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  • 1.
    Adibi Dahaj, Marjan
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Analyzing Learners' Language Awareness in Written Production: Product-Oriented vs. Process-Oriented Approaches2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Writing is one of the four skills that students learning a foreign language are supposed to acquire, and writing often has an important role in the language classroom. Furthermore, in the field of cultural and arts education, a process-oriented approach is considered essential for learning. However, even though we see an increased interest in emphasizing the writing process, in reality, what is often commented, discussed and graded is the final outcome - the product. Consequently, features of the writing process, like fluency, revisions, and pauses, are not considered. This thesis explores what information about the writing process might add to the picture. In this manner, the current study investigates the writing process of advanced Swedish EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners through keystroke logging programme.

    With the increased use of word processing tools, and not least with the development of keystroke logging tools, we now have the possibility to take also the details of the writing process into account. As Spelman Miller and Sullivan (2006:1) point out,

    “[a]s an observational tool, keystroke logging offers the opportunity to capture details of the activity of writing, not only for the purposes of the linguistic, textual and cognitive study of writing, but also for the broader applications concerning the development of language learning, literacy, and language pedagogy”.

    In the present study, a keystroke logging programme named Inputlog has been used, which allows researchers to get a better understanding of writing processes as well as cognitive processes during writing (Lindgren & Sullivan, 2002).

  • 2.
    Adler Johannesson, AnnHelen
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Att lära med många sinnen: Pedagogers erfarenheter av att arbeta med elever i gymnasiesärskolan2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of my paper is to examine the experiences of teachers using a multi-sensory teaching approach when working with pupils with learning disabilities in upper secondary school. How can they create a creative learning environment for their students? Do they use any multisensory teaching methods and, if so, how? My methodology has mainly consisted in participating observation and semi-structured interviews in an ethnographic study. Analysis has shown that the significance of a successful educational effort with these young people at upper secondary school can be seen as a good practice, in which phenomena such as individual objectives, experience, interest, participation, multi-sensory learning, experiential learning, visualization and learning from each other, are central and essential elements. My view is that the teachers try to vary their learning environments and that they are using different multi-sensory teaching methods. All the day-to-day schoolwork is set-up in different theme modules, where teaching takes place both indoors and outdoors in wilderness and cultivated landscapes. For further research, it might be interesting to find out if the lessons learned from one learning environment can be transferred to another, and if the social experiences and lessons learned in multi-sensory environments will be transferred to the young people’s everyday home life or to their schoolwork, in general.

  • 3.
    Afram, Eliane
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    La percepción de métodos didácticos en la enseñanza del español comolengua extranjera: Análisis cualitativo sobre la percepción de los alumnos de los métodos gramática- traducción,método situacional y método comunicativo2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Nuestra tesina trata de indagar en cómo piensan los alumnos de bachillerato sobre los métodos didácticos elegidos para aprender una lengua extranjera. El objetivo de esta tesina es investigar tres métodos didácticos; método gramática- traducción, método situacional y método comunicativo, comprobar si los estudiantes los utilizan, y cuál les resulta más útil y por qué. Hemos investigado qué opinan los alumnos con la ayuda del método cualitativo a través de entrevistas cualitativas. Podemos decir que los alumnos utilizan los métodos hasta cierto punto en su enseñanza. Piensan que todos los métodos tienen sus aspectos positivos y negativos. Los aspectos positivos y negativos están repartidos de manera igual entre los métodos didácticos.

  • 4.
    Afram, Eliane
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Ordinlärning i främmande språk: En forskningsöversikt om effekten av implicita och explicita metoder.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När man lär sig ett nytt språk så är det ytterst viktigt att kunna ha ett brett och varierat ordförråd. Elever somstuderar engelska som andraspråk eller främmandespråk, eller ett annat modern språk, ställs alltid inför kravet attexpandera sitt ordförråd. Uppsatsen ämnar ge en mer allmän klarhet och bringa förståelse för ordinlärningsprocessenoch dessutom undersöka vilken metod, implicit eller explicit, som leder till ett ökat ordförråd. En systematiskforskningsöversikt genomfördes, och totalt ingick 10 empiriska artiklar som analyserades och kategoriseradessystematiskt. Resultatet visade på en variation gällande studiernas slutsatser på viken metod som är effektivast.Däremot visar resultatet klart och tydligt vikten av att inkludera explicit metod i undervisningen för att effektiviseraordinlärningen speciellt vid läsning.

  • 5.
    Afzali, Parichehr
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Globalization Now and Later. A Study of Interactive Argumentation among EFL Learners2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People usually commence an argument in hope for persuading the other party. These arguments can be a part of their job or personal life, which may influence the life of people around them or sometimes in case of a political debate, can affect lives of millions of people. The situation can get more challenging if the argument is produced in a language other than someone's mother tongue and in this respect, language proficiency can be of great value to them. One of the most important goals of language teaching classes is to teach the students of foreign languages how to develop information processes in order to express themselves. In the present study, the performance of seven students who study English in a private language school in Iran, is analyzed in a debate on 'globalization'. These Farsi speaking learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) used some collaborative and individual strategies in the process of interactive argumentation. It can be said that this debate met the requirements of a 'pro et contra' (for and against) argument mentioned by Naess (2005). The views that are in favor of the debate's subject are mentioned as well as the views against it. It does not seem to have a conclusion and the views were not weighed against each other, they were merely introduced and both sides were indicated. This mainly took place due to of lack of time to consider all the aspects of the arguments. Therefore, it can be maintained that the result of this argumentation was 'globalization now and later'. According to Hirsch's 'minimal model of ideal interactive argumentation', this may seem to be a terrible situation, but in fact it is "a very realistic assumption to make about argumentation as an on-going interactive enterprise" (1987: 440).

  • 6.
    Afzali, Parichehr
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marking Definiteness in Farsi and English by Farsi Speaking EFL Learners2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Differences in marking definiteness among various languages have been considered one of the most confusing areas for speakers of different languages. As a teacher of EFL to Farsi speakers, I have frequently noticed that the students face problems when it comes to marking a definite or indefinite noun in English. One of the main objectives of the present study is to shed light on the trouble sources in practice of the use of articles in English among the subjects of my study. Farsi as a language which has two distinct registers of spoken and written forms with 9 various forms of definite/indefinite markers is different from English with 4 definite/indefinite markers. Students who speak some languages that lack these articles (such as Japanese), or probably do not have the one-to-one correspondence with definite marking system in English (such as Farsi), tend to face problems while using them in English.

    It is believed that Farsi marks noun phrases for specificity/non-specificity rather than definiteness/indefiniteness, while English marks nouns for definiteness/indefiniteness. The present study shows interesting instances of the choices of article that Farsi native speakers make when it comes to marking definiteness in English. Definiteness is mostly marked by a bare noun, indefiniteness is marked by the numeral 'yek' (pre-positioned) or ye (pre-positioned) or suffix '-i' (i.e. one —post-positioned) and specificity can apply to both definite and indefinite NPs.

  • 7.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Critical Comment on Collste2011In: Public Health Ethics, ISSN 1754-9973, E-ISSN 1754-9981, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 203-205Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article claims that the account of specification as a way to solve conflicts between rights, suggested by Göran Collste, is unsatisfactory. It is argued that specification is not a solution on its own, but is better described as a remedy in response to a political failure.

