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  • 1. Alm Carlsson, G
    et al.
    Dance, DR
    Persliden, J
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics.
    Use of the concept of energy imparted in diagnostic radiology1999In: Applied Radiation and Isotopes, ISSN 0969-8043, E-ISSN 1872-9800, Vol. 50, p. 39-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Absorbed dose equations: The general solution of the absorbed dose equation and solutions under different kinds of radiation equilibrium1978Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This report is a logical continuation of two papers concerning basic concepts in dosimetry. The first paper (1) is u critical analysis of the concepts of ionizing radiation and energy imparted as defined by the ICRU (2). The second paper (3) gives a definition of the energy imparted, the fundamental quantity in radiation dosimetry, which is equivalent to that given by the ICRU but which has a different form. This alternative definition of the energy imparted is suitable in deriving a general expression, in terms of particle fluences and interaction cross sections, for the absorbed dose valid also in situations where no kind of radiation equilibrium is established. It is, however, today not possible to quantify this expression for the absorbed dose. All practical calculations of absorbed dose rely on the assumption of one or another type of radiation equilibrium. The aim of this work is to analyze different kinds of radiation equilibrium conditions and to find the corresponding exact expressions for the absorbed dose. The concept of radiation equilibrium is more carefully analyzed than has been done previously (4, 5, 6). Moreover, the definition of the mass energy absorption coefficient for indirectly (uncharged) ionizing particles is critically analyzed. A new definition is proposed relevant to calculations of the absorbed dose in cases when charged particle equilibrium exists within a homogeneous medium due to the uniform liberation of charged particles, by uncharged particles.

  • 3.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Bragg-Gray Dosimetry: Theory of Burch2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical approach to Bragg-Gray dosimetry is: a Bragg-Gray cavity is a cavity (detector) so small that, when inserted into a medium, it does not disturb the fluence of charged particles existing in the medium.

    This means that the ideal Bragg-Gray cavity (detector) is one of infinitesimal dimensions, a "point" detector. In practice, such detectors do not exist but many real detectors may, in a first approximation, be treated as Bragg-Gray detectors to a high degree of accuracy. Corrections needed (so called perturbation corrections) to account for the deviation of the signal from a practical detector from that of an ideal one has been treated by, e.g., ICRU 1984, Alm Carlsson, 1985, Svensson and Brahme 1986, Alm Carlsson 1987.

    Derivation of "perturbation corrections" needs careful consideration and under-standing of the ideal case, i.e., that from which deviations are to be corrected for. The ideal case of a Bragg-Gray detector has been treated by Bragg 1912, Gray 1936, Laurence 1937, Spencer and Attix 1955 and Burch 1955.

    The formulation of Bragg-Gray theory by Spencer and Attix has found wide practical application and has been treated in detail elsewhere. The theory of Burch treats the same problem as did Spencer and Attix, viz., the significance of generation and slowing down of delta-particles in both medium and detector. Burch treated the problem in considerable detail but didn't find a solution for practical calculations. From a physical point of view, however, there is much to learn from Burch's approach. Also, his treatment of so called track ends, evaluated in some detail by Burch 1957, has been adapted in later versions of the Spencer-Attix formulation of Bragg-Gray theory.

  • 4.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Burlins kavitetsteori1979Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Burlins kavitetsteori är en generell teori i den meningen att inga krav finns på detektorns dimensioner jämfört med sekundärelektronernas räckvidder. Detektorn måste dock vara "tunn" för fotonerna dvs inte ge någon nämnvärd attenuering av de mot detektorn infallande fotonerna

     

  • 5.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Effective use of Monte Carlo methods for simulating photon transport with special reference to slab penetration problems in X-raydiagnostics1981Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The analys is of Monte Carlo methods here has been made in connection with a particular problem concerning the transport of low energy photons (30-140 keV) through layers of water with thicknesses between 5 and 20 cm.

    While not claiming to be a complete exposition of available Monte Carlo techniques, the methodological analyses are not restricted to this particular problem. The report describes in a general manner a number of methods which can be used in order to obtain results of greater precision in a fixed computing time.

    Monte Carlo methods have been used for many years in reactor technology, particularly for solving problems associated with neutron transport, but also for studying photon transport through radiation shields. In connection with these particular problems, mathematically and statistically advanced methods have been worked out. The book by Spanier and Gelbard (1969) is a good illustration of this.

    In the present case, a more physical approach to Monte Carlo methods for solving photon transport problems is made (along the lines employed by Fano, Spencer and Berger (1959)) with the aim of encouraging even radiation physicists to use more sophisticated Monte Carlo methods. Today, radiation physicists perform Monte Carlo calculations with considerable physical significance but often with unnecessarily straightforward methods.

    As Monte Carlo calculations can be predicted to be of increasing importance in tackling problems in radiation physics, e.g., in X-ray diagnostics, it is worthwhile to study the Monte Carlo approach for its own sake.

  • 6.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Fanos Teorem2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett oändligt medium erhålles en fullt uppbyggd fluens i alla punkter av mediet. I ett ändligt medium erhålles inte full uppbyggnad av fluensen på avstånd mindre än en maximal "partikelräckvidd" från begränsningsytorna. Fanos teorem har visats gälla för alla punkter i ett oändligt medium men kan endast gälla i det inre av ett ändligt medium där förhållandena är ekvivalenta med dem i det oändliga mediet.

  • 7.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Fotonspridningsprocessen vid röntgendiagnostiska strålkvaliteter1981Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Spridd strålning utgör ett allvarligt problem inom röntgendiagnostiken. Kunskap om den spridda strålningen, dess uppträdande i patient och detektor, är en förutsättning för att finna effektiva metoder att reducera den och begränsa dess negativa inverkan på bildkvaliten. Denna kunskap kan vinnas genom transportberäkningar, t ex Monte Carlo simulering (ALM CARLSSON). Detaljerad kännedom om tvärsnitten för inkoherent och koherent spridning är därvid av stor betydelse. Vid utnyttjandet av datortomografi för bestämning av elektrontäthet eller benmineralhalt och annan s.k. tomokemi krävs också välbestämda totala attenueringstvärsnitt, varav Compton och koherent spridning utgör en icke försumbar andel av attenueringen i energiområdet 10-100 keV.

    Fotonspridningen kan också utnyttjas positivt för att ge information om den kropp i vilken spridningen ägt rum. En review över metoder att använda Comptonspridningen till att göra elektrontäthetsbestämningar, såväl i enskilda volymer som i tomografiska snitt har publicerats av CARLSSON och ALM CARLSSON (1979).

