, our study implies that economic growth and environmental quality can be achieved simultaneously, which opens up new insights for policy-makers for sustainable economic development via implementation of renewable energy consumption through technological innovation.

  • 14.
    Aho Ibarra, Fadia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Faraj, Nada
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Fånge, hare eller hjort- En spelteoretisk analys av prisfallet på oljan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har till syfte att med hjälp av spelteorier analyser vilka incitament som låg bakom oljeprisfallet 2014 till 2016. Studien baseras på att pröva två spelteorier och analyserar vilken teori som har störst förklaringskraft på händelseförloppet. Händelseförloppet och oljemarknadens utveckling kommer att sammanställas utifrån aktuell data från myndigheter och nyhetssidor. Därefter kommer materialet att kategoriseras i olika huvudteman för att enklare kunna illustrera händelseförloppet och få en djupare förståelse. De två spelteorierna som studien baseras på är fångarnas dilemma och Stag Hunt samt försäkringsspelet som är en utvecklad version av Stag Hunt.Oljepriset under 2014 sjönk med 48,2 % på grund av massproduktionen av samtliga oljeproducenter. Detta påbörjades med hjälp av den nya kostsamma utvinningstekniken, fracking. Oljeproducenter som OPEC ökade sin produktion bland annat för att inte förlora sina marknadsandelar. Innan 2014 bestraffades oljeproducenter om produktionsnivån förändrades då det var en faktor som förhindrade upprätthållandet av ett högt oljepris. På oljemarknaden förekom svek, hot samt bestraffningar vilket indikerar på att fångarnas dilemma överensstämde med oljemarknaden.Oljeprisfallet 2014 orsakades av massproduktionen av främst USA. Oljeproducenterna hade då vetskap om USA:s mål vilket gjorde att en av förutsättningarna för fångarnas dilemma brast. Ur ett Stag Hunt perspektiv är oljeproducenternas pareotooptimala val att samarbeta. Däremot fick USA möjligheten att bli oberoende av importerad olja och valde därför att inte samarbeta med de resterande oljeproducenterna. För att inte riskera att förlora sina marknadsandelar var OPEC tvungna att försäkra sig genom att också avvika från samarbetet.

  • 15.
    Akay, Alpaslan
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; IZA, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ralsmark, Hilda
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Relative concerns and sleep behavior2019In: Economics and Human Biology, ISSN 1570-677X, E-ISSN 1873-6130, Vol. 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the relationship between relative concerns with respect to income and the quantity and quality of sleep using a 6-year panel dataset on the sleep behavior of people in Germany. We find a substantial negative association between relative income and number of hours of sleep and satisfaction with sleep, i.e., sleep quality, whereas there is no particular association between absolute level of income and sleep quantity and quality. A 10-percent increase in the income of relevant others is associated with 6-8 min decrease in a persons weekly amount of sleep on average, yet this effect is particularly strong among the relatively deprived, i.e., upward comparers, as this group shows a corresponding decrease in sleeping time of 10-12 min/week. These findings are highly robust to several specification checks, including measures of relative concerns, reference group, income inequality, and local price differences. The heterogeneity analysis reveals that the relationship is mainly driven by people with relatively fewer working hours, a higher demand for household production and leisure activities, and lower physical health and well-being. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Aldén, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Linnéa, Andersson
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Konsumenters betalningsvilja för Kravmärkningen: En analys av faktorer som påverkar konsumenters betalningsvilja av utvalda livsmedelsvaror2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ecolabel Krav exists to promote organic food production. The label has existed for a long time and has grown to be a well-recognized brand. How well the label works to influence consumption is something worth investigate more closely. Since the ecolabeled food are generally more expensive to produce, and thus get a higher market price, consumers must have a desire to pay the higher price. The purpose of this thesis is to examine whether the willingness to pay actually exists among students. The included theories are income elasticity, price elasticity, external effects and nudging. These together with previous research have discussed the factors concerning consumers behavior. A survey has also been conducted to examine students knowledge concerning the ecolabel Krav, and to test their willingness to pay for selected conventional and Krav labelled groceries. In addition to the survey, information has been collected through an email correspondence with the store manager at Maxi ICA Stormarknad Linköping to get information about possible strategies the grocery store use.

    The study shows that consumers are well informed about the existence of Krav as an ecolabel, but the knowledge is poor regarding the work Krav is performing and the purpose of it. We have generally observed that there are fewer individuals choosing the ecolabel Krav over conventional, the result differs between groceries. We have observed several connections regarding the factor income, the higher income ranges seem to be a synonym with the highest willingness to pay for Bregott. For the eggs, we cannot see any clear connection between the higher income ranges and the higher willingness to pay. Another factor that has high impact on the willingness to pay is the price, when a bigger price difference between conventional and Krav groceries exist, this results in a connection that more individuals chose the conventional option. Individual preferences of ecolabels show that a certain awareness exist, but that there is a difference in awareness and action. Which previous research strengthens. Preferences does not determine consumption in all cases, instead price seems to be the deciding factor. This can be based on the selected population which are students.

  • 17.
    Allard, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Bauer, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    The possible effects of the blue economy on gender equality in the Republic of Seychelles2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to ensure the Earth’s future prosperity and welfare gender inequalities need to be tackled and our marine environment needs to be safeguarded. In this thesis we therefore evaluate the possible effects of a blue economy on gender equality in the Republic of Seychelles. Using a qualitative methodology, we have conducted 21 semi-structured interviews with a total of 35 respondents. These including people working at grassroots level, in non-governmental organisations and within the governmental bodies in Seychelles. In order to assist the collection and analysis of the data, we developed a theoretical model portraying in what ways the blue economy can affect gender equality in the country via three main components; maritime sustainability, technological innovation and new market and job opportunities. The empirical results demonstrate that the blue economy framework through these three components can affect gender equality, both in the short and long-term. If proven to be inclusive and implemented in the correct way, our findings portray that the blue economy will offer many opportunities. This affecting gender equality in diverse ways, with our main results showing that the concept will (i) help single mothers through factors such as increasing food security, water quality and new job opportunities; (ii) encouraging women to enter into more technological and/or male dominated fields; (iii) motivating boys to remain in school or help dropouts to venture into more practical fields.