  • 8.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Secular State?2010In: Identity and pluralism : ethnicity, religion and values / [ed] Göran Collste, Linköping: LiU-Tryckk , 2010, p. 80-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Lunds universitet.
    Bör den liberala staten privilegiera religion i samhället?2013In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 1-21Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det anses ofta att en liberal stat måste förhålla sig neutral till religiösa element i samhället. Att bryta mot neutralitetskravet och därmed privilegiera religiösa element i samhället är uteslutet, hävdas det, eftersom ett sådant privilegierande skulle innebära att man medvetet gynnar en grupp uppfattningar om det goda livet – vilket skulle vara synnerligen icke-liberalt.

    I den här artikeln ifrågasätts det neutralitetskrav som åläggs den liberala staten. Istället försvaras idén att en liberal stat i vissa fall kan ha en prima facie skyldighet att privilegiera vissa religiösa element i samhället. I artikeln presenteras tre villkor som måste vara uppfyllda för att ett avsteg från neutralitetskravet ska vara rättfärdigat.

    Efter en kortare diskussion om den relevanta empiriska forskningen konkluderas att en liberal stat i vissa fall är berättigad att privilegiera religiösa element i samhället utan att därmed kompromissa med sin liberala status.

  • 10.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Introduktion2013In: Varför inte Socialism? och Om den egalitära rättvisans valuta / [ed] G. A. Cohen, Daidalos, 2013Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Justice among Us: A Philosophical Analysis of Michael Walzer’s Theory of Justice2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The American philosopher Michael Walzer has been regarded as one of the most influential theorists in the field of distributive justice since the publication of Spheres of Justice in 1983. However, despite the popularity, his theory is often misunderstood or said to suffer from serious shortcomings.

    The aim of the dissertation is to present and defend a clearer and stronger version of Walzer’s theory of distributive justice. After a brief sketch of Walzer’s early works, in which important concepts were introduced and developed, the mature theory is analysed. By subjecting the key areas of Walzer’s theory to a critical and reconstructive philosophical analysis, a stronger and more detailed account is gained. Important ideas and concepts such as community, consent, interpretation, social meanings, complex equality and minimal morality are discussed, criticised and revised in order to strengthen the theory. In addition, a comparison is made between John Rawls’s method of wide reflective equilibrium and Walzer’s interpretative method; it is argued that the methods of the two philosophers exhibit considerable similarities.

  • 12.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Michael Sandel: What Money Can’t Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets2014In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 37-44Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Ethics of Free Soloing2010In: Climbing: because it's there / [ed] Stephen E. Schmid, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, p. 158-168Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Agulanna, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    Informed Consent in Sub-Saharan African Communal Culture: The2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Some scholars argue that the principle of voluntary informed consent is rooted in the Western ethos of liberal individualism; that it would be difficult to implement this requirement in societies where the norms of decision-making emphasize collective rather than individual decision-making (for example, Sub-Saharan Africa); that it would amount to “cultural imperialism” to seek to implement the principle of voluntary informed consent in non-Western societies. This thesis rejects this skepticism about the possibility of implementing the informed consent requirement in non-Western environments and argues that applying the principle of voluntary informed consent in human subjects’ research in Sub-Saharan African communal culture could serve as an effective measure to protect vulnerable subjects from possible abuses or exploitations. The thesis proposes the “multi-step” approach to informed consent as the best approach to the implementation of the principle in the African communal setting. The thesis argues that the importance of the “multi-step” approach lies in the fact that it is one that is sensitive to local culture and customs. On the question of whether the principle of voluntary informed consent should be made compulsory in research, the thesis answers that we have no choice in the matter.

  • 15.
    Ahamadu, Ibrahim
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    Intellectual Property Rights: A Barricade to Technological Development. An Ethical Analysis on the Less Developed Countries2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Debate over Intellectual Property Rights ‘IPRs’ particularly patent and copyrights is mainly on forward-looking industries in computer software. As part of a trade deal reached in 1994, the member nations of the World Trade Organisation must adhere to a global agreement known as TRIPS, for the Trade- Related Aspect of Intellectual Property Rights.

    This study is to analyse the ethical conception of Intellectual Property Rights and in particular its implications on the developing countries in relation to TRIPS. The approach will be to analyse a broad philosophical theories of property to see if there is any justification for a software program to be treated as private property and also argue base on John Rawls two principles of justice in relation to TRIPS Agreement. Some reflections will be put on the use of open-source software by less developing countries.

    From the study it was asserted that, strong IPRs protection would hinder technological transfer and indigenous learning activities in the early stage of industrialisation when learning takes place through reverse engineering. And policy makers should consider differentiation in terms of the level of economic and industrial development, if protection and enforcement of IPRs is intended to enhance technological development.

  • 16.
    Ahlgren, Jennie
    et al.
    Ethics Unit, Centre for Theology and Religious Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Nordgren, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Perrudin, Maud
    Keller and Heckman LLP, Brussels, Belgium.
    Rondeltap, Amber
    LEI, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Savigny, Jean
    Keller and Heckman LLP, Brussels, Belgium.
    van Trijp, Hans
    Marketing and Consumer Behaviour, Group Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Nordström, Karin
    School of Education and Communication, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Görman, Ulf
    Ethics Unit, Centre for Theology and Religious Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Consumers on the Internet: ethical and legal aspects of commercialization of personalized nutrition2013In: Genes & Nutrition, ISSN 1555-8932, E-ISSN 1865-3499, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 349-355Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers often have a positive attitude to the option of receiving personalized nutrition advice based upon genetic testing, since the prospect of enhancing or maintaining one’s health can be perceived as empowering. Current direct-to-consumer services over the Internet, however, suffer from a questionable level of truthfulness and consumer protection, in addition to an imbalance between far-reaching promises and contrasting disclaimers. Psychological and behavioral studies indicate that consumer acceptance of a new technology is primarily explained by the end user’s rational and emotional interpretation as well as moral beliefs. Results from such studies indicate that personalized nutrition must create true value for the consumer. Also, the freedom to choose is crucial for consumer acceptance. From an ethical point of view, consumer protection is crucial, and caution must be exercised when putting nutrigenomic-based tests and advice services on the market. Current Internet offerings appear to reveal a need to further guaranty legal certainty by ensuring privacy, consumer protection and safety. Personalized nutrition services are on the borderline between nutrition and medicine. Current regulation of this area is incomplete and undergoing development. This situation entails the necessity for carefully assessing and developing existing rules that safeguard fundamental rights and data protection while taking into account the sensitivity of data, the risks posed by each step in their processing, and sufficient guarantees for consumers against potential misuse.

  • 17.
    Ahlin, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    What is Wrong Between Us?: On the problem of circularity in Scanlon's contractualism2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, the Scanlonian contractualist formula will be understood as follows: Within the domain of morality of what we owe to each other, an action is morally wrong if it follows principles that similarly motivated people can reasonably reject. Consequently, the concept of ‘reasonable rejection’ is the operative element in moral valuation, thus begging the question of what it is for a rejection to be reasonable. The problem of circularity in Scanlon’s contractualism builds upon a reading according to which Scanlon’s explanation of what it is to be ‘reasonably rejected’ seems to be understood as ‘when the action is morally wrong’. If this is the case, then Scanlon’s contractualism refers to its own thesis when performing moral valuations: that is wrong which can be reasonably rejected, and for an action to be reasonably rejected it must be morally wrong. The problem of circularity apparently renders Scanlon’s contractualism ‘empty’ as it cannot explain what it is for an action to be morally wrong without referring to its own thesis.