    En viktig applikation av Comptonspridningen (inkoherent spridning) i diagnostisk radiologi är metoden att ur mätningar av antalet och energifördelningen av de fotoner, som spridits en viss vinkel bestämma energispektret av den primära röntgenstrålningen. Även här är kännedom om spridningstvärsnitten av vital betydelse för noggrannheten i bestämningen.

    Jag skall här ge en redogörelse för vår aktuella kunskap om tvärsnitten för koherent och inkoherent spridning för fotoner av röntgendiagnostisk kvalitet (10-200 keV). För dessa är det inte tillräckligt att applicera Klein-Nishina tvärsnittet, som gäller för spridning mot fria elektroner i vila utan hänsyn måste tas till att de atomära elektronerna är bundna och i rörelse i kollisionsögonblicket. Speciellt kommer konsekvenserna för metoden att bestämma primärstrålningsspektrum ur uppmätta spektra av spridd strålning att belysas.

  • 8.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Kavitetsteori: allmänna grunder1981Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kavitetsteori är av fundamental betydelse för dosimetrin. Dess uppgift är att relatera den absorberade dosen i en dosimeter till den absorberade dosen i en given punkt i det medium dosimetern är placerad. Idealt har dosimetern samma strålningsabsorberande egenskaper som mediet. Detta är emellertid nästan aldrig möjligt att uppnå.

  • 9.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Klassisk elektrodynamik: Växelverkan mellan laddade partiklar och elektromagnetiska fält1975Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varifrån kommer det elektromagnetiska fältet? Elektromagnetiska fält genereras av laddningar i rörelse (en laddning i vila genererar ett elektrostatiskt fält). I definitionen av fältstorheterna ovan tänks i första hand att det elektromagnetiska fält i vilket den betraktade laddningen q rör sig härstammar från alla de övriga laddningarna och deras rörelser i rymden. (Laddningen q genererar även själv ett elektromagnetiskt fält, som under vissa omständigheter återverkar på dess egen rörelse. Denna effekt diskuteras i ett senare avsnitt).

  • 10.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kvantelektrodynamik för elektroner: Feynmandiagram och strålningskorrektioner av tvärsnitt1975Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av kvantelektrodynamiken startade strax efter det att den icke-relativistiska kvantmekaniken fullbordats och innebär en kombination av kvantmekaniska principer och klassisk elektrodynamik. Upphovsmän till kvantelektrodynamiken var Dirac, Heisenberg och Pauli. Diracs relativistiska, kvantmekaniska teori för elektroner ledde till den så kallade hålteorin för och förutsägelsen av en positivt laddad elektron = positronen. Väsentliga insatser inom kvantelektrodynamiken har gjorts av R.P. Feynman från vilken de så kallade Feynmandiagrammen härstammar. Genom en omtolkning av lösningarna till Diracs relativistiska, kvantmekaniska ekvation för elektronerna ersättes hålteorin för positroner med en beskrivning enligt vilken positronen representeras av vågor, som går bakåt i tiden. Denna tolkning av positronen möjliggör väsentliga förenklingar i beräkningen av tvärsnitt för växelverkansprocesser mellan elektroner och elektromagnetiska fält -förenklingar, som blir speciellt betydelsefulla vid behandlingen av mer komplicerade växelverkansprocesser inkluderande de så kallade strålningskorrektionerna till de enklare processerna. Feynmandiagram över även enklare växelverkansprocesser börjar dyka upp i moderna läroböcker (t ex Roy & Reed: "Interactions of photons and leptons with matter". Academic Press 1968) liksom tabellverk som ger strålningskorrektioner till olika elektrodynamiska växelverkansprocesser, (t ex Hubbell: "Photon cross sections, attenuation coefficients, and energy absorption coefficients from 10 keV to 100 GeV. NSRDS-NBS 29 (1969)). I det följande göres ett försök att kvalitativt redogöra för innebörden av Feynmandiagrammen och strålningskorrektionerna. (Analoga diagram kan användas vid beskrivningen av växelverkansprocesserna mellan nukleoner och mesonfält. För dessa redogöres dock inte här).

  • 11.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Kärnfysikaliska grunder för radioaktiva nuklider1974Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förståelsen av den joniserande strålningen och dess växelverkan med materia förutsätter kännedom om atomens natur. Atomen (grekiska "atomos" = odelbar) är den minsta del av ett grundämne, som bibehåller ämnets identitet, dvs. uppvisar dess karakteristiska kemiska egenskaper. Individuella atomer är för små för att direkt kunna observeras. Man kan däremot observera vissa egenskaper hos atomen. Med hjälp av dessa försöker man bygga upp en enkel och åskådlig bild av atomen, en atommodell, med vars hjälp man kan förklara experimentellt gjorda observationer.

    Atomen består av en central, elektriskt positivt laddad kärna, till vilken den största delen av atomens massa är koncentrerad. Runt kärnan kretsar elektriskt negativt laddade elektroner, vilka neutraliserar kärnans positiva laddning, så att atomen utåt verkar elektriskt neutral.

    Atomkärnan är uppbyggd av två sorters elementarpartiklar, protoner och neutroner. En proton och en neutron har ungefär samma massa, men medan protonen är bärare av en positiv laddning lika stor som elektronens negativa laddning är neutronen elektriskt neutral. En elektriskt neutral atom innehåller alltså lika många protoner i kärnan som elektroner i det omgivande elektronskalet. Ett gemensamt namn på protoner och neutroner är nukleon.

  • 12.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Radiation protection of the patient.1999In: The Journal of the Australasian Radiation Protection Society, ISSN 1444-2752, Vol. 16, p. 20-25Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Skalära och vektoriella fysikaliska storheter: Deras betydelse för förståelsen av röntgendetektorernas uppträdande i ett strålningsfält1981Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Joniserande strålning är ett fysikaliskt fenomen. Varje del av rymden där detta fenomen uppträder utgör ett strålningsfält. För att kunna ge ett mått på "mängden strålning" i fältet krävs att vi först definierar en storhet och därefter mäter eller beräknar storleken på denna uttryckt i antalet enheter av storheten i fråga. Det förekommer alltför ofta att man talar om att "mäta strålningen", vilket egentligen är en omöjlighet. Om man t.ex. anger att ett visst raster "reducerar den spridda strålningen med en faktor 2" så säger detta ingenting om man inte samtidigt anger vilken storhet man avser; fluensen, energifluensen, antalet fotoner som träffar en detektor, summaenergin hos fotonerna som träffar detektorn eller energin absorberad (energy imparted) i detektorn.