  • 18.
    Allard, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Takman, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    An Empirical Assessment of the N-Shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to combat global warming and climate change issues and facilitate economic prosperity in the same time, it is important to understand the possible tradeoffs between economic growth and environmental degradation. In this thesis, we evaluate the hypothesis of an N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Using panel data analysis, we investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions, GDP per capita, renewable energy consumption, technological development, trade, and institutional quality for 74 countries over the period of 1994 to 2012. We find (i) evidence for the Nshaped EKC when using pooled OLS regressions for all income groups but upper-middleincome countries; (ii) heterogeneous results regarding the N-shaped EKC across income groups and quantiles when using quantile regressions; and (iii) a clear and consistent negative relationship between renewable energy and CO2 emissions, indicating the importance of promoting greener energy to combat climate change.

  • 19.
    Allard, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Takman, Johanna
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, Sweden.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical evaluation using a panel quantile regression approach2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 5848-5861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) using panel quantile regression analysis. We investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP per capita for 74 countries over the period of 1994-2012. We include additional explanatory variables, such as renewable energy consumption, technological development, trade, and institutional quality. We find evidence for the N-shaped EKC in all income groups, except for the upper-middle-income countries. Heterogeneous characteristics are, however, observed over the N-shaped EKC. Finally, we find a negative relationship between renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions, which highlights the importance of promoting greener energy in order to combat global warming.

  • 20.
    Alvin Rydén, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Sommarin, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Divide and Conquer: An in-depth study of the impact of the Swedish Leniency Program on the creation of cartels in the construction industry2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen behandlar ämnena kartellbildning och eftergiftsprogrammet, samt byggbranschen. Syftet är att undersöka om det svenska eftergiftsprogrammet har förutsättningar för att avskräcka från kartellbildning i byggbranschen. För att undersöka detta kommer uppsatsen även att lyfta fram vilka förutsättningar som finns för karteller att verka i branschen. Med hjälp kartellteori identifieras faktorer som kan tänkas underlätta för karteller att verka, och med hjälp av eftergiftsteori kommer faktorer identifieras i programmet som kan tänkas hjälpa till att motverka kartellbildning. Med utgångspunkt i teorin och de faktorer som hittats kommer förhållandena i byggbranschen att undersökas.Vårt resultat visar att branschen i nuläget är relativt stabil med goda vinstmöjligheter och innehar inträdeshinder vilket tyder på att kartellbildning kan gynnas och att karteller troligen existerar i branschen. Resultatet visar även att eftergiftsprogrammet verkar ha möjligheter att avskräcka från kartellbildning genom att bidra med misstro mellan potentiella kartellmedlemmar. Dock verkar effekten bero på, åtminstone till viss del, antalet företag som överväger att ingå i ett samarbete. Att eftergiftsprogrammet är lika avskräckande i alla delar av branschen är alltså inte alls säkert. Vi kan framförallt förvänta oss att eftergiftsprogrammet “söndrar och härskar” bland de karteller med många medlemmar, och vilka verkar i de delar av byggbranschen som moderniserats.

  • 21.
    Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph
    et al.
    Kent Business School, University of Kent, UK.
    Sjögren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    United We Stand, Divided We Fall.: Historical Trajectory of Strategic Renewal Activities at Scandinavian Airlines System, 1946-2012.2017In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 572-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the second half of the twentieth century saw the rise and fall of ‘multi-flag companies’ (MFCs) in the civil aviation industry, our understanding of how some managed to buck the trend and achieve longevity remains limited. This article advances business history and strategic management research by examining the strategic renewal activities of Scandinavian Airlines (formerly Scandinavian Airlines System [SAS]) during the period 1946–2012. The study sheds light on the key roles of private and state owners, rivals as well as banks, in critical financial phases are discussed in terms of longevity in the company. The longevity of the business stems from the leaders’ ability to develop as anticipated and respond to change in their competitive arena in close interaction with the owners. Thus, incumbent firms that strategically renew themselves prior to or during market reform, such as deregulation, enhance their chances of developing the size of their networks and revenue streams. Our main contribution to business history and strategic management literatures is the development of context-specific stages, which shed light on the evolution of strategic renewal activities and shifts from older processes and routines towards customer service and efficiency.

  • 22.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Deciding Fast and Slow: How Intuitive and Reflective Thinking Influence Decision Making2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper I “Intuition and cooperation reconsidered”: Does intuition make people more cooperative? Rand et al. (Rand, Greene, & Nowak, 2012) reported increased cooperation in social dilemmas after forcing individuals to decide quickly. We test the robustness of this finding in a series of five experiments involving about 2,500 subjects in three countries. None of the experiments confirms the Rand et al. (2012) finding, indicating that their result was an artefact of excluding about 50% of the subjects who failed to respond on time.

    Paper II “Intuition and moral decision-making – the effect of time pressure and cognitive load on moral judgment and altruistic behavior”: Do individuals intuitively favor certain moral actions over others? This study explores the role of intuitive thinking — induced by time pressure and cognitive load — in moral judgment and behavior. Overall we find converging evidence that intuitive states do not influence moral decisions. Across all samples and decision tasks men were more likely to make utilitarian moral judgments and act selfishly compared to women, providing further evidence that there are robust gender differences in moral decision-making.