    In this essay I will try to clarify the difference between welfarist and structural charges of circularity. I will argue that the structural charges of circularity are due to a fallacious constructivist reading of What We Owe to Each Other. As I understand Scanlon, the constructivist reading places Scanlon’s theory too close to the contractualist tradition. I will also argue that critics holding Scanlon’s contractualism to be circular have failed to note that his theory only claims to cover a narrow domain of morality. Where critics hold Scanlon’s contractualism to refer to its own thesis when performing moral valuations I will argue that the theory refers to moral domains outside that of what we owe to each other. Hopefully my discussion on constructivism and circularity will shed some light on the simple brilliance and practical applicability of Scanlon’s contractualism.

    I will give a brief overview of What We Owe to Each Other before I present the critique put forth by Onora O’Neill, Mark Timmons and Joseph Raz. Then I will show how Scanlon treats the problem of circularity in his book, and how his defense targets substantial and not structural charges of circularity. I will then show that the structural critique is fallacious by analyzing the domain of morality that Scanlon’s contractualism targets. Finally I will try to apply Scanlon’s formula on personal relationships and on environmental issues. As of this point I will refer to Scanlon’s thesis as ‘contractualism’ while other theories following the contractualist tradition will be referred to as ‘contractarian’.

  • 18.
    Ahlqvist, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Hyenor och kaniner i den platsspecifika konsten2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen berör den platsspecifika konstens spännvidd genom en fallstudie av två verk. Det ena verket har tillkommit genom en tävling som arrangerats av företag, organisationer, institutioner och kommuner. Det andra verket är ett privatfinansierat gatukonstverk som upplåtits utan tillstånd. Genom uppsatsen förs en diskussion om de båda verkens tillkomst och syfte samt hur de respektive städerna Stockholm och Söderköping förhållit sig till verken.

  • 19.
    Ahlsén, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Språk, hjärnan och kognition2012In: Kognitionsvetenskap / [ed] Jens Allwood & Mikael Jensen, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 437-552Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kognitionsvetenskap är den första boken på svenska som beskriver kärnan i kognitionsvetenskap - att förstå hur människor tänker. Den spänner därmed över ett brett tvärvetenskapligt fält som inrymmer filosofi, lingvistik, psykologi, antropologi, datavetenskap och neuro­vetenskap. Författarna beskriver hur ämnet har vuxit fram och hur man kan studera kognition utifrån filosofiska, psykologiska och neurovetenskapliga aspekter. Även språkvetenskapliga och sociala aspekter på tänkande presenteras. Författarna tar dessutom upp relationen mellan mänskligt tänkande och djurs tänkande, samt utvecklingen av kognition från barndom till vuxen ålder. Avslutningsvis berörs flera aspekter av tänkande i förhållande till teknologi, både som stöd för tänkande och som simulering av tänkande.

    Boken vänder sig till studenter som läser introduktionskurs eller grundkurs i kognitionsvetenskap, men är även lämplig för beteendevetenskapliga eller språkinriktade utbildningar. Den kan även vara av intresse för alla som vill förstå mer om mänskligt tänkande.

  • 20.
    Akbarzadeh, Parisa
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. pania1359.
    Comparing music, lyrics, and singing in teaching Swedish children the phonetics of English2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout time, teachers, philosophers and scientists have recognized the valuable place of music for language learning and correct pronunciation. There are many researches over the last twenty years who has worked on different theories of language learning through different strategies. Many of the researchers find the pedagogical relations between language and music. The first part of this pilot study focuses on the factors that influence learning the second language as English by different theories. The study continues on comparing different strategies of learning the phonetics and correct pronunciation of English words by examining their learning through different ways such as hearing and reading.

  • 21.
    Alfredsson, Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Varför tappade skolan tron?: En analys av religionsämnets förändring relaterat till sekulariseringen i Sverige2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen har varit att försöka se ett samband mellan religionsämnets förändring och den sekulariseringsprocess som det svenska samhället genomgått de senaste femtio åren. Genom en litteraturstudie har jag tagit reda på och förklarat de förändringar ämnet genomgått med hjälp av bl.a. äldre kursplaner. För att förklara sekulariseringens förändring har jag använt mig av svenska forskare, och tillika forskning gjord på det svenska samhället. Sekularisering får ses som en religiös förändring bort från en enhetsstat, och över lag är det kristendomens förlorade mark som i arbetet benämns som sekularisering.

    Avslutningsvis kommer förändringen inom ämnet religionskunskap ställas mot den sekularisering som skett för att försöka se samband, en diskussion om ämnets vara eller icke-vara i skolan avslutar arbetet.

  • 22.
    Algotsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transgression and Tradition: Redefining Gender Roles in Elizabeth Gaskell´s North and South2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay argues that Elizabeth Gaskell challenges the limiting gender roles of the Victorian era through giving her heroine, Margaret Hale in North and South, both the traditionally female qualities of virtue and selflessness and the traditionally masculine qualities of independence and action. The essay also argues that Gaskell’s heroine balances between the feminine and the masculine world as to not appear “unwomanly”, but rather subtly influencing the readers and calls for changing gender norms. Concrete examples of the heroine’s gender transgressions are put forward, but also her compliance to the traditional gender roles summed up in three roles or themes: the angel in the house, the female visitor and the refined lady.

    This essay also provides a didactic approach on working with North and South and the topic of Victorian gender norms in the upper secondary school. The relevance of and reasons for reading literature in school are also presented. The didactic chapter offers a concrete lesson plan on how to work with the theme of Victorian gender norms, which may develop students’ emphatic skills and also make them aware of ties between themselves and people that lived a long time ago.

  • 23.
    Algotsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilhelmsson, Cornelia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Litteratursamtalet som didaktiskt verktyg: Forskningslägets förändring mellan 2005 och 20152015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att studera forskningen om muntlig bearbetning av skönlitteratur mellan 2005 och 2015. Ett speciellt fokus har legat på forskningen mellan 2010 och 2015, detta för att ge en överblick över forskningens aktuella läge och troliga utveckling. I ljuset av det katastrofala resultatet i PISA-undersökningen 2012 valde vi att rikta fokus mot litteratursamtalets läsutvecklande möjligheter och den forskning som bedrivits på området. För att studien ska ha hög yrkesrelevans har studerats benämningar och modeller för bearbetningen, men också konkreta effekter av bearbetningen och hur man rent praktiskt uppnår dessa på bästa sätt i undervisningen. Studien har genomförts med utgångspunkt i en systematisk litteraturstudie och har tagit avstamp ur ett sociokulturellt perspektiv. Det har framkommit att bearbetningen av skönlitteratur har flera olika benämningar vilket kan orsaka förvirring, och flertalet modeller och teorier, både nya och äldre, har presenterats. De goda effekterna av den muntliga bearbetningen kan summeras i två teman: läslust och läsutveckling. För att dessa effekter ska uppnås bör ett dialogiskt klassrumsklimat råda, enligt forskarna, vilket i praktiken har visat sig svårt. Forskarna ägnar dessutom stort utrymme till aspekter kring lärarens roll och dennes frågeställningar. I jämförelse med tidigare forskning (såsom Chambers, Langer och Dysthe) framkom att liten del av senare forskning går emot den tidigare, snarare har forskningen blivit mer specifik samt till viss del öppnat upp för nya former av litteratursamtal.