    Signalen från en detektor, som placeras i strålningsfältet beror i första hand av den i detektorn absorberade strålningsenergin även om modifikationer till följd av den aktuella fördelningen i tid och rum kan förekomma. Förståelsen aven detektors uppträdande i strålningsfältet är i första hand av dosimetrisk natur.

    Vi skall här närmare betrakta de storheter, som används för att beskriva strålningsfältet och hur dessa kan användas för att bestämma väntevärdet av den i en strålningsdetektor absorberade strålningsenergin. Samtidigt ges tillfälle att presentera de nya storheter och den nya terminologi, som infördes i senaste ICRU-rapporten över kvantiteter och enheter.

  • 14.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Spencer-Attix Cavity Theory2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cavity theory by Spencer and Attix treats the energy deposition in a Bragg-Gray (B-G) cavity (detector). Originally the theory was developed for the case of a B-G detector inside a medium irradiated with photons and assuming electronic equilibrium in the medium at the position of the cavity. The theory is also applicable in media irradiated with other types of uncharged ionizing particles (e.g., neutrons) and charged particles such as electrons and protons.

    The special case of photon irradiation under CPE (charged particle equilibrium) conditions was coupled to a model for calculating the energy spectrum of the equilibrium fluence of electrons in the undisturbed medium. For other situations, e.g., in a medium externally irradiated with electrons, the problem is to evaluate the energy spectrum of the electron fluence at the point considered in the medium. Today, this is mostly accomplished using Monte Carlo simulations.

    A Bragg-Gray cavity is regarded to be so small that:

    • the energy imparted to the cavity from electrons released by photons in the cavity is negligible compared to the energy imparted from electrons released by photons in the surrounding medium and passing through the cavity
    • the cavity should not disturb the fluence of electrons in the medium, i. e., the fluence of electrons traversing the cavity is assumed to be identical to that existing at the point of interest in the medium in the absence of the cavity.
  • 15.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Spencer-Attix kavitetsteori2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spencer-Attix kavitetsteori behandlar energideponeringen i en Bragg-Gray kavitet (detektor) inuti ett medium bestrålat med fotoner och med elektronjämvikt i mediet på kavitetens plats. Med en Bragg-Gray kavitet menas en kavitet så liten att

    • energideponeringen i kaviteten från elektroner frigjorda av fotoner i kaviteten är försumbar jämfört med energideponeringen från elektroner frigjorda av fotoner i omgivande mediet och som passerar in kaviteten
    • kaviteten skall inte nämnvärt störa fluensen av elektronerna i mediet, dvs kaviteten antas i varje punkt genomkorsad av samma fluens av elektroner, som finns i mediet i frånvaro av kaviteten
  • 16.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Carlsson, Carl A.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Statistisk precision vid radioaktivitetsmätning och Aktivitetsbestämning ur uppmätt räknehastighet1974Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Radioaktiva sönderfall sker slumpmässigt och det är omöjligt att i förväg veta exakt när en viss atom sönderfaller. Allt man kan säga är att under en halveringstid är sannolikheten 0.5 att en atom sönderfaller och 0.5 att den förblir i sitt ursprungliga radioaktiva tillstånd. Detta gäller en enstaka atom, är det ett stort antal atomer kan man förutsäga att hälften av dem kommer att sönderfalla inom en halveringstid.

    Antag att i ett experiment aktiviteten av ett prov bestäms under en minut. Räknaren anger 1000 cpm, counts per minute. Om man räknar en gång till kanske scalern anger 985 cpm, nästa gång 1023 cpm osv Skulle man utföra mätningen 1000 gånger skulle man få värdet 1000 12 - 13 gånger, 960 och faktiskt 1040 skulle man få 5-6 gångeroch 940 eller 1060 2 gånger. Detta beror inte på något experimentellt fel eller på någon speciell teknik som experimenttorn använder utan på de statistiska fluktuationerna. (Skulle man få värdet 1000 varje gång skall man kontrollera räknaren, någon kanske har ställt in pre-set counts 1000, dvs då är något fel).

    Vi skall i denna rapport se hur de statistiska fluktuationerna påverkar mätresultaten, hur osäkerheten presenteras och hur man gör en aktivitetsbestämning ur en uppmätt räknehastighet.

  • 17.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Carlsson, Carl A.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Riskuppskattningar och strålskydds-rekommendationer: Vår strålningsmiljö1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Människan har i alla tider varit utsatt för joniserande strålning. Kosmiskstrålning och naturligt radioaktiva nuklider i vår omgivning och i vår kropp ger ett årligtbidrag till den absorberade dosen i hela kroppen, som i genomsnitt för människorna påjorden uppgår till 1 mGy/år (1Gy = 1 J/kg). Det finns områden på jorden där stråldosenfrån naturlig strålning är 10-100 ggr större, jfr avsnittet "Vår strålningsmiljö".

    I slutet av 1800-talet upptäckte Röntgen röntgenstrålningen och Becquerel den naturligaradioaktiviteten. Människan fick därmed för första gången tillgång till starka källor avjoniserande strålning. Dessa togs snabbt i bruk framförallt inom medicinsk röntgendiagnostikoch radioterapi. Man gjorde snart bittra erfarenheter av den joniserandestrålningens skadliga biologiska verkningar efter höga stråldoser. Fram till år 1922 hadec:a 100 radiologer dött av strålskador. Man insåg att något måste göras för att förbättraläget för personalen och år 1928 bildades ICRP (International Commission on RadiationProtection). ICRP ger ut rekommendationer för strålskydd, som ligger till grund förnationella lagar och förordningar över hela världen.

    Den förhållandevis långa erfarenhet människan har av joniserande strålning och denlätthet med vilken även små stråldoser kan mätas har gett oss stränga normer vad gällerhanteringen av producerade strålkällor. Många har därför uppfattningen att joniserandestrålning är en exklusiv miljökomponent. Så är knappast fallet. Förutom att vi alltid varitnaturligt bestrålade finns det idag anledning att förmoda att den kemiska nedsmutsningenav miljön är ett långt allvarligare hot mot vårt välbefinnande än den nuvarandeanvändningen av producerade strålkällor. En rättvis bedömning av olika miljökomponenterkan endast göras den gång alla mäts med samma mått. Arbete med dennainriktning pågår med strålskydds-verksamheten som förebild.

