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  • 1. Arnardottir, S
    et al.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Borg, K
    Inclusion body myositis - Sensory dysfunction revealed with quantitative determination of somatosensory thresholds2003In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 108, no 1, p. 22-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to evaluate sensory function in inclusion body myositis (IBM), nine patients were subjected to sensibility screening and quantitative determination of somatosensory thresholds. Data were compared with results from electrophysiological examination and muscle biopsy. On sensibility screening all but one of the IBM patients had abnormal findings in hands and/or feet mostly affecting thermal sensibility. Vibratory thresholds were abnormal in five and thermal thresholds in four of the patients. Mean vibratory thresholds were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the IBM patients when compared with the controls. Significantly increased heat pain thresholds were found in hands and feet when compared with the controls while thermal thresholds were normal. Nerve conduction velocities were decreased in three patients, EMG showed both myopathic and neuropathic abnormalities in six patients. Eight patients had neuropathic abnormalities on muscle biopsy. The sensory dysfunction found suggests an affection of peripheral nerves in IBM mainly affecting large diameter myelinated nerve fibres corroborating earlier findings of a peripheral neuropathy in IBM.

  • 2.
    Aspegren Kendall, Sally
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Brolin-Magnusson, Kerstin
    Sörén, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Henriksson, Karl-Gösta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    A pilot study of body awareness programs in the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome2000In: Arthritis Care and Research, ISSN 0893-7524, E-ISSN 1529-0123, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 304-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To compare in a pilot study the effect of two physical therapies, the Mensendieck system (MS) and body awareness therapy (BAT) according to Roxendal, in fibromyalgia patients and to investigate differences in effect between the two interventions. Methods. Twenty female patients were randomized to either MS or BAT in a program lasting 20 weeks. Evaluations were tender point examination and questionnaires, including visual analog scales (pain intensity at worst site, muscular stiffness, evening fatigue, and global health), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Quality of Life Scales, Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES), and disability before, immediately after, and at 6 and 18 months followup. Results. The BAT group had improved global health at 18 months followup, but lower results than the MS group. The MS group had improved FIQ, ASES other symptoms, and pain at worst site at 18 months followup. Conclusion. In the present pilot study, MS was associated with more positive changes than BAT.

  • 3.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Ulander, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Mårtensson, J
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Association of type D personality to perceived side effects and adherence in CPAP-treated patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome2007In: World Sleep 07,2007, 2007, p. 142-142Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 4. Franklin, K A
    et al.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    The accuracy of subjective sleep time in sleep apnoea recordings.2000In: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 94, p. 569-573Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Franklin, KA
    et al.
    Holmgren, PÅ
    Jönsson, F
    Poromaa, N
    Stenlund, H
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Snoring pregnancy-induced hypertension and growth retardation of the fetus.2000In: Chest, ISSN 0012-3692, E-ISSN 1931-3543, Vol. 117, p. 137-141Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Haraldsson, PO
    et al.
    Karling, J
    Lysdahl, M
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Voice quality after radiofrequency volumetric tisseu reduction of the soft palate in habitual snorers2002In: The Laryngoscope, ISSN 0023-852X, E-ISSN 1531-4995, Vol. 112, p. 1260-1263Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Jansson, A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kvarnström, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vrethem, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology.
    Elispot assay detection of cytokine secretion in multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon-β1a or glatiramer acetate compared with untreated patients2003In: Multiple Sclerosis, ISSN 1352-4585, E-ISSN 1477-0970, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 440-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms behind the beneficial effects of interferon-β1a (IFN-β1a) and glatiramer acetate (GA) in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) are still uncertain. Altered cytokine patterns have been suggested including inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines like interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and enhancement of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-4 (IL-4). Twenty-nine patients with MS (10 untreated, nine treated with IFN-β1a and 10 with GA) were investigated with elispot of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Spontaneous and myelin induced (myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-14-39 and MOG 63-87) IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 secretion was studied. We found a significant reduction of spontaneous IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5, but no difference in IL-10 secreting cells in both groups of treated patients compared with the untreated patients. Myelin-specific responses showed a significant decrease of IFN-γ and an increase of IL-5, but no change in IL-4 and IL-10 secreting cells in treated compared with untreated patients. Both treatment groups revealed similar cytokine secretion patterns except for a more pronounced decrease of both spontaneous and MOG 14-39 induced IL-4 secretion in the IFN-β1a treated group. Thus, immunological effects of IFN-β1a and GA were similar showing that disease promoting Th1 (IFN-γ) cells were reduced while the potentially beneficial Th2 response (IL-4) was maintained.