  • 24.
    Ali, Yasmin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature.
    Säberg, Maja
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature.
    Fostering Students’ Oral Communication Skills in the Second Language Classroom: Främja elevers muntliga kommunikationsförmågor i andraspråksklassrummet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This   thesis was carried out with data collected from a school in the south of India and written by two students becoming teachers of English. The aim of   this thesis is to find out how a teacher can foster and develop student’s   oral communication skills so that they have the ability, willingness and   confidence to speak English. The thesis is based upon the following research   questions:

    • What   factors, according to the students and teachers, are important for developing   and fostering oral communication skills?
    • What speaking activities did the students   and teacher find important for developing and fostering oral communication skills?

    The main findings of this study showed that the teachers found a comfortable environment,   expansion of vocabulary, letting students choose their own topics and importance of good communication skills important when fostering students’ oral communication skills. The students in this study expressed that choosing topics and feeling comfortable in natural communicative situations was important for the development of their oral communication skills: This study, as well as previous studies, found that a teacher can in fact help students increase both their motivation and confidence by planning lessons revolving around topics that are of interest to students, as well as give them the scope to choose their own topics when practicing oral communication activities. Furthermore, the result for the second research question showed that there were several speaking activities that the teachers and students found important for developing and fostering oral communication skills. Some of these were everyday activities which increased their vocabulary, carrying out speeches that allowed the students to choose topics and role-play, such as debates.

  • 25.
    Ali, Yasmin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Säberg, Maja
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    The Effects of ‘Flipping’ a Classroom with the Focus on Teaching English as a Second Language2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review analyses what advantages and disadvantages can be gained by utilizing the flipped classroom method. The Swedish curriculum has been taken into consideration when conducting this review in order to see whether the method is compatible with the aim of the subject of English in the Swedish upper secondary school. Two key principles behind the flipped classroom are ‘active learning’ and ‘student-centered learning’. These key principles have been discussed and contrasted with the terms: ‘passive learning’ and ‘teacher-centered learning’. Acknowledging the fact that it is a challenge to engage students in their own learning as well as have them realize the benefits of doing so, this paper also highlights the advantages of implementing technology tools in the classroom where one can meet the needs of the students of today. The results of this literature review show that there are many advantages when utilizing the flipped classroom method. For example, the flipped classroom creates well-suited environments where discussions can take place, as the in-class activities aim at all students being engaged, applying concepts and sharing ideas. However, the results also show some disadvantages that may come when converting to a flipped classroom. Some of these are that the flipped model takes adjustment time, students need to adapt to the transition to a flipped classroom,and preparing online lessons is time consuming. Furthermore, both students and teachers need to learn how to use the new technology that comes with the flipped classroom model.

  • 26.
    Alm, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att umgås med döden: metaforens begränsning2017In: Föreställningar om döden: forskares aspekter på vår existens och dess begränsning / [ed] Kjell O. Lejon, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2017, p. 156-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Alm, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Culture and Aesthetics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Från imperiets synvinkel sett: Södra Kinas icke-hanfolk som "de andra" under den tidiga Qingdynastin2018In: Perspektiv på "den andre" / [ed] Kjell O. Lejon, Carlsson Bokförlag, 2018, p. 210-233Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Almgren, Karin
    et al.
    Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen.
    Collste, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    Larhammar, Dan
    Uppsala universitet .
    Strandvik, Birgitta
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Vetenskapsrådets friande av forskningsfusk obegripligt2011In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hård kritik mot friande beslut. Förra hösten fann vi att en medicinforskare fabricerat och förfalskat forskningsresultat. Det är den mest omfattande utredningen om forsknings­fusk under efterkrigstiden. För två veckor sedan drog Vetenskapsrådets nye chef tillbaka utredningen med en motivering som är helt tagen ur luften. Beslutet riskerar att ytterligare försämra förtroendet för forskningen i Sverige och för arbetet mot forskningsfusk, skriver den expertgrupp i Vetenskapsrådet som utredde miss­tankarna mot forskaren.

  • 29.
    Almquist, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Swedish Studies and Comparative Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Övriga världen: Om svensklärares arbete med litteratur från skilda delar av världar2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka hur svensklärare arbetar med litteratur från övriga världen, hur de tolkar styrdokumenten, vad de anser att en text ”från övriga världen” kan vara, hur de väljer litteratur och vilka syften de ser med arbetet. Denna kvalitativa studie bygger på intervjuer av sex svensklärare verksamma i år 7-9 i grundskolan. Resultatet visar att lärarna ansåg att litteratur från övriga världen ska handla om ett annat land eller kultur och bör vara författad av någon som kommer från eller har stor erfarenhet av landet som beskrivs. Ett syfte med arbetet var att eleverna skulle få förståelse för sig själva och för andra människor, kulturer och länder genom att ta del av olika perspektiv, erfarenheter, känslor och tankar. Detta i sin tur kunde syfta till att motverka rasism, nazism, främlingsfientlighet och fördomar. Öva läsförståelse, lästeknik, allmänbildning, upplevelse och verklighetsflykt var andra syften som framkom. Litteraturen som användes på skolorna kom från olika länder även om en övervägande del var av västerländskt ursprung. Skolbiblioteket, kollegor, internet, nationella proven i svenska, nobelpristagare i litteratur och lärarens privata läsning var inspirationskällor när lärare skulle välja litteratur. Arbetssätt med litteratur var ofta tema, läsning - i grupper, enskilt eller högt- med efterföljande diskussion eller frågor att besvara.

  • 30.
    Almqvist, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Doloresvariationer: Queeranalytiska perspektiv på sexuella relationer med stora åldersskillnader inom svensk prosa2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tanken med uppsatsen är alltså att belysa kön och ålders betydelse för hur man skildrar och betraktar sexuella relationer. Jag har därför valt att analysera fyra skönlitterära verk, där kvinnan respektive mannen är den äldre parten i relationen, och den skildras ur kvinnan respektive mannens perspektiv. På grund av fokuseringen på könsskillnader är det alltså främst heterosexuella relationer som behandlas, men även överträdelser från detta inom verken är av stor vikt. Jag kommer även analysera hur verken mottagits, vilka diskussioner som kommits att föras om dem inom kritiken. För att rättvisare kunna jämföra verken och mottagandet har jag valt att fokusera på enbart svenska verk och mottagandet i Sverige. Verken är tidsmässigt utspridda över 35 år, då jag även velat undersöka om man kan se någon förändring i attityden till dessa frågor över tid.

    En av romanerna som kommer att behandlas är Larssons ovan nämnda Autisterna, där det alltså rör sig om en äldre man och en flicka, ur mannens perspektiv. Detta kommer att sättas i relation till en roman som enligt Witt-Brattströms premisser ”ger flickan en röst”: Darling River (2010) av Sara Stridsberg (f.1972). Här får man bland annat följa den 13- till 30-åriga Lo, som frivilligt har sex med ett flertal betydligt äldre män. Vad gäller relationer där kvinnan är äldre kommer jag använda mig av Liknelseboken (2013) av Per-Olov Enquist (f.1934), där den 15 åriga Per-Olov har frivilligt sex med den 51-åriga Ellen, och Jag minns alla mina älskare och hur de brukade ta på mig (2000) av Kerstin Thorvall (1925–2010), där den 40- till 50-åriga Kerstin har samlag med ett flertal villiga män i 20-års åldern.