  • 18.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Chan, HP
    Commentary: progress in optimization of patient dose and image quality in x-ray diagnostics.1999In: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 44Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Ekberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Helmrot, Ebba
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindström, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lund, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Matscheko, Georg
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persliden, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Stenström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Monte Carlo metoden: ett verktyg inom strålningsfysiken1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kompendium är tänkt att användas som ett propedeutiskt kursmaterial för kursdeltagare i kursen "Monte Carlo simulering av foton- och elektrontransport vid diagnostiska och radioterapeutiska strålkvaliteter".

    Först följer en kort repetition av den grundläggande statistik som utnyt1jas i beräkningarna. Därefter följer en beskrivning av slumptal. det fundament som metoden bygger på. Vidare beskrivs val ur olika frekvensfunktioner. Valet kan även göras ur så kallade falska fördelningar för att reducera variansen i den skattade storheten. Metoderna belyses i ett avsnitt om problemlösningsmetodik. först i allmänna termer för att sen gå in på ett specifikt problem (Buffons nålproblem) där en analys och strukturering av problemet görs varefter flödesschema och kodning exemplifieras. Så följer två moment där en beskrivning görs av färderna av fotoner respektive elektroner genom materia. För elektronfärderna gör man en indelning i klass 1- och klass II-färder. Vad detta innebär och hur deltapartiklar tas om hand beskrivs i ett kapitel. Till sist kommer en kort introduktion till de tre laborationerna med laborationshandledningar. Speciell vikt har lagts vid att initiera laboranten att fundera på fysiken i de simulerade experimenten.

    Detta kompendium har tillkommit som examinationsarbete vid en kurs i "Monte Carlo simulering av foton- och elektrontransport vid diagnostiska och radioterapeutiska strålkvaliteter", med andra ord den kurs du själv nu ämnar studera. Författarna önskar dig lycka till med kursen och hoppas att du kommer att få glädje av den. Speciellt hoppas vi att denna skrift ska underlätta för dig att tillgodogöra dig informationen vid föreläsningarna och under laborationerna.

  • 20. Axelsson, B
    et al.
    Bodén, K
    Fransson, Sven Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Hansson, I B
    Persliden, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics.
    Witt, Hans
    A comparison of analogue and digital techniques in upper gastrointestinal examinations: absorbed dose and diagnostic quality of the images.2000In: European Radiology, ISSN 0938-7994, E-ISSN 1432-1084, Vol. 10, p. 1351-1354Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Bergman, I
    et al.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Preston, Caroline M
    Nilsson, Mats
    Degradiation of [U-13C] glucose in sphagnum majus litter: responses to redox, pH and temperature.2000In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, ISSN 0361-5995, E-ISSN 1435-0661, Vol. 64, p. 1368-1381Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Carlsson, C.A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Lund, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Matscheko, G.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    An instrument for measuring ambient dose equivalent, H*(10)1996In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 33-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and calibration of a small and simple instrument for measuring the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), in photon fields is described. Comprising a thermoluminescence LiF dosemeter inside a 20 mm diameter PMMA sphere, it is capable of measuring the ambient dose equivalent with a nearly isotropic response. In the interval 0.1-100 mSv and for the energy range 30 keV to 1.25 MeV the energy response is within -31% and +15% relative to that of 137Cs gamma radiation (662 keV). In practical use, it is therefore sufficient to calibrate the instrument in a 137Cs gamma field using the corresponding conversion coefficient H*(10)/Kair taken from tabulations. The possibility of using the instrument to monitor the ambient dose equivalent for energies above 1.25 MeV is discussed and indicates that the range of applicability can be extended to 4.4 MeV with an energy response within -10% relative to 662 keV.

  • 23.
    Carlsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Spridd strålning vid röntgendiagnostik1973Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Då en röntgenstråle med försumbar tvärsnittsyta infaller mot ett objekt passerar en del strålning ostörd genom objektet, en annan del absorberas l detta, dessutom tillkommer sekundär röntgenstrålning som lämnar objektet i alla riktningar.

    Vid bestrålning av ett stort lågatomärt objekt, som t.ex. bålen, kan effekten av denna sekundära röntgenstrålning på detektorn vara upptill 5 gånger den från den primära, direkt informationsbärande strålningen. Den spridda strålningen är ett ovälkommet brus i bilden och den har karakteriserats som goda röntgenbilders fiende nr 1. Det är därför viktigt att begränsa dess effekt så mycket som möjligt.

  • 24.
    Carlsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strålningsdosimetri med radioaktiva nuklider i människa1974Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Strålningsdosimetri motiveras i denna kurs främst därför att den absorberade strålningsenergin förorsakar biologiska effekter i kroppens vävnader. Risken för ogynnsamma biologiska effekter hos patienter och personal begränsar radionuklidernas användning inom medicinen. Eftersom alla strålningsdetekto~erfordrar absorption av $trålningsenergi för att ia~ne eh detekterbar signal är dosimetribegreppen·av värde också för att förstå strålningsdetektorerna.

  • 25.
    Carlsson, Carl A.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Differences in reported backscatter factors,BSF, for low energy X-rays: A literature study1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work was ini tia ted by the large discrepancy in published values of the backscatter factor (BSF) as function of the half value layer (HVL) that exists in a new code of practice (IAEA, 1987) compared to the earlier, general ly used code (BJR, 1983). Change to the IAEA-code changes reported values of absorbed dose with up to 10%. These deviations apply for X-rays with HVL < 8 mm Al.

  • 26.
    Carlsson, Carl A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun Alm
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Basic physics of X-ray imaging1973Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In X-ray diagnostics, radiation that is partly transmitted through and partly absorbed in the irradiated object is utilised. An X-ray image shows the variations in transmission caused by structures in the object of varying thickness, density or atomic composition.

    After an introductory description of the nature of X-rays, the most important processes in the X-ray source, the object (patient) and radiation detector for the generation of an X-ray image will be described.

  • 27.
    Carlsson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Liquid Scintillation Counting1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In liquid scintillation counting (LSC) we use the process of luminescense to detect ionising radiation emit$ed from a radionuclide. Luminescense is emission of visible light of nonthermal origin. 1t was early found that certain organic molecules have luminescent properties and such molecules are used in LSC. Today LSC is the mostwidespread method to detect pure beta-ernitters like tritium and carbon-14. 1t has unique properties in its efficient counting geometry, deteetability and the lack of any window which the betaparticles have to penetrate. These properties are achieved by solving the sample to measure in a scintillation cocktail composed of an organic solvent and a solute (scintillator).

    Even if LSC is a weil established measurement technique, the user can run into problems and abasic knowledge of the deteetor and its different components is of fundamental importance in a correct use of the technique. The alm of this presentation is to provide the user with some of this fundamental knowledge.