    Paper III “Public views on policies involving nudges”: When should nudging be deemed as permissible and when should it be deemed as intrusive to individuals’ freedom of choice? The main objective of this study is to elicit public views on the use of nudges in policy. In particular we investigate attitudes toward two broad categories of nudges that we label pro-self (i.e. focusing on private welfare) and pro-social (i.e. focusing on social welfare) nudges. Results show that the level of acceptance toward nudge-policies was generally high. Nudge polices classified as pro-social had a significantly lower acceptance rate compared to pro-self nudges.

    Paper IV “The effect of fast and slow decisions on financial risk-taking”: Are individuals financial risk taking influenced by time available? We experimentally compare fast and slow decisions in a series of experiments on financial risk taking in three countries involving over 1,700 subjects. We find that time pressure increases risk aversion for gains and risk taking for losses compared to time delay; implying that time pressure increase the reflection effect of Prospect Theory.

    Paper V “Incidental effect and financial risk-taking – a neural investigation: This study builds on the results from Paper IV. Here I explore the influence of incidental negative emotions on financial risk-taking in an fMRI environment in order to assess underlying neural mechanisms. I experimentally compare neutral and unpleasant valence framing on gambles involving pure monetary gain and pure monetary loss. I find a significantly increased BOLD response in left amygdala and bilateral visual cortex when contrasting when showing unpleasant pictures, a neural effect which is in line with previous neuroimaging studies on negative emotions. However the neural effect of showing unpleasant pictures did not affect choices in the risk tasks. Consequently, I did not find any support for the hypothesis that the reflection effect of Prospect theory should be more pronounced when making risky choices influenced by incidental negative emotions.

    List of papers
    1. Intuition and cooperation reconsidered
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intuition and cooperation reconsidered
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 498, no 7452, p. E1-E2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Rand et al.1 reported increased cooperation in social dilemmas after forcing individuals to decide quickly1. Time pressure was used to induce intuitive decisions, and they concluded that intuition promotes cooperation. We test the robustness of this finding in a series of five experiments involving about 2,500 subjects in three countries. None of the experiments confirms the Rand et al.1 finding, indicating that their result was an artefact of excluding the about 50% of subjects who failed to respond on time.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Nature Publishing Group, 2013
    Keywords
    Human Cooperation, Intuition; Time Pressure; Public Goods; Behavioral Economics
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-94022 (URN)10.1038/nature12194 (DOI)000319947800001 ()23739429 (PubMedID)
    Projects
    Neuroekonomi
    Available from: 2013-06-16 Created: 2013-06-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Public Views on Policies Involving Nudges
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public Views on Policies Involving Nudges
    2015 (English)In: Review of Philosophy and Psychology, ISSN 1878-5158, E-ISSN 1878-5166, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 439-453Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When should nudging be deemed as permissible and when should it be deemed as intrusive to individuals’ freedom of choice? Should all types of nudges be judged the same? To date the debate concerning these issues has largely proceeded without much input from the general public. The main objective of this study is to elicit public views on the use of nudges in policy. In particular we investigate attitudes toward two broad categories of nudges that we label pro-self (i.e. focusing on private welfare) and pro-social (i.e. focusing on social welfare) nudges. In addition we explore how individual differences in thinking and feeling influence attitudes toward nudges. General population samples in Sweden and the United States (n=952) were presented with vignettes describing nudge-policies and rated acceptability and intrusiveness on freedom of choice. To test for individual differences, measures on cultural cognition and analytical thinking were included. Results show that the level of acceptance toward nudge-policies was generally high in both countries, but were slightly higher among Swedes than Americans. Somewhat paradoxically a majority of the respondents also perceived the presented nudge-policies as intrusive to freedom of choice. Nudge- polices classified as pro-social had a significantly lower acceptance rate compared to pro-self nudges (p<.0001). Individuals with a more individualistic worldview were less likely to perceive nudges as acceptable, while individuals more prone to analytical thinking were less likely to perceive nudges as intrusive to freedom of choice. To conclude, our findings suggest that the notion of “one-nudge- fits-all” is not tenable. Recognizing this is an important aspect both for successfully implementing nudges as well as nuancing nudge theory. 

    Keywords
    Nudge; Libertarian Paternalism; Acceptability; Autonomi
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119071 (URN)10.1007/s13164-015-0263-2 (DOI)
    Projects
    Neuroekonomi
    Available from: 2015-06-08 Created: 2015-06-08 Last updated: 2019-03-26
  • 23.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Innovation and entrepreneurial networks in Europe2019In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Markets for Technology: A Structured Overview and Some Historical Evidence2018In: Ett liv som handledare: Mats Larsson 65 år / [ed] Peter Hedberg och Mikael Lönnborg, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2018, p. 173-187Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Andersson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Galaso, Pablo
    Instituto de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Sáiz, Patricio
    Departamento de Análisis Económico: Teoría Económica e Historia Económica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Patent Collaboration Networks in Sweden and Spain during the Second Industrial Revolution2019In: Industry and Innovation, ISSN 1366-2716, E-ISSN 1469-8390, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 1075-1102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to analyse and compare the patent collaboration networks of Spain and Sweden during the Second Industrial Revolution, a key period for technological and industrial development in several economies and the distinct development paths taken by these two countries. The data used are from two new historical patent datasets for Spain and Sweden for the period 1878–1914. To study the structure of collaboration networks in both countries, we applied social network analysis methods and focused on two specific key network properties: connectivity and openness to external nodes. The results demonstrate that collaboration networks were better connected and more open to foreign influence in Sweden than in Spain. This research opens new paths for further multidisciplinary studies both on the evolution of industrial economies and on innovation networks dynamics.