    Uppsatsen kommer alltså att behandla sexuella relationer med betydande åldersskillnader i bred bemärkelse, inte enbart vad som vanligtvis skulle diskuteras i samband med pedofili. Detta för att kunna problematisera vad kring vad kön och ålder har för betydelse för uppfattningarna om sexuella relationer: vem som ses som ett barn, vem som uppfattas som ett subjekt, och vad som anses vara sjukligt eller ett övergrepp. I alla verk är det dock minst 20 år mellan parterna, och den yngre parten beskrivs upprepade gånger som ett barn.

  • 31.
    Almqvist, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Swedish Studies and Comparative Literature.
    Hysterikornas drottning: Historieproblematisering i P.O. Enquists Boken om Blanche och Marie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur Enquist i Boken om Blanche och Marie med fiktionens hjälp kan sägas ”revidera”, eller åtminstone problematisera, historieskrivningen, ur ett diskursanalytiskt perspektiv, och vad det får för betydelse för bilden av de två kvinnorna. Detta anser jag vara viktigt att undersöka, då kvinnor ibland framstår som historiskt förtryckta och passiviserade i dagens feministiska forskning. Andra vinningar till trots kan det leda till att den kvinnliga offerrollen befästs; här vill jag alltså undersöka möjligheten att genom fiktionen erbjuda en alternativ bild av det förflutna. De frågeställningar jag kommer utgå ifrån är: På vilket sätt förhåller sig Enquist till den manliga historieskrivningen? Hur avviker romanen från de diskurser som tidigare förts om kvinnor, vetenskap och sjukdom utifrån denna period? Vad får detta för betydelse för bilderna av de kvinnor som figurerar i romanen?

  • 32.
    Almqvist, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Metafysik för vilddjur: En ekokritisk läsning av Donna Tartts The Secret History2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturen i The Secret History beskrivs både som en ytlig omgivning, som instinkter och lagar, som material eller fenomen. Det ges uttryck både för hur människor kan kontrollera och använda sig av den, och hur det är någonting som står över oss. Detta kan tyda på att naturen, istället för att vara någonting annat än människan, är ett intrikat system av påverkan som vi innefattas i. Samtidigt skiljs dock människan från naturen genom språket, där ord som mänskligt, kultiverat, artificiellt och rationellt får sin betydelse i motsättning till djuriskt, primitivt, naturligt och instinktivt. Djuriskhet skildras tillexempel både någonting som finns inom alla människor, och något som skiljs ifrån det mänskliga genom att benämnas som djuriskt. Romanen kan således sägas vara väldigt realistisk i dagens samhälle med ”complex and contradictory attitudes to ’nature’ and our place within it”. Samma sak gäller huvudpersonerna och händelserna i boken. Drivet bakom backanalen är att förlora det rationella och mänskliga jaget, att helt gå upp i det primitiva och djuriska, i naturen. De upphöjer det irrationella, samtidigt som de närmar sig detta rationellt. De försöker använda sig av kulturen för att komma närmare naturen, de försöker forcera fram det naturliga. De avslöjas som förljugna så till den grad att det kan anses vara deras sanna natur. Romanen efterliknar en tragedi men innehåller även element från den kritiska komedin. Allting blir komplext och motsägande, det går således inte att läsa ut något entydigt svar på hur man ser på eller använder sig av naturen, utan det är just komplexiteten som förmedlas. Även om berättelsen går ut på att bli en del av, eller inse att vi är, en del av naturen, så visar dessa ständiga motsättningar på hur vårt tänkande och vårt språk sätter upp hinder för att fullständigt kunna gå upp i naturen, eftersom allt tänkande och talande om naturen kräver att vi distanserat oss från den. Människorna är alltså i grunden en naturlig varelse, men som skiljer sig från den i ögonblicket de reflekterar över naturen, det blir alltså en slags metafysik för vilddjur. Även om Tartts roman således inte ger någon entydig bild av naturen eller ger anspråk på att vara sann mot någon slags objektiv natur kan den i högsta grad anses vara sann mot vår komplexa och motsägande syn på, diskurs om, och användning av naturen. 

  • 33.
    Alphonce, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Uncovered Faith: Examples of Sunni Muslim Beliefs in Adana, Turkey2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about uncovered women's faith and worship in an urban setting in contemporary Turkey. It researches the possibility of any common factors for uncovered Sunni Muslims' faith and worship as well as what parts of classical Muslim faith they have found negotiable. The essay relates to current literature and research on the topic as well as provides an insider perspective based on interviews with Turkish women.

  • 34.
    Al-saeedi, Habeeb
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Code Alternation on the Air: The use of Arabic religious expressions in Algerian television interviews2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a study involving two languages: French and Arabic, this thesis examines the patterns and meanings of Arabic religious expressions as a code alternation practice in Algerian television interviews. It is concerned with investigating what participants may accomplish by selecting Arabic over French in some points of interaction to deploy religious expressions in their utterances. It also aims at exploring what the function is that these expressions may achieve for the organization of talk-in-interaction. Based on their manifestation in the participants’ utterances, the current study identifies four categories of the use of religious expressions in Algerian media talk where they appear as: transition words to switch to Arabic to keep going on in interaction; in adjacency pairs as a result of a reciprocal invocation between participants; devices to hold the floor and continue turns in interaction; and finally, signals for closing turns and shifting topics where a speakership change or a move to a new topic is possible. 

  • 35.
    Al-Saffar, Cherine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature.
    Widman, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature.
    Litterär kompetens i klassrummet: En undersökning av metoder och verktyg för att arbeta med skönlitteratur2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats reds begreppet litterär kompetens ut och dess tre delar - konstitutionell kompetens, performanskompetens och literary transfer-kompetens. De tre delarna kompletterar varandra och är alla lika nödvändiga. Ett flertal metoder inom läsning, skrivande och samtal tas upp som olika sätt att utveckla dessa. Studien visar på att flera metoder med fördel kan användas för att utveckla respektive kompetens, och att lärarens roll påverkar vilken kompetens som utvecklas. Uppsatsen är baserad på både forskning inom området och erfarna lärares tillvägagångssätt. 

  • 36.
    Alsegård, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Ta trappan till uppsatsen: En studie om stöd och hinder i uppsatsskrivande bland yrkesverksamma deltidsstudenter vid Nationellt Centrum för Utomhuspedagogik2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    “To take the stair to the Essay” is a hermeneutically bent empirical study based on a qualitative research. In the interviews, which are done with two focus groups with help of semi- structured questions, eight students participated who studied the Master program in Outdoor Education 2007-2009 at Linköpings University (LiU).

    The purpose with this essay is to examine with an empirical study how students who are studying Outdoor Education at Linköpings University experiences their process to begin, carry out and complete their writing of the Master Essay. In the study I focus on the significance of support and what possible obstacles the students experienced personally, in their surroundings and in relation with the University.