  • 28. Dance, D R
    et al.
    Skinner, C L
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Breast dosimetry1999In: Applied Radiation and Isotopes, ISSN 0969-8043, E-ISSN 1872-9800, Vol. 50, p. 185-203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Dance, David
    et al.
    McVey, Graham
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Verdun, Francis
    The optimisation of lumbar spine AP radiography using realistic computer model.2000In: Radiation Protection Dosimetry, ISSN 0144-8420, E-ISSN 1742-3406, Vol. 90, p. 207-210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Dance, David
    et al.
    Thilander Klang, Anne
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Skinner, Claire
    Castellano Smith, Isabelle
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Influence of anode/filter material and tube potential on contrast, signal-to-noise ratio and average absorbed dose in mammography: a Monte Carlo study.2000In: British Journal of Radiology, ISSN 0007-1285, E-ISSN 1748-880X, Vol. 76, p. 1056-1067Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Dance, DR
    et al.
    McVey, G
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics.
    Persliden, J
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Calibration and validation of a voxel phantom for use in the Monte Carlo modelling and optimisation of x-ray imaging systems.1999In: SPIE Proc,1999, 1999, p. 548-559Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Dangtip, Somsak
    et al.
    Department of Neutron Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Description of the Medley Code: Monte Carlo Simulation of the Medley Setup1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutron-induced charged-particle production, i.e., reactions like (n,xp), (n,xd), (n,xt), (n,x3He) and (n,xa), yields a large - and relatively poorly known - contribution to the dose delivered in fast-neutron cancer therapy. At the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, a project is underway to measure these cross sections with a precision required for clinical use.

    For this purpose, an experimental facility, MEDLEY, is under commissioning. It consists of eight detector telescopes, each being a Si-Si-CsI detector combination. This general design has been selected because it provides reasonable performance over the very wide dynamic range required to detect particles ranging from 5 MeV a particles to 100 MeV protons. A general problem in this kind of experiments is to characterize the response of the detection system. The MEDLEY code has been developed for this purpose.

    Experimental studies of these kinds of charged-particle reactions show specific features. Some of these need to be optimized by means of, for instance, computer codes, prior to the measurement if good data are to be achieved.

    Basically, charged particles loose energy along their paths by interactions with the electrons of the material. Particles with low energy or with high specific energy loss are easily absorbed. Systems, which use thick charged-particle production targets to gain desirable count rate, can then detect only charged particles with enough energy to escape the target. Thus, using a thick target results in a degraded energy resolution, and particle losses. Thin targets are required to provide better resolution, but at the cost of low count rates.

    Registration of the entire energy of the particles reaching the detection system is also an ultimate goal. However, charged particles can interact with detection materials via nuclear reactions, which could result in other species of particles. From the detection point of view, the primary particles are lost and replaced by new types of particles, which may behave differently from their predecessors.

    It is well known that charged particles traveling in a medium are deflected by many small-angle scatterings. This so-called multiple scattering can be described with a statistical distribution. The fluctuations in energy loss per step, called energy-loss straggling, are modeled in the same way, i.e., assuming a statistical behavior.

    To get an acceptable neutron beam intensity, a rather thick neutron production target (2-8 mm) is required. This causes an energy spread of the incident neutron beam. In our case, the spread after a 4 mm thick 7Li target for neutron production is of the order of about 2 MeV.

    To analyze the data and determine the true double-differential cross sections, the above mentioned effects have to be taken into consideration. We have therefore developed a Monte Carlo code, MEDLEY, in FORTRAN language, to simulate the experimental setup taking all relevant physical characteristics into account. In the MEDLEY code, particles, chosen from a given distribution, are followed through the detection system. The particle distribution is obtained by applying a stripping method to the measured spectrum supplied by a user. When the result from the MEDLEY code is in good agreement with the experimental data, the true double-differential cross sections is obtained. If needed, the correction procedure can be iterated. This iteration is performed until the above condition is satisfied.

    This report presents the features included in the code, and some results. We compare ourresults with those from others where available.

  • 33.
    Edholm, Paul R.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The Linogram Algorithm and Direct Fourier Method with Linograms1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The conventionai map of projection data will here be called the sinogram map. Among the algorithms used with this map of data there are two of main interest for this paper: the Filtered Back Projection (FBP) and the Direct Fourier Method (DFM). FBP is the most popular algorithm used in commercial eT machines although it is computationally expensive compared to the DFM. The reason for its popularity is that FBP gives better pictures than the DFM uniess the lat ter is used with very careful interpolations.

    In this paper another map of projection data will be presented, here called the linogram map. The FBP may be implemented with this map in a particularly simple way, here called the Linogram Algorithm (LA). In this the back projection, which is so computationally expensive with the sinogram map, can be reduced to a computationally inexpensive series of FFT's.

  • 34.
    Edholm, Paul R.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Olander, Birger
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rekonstruktion av saknade projektioneri datortomografi1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid datortomografi besväras de rekonstruerade bilderna ofta av störande artefakter, dvs strukturer i bilden som inte motsvarar strukturer i patienten. Det finns många olika orsaker till artefakter och en viktig orsak är att vissa projektioner saknas helt eller delvis eller är av otillräcklig kvalitet. Delar av projektioner kan exempelvis saknas när implantat av metallproteser eller plomber i tänderna skymmer anatomin för de projicerande strålarna. Saknade projektioner av ena eller andra slaget ger upphov till artefakter i form av raka linjer som störande breder ut sig över hela bilden, ofta på ett sådant sätt att bilden blir otjänlig för sitt ändamål.

    I detta projekt har vi valt att studera en möjlighet att rekonstruera så mycket av de projektioner som saknas i ett visst vinkelavsnitt, att de inte längre ger upphov till störande artefakter.

    Arbetet har utförts med simulerade modellförsök. Vi har antagit en skiva i anatomin som avbildats med datortomografi med användande av parallellprojektioner. Försök har gjorts där enstaka projektioner saknas, och där projektioner saknas inom ett större vinkelavsnitt. Vid beskrivningen av vår metod skall vi först ge en verbal beskrivning och därpå en matematisk.