  • 26.
    Andersson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Uppsala universitet.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The market for patents in Sweden: Past and present2018In: Stockholm Intellectual Property Law Review, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 6-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide revenues from the sale and licensing of patents have soared into the hundreds of billions of dollars in recent years. Consequently, the market for patents has become an important strategic option for firms to stay competitive, both by allowing them to leverage their own intellectual property rights (IPR), but also as a way of accessing important external technology.

    This article analyzes markets for patents in Sweden past and present by presenting and examining data on the market for patents in the 19th century as well more recently available data. We show that the origins of technology trade can be traced back to the 18th century and that an active national market for patents emerged by the end of the 19th century where intermediaries such as patent agencies and specialized marketplaces helped to broker deals between buyers and sellers of inventions.

    By contrast, today the domestic Swedish markets for patents is relatively insignificant, but Swedish firms instead act on international markets for patents. More firms are active on the demand side than on the supply side of the market, which indicates that the impact of a few large firms on the aggregate number is potentially large.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Hoque, Mahim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    The Causal Relationships Between ESG and Financial Asset Classes: A multiple investment horizon wavelet approach of the non-linear directionality2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates if Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) investments can be considered as an independent asset class. As ESG and responsible investing has increased substantially in recent years, responsible investments have entered the portfolios with other asset classes too. Therefore, there is a need in studying ESG investment properties with other financial asset classes. By collecting daily price data from October 2007 to December 2018, we research the directionalities between ESG, ethical, conventional, commodities and currency. Initially, we employed a MODWT, multiscale investment horizon wavelet analysis transformation of the data. The decomposed wavelet data is then applied in pairwise linear and non-linear Granger causality estimations to study the directionality relationships dependent on investment horizon. Additionally, econometric filtering processes have been employed to study the effects of volatility on directionality relationships. The results mainly suggest significant directionality relationships between ESG and the other asset classes. On the medium-term investment horizon, almost all estimations indicate strict bidirectionality. Thus, on the medium-term, ESG can be said to be integrated with the other asset classes. For the long-term horizon, most relationships are still predominantly bidirectional between ESG and all other asset classes. The biggest differences are found on the short-term horizon, with no directionality found between ESG and commodities that cannot be explained by volatility. Furthermore, most directionality relationships also disappear when controlling for the volatility transmission between ESG and currency on the short-term horizon. Thus, our findings suggest significantly more integration between ESG and ethical and conventional as bidirectionality overwhelmingly prevails regardless of investment horizon. As previous research has found similarities between ethical and conventional as well as ESG having similar characteristics to commodities as conventional and ethical, we suggest that ESG should be considered as being integrated and having strong similarities with other equities. Thus, it should be treated as being part of the conventional equity asset class. Deviations from bidirectionality could be caused by ESG variable specific heterogeneity. However, despite our rejection of ESG as an independent asset class, it still carries significant potential as it excludes firms with climate-harming practices, thereby helping in combating climate-related as well as social and governance issues the world is facing.

  • 28. Andersson, F
    et al.
    Skogh, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Quality, self-regulation, and competition: The case of insurance2003In: Insurance, Mathematics & Economics, ISSN 0167-6687, E-ISSN 1873-5959, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 267-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, insurers' credibility problems explain contracting, co-operation, and regulation in the insurance industry. First, it is noted that cheating by policyholders may be eliminated if the insurer withholds compensation on the basis of detecting careless behaviour with high enough probability. Then, assuming that care taken is imperfectly observable and non-contractible, the problem that insurers may deceive policyholders is addressed. In a repeated game, insurers' building a reputation for being generous can sustain an efficient outcome. Finally, intra-industry co-operation is considered, it is shown that the industry's monitoring care and "fair" compensation, while sustaining monopolistic pricing, mitigates negative credibility externalities. ⌐ 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hamilton, Philip
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vad bestämmer fonders prestation och avgift?: En studie på svenska aktivt förvaltade aktiefonder under perioden 2005-20142015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes 66 Swedish actively managed mutual funds investing in the Swedish stock market during the period 2005-2014. The purpose is through pooled data regressions analyze the relationship between both the mutual fund’s annual fee and risk-adjusted return to the fund’s characteristics. The characteristics of the study are the size of the fund's assets, age, if the fund is bank managed or not, Tracking Error, and standard deviation of return.By using the performance measures of CAPM, Fama and French 3-factor model, and Carhart’s 4-factor model monthly risk-adjusted returns are created for all funds over the period. Two pooled data regressions are performed with the Fixed Effect Model in which the annual fee and risk-adjusted return is set up as explanatory variables against the various characteristics.The results of the study show a clear correlation between annual fee and tracking error against the risk-adjusted return. A higher fee adds value to the investor through a higher risk-adjusted return, but will not fully compensate for the increased fee. The relationship between Tracking Error and risk-adjusted return is negative, which means that mutual funds that are distant from its benchmark perform worse than the mutual funds close to its benchmark. To explain annual fee this study finds low economic significance for the characteristics included. Although several variables show statistical significance, it is difficult to say anything about the characteristics that affect a mutual fund's annual fee due to the weak economic significance.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Franklin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Friskolereformens effekt på arbetslöshet, inkomst och företagande på kommunal nivå: En ekonometrisk analys av ökade elevandelarna i fristående gymnasieskola2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown significant improvements in grades for the students in municipalities that have a larger percentage of their students in independent schools. Based on these results, we run the hypothesis that higher grades are a result of an increased level of knowledge and that this increased level of knowledge should lead to effects in the entire municipality. This paper analyses how unemployment, median income and enterprise in Sweden's municipalities have been affected by the increased competition in the school market. Our hypothesis is that a higher share of students in independent high school lowers unemployment and raises incomes. We also examine the effect on the rate of enterprise in the municipality due to the share of students. The effects have been searched in an econometric panel data analysis in which 284 of Swedish municipalities are followed over a period of 20 years. The models are estimated with percentages of unemployment, income and enterprise compared with the percentage of students in independent high schools in previous periods using a Fixed Effect Model.