    The result shows that the majority of these adult students, which on average work approximately 90% parallel to the part time studies on 50%, thought that the most important factors of motivations before the beginning of the Essay was the own feeling of inward satisfaction along with gaining increased respect from colleagues and employers for their work.

    During the realization the majority thought that different “mental tools” had been supportive, together with when there had been a plain progress in the step-form applicable especially with the literature and the reflection. It was also positive to begin early with the Essay during the course. There was a concern for not getting continuously guidance and plain and concrete information about the Essay writing from LiU, which felt like an obstacle in the writing process.

    At the end of the writing process the importance of outward confirmation had decreased and the own inward motivation was the most important. The social group process regarded to have had significance on the realization of the course and the participants wished a more web based contact between the meetings.

  • 37.
    Alsegård, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, National Centre for Outdoor Education (NCU).
    Ta trappan till uppsatsen: En studie om stöd och hinder i uppsatsskrivande bland yrkesverksamma deltidsstudenter vid Nationellt Centrum för Utomhuspedagogik.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    "To take the stair to the Essay" is a hermeneutically bent empirical study based on a qualitative research. In the interviews, which are done with two focus groups with help of semi-structured questions, eight students participated who studied the Master program in Outdoor Education 2007-2009 at Linköpings University (LiU).

    The purpose with this essay is to examine with an empirical study how students who are studying Outdoor Education at LiU experiences their process to begin, carry out and complete their writing of the Master Essay. In the study I focus on the significance of support and what possible obstacles the students experienced personally, in their surroundings and in relation with the University.

    The result shows that the majority of these adult students, which on average work approximately 90% parallel to the part time studies on 50%, thought that the most important factors of motivations before the beginning of the Essay was the own feeling of inward satisfaction along with gaining increased respect from colleagues and employers for their work.

    During the realization the majority thought that different "mental tools" had been supportive, together with when there had been a plain progress in the step-form applicable especially with the literature and the reflection. It was also positive to begin early with the Essay during the course. There was a concern for not getting continuously guidance and plain and concrete information about the Essay writing from LiU, which felt like an obstacle in the writing process.

    At the end of the writing process the importance of outward confirmation had decreased and the own inward motivation was the most important. The social group process regarded to have had significance on the realization of the course and the participants wished a more web based contact between the meetings.

  • 38.
    Alshammari, Rama
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Modern Languages.
    La critique réaliste de Flaubert et Maupassant sur la situation de la femme à travers les personnages d'Emma et de Jeanne2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [fr]

    Le réalisme, d’après Larousse, est une « [t]endance littéraire et artistique du XIXe s., qui privilégie la représentation exacte, tels qu'ils sont, de la nature, des hommes, de la société ». Pendant la deuxième moitié du XIXe siècle les problèmes sociaux, comme les conditions de travail, le manque de logements et d’argents, influencent l’art et la littérature. Beaucoup d’écrivains français ont représenté la réalité dans leurs oeuvres.

    Dans ce mémoire, j’ai choisi d’étudier Madame Bovary de Gustave Flaubert et Une vie de Guy de Maupassant parce que les auteurs décrivent la réalité et le pessimisme qui existent dans la vie du XIXe siècle. Ils s’opposaient au romantisme parce qu’ils se tournaient vers la science et vers les aspects matériels pour représenter la réalité et n’accordaient aucune importance à la rêverie et à la sensibilité. De plus, ces deux romans ont un point commun, tous deux racontent l’histoire d’une femme romantique qui souhaite avoir une bonne vie comme dans ses rêves. Ce sont deux romans qui parlent de la situation de la femme à cette époque-là.

    Flaubert a été critiqué après avoir publié son oeuvre Madame Bovary en 1857 parce qu’il exprimait avec honnêteté, ce qui était interdit dans la société. En racontant l’histoire d’Emma, il fait une peinture où il décrit la situation dans la société, la vérité dure de la vie et des gens à travers son personnage Emma Bovary qui est l’héroïne. Son chef-d’oeuvre était plus précisément considéré comme une mauvaise image de la femme par la société parce qu’elle cherchait l’amour avec d’autres hommes que son mari.

    En 1883, presque 30 ans plus tard, Une Vie a été publié. L’auteur, Maupassant, et son oeuvre étaient influencés par Flaubert et son oeuvre ressemblait aux idées et presque même à l’histoire de Madame Bovary. Dans son roman, il crée une image du pessimisme de sa société à cette époque-là en la montrant dans la vie de son héroïne, Jeanne.

    Ce mémoire va analyser les traits réalistes chez Flaubert et Maupassant, c'est-à-dire les choses sur lesquelles dépendent les deux auteurs pour expliquer le plus parfaitement possible la réalité. Cela peut impliquer la description en détail du milieu et l’analyse des personnages. Mais le but principal ou l’objectif de ce mémoire est de montrer comment Madame Bovary et Une Vie dépeignent, à l’aide de l’esthétique réaliste, la condition féminine au XIXe siècle à travers les personnages d’Emma et de Jeanne. C'est-à-dire de montrer l’image réaliste, par le point de vue de Flaubert et Maupassant, concernant la situation de la femme. Pour réaliser l’objectif de mon mémoire, je ferai une comparaison entre les deux héroïnes de Madame Bovary et Une Vie où j’analyserai, à l’aide des questions posées ci-dessous, la représentation de la situation de la femme de ce siècle. Je présenterai également le point de vue social, en ce qui concerne la condition féminine, selon lequel elle est un objet soumis à l’influence de la société. Flaubert et Maupassant, montrent le destin tragique des deux héroïnes qui peut se produire pour de nombreuses raisons ; d’une part, il y a des facteurs sociaux comme les lois, les moeurs et les traditions, d’autre part, il y a le manque de compréhension pour les sentiments et les personnalités des femmes. Les deux oeuvres sont donc une critique réaliste de l’époque qui est expliquée à travers la personnalité des personnages, Emma et Jeanne.

    Les questions seront donc : Est-ce que les personnages (qui peuvent être vus comme des représentants de la femme du XIXe siècle) sont victimes de ce siècle où elles doivent subir et obéir aux lois ? Est-ce qu’elles sont vraiment faibles et dépendantes des hommes qui dominent leur vie? Est-ce que Flaubert et Maupassant ont réussi à décrire, dans leurs romans, la situation de la femme pour critiquer leur société et pour montrer le pessimisme et la souffrance de leur époque à travers la condition de vie des deux héroïnes? Les deux romans répondent-ils donc à la définition du réalisme ? Alors en répondant à ces questions et en étudiant les deux personnages, on introduit la vision des deux écrivains sur le rôle de la femme dans leur société.

    J’ai trouvé de nombreux de recherches et d’articles qui traitent le sujet de réalisme. D’autres étudient la condition féminine dans la société en générale et même dans la littérature française. L’une des articles que j’ai trouvés utile pour approfondir l’objectif de ce mémoire, c’est par exemple l’article de Kuzucu Hamza « Deux conceptions de maternités : Madame de Renal et Madame Bovary ». Il montre la conception de la maternité chez la femme et comment ce sujet est traité par des auteurs dans la littérature.