  • 35.
    Edoff, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hellman, John
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persliden, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hildebrand, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The developmental skeletal growth in the rat foot is reduced after denervation1997In: Anatomy and Embryology, ISSN 0340-2061, E-ISSN 1432-0568, Vol. 195, no 6, p. 531-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been known that bone is innervated. In recent years it has been suggested that the local nerves may influence the growth and metabolism of bone by way of neuropeptides. The transient local presence of nerve-containing cartilage canals just before formation of secondary ossification centres in rat knee epiphyses seems to support that view. The purpose of the present study was to see if denervation affects the developmental growth of metatarsal bones in the rat hindfoot. We made sciatic and femoral neurectomies in 7- day-old rat pups and examined the hindfeet at various times after surgery. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that denervation was complete. Radiographic examination revealed that the metatarsal bones were significantly shorter in denervated hindfeet 30 days after denervation (average relative shortening 9.9±2.3%). Measurements of total foot length showed that denervated feet were subnormally sized already five days postoperatively, before the onset of secondary ossification. The timing of the latter was not affected by denervation. Control rats subjected to tenotomies exhibited normal metatarsal bone lengths. On the basis of these results we suggest that the local nerves may influence the growth of immature bones but do not affect secondary ossification.

  • 36.
    Fransson, Sven Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Persliden, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics.
    Patient radiation exposure during coronary angiography and intervention2000In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 142-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To prospectively register fluoroscopic and cine times in a random fashion, and to measure patient radiation exposure from routine coronary angiography and coronary balloon angioplasty. We also evaluated an optional dose reduction system used during interventions. Material and Methods: The incident radiation to the patient was measured as kerma area product (KAP) in Gycm2, obtained from an ionisation chamber mounted on the undercouch tube during 65 coronary angiography procedures and another 53 percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasties (including 29 stent procedures), mostly directly following complete coronary angiography. Results and Conclusion: The values from coronary angiography were comparable to other reports with a mean fluoroscopic time of 4.4 min and a mean KAP value of 62.6 Gycm2. The corresponding figures from coronary balloon angioplasty without stenting were lower than otherwise reported, with 8.2 min and 47.9 Gycm2, respectively. The use of coronary stents did prolong the mean fluoroscopic time (10.5 min) but did not significantly enhance the patient mean radiation dose (51.4 Gycm2). The dose reduction technique resulted in a significant KAP value reduction of 57%. In conclusion, with regard to radiation exposure, coronary angiography and balloon angioplasty are considered safe procedures.

  • 37.
    Fransson, Sven Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Sandborg, Michael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Evaluation of patient and staff absorbed doses during coronary angiography and intervention by femoral and radial artery access.2002In: European IRPA Congress, Florence, Italy, October 2002,2002, 2002, p. 107-107Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Friman, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    A Correlation Framwork For Functional Mri Data Analysis.2001In: Proceedings of SCIA 2001. Bergen,2001, 2001, p. 3-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A correlation framework for detecting brain activity in functional MRI data is presented. In this framework, a novel method based on canonical correlation analysis follows as a natural extension of established analysis methods. The new method shows very good detection performance. This is demonstrated by localizing brain areas which control finger movements and areas which are involved in numerical mental calculation.

  • 39.
    Friman, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements.
    Cedefamn, Jonny
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements.
    Increased detection sensitivity in fMRI by adaptive filtering.2001In: Proceedings iSMRM and ESMRM meeting 2001, Glasgow,2001, 2001, p. 1209-1209Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Geijer, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiology.
    Beckman, KW
    Örebro.
    Andersson, T
    Örebro.
    Persliden, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Radiation dose and image quality with a flat-panel amorphous silicon digital detector.2001In: Eur Radiol,2001, 2001, p. 280-280Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Granerus, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Gustafsson, A
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Norberg Spaak, L
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, RC - Rekonstruktionscentrum, ÖNH - Öron- Näsa- Halskliniken.
    Erfarenheter av gammakamera-PET med FDG på patienter med onkologiska diagnoser2002In: Svensk Medicin, ISSN 0284-5342, Vol. 72, p. 140-143Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Granerus, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Lönnqvist, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology.
    Stenström, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics.
    No sex difference in the urinary excretion of the histamine metabolite methlimidazoleacetic acid (MeImAA) when corrected for creatinine excretion.1999In: Inflammation Research, ISSN 1023-3830, E-ISSN 1420-908X, Vol. 48, p. 92-93Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Gunnarsson, Thorsteinn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Theodorsson, Annette
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fridriksson, Steen
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Boström, Sverre
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persliden, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Hillman, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mobile computerized tomography scanning in the neurosurgery intensive care unit: increase in patient safety and reduction of staff workload2000In: Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0022-3085, E-ISSN 1933-0693, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 432-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Object. Transportation of unstable neurosurgical patients involves risks that may lead to further deterioration and secondary brain injury from perturbations in physiological parameters. Mobile computerized tomography (CT) head scanning in the neurosurgery intensive care (NICU) is a new technique that minimizes the need to transport unstable patients. The authors have been using this device since June 1997 and have developed their own method of scanning such patients.

    Methods. The scanning procedure and radiation safety measures are described. The complications that occurred in 89 patients during transportation and conventional head CT scanning at the Department of Radiology were studied prospectively. These complications were compared with the ones that occurred during mobile CT scanning in 50 patients in the NICU. The duration of the procedures was recorded, and an estimation of the staff workload was made. Two patient groups, defined as high- and medium-risk cases, were studied. Medical and/or technical complications occurred during conventional CT scanning in 25% and 20% of the patients in the high- and medium-risk groups, respectively. During mobile CT scanning complications occurred in 4.3% of the high-risk group and 0% of the medium-risk group. Mobile CT scanning also took significantly less time, and the estimated personnel cost was reduced.

    Conclusions. Mobile CT scanning in the NICU is safe. It minimizes the risk of physiological deterioration and technical mishaps linked to intrahospital transport, which may aggravate secondary brain injury. The time that patients have to remain outside the controlled environment of the NICU is minimized, and the staff's workload is decreased.

  • 44.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurosurgery UHL.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Jaworski, Jacek
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Absolute quantification of metabolites in white matter using MR spectroscopy in patients with MS and normal MRI scans of the brain.2001In: ECTRIMS 2001 Dublin sept 2001,2001, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Absolute quantification of metabolites in white matter using MR spectroscopy in patients with MS or syndromes suggestive of MS with normal MRI scans of the brain2001In: Proceedings ISMRM and ESMRM meeting 2001, Glasgow,2001, 2001, p. 467-467Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Hammersberg, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stenström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hedtjärn, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mångård, Måns
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Absolute energy spectra for an industrial micro focal X-ray source under working conditions measured with a Comptonscattering spectrometer: full spectra data1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Absolute energy spectra [1/(keV·mAs·sr)] for an industrial micro focal X-ray source has been measured under working conditions, using a Compton scattering spectrometer. The energy spectra were measured as a function of tube potential (30 – 190 kV for every 10th kV) at maximum tube charge of 8 W for the minimum focus (~5 μm diameter). Target material was tungsten. The spectra were measured for a highly focused fresh focal spot. Neither focal spot wear (age) nor defocusing of the focal spot was considered.