    We find a negative relation between the students and the percentage of unemployment and a positive relation between income and the proportion of students. The impact on earnings is weaker than it is on unemployment and the effects vary depending on the delay we assume in the model. The effect on enterprise varies in estimates with different directions depending on the explanatory variables we include in addition to student shares from different periods. Through our regressions we find connecting relationships but we have difficulties in proving an existing causality.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Markus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öberg, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Socioekonomiska faktorers inverkan på äldres hälsa: En jämförelse mellan kommunerna Linköping och Norrköping2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska befolkningen blir allt äldre, och denna förskjutning av befolkningssammansättningen leder till ett ökat behov av vård och omsorg. Den utmaning som detta medför för samhället motiverar att närmare studera vad som påverkar hälsan specifikt hos målgruppen äldre. Studien utgår från ett nytt datamaterial från en omfattande enkätundersökning besvarad av äldre invånare i Linköpings och Norrköpings kommun. Med Grossmans hälsoekonomiska modell som ramverk ämnar studien med kvantitativ metodik analysera vilken påverkan modellens faktorer har på äldres hälsa.

    För att möta syftet valde författarna att i regressionsanalys tillämpa modellen ordered probit och skatta effekterna av socioekonomiska faktorer och levnadsvanor på individers självrapporterade hälsa. Studien omfattade tio förklaringsvariabler i ett datamaterial omfattande 6 300 objekt.

    Resultatet visar att i en reducerad modell finns indikationer på att högre inkomst och utbildning kan leda till bättre hälsa i äldre, vilket överensstämmer med Grossmans teori. Utbildning uppvisar dock ej statistisk signifikans efter att förklaringsvariabler för levnadsvanor – rökning, fetma, alkoholmissbruk och motionering – introducerats i modellen. Författarna presenterar hypotesen att resultatet kan förklaras av att både utbildning och levnadsvanor fångas upp av en bakomliggande variabel – individens tidspreferens. Vidare finner författarna att Linköpingsbor i överensstämmelse med tidigare jämförelser anger en högre hälsonivå än Norrköpingsbor. Variabeln kommuntillhörighet visar sig vara signifikant efter kontroll av samtliga av studiens förklaringsvariabler, vilket kan tyda på en underliggande skillnad mellan kommunerna med avseende på kultur och socialt arv bortsett från effekter av levnadsvanor, utbildning och inkomstnivå.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Per-Åke
    et al.
    Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Gothenburg.
    Sjö, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Inflation, Monetary Policy and Structural Adjustment in Zambia2002In: International Economics, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 425-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the monetary policy and its impact on the rate of inflation during the economic structural adjustment programs in Zambia during 1987 to 1993. To avoid the Lucas critique, the focus is on a sample period, 1987 to 1993, which is relevant for analysing inflation and monetary policy during adjustment programs. The sample does not include other types of monetary regimes than the ones relevant for analysing the adjustment process. The supply of money and the price level are decomposed into permanent and transitory components. The results suggest that the price level in Zambia was driven by the supply of money, and that the authorities were able to reduce inflation by restricting the money supply process during the adjustment programs.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Per-Åke
    et al.
    Depertment of Economics and Statistics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjö, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Successful inflation targeting in Mozambique despite vulnerability to internal and external shocks2013In: Zambia Social Science Journal, ISSN 2079-5521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflation has proven to be an important obstacle to successful economic adjustment in many countries. Despite both internal and external shocks to the economy, Mozambique has succeeded in controlling the inflation to gain high economic growth. This paper provides an econometric analysis of the dynamics behind the experience of Mozambique. Inflation is driven by both a purchasing power parity relation with South Africa and monetary factors. The result indicates that the country is using a crawling peg exchange rate regime.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Liberalisation and universal service in the postal sector2006In: Reforming network industries: experiences in Europe and Belgium., Brussels: Federal Planning Bureau and European Economic and Social Committee , 2006, p. 159-176Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 35.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Prissättning och finansiering av lotstjänster i Sverige.2007In: Lotsa rätt! Delbetänkande av lotsutredningen., Stockholm: Fritzes , 2007, p. 235-278Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Teoretiska och praktiska perspektiv på lotsningens och isbrytningens organisation och prissättning2008In: Styra rätt! Förslag om Sjöfartsverkets organisation. Slutbetänkande av lotsutredningen., Stockholm: Fritzes , 2008, p. 345-386Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

       

  • 37.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics .
    Tio år efter postmarknadens avreglering: effekter och reformförslag2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 38.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cost benefit analysis of dynamic route planning at sea2016In: TRANSPORT RESEARCH ARENA TRA2016, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 14, p. 193-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Route optimization through dynamic route planning, where ships can shorten their routes taking other vessels movements into account through shared information, has a potential to make transportation at sea more efficient. Fuel and emissions can be saved through green steaming without increased cargo transit times, and without reducing safety. This study estimates the potential net benefits to society in major areas in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. It is found plausible that routes can be shortened by one percent on average, which would reduce costs to society by 80 million euros per year, of which 35 percent are reduced fuel costs and 65 percent are reduced emission costs. Alternative unit values of emissions give an interval of 55 to 113 million euros in benefits. The projects costs are estimated at 15 million euros per year. With a growing world trade, the potential for more efficient and environmentally friendly sea transportation through dynamic route planning may be substantial. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dynamic route planning in the Baltic Sea Region – A cost-benefit analysis based on AIS data2017In: Maritime Economics & Logistics, ISSN 1479-2931, E-ISSN 1479-294X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 631-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased international trade, together with a growing concern about global emissions, raises demands to make transportation at sea more efficient. Most ways to reduce emissions will increase sea transportation costs. Dynamic route planning at sea is a concept that allows simultaneous emissions reduction and savings for ship owners. With route plans and coordination centres, ships may take shorter routes and adjust to more efficient speeds, instead of anchoring and then awaiting for berth. Using data from ships’ Automatic Identification System (AIS) transmitters, we measure the sailed distance, as well as the number and the anchored time for cargo (general cargo, bulk, container and RoRo) and tanker ships on a representative day in the Baltic Sea Region. Benefits and costs are estimated using unit prices for emissions and other costs. We find that the benefits of dynamic route planning outweigh its costs; the most decisive factors are (i) by how much distances are reduced and (ii) the unit values of emissions. For each percentage point distances that can be reduced, benefits are estimated at €102 million per year. Adding benefits of adjusted arrival times and subtracting estimated costs, net gains are found in the range of €84–98 million per year. The availability of AIS data provides new opportunities to quantify the traffic at sea and evaluate proposals to make sea transportation more efficient. The methodology can, apparently, be applied to other areas with dense sea traffic.