    Avant de commencer à écrire sur ce sujet, je ferai tout d’abord une introduction au réalisme et ses thèmes principaux pour qu’on comprenne pourquoi et comment les deux auteurs écrivent pour montrer leurs idées dans leurs écritures. Puis, je présenterai les idées dominantes concernant la situation de la femme au XIXème siècle. Et après, je ferai une analyse de la personnalité des deux héroïnes qui peut donner, selon les deux auteurs, une représentation du réalisme dans ces deux oeuvres.

  • 39.
    Alyasiri, Inaam Hassan Rauf
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Unfolding Correction Sequences in Classroom Interaction and its Relevance to Face-work2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses correction sequences in classroom interaction when teachers correct students’ erroneous answers. The focus of this paper is the relevance between types and techniques of correction used by teachers to correct students’ answers and face-work. The study explains face-work necessity in classroom interaction since it increases students’ motivation to participate in classroom activities.  

  • 40.
    Amanze, Stanley Otitoaja
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    Technologised Parenthood: An Ethical Implacation of Human Reproductive Cloning2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Science and technology has been the bedrock of human growth and dynamism. Man has over the years distinguished his existence from all other beings by his ability to champion and fashion his existence. Among his tools is biotechnology which actually attenuates the fears of aging and death.

    Human reproductive cloning stands out as one of the means through which biotechnology plans to achieve this perfect existence for man. Technological advancements in the field of biotechnology are now in the threshold of human procreation.

    Human reproductive cloning is seen as an assisted method of reproduction which creates a newborn that is genetically identical to another human being.Human reproductive cloning as a technology and as a means of reproduction is not without its pros and cons. In as much as the technology promises to mention but a few, hope for the infertile couples and single parents, as well as the hope of reproduction without passing on hereditary diseases; it at the same time beeps some flashes of worry. Hence, the inherent threat to the notion of parenthood which does not smack of compromise, coupled with other ethical implications are reasons one may proffer not to have this technology.

    Technologised parenthood stands out as an implication of human reproductive cloning and as such it considers issues in human sexuality i.e. the place of human sexuality in reproduction and then the nature of the family which is the playground of human existence. This thesis focuses on this implication of human reproductive cloning while making a critical exposition of the concept of human reproductive cloning.

  • 41.
    Amir, Alia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Chronicles of the English Language in Pakistan: A discourse analysis of milestones in the language policy of Pakistan2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, I will be investigating educational policies with a focus on English as a medium of instruction. The medium of instruction in Pakistan varies with respect to each province and the social status of the school. Consequently, English is not taught only as a foreign language but is a medium for upward mobility.

    I will be investigating the chronicles of English as a medium of instruction in Pakistan both before and after the partition (1947) of British India. I have selected three phases: the mid-eighteenth century, the 1970s and the present decade. I will be tracing the similarities and differences in the language policies of these eras, and identifying any patterns which transcend these eras. I shall deal with each phase separately with a brief introduction and the rationale for their selection.

    The Colonial period which I have marked as an important phase is before 1857; the First War of Independence (also called the War of Mutiny). This is a period of the British East India Company Rule, and indirect involvement of the British Crown. My thesis revolves around the principle that language policy of an alien origin has played an important role in South Asian history which segregated between the colonized and the colonizer, which later turned to the segregation of the masses on the basis of Anglicised and non-Anglicised. I will also be looking at this segregation, in the LPP documents of the present decade as well.

    The language policy of the 1970s will be analyzed for the patterns in contrast with the present decade. The 1970s in Pakistan are a period of extraordinary chaos, beginning with a language-based separatist movement in East Pakistan gaining independence in 1971, the execution of a deposed elected prime minister and a nationalist language policy. Here, I would like to shed light on the reason of my label “nationalist” for this policy , as this was the only policy which determined, and made some concrete steps towards the establishment of Urdu as a medium of instruction, and Zia’s reinforcement of Urdu as a symbol of nationalism and Islam. But ironically this could not be implemented, in its true spirit either. This policy will not be dealt in detail, but the effect of its annulations on the present decade, if any.

    This decade will also be analyzed for patterns linked to the past colonial trajectories and the continuity of policies in favour of the English language as a medium of instruction. I will also be investigating the link between the present decade in relation to the interplay between colonial and Post- colonial influences.

    I would also like to bring forth the research carried on Pakistan’s language policy. The research carried on colonial India is vast, with researchers like Robert Philipson, and his influential book Linguistic Imperialism (1992). Pennycook (2001) also sheds light on the introduction of English language in colonial context and its implications.

    My contribution in this field is the comparison between the colonial and post-colonial policies with, Discourse Analysis. The selection of the policies of 2008 is also an advancement in this paper, which has helped in looking at the current policies in Pakistan.

  • 42.
    Amir, Alia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Doing Language Policy: A Micro-Interactional Study of Policy Practices in English as a Foreign Language Classes2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates foreign language classroom talk and micro-level language policy-in-process from an ethnomethodological conversation analytic perspective. The study is based on 20 hours of video recordings from 20 lessons in an English as a Foreign Language classroom (EFL) in grades 8 and 9 of an international compulsory school in Sweden between the years 2007 and 2010. The main purpose of the study is to shed light on some of the distinguishing features of how a target-language-only policy is materialised in situ in a foreign language classroom. The study demonstrates the relative ease with which teachers and pupils uphold a strict language policy in the classroom, but also the considerable interactional work that is done, by both teachers and pupils, in cases where upholding the policy becomes problematic. An interactional phenomenon which arises in such cases is language policing, where the teacher or pupils restore the policy-prescribed linguistic order. Such sequences are analysed in detail. The study increases our understanding of how language policy is lived out in practice, through interaction in the classroom.

    List of papers
    1. Language policing: Micro-level language policy-in-process in the foreign language classroom
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Language policing: Micro-level language policy-in-process in the foreign language classroom
    2013 (English)In: Classroom Discourse, ISSN 1946-3014, E-ISSN 1946-3022, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 151-167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines what we call micro-level language policy-in-process – that is, how a target-language-only policy emerges in situ in the foreign language classroom. More precisely, we investigate the role of language policing, the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or pupils to (re-)establish the normatively prescribed target language as the medium of classroom interaction in the English as a foreign language classroom of an international school in Sweden. Using ethnomethodological conversation analysis, we have identified a regular three-step sequence for language policing: (1) a (perceived) breach of the target-language-only rule, (2) an act of language policing and (3) an orientation to the target-language-only rule, usually in the guise of medium switching to the target language. Focusing primarily on teacher-to-pupil policing, where the teacher polices pupils’ (perceived) use of their L1 (Swedish), we identify three different categories of teacher-policing. These categories are based on particular configurations of features deployed in the three steps, such as initiator techniques (e.g.reminders, prompts, warnings and sanctions) and pupils’ responses to being policed (e.g. compliance or contestation).