    The measured spectra were compared to simulated spectra for the same source supplied by the X-ray source manufacturer. It was found that the measured spectra have slightly different energy distributions with a lower mean energy even though their emitted number of photons were similar. The energy calibration was shown to be accurate compared to the energy resolution, Dhu=0.5 keV, used.

  • 47.
    Hedtjärn, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dosimetry in brachytherapy: application of the Monte Carlo method to single source dosimetry and use of correlated sampling for accelerated dose calculations2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three issues related to brachytherapy dosimetry are addressed in this thesis. (1) The prospect of using Compton scattering to measure energy spectra from a high dose-rate (HDR) 192Ir source is discussed and a Compton spectrometer evaluated. Promising results are demonstrated but further fine-tuning is needed to resolve problems with background subtraction. (2) Absorbed doses around an interstitial brachytherapy 125I-source (the Symmetra™ seed) are calculated in the TG-43 formalism using Monte Carlo (MC) techniques. A review of the literature on current measurements and MC simulations indicate systematic differences of 3-6% for the model 6702 seed and points to the need for renewed attention to the dosimetry of low-energy photons and careful estimations of uncertainty. The problems concern among other points: the energy response of LiF dosemeters including LET (Linear Energy Transfer) dependence and the influence of high atomic number doping materials, the atomic compositions of Solid Water and other phantom materials used in MC simulations, the proper MC simulation of the new NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) air-kerma strength calibration standard based on the wide-angle free air chamber, and the benchmarking of MC codes. (3) In order to promote development of MC based dose planning, correlated sampling as a means of speeding-up MC calculations is evaluated. In this pilot study, simplified physics is used. Only the photoelectric effect (disregarding the emission of characteristic x-rays) and Compton scattering (Klein-Nishina) are considered. Analogue (ANL) and expected value track-length (ETL) estimations are compared. Efficiency gains (relative to uncorrelated ETL estimations) are calculated for simplified geometries with a point isotropic source and a cylindrical heterogeneity of air, AI and W in a water medium. Efficiency gains of 103 - 104 were obtained for modest perturbations (heterogeneity correction factors HCF [0.8 <HCF < 1.2]). At large perturbations [HCF ≈ 0.4-0.5], in volume elements (voxels) behind the heterogeneity, correlated sampling can be even less efficient than uncorrelated sampling. With correlated ETL estimation, an overall gain in efficiency was, however, achieved and relative standard deviations less than 2% were obtained in 90% of the voxels for an 1251- source and 1-hour computing-time. Uncorrelated ETL estimation was 10-100 times more efficient than uncorrelated ANL estimation. Although promising, correlated sampling should be combined with some other variance reduction technique to reduce the variance everywhere in the volume. Analysis of the uncertainties of estimated efficiency gains shows that the use of the Fisher F distribution to derive their confidence intervals is suspect.

    List of papers
    1. Measurements of energy spectra from high dose rate 192Ir sources with a compton scattering spectrometer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurements of energy spectra from high dose rate 192Ir sources with a compton scattering spectrometer
    1994 (English)In: Measurement assurance in dosimetry: Proceedings of an International Symposium on Measurement Assurance in Dosimetry, 1994, p. 289-297Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Compton scattering spectrometer has been used for spectral measurement of high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir sources. On the basis of the Compton formula a measured distribution of scattered photons is used for the calculation of the primary spectrum leaving the source. The two main reasons for measuring the photon energy distribution from such HDR sources are, firstly, to obtain accurate input for Monte Carlo calculations of the dose distribution and, secondly, to calibrate ionization chambers. The lack of spectral information causes calibration laboratories great difficulties in such work. A third possible reason concerns quality assurance with respect to source impurities, etc. The measured spectrum shows good agreement with the spectrum expected from theoretical considerations.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84494 (URN)92-0100-194-0 (ISBN)
    Conference
    International Symposium on Measurement Assurance in Dosimetry, Vienna, 24-27 May 1993
    Available from: 2012-10-10 Created: 2012-10-10 Last updated: 2012-10-10Bibliographically approved
    2. Monte Carlo-aided dosimetry of the symmetra model I25.S06 125I, interstitial brachytherapy seed
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monte Carlo-aided dosimetry of the symmetra model I25.S06 125I, interstitial brachytherapy seed
    2000 (English)In: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1076-1085Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A dosimetric study of a new 125I seed for permanent prostate implant, the Symmetra 125I Seed model I25.S06, has been undertaken utilizing Monte Carlo photon transport calculations. All dosimetric quantities recommended by the AAPM Task Group 43 (TG-43) report have been calculated. Quantities determined are dose rate constant, radial dose function, anisotropy function, anisotropy factor, and anisotropy constant. The recently (January 1999) revised NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) 125I standard for air kerma strength calibration was taken into account as well as updated interaction cross-section data. Calculations were done for the competing model 6702 source for the purpose of comparison. The calculated dose-rate constants for the two seeds are 1.010 and 1.016 cGyh−1U−1 for the Symmetra and model 6702 seeds, respectively. The latter value deviates from the value, 1.039 cGyh−1U−1, recommended in the TG-43 report. The calculated radial dose function for the Symmetra new seed is more penetrating than that of the model 6711 seed (by 20% at 5 cm distance) but agrees closely (within statistical errors) with that of the model 6702 seed up to distances of 10 cm. The anisotropy function for the seed is also close to that for the 6702 seed with a tendency of somewhat more pronounced anisotropy (lower values at small angles from the longitudinal axis). Compared to the model 6711 seed, the Symmetra new seed is more isotropic. The anisotropy constants (the anisotropy function averaged with respect to angle and distance) for the three seed models are within 2%.