  • 40.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Green approaches at sea - The benefits of adjusting speed instead of anchoring2017In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 51, p. 240-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the concept green approaches already used in aviation is applied to cargo transportation at sea. Instead of anchoring outside a port waiting for berth, ships can adjust their speed to arrive just in time for berthing. With improved incentives for reducing speed and shared information about berthing times, green approaches instead of anchoring can be a way to reduce fuel consumption and emissions without increasing the transit times of goods. The present study estimates the benefits to society as a whole for the EU ports in the Baltic Sea with Automatic Identification System data applying a new method using data collected in real time. Data consists of all anchored ships awaiting berth on 40 different occasions in 2015 and are subsequently extrapolated to a year. Fuel consumption by the individual ships, emissions and values are calculated from the detailed data with established models and estimates of unit values. The potential benefits are estimated at 27 million euros per year in the scenario where the near 15,000 anchorings by ships annually awaiting berth may instead start a green approach 12 h prior to arrival and may reduce speed by 25%, using the middle unit values for fuel and emissions. The methodology used in the paper can be applied to estimate the benefits of green approaches in other areas with anchored vessels. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    Andreasson, Pierre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bekiros, Stelios
    Paris, France.
    Nguyen, Duc Khuong
    Paris, France.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impact of speculation and economic uncertainty on commodity markets2016In: International Review of Financial Analysis, ISSN 1057-5219, E-ISSN 1873-8079, Vol. 43, p. 115-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract We examine the interactions between commodity futures returns and five driving factors (financial speculation, exchange rate, stock market dynamics, implied volatility for the US equity market, and economic policy uncertainty). Nonlinear causality tests are implemented after controlling for cointegration and conditional heteroscedasticity in the data over the period May 1990 – April 2014. Our results show strong evidence of unidirectional linear causality from commodity returns to excess speculation for the majority of the considered commodities, in particular for agriculture commodities. This evidence casts doubt on the claim that speculation is driving food prices. We also find unidirectional linear causality from energy futures markets to exchange rates and strong evidence of nonlinear causal dependence between commodity futures returns, on the one hand, and stock market returns and implied volatility, on the other hand. Overall, the new evidence found in this paper can be utilized for policy and investment decision-making.

  • 42.
    Andreasson, Pierre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Siverskog, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cross-market linkages and the role of speculation in agricultural futures markets2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyse the role of speculation in forging cross-market linkages between agriculture, equity and crude oil over the period 1992-2014. The market interdependence of ten U.S. traded agricultural commodities futures is measured through the spillover index of Diebold and Yilmaz (2009, 2012) and the dynamic conditional correlation framework of Engle (2002). Utilising data from the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission, ve dierent measures of speculation are constructed, which are used to examine the long-run and short-run dynamics between market integration and speculation. To explore time-varying characteristics in this relationship, and as a test for robustness, we perform a sub-sampling analysis for the periods 1992-2006 and 2006-2014.

    We show that cross-market linkages grew stronger post-2005, particularly in the aftermath of the 2008 global financial crisis. The results of our econometric analysis indicate that any conclusions regarding the role of speculation in this process are highly sensitive both to the choice of market integration measure, as well as to how the extent of speculation is captured. Overall, though, there is little to indicate that speculation has played an important role in creating cross-market linkages. We do provide some evidence of market integration increasing with market size, but other factors, such as inflation and exchange rates, seem to provide better explanations of agriculture-equity-energy price dynamics. In line with previous research, we also find market interdependence to increase with stock market uncertainty, which suggests that the diversification benefits of commodity futures investments are actually reduced when needed the most. Considered together with our findings on the sizes of markets, which are increasingly made up of speculators, it appears at least possible that financialisation has made food markets more vulnerable to disturbances in financial markets.

  • 43.
    Anyadike-Danes, Michael
    et al.
    Aston Business School and Enterprise Research Centre, UK.
    Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gottschalk, Sandra
    ZEW, Germany.
    Hölzl, Werner
    WIFO, Austria.
    Johansson, Dan
    HUI Research and Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Maliranta, Mika
    ETLA and University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Myrann, Anja
    Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, Norway.
    Accounting for Job Growth: Disentangling Size and Age Effects in an International Cohort Comparison2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of different-sized businesses to job creation continues to attract policymakers’ attention, however, it has recently been recognized that conclusions about size were confounded with the effect of age. We probe the role of size, controlling for age, by comparing the cohorts of firms born in 1998 over their first decade of life, using variation across half a dozen northern European countries Austria, Finland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and the UK to pin down the effects. We find that a very small proportion of the smallest firms play a crucial role in accounting for cross-country differences in job growth.