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2013
    Keywords
    conversation analysis, classroom interaction, practiced language policy, code-switching, language policing.
    National Category
    Specific Languages Learning
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96370 (URN)10.1080/19463014.2013.783500 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-08-15 Created: 2013-08-15 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
    2. Self-policing in the English as a Foreign Language classroom
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-policing in the English as a Foreign Language classroom
    2013 (English)In: Novitas-ROYAL, ISSN 1307-4733, E-ISSN 1307-4733, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 84-105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores how classroom participants invoke a monolingual target-language policy in an English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom, specifically focusing on one method of doing language policy through self-initiated language policing sequences, which I have called self-policing. Language policing refers to the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or the pupils to (re-)establish the normatively prescribed medium of classroom interaction (Amir & Musk, 2013; cf. Bonacina & Gafaranga, 2011). The data comes from sequential analyses of 20 hours of video recordings in grades 8 & 9 of an international compulsory school in Sweden between the years 2007-2010. Drawing on Auer (1984) and Gafaranga’s (1999) organisational code-switching framework, this study sheds light on how teachers and pupils self-initiate a switch to English in their interactions. As will be demonstrated, both teachers and pupils, while orienting to the English-only norm, use a three-step sequence for language policing.

    Keywords
    Classroom interaction, code-switching, conversation analysis, language policy, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), language in education policy (LIEP)
    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100197 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-10-30 Created: 2013-10-30 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Pupils Doing Language Policy: Micro-interactional insights from the English as a foreign language classroom
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pupils Doing Language Policy: Micro-interactional insights from the English as a foreign language classroom
    2014 (English)In: Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1457-9863, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 93-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine instances of the methods pupils deploy to do language policy in an English as a foreign language classroom in Sweden, where there is a locally practised English-only rule. Although we exemplify some more tacit methods of constructing a monolingual classroom (Slotte-Lüttge 2007), we focus primarily on instances where pupils police other pupils and on occasion even the teacher, when they are perceived not to be upholding the rule. This blatantly explicit method of pupils doing language policy, which we term language policing, generally serves to (re-)establish and maintain English as the medium of interaction and instruction. The data for this study consists of video-recordings of 18 EFL lessons in an International Swedish school and was collected in grade 8 and 9 classes (15-16 year olds) between the years 2007-2010. In order to reveal the interactional orientations of the participants in situ (Seedhouse, 1998:101), conversation analysis has been used to identify and analyse naturally occurring cases of pupils doing language policy. By discussing the analyses with reference to different policing trajectories, how participants employ a range of initiator techniques, and the nature and distribution of their policing methods, for example, we elucidate the empirical basis for our subcategories of pupil- initiated policing. We also relate language policing practices to the maintenance of a monolingual classroom and conclude that establishing and maintaining the English-only rule “sufficient[ly] for all practical purposes” is a routine matter (cf. Zimmerman 1971:227), since little language policing is needed to maintain it. In cases where the language rule is breached, both pupils and teacher play an active role in (re-)establishing themonolingual classroom.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Centre for Applied Language Studies, University of Jyväskylä, 2014
    Keywords
    Conversation Analysis, practiced language policy, language policing, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), codeswitching.
    National Category
    Educational Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109347 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-08-14 Created: 2014-08-14 Last updated: 2018-11-23Bibliographically approved
  • 43.
    Amir, Alia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Language Policing: a look at the micro-level policy practices of the second language classroom2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Amir, Alia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Language policing the purist and monolinguist beliefs in the English as a Second Language classroom2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    English is the official policy in the school (under observation) for English as a Second Language (ESL) Classroom. However, the participants here actually police each other’s and their own language choice to accomplish this language policy. Language policing here refers to the collaborative co-construction and orientation of the participants to the micro-level language policy in situ. The participants’ indigenous way of interpreting the official policy is negotiated, challenged and accomplished online. The official policy of the classroom is based on purist and monolinguist belief which entails that “English-only” is spoken in the classroom both by the teacher and the pupils. Swedish is deemed as a forbidden language. To keep “English-only” rule, however, alternate practices of policing emerge to avoid Swedish in the class. The study highlights the alternate practices displayed by the participants which emerge because of language policing.

    The empirical data of the study comprises of over 20 hours of video recordings of ESL classrooms in an International Swedish school. The data was collected between the years 2008-2010 in the grades 8 and 9. There are 17 incidences of language policing in the data. The English language teachers of this particular school follow an “English-only” policy which is enforced through a point system.

    The study aims to contribute to the research in the micro orientation of the second language (L2) classroom (Hellermann, 2008; Cekaite, 2006; Seedhouse, 2004). It is also an attempt to see how through talk and actions participants defy the policies in practice that are monolinguist and purist.

    References

    Cekaite, A. (2006) Getting started: Children’s participation and language learning in an L2 classroom. Tema Barn: Linköping Studies in Arts and Science.

    Hellermann, J. (2008) Social Actions for Classroom Language Learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

    Seedhouse, P. (2004) The Interactional Architecture of the Language Classroom: A Conversation Analysis Perspective. Oxford. Blackwell.

  • 45.
    Amir, Alia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture.
    Nature of repair in other-intiated language policing2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a recent interest in the practices dimension of language policy (Skilton-Sylvester, 2008; Vila I Moreno, 2008) in the field of language policy and planning (LPP).This interest has been ranging from a macro/micro contrast of language policy (Martin, 2009) to actual language practices to classroom practices with regards to school policy (Heller, 1996, 2001, 2007). A large number of studies deal with practices of language in education but to date there still is a gap in the research conducted in the language classrooms investigating the medium of classroom interaction in situ. The aim of this study is to fill the gap in foreign language teaching research with an ethnomethodological conversation analysis lens where the target language- only is the school policy. The practices of this ESL (English as a Second Language) classroom reveal the actual “medium of classroom interaction” which changes moment by moment and turn by turn. To keep the target language-only policy the participants switch the medium of talk of self and the other through language policing.

    The aim of this study is to focus on other-initiated language policing as a special repair practice. The nature of repair in this case is different from repair in general as the trouble in the talk-in-interaction in this case is the medium of talk. Preliminary results show that in each category of other-policing there are differing trajectories of repair.

    The empirical data for this study consists of 20 hours of video recordings in an international Swedish school. The data was collected in ESL classrooms in grade 8 and 9 between the years 2007-2010. A monolingual policy is followed by the English language teachers of this school in ESL classrooms, which is kept in place through a teacher versus pupils’ point system.

  • 46.
    Amir, Alia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Self-policing: How English-only is upheld in the foreign language classroom2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Amir, Alia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Self-policing in the English as a Foreign Language classroom2013In: Novitas-ROYAL, ISSN 1307-4733, E-ISSN 1307-4733, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 84-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores how classroom participants invoke a monolingual target-language policy in an English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom, specifically focusing on one method of doing language policy through self-initiated language policing sequences, which I have called self-policing. Language policing refers to the mechanism deployed by the teacher and/or the pupils to (re-)establish the normatively prescribed medium of classroom interaction (Amir & Musk, 2013; cf. Bonacina & Gafaranga, 2011). The data comes from sequential analyses of 20 hours of video recordings in grades 8 & 9 of an international compulsory school in Sweden between the years 2007-2010. Drawing on Auer (1984) and Gafaranga’s (1999) organisational code-switching framework, this study sheds light on how teachers and pupils self-initiate a switch to English in their interactions. As will be demonstrated, both teachers and pupils, while orienting to the English-only norm, use a three-step sequence for language policing.

  • 48.
    Amir, Alia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The co-construction and negotiation of micro level language policy in an English as a second language classroom2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Amir, Alia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The language-policing practices constituting the emerging micro-level language policy-in-process in the EFL classroom: The example from a Swedish EFL classroom2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Amir, Alia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tracing micro-level language-policy in foreign language classrooms: a case study of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
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