    Keywords
    dosimetry, radiation therapy, Monte Carlo methods, radioisotopes, iodine, calibration, dosimetry, permanent brachytherapy implant, 125I, Task Group 43, Monte Carlo simulation
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26768 (URN)10.1118/1.598990 (DOI)11369 (Local ID)11369 (Archive number)11369 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Accelerated Monte Carlo based dose calculations for brachytherapy planning using correlated sampling
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accelerated Monte Carlo based dose calculations for brachytherapy planning using correlated sampling
    2002 (English)In: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 351-376Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Current brachytherapy dose calculations ignore applicator attenuation and tissue heterogeneities, assuming isolated sources embedded in unbounded medium. Conventional Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations, while accurate, are too slow for practical treatment planning. This study evaluates the efficacy of correlated sampling in reducing the variance of MC photon transport simulation in typical brachytherapy geometries. Photon histories were constructed in the homogeneous geometry and weight correction factors applied to account for the perturbing effect of heterogeneities. Two different estimators, expected value track-length (ETL) and analogue (ANL), were used. The method was tested for disc-shaped heterogeneities and point-isotropic sources as well as for a model 6702 125I seed. Uncorrelated ETL estimation was 10–100 times more efficient than its ANL counterpart. Correlated ETL estimation offered efficiency gains as large as 104 in regions where dose perturbations are small (<5%). For perturbations of 40–50%, efficiency gains were in some cases even less than unity. However, correlated ETL was capable of producing less than 2% (1 standard deviation) uncertainty in more than 90% of the voxels in 1 CPU hour. Correlated sampling significantly improves efficiency under selected circumstances and, in combination with other variance reduction strategies, may make MC-based treatment planning a reality for brachytherapy.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26772 (URN)10.1088/0031-9155/47/3/301 (DOI)11375 (Local ID)11375 (Archive number)11375 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Efficiency gain in Monte Carlo simulations using correlated sampling. Application to calculations of absorbed dose distributions in a brachytherapy geometry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficiency gain in Monte Carlo simulations using correlated sampling. Application to calculations of absorbed dose distributions in a brachytherapy geometry
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of an estimate of the efficiency gain of the Monte Carlo method based on correlated sampling was simulated, the corresponding 95 % confidence interval was evaluated, and the bias of the estimate was determined. The concept of batches which normalize distributions of scored quantities was used. It was found that the distribution of the estimate of the efficiency gain was sensitive to outliers and could not be described by the F distribution, Two other estimates of an alternative definition of the efficiency gain were tested. They were more robust but their applicability was limited due to their bias when batch averages were not normally distributed.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84495 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-10-10 Created: 2012-10-10 Last updated: 2013-09-06Bibliographically approved
  • 48.
    Hedtjärn, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Alm Carlsson, Gudrun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Williamson, Jeffrey
    Accelerated Monte Carlo-based dose calculations for brachytherapy planning using correlated sampling.2000In: Digest of papers of the 2000 world congress on medical physics. CD-Rom Chicago July 23-28,2000, IEEE , 2000, p. 372-375 vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correlated sampling is evaluated as a strategy for accelerating Monte Carlo photon transport (MCPT) simulation for use as a practical patient-specific treatment-planning tool. Correlated MCPT simulation was shown to offer substantial efficiency gains over conventional MCPT simulation for selected parts of the 3D volume but was not sufficient to improve MCPT simulation everywhere

  • 49.
    Helmrot, Ebba
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Systematic analysis of a radiological diagnostic system: A method for application in the effective use of x-rays in intraoral radiology1996Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effective use of an imaging system in diagnostic radiology implies an optimisation process. This demands knowledge and relevant descriptions of the various components, the X -ray units, the objects and receptors. Thus, in this work photon energy spectra have been measured, phantomsresembling human tissue constructed and receptor characteristics investigated. Essential image quality parameters (contrast, signal-to-noise ratio) and a radiation risk indicator for the patient (energyimparted) have been defined and their variation with photon energy spectrum determined for different objects and details. Results are presented as basic infonnation to be used by radiologists in collaboration with physicists in optimising examinations according to the patient and the particular diagnostic task.

    For intraoral radiology with Ultra-speed fihn, it is shown that to achieve equalised radiographic contrasts of an ivory wedge, kV-settings have to be decreased by 5-8 kV when single pulse X-ray generators are replaced by high-frequency constant potential ones. When imaging the ivory wedge in a PMMA phantom with Ektaspeed and Ultra-speed films at equal contrast, 7-9 kV lower kV-setting must be used with the Ektaspeed film. Ektaspeed film then gives a 35-40% decrease in the energy imparted tothe patient which can be compared to 45-55% decrease observed if the loss of contrast is not compensated for by lowering the kV-setting. Comparison of the contrasts of both films shows that Ultra-speed has higher contrast than Ektaspeed, but the latter has a wider dynamic range and higher values of base and fog optical densities, which contribute to its lower contrast at low optical densities. The radiographic contrast of details in the object is the product of object and film contrast. Objectcontrast depends on photon energy and is the same for both films. The energy imparted to the patient is calculated using conversion factors derived in this work.

    To simulate the large variety of anatomical structures encountered in intraoral radiology, a multimaterial compound hard tissue phantom was constructed. The constituent elements and their fractions by weight were carefully determined so as to allow computational methods to be used tocomplement experimental data. Different types of imaging system imply different optimal photon energy spectra. Strategies of optimising photon energy spectra with respect to image quality parameters and patient dose are described for both fihn and a digital system (Digora) using an imaging plate. In the digital system, the characteristics of the receptor affect image acquisition similarly to film but digitalized image formation and display may limit image quality (contrast resolution).

  • 50.
    Helmrot Ebba,
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radio Physics.
    Carlsson, G.A.
    n/a.
    Eckerdahl, O
    n/a.
    Effects of contrast equalization on energy imparted to the patient: a comparison of two dental generators and two types of intraoral film.1994In: Dento-Maxillo-Facial Radiology, ISSN 0250-832X, E-ISSN 1476-542X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 83-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical evolution in maxillofacial radiology has in the last decade provided faster films and the constant potential generator. The consequences of these innovations for radiographic contrast and energy imparted to the patient are analysed. On the basis of physical measurements a test model has been developed for correcting exposure parameters in order to maintain or restore image contrast. These measurements are expressed in and developed from basic radiological concepts and physical formulas presented in an earlier paper (Helmrot E. et al., Dentomaxillofac. Radiol. 1991; 20: 135-46). The test model can also be used to demonstrate the balance between contrast and energy imparted to the patient in the radiographic process. Changing to constant potential generators and faster film may each result in a degradation in contrast, which is possible to restore by a controlled adjustment of the kV-setting. Maintenance of constant image quality results in a slight reduction in the net gain in energy imparted, due to the generator and/or film shift. When, for example, a conventional single-pulse generator operated at 65kVp tube potential was replaced by a modern constant potential unit, the kV-setting had to be decreased by 5 to 8 kV to maintain the same radiographic contrast. This correction could be done without increasing energy imparted to the patient, taking into account the fact that the spectral characters of the photon energy are not identical. If, in addition, faster intraoral film with lower film contrast was introduced, together with the constant potential unit, the kV-setting had to be further decreased to maintain the radiographic contrast.

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