  • 44.
    Arfvidsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Rosén, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Valutahantering i små och medelstora svenska företag.– En studie av små och medelstora företags process vid valutahanteringsbeslut2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Valutamarknaden anses idag vara världens största marknad. Företag som är exponerade mot utländsk valuta vare sig det rör sig om import eller export bör ha en process för valutahantering. Tidigare studier visar däremot att knappt 50 % av berörda företag hanterar valutaexponeringen med någon form av valutasäkring. Frågetecken väcks då kring den process företag har vid beslutsfattning om valutahantering. Syftet med studien är att utreda små och medelstora svenska icke-finansiella bolags valutahantering. För att på bästa möjliga sätt erhålla exponerade företags syn på valutasäkring är studien av kvalitativ karaktär. Informationen är insamlad från åtta intervjuer. För att stämma in på syftet med att fokusera på små och medelstora bolag har en gräns på 500MKR SEK i årlig omsättning använts. Det insamlade materialet visar att majoriteten av företagen saknar en systematisk process och analys vid hantering av valutaexponering. Det är förekommer ofta att en persons subjektiva åsikt avgör företagets valutahanteringsstrategi. Strategin är även sällan förankrad i ekonomisk teori. Studien belyser även att det finns en kunskapslucka hos företagsledningar kring valutahantering vilket skapar möjligheter för banker och andra finansiella aktörer att utveckla samarbetet med företagen.

  • 45.
    Aronsson, Karl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aktulga, Can
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Prisbildning på bostadsrättsmarknaden i Stockholm: En ekonomisk tvärsnittsstudie av underliggande faktorer2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bostadsrättspriser är under ständig diskussion inte minst i Stockholm där priserna kan vara dubbelt så höga jämfört med övriga Sverige. Olika faktorer ses kunna påverka prisbilden på bostadsrätter, vissa mer intuitivt än andra, samtidigt som till synes liknande bostadsrätter i ett område prismässigt sett kan variera. Detta väcker frågor kring vad det är som påverkar bostadsrättspriser och vilka faktorer som har störst inflytande på prisbilden. Frågeställningarna har lett till studiens syfte: att genom en tvärsnittsstudie, analysera vilka bakomliggande faktorer som ligger till grund för prisbildningen på bostadsrättsmarknaden i centrala Stockholm.

    Tvärsnittsstudien baseras på insamlade empiriska observationer av sålda bostadsrätter i centrala Stockholm (Kungsholmen, Södermalm, Östermalm samt Vasastan/Norrmalm) under perioden mars till och med maj år 2012. Utifrån hedonisk pristeori, där priset implicit avslöjar konsumentens preferenser, har anpassade regressioner genomförts. Dessa har lett till att konsumenternas prioriteringar gällande olika bostadsrättsaspekter kunnat kartläggas och analyserats.

    Studiens slutsatser är att bostadsytan är den överlägset mest inflytelserika variabeln vad gäller prispåverkan. Vidare ses även variabler gällande antalet rum, månatlig kostnad, geografiskt läge, balkong, byggnadsperiod, våningsplan, kakelugn och hiss vara signifikanta för att påverka prisbilden. Gällande bostadsrätternas geografiska läge, kopplat till prispåverkan, dras slutsatsen att det är dyrast att bo på Östermalm och i Vasastan/Norrmalm. Detta kan förklaras av ett stort antal bostadsrätter från äldre byggnadsperioder, vilka har visat sig betinga ett högre pris.

    Ytterligare slutsatser kring faktorer som påverkar prisbilden är att konsumenter värderar att bo relativt högt i bostadshusen samt att de är beredda att betala ett markant högre pris för att få tillgång till balkong eller kakelugn.

  • 46.
    Arouri, Mohamed
    et al.
    CRCGM, University of dAuvergne, France.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chakraborty, Sanjib
    Go for Green HB, Sweden.
    Chaibi, Anissa
    IPAG Business School, France.
    Foulquier, Philippe
    EDHEC Business School, France.
    Business activity and environmental degradation in Mexico2014In: Journal of Applied Business Research, E-ISSN 2157-8834, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 291-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the literature by investigating the relationships between business activity, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption in a developing country by taking into consideration the effects of ongoing industrialization and financial development. To do this, we introduce an innovative empirical approach based on ARDL bounds testing in the presence of structural breaks and apply it to Mexico over the period 1971-2011. We show strong evidence of cointegration between these variables. More interestingly, we find that energy is the long-run forcing variable to explain the Mexican business activity growth. This implies that energy savings policy may result in decreasing the national income or employment.

  • 47.
    Aydogan, Helin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Gatjetjiladze, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    The Relationship Between House Prices and Stock Prices: An Empirical Analysis of the Swedish Market2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is of continual topicality to understand the interaction between the stock market and the house market as they are central parts of the economy and important resources and investment alternatives for both households and firms. Hence, these two markets can be crucial for consumers and investors and consequently economic growth. With a focus on Sweden and Sweden's three largest cities, we examine the relationship between house prices and stock prices by including GDP, inflation and the repo rate over the period 1994-2018. We examine this by using time series analysis and investigating both the short and long run relationship by mainly focusing how the causal link looks like based on the theories of wealth effect and credit-price effect. Our results show a negative long run relationship in Sweden indicating that an increase in house prices decreases stock prices, and for the short run there is evidence of the credit-price effect. For Stockholm, we found a positive bidirectional long run relationship and a bidirectional causality was also confirmed for the short run. For Gothenburg, we find a negative long run relationship where an increase in stock prices decreases house prices, however there is no evidence of a causal relationship in the short run. For Malmö we find a positive long run relationship that goes from stock prices to house prices and the reverse causation is found for the short run demonstrating the credit-price effect. Although we find that these markets have a relationship, we still argue that they are relatively separated and that investors can diversify over these assets because of the low values our results show.

    Keywords: house prices, stock prices, Sweden, wealth effect, credit-price effect

  • 48.
    Back, Lovisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johannisson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ransoneringar på policy- och individnivå i hälso- och sjukvården - Ett beteendeekonomiskt experiment: Health Care Rationing at Policy and Bedside Level - A behavioral economic experiment2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Scarce health care resources fail to supply the increasing demand. In order to allocate the economic resources as efficiently as possibly the capacity to ration, to deny patients health care, is essential. Rationing decisions can be considered as moral dilemmas where the decision maker is required to choose between two conflicting ethical principles. However, the conditions under which policymakers and physicians make decisions are different. Many policies are not applicable at the bedside level since they are based on a group perspective and tend to ignore a patient's individual needs.Aim: The aim of this study is to conduct a behavioural economic experiment and examine how the context of the decision-maker influences the outcome of their decision in health care rationing situations.Method: Medical students and students from other graduate programmes receive a questionnaire where they each make decisions in rationing scenarios where utilitarian and deontological principles are in conflict. Each survey is framed as a decision presented in one of two decision-making contexts, policy or bedside level. At policy level, the subjects assume the perspective of a head of department and make decisions regarding a patient based upon a group statistic. At bedside level, the subjects take the perspective of a physician and make decisions regarding an identified patient.Results: Subjects are more utilitarian and ration to a higher degree at policy level than at bedside level. The difference in the rate of utilitarian answers at policy level in comparison to bedside level is largest for medical students and in life saving scenarios. Students from other graduate programmes, however, are more likely to ration at policy level. In life enhancing scenarios, the effect of the decision-making context differs and the rate of utilitarian responses is in some cases lower at policy level than at the individual level.Conclusion: This study shows that decisions at the policy and the bedside level are not necessarily the same, even though the available information of the treatments and costs remains unchanged. This result encourages further studies on the impact of the decision-making context on rationing decisions in health care.

  • 49.
    Backgård, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Invandringsmotstånd i Sverige - en ekonometrisk studie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stödet för det invandringskritiska partiet Sverigdemokraterna (SD) har blivit alltstarkare under de senaste tre valen. Denna trend sammanfaller med en ökad invandring,och allt större svårigheter för invandrare att integrera sig på arbetsmarknaden,vilket sammantaget innebär en utmaning för välfärdssystemen. Öppna gränser inomEuropa medför samtidigt arbetskraftsinvandring, vilken ökar konkurrensen om vissajobb. Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur mycket av SD:s stöd vilket tolkassom motstånd mot invandring som kan förklaras ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv:huruvida motståndet mot invandring är högre i kommuner där invandringen antasha mer negativa ekonomiska konsekvenser för befolkningen. Undersökningen görsutifrån data på kommunivå från valåren 2006, 2010 och 2014. Med tre valår och290 kommuner skapas en datapanel omfattande 870 observationer, och ett tjugotalvariablers inverkan undersöks med skattningsmetoderna xed- och random eects.Resultaten visar att den mesta variationen är oförklarad, men pekar också mot attgrupper som ekonomiskt sett bör förlora mest på invandring faktiskt stöder SD i 

    högre grad. Stödet är högre där invandrare i lägre grad förvärvsarbetar jämfört medsvenskfödda, där er människor saknar gymnasieutbildning och där medianlönernaär låga. Skattningar med interaktionsvariabler tyder dessutom på att hög grad avbidragsberoende bland svenskfödda har eekt främst i närvaro av hög andel invandrare.Dessa resultat talar tillsammans på att stödet för Sverigemokraterna är delviskopplat till oro för de sociala skyddsnätens fortlevnad. Vissa resultat pekar på attockså arbetskraftsinvandring från andra EU-länder haft stor inverkan på stödet förSD, men andra resultat motsäger detta. Visst stöd hittas också för att högre brottslighetbland invandrare stärker SD:s stöd. Den realtivt låga förklaringsgraden tolkassom att invandringsmotståndet till stor del är kulturellt betingat, men den kan ävenbero på att variation i partistöd är större än variationen i invandringsmotstånd.

  • 50.
    Backlund, Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sörensson, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valuta och internationellt bistånd: Svenska biståndsorganisationers hantering av valutaköp och valutarisk2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are active in most parts of the world and are consequently exposed to foreign exchange risk. The organizations manage aid funds in both common and uncommon types of currency when they in different ways finance local cooperation partners. The amount of previous research how aid organizations handle the management of currency trade and foreign exchange risk is limited and this study aims to examine the area further.

    Aim: The study aims to analyse the complex of problems regarding exposure to foreign exchange risk for both Swedish NGOs and their cooperation partners, to do so on the basis of foreign exchange risk theory and best practice. The aim is in such a way to discuss general strategies for currency trade and foreign exchange risk management for Swedish NGOs.

    Completion: The qualitative approach consists of nine interviews that have been designed in accordance with theory and previous research. A picture of the organizational processes and needs of Swedish NGOs regarding foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management was given by five interviews with NGOs. Information concerning how foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management is utilized in practice and how experts in the field perceive current management of NGOs was gathered from four interviews with actors within foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management. The empirical data is analysed on the basis of the theoretical framework and previous research.

    Conclusion: The study shows that the complex of problems regarding foreign exchange risk- and currency trade management are not as straightforward as at first glance. It also indicates that foreign exchange risk management differs between for-profit businesses and non-profit organizations. It appears that NGOs currently transfer all foreign exchange risk exposure to its counterpart through contracts. The investigation and implementation of foreign exchange risk management is not possible for NGOs with a large ratio of restricted funds. Finally a number of strategies have been developed for a more cost-effective currency trade. 

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