  • 8.
    Kvarnström, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vrethem, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    IFN-ß treatment in multiple sclerosis: Longitudinal effects on secretion of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and IL-17Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proinflammatory cytokines like IFN-γ and TNF-α seem to have disease-promoting roles in multiple sclerosis (MS) whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines like IL-10 and TGF-ß may downregulate the disease. IFN-ß treatment reduces the frequency and severity of relapses, however, the mechanisms of action for IFN-ß are only partly understood and modulation of cytokine secretion could be one possible explanation for the therapeutic effects. The IFN-ß products approved for the treatment of MS differ in their composition and effects, and recently differences in effects on cytokine secretion were reported. Peripheral blood was collected from 25 patients with MS, both IFN-ß1a and IFN-ß1b treated, before onset of treatment and after 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and one year. Spontaneous as well as myelin specific secretion of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-10 was analysed with the ELISPOT technique. PHA stimulated secretion of IL-13 and IL-17 was analysed in cell supernatants with ELISA. A general finding was that surprisingly few changes occurred, and that most changes occurred early (6 weeks - 3 months). We found a shift in the cytokine balance towards more IL-4 and IL-10 secretion and/or less IFN-γ secretion during the treatment as the ratios of IL-4!IFN-y as well as of IL-10/IFN-γ were increased. The interesting pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17, that has been associated with T-cell mediated autoimmunity, has not been previously investigated during IFN-ß treatment in MS. Our findings of decreased IL-17 levels after one year of treatment, following an increase in early treatment, could be a beneficial result of the IFN-ß treatment. Further we noticed differences in effects on cytokines of IFN-ß1a and IFN-ß1b respectively; the latter seemed to have more effects on cytokine secretion.

  • 9.
    Morren, Geert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Walter, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindehammar, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Evaluation of the sacroanal motor pathway by magnetic and electric stimulation in patients with fecal incontinence2001In: Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, ISSN 0012-3706, E-ISSN 1530-0358, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 167-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this controlled study was to examine whether it was feasible to use magnetic stimulation as a new diagnostic tool to evaluate the motor function of the sacral roots and the pudendal nerves in patients with fecal incontinence.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nineteen consecutive patients (17 females) with a median age of 67 (range, 36-78) years referred for fecal incontinence and 14 healthy volunteers (six females) with a median age of 42 (range, 23-69) years were examined. Latency times of the motor response of the external anal sphincter were measured after electric transrectal stimulation of the pudendal nerve and magnetic stimulation of the sacral roots.

    RESULTS: The success rates of pudendal nerve terminal motor latency and sacral root terminal motor latency measurements were 100 and 85 percent, respectively, in the control group and 94 and 81 percent, respectively, in the fecal incontinence group. Median left pudendal nerve terminal motor latency was 1.88 (range, 1.4-2.9) milliseconds in the control group and 2.3 (range, 1.8-4) milliseconds in the fecal incontinence group (P <0.006). Median right pudendal nerve terminal motor latency was 1.7 (range, 1.3-3.4) milliseconds in the control group and 2.5 (range, 1.7-6) milliseconds in the fecal incontinence group (P <0.003). Median left sacral root terminal motor latency was 3.3 (range, 2.1-6) milliseconds in the control group and 3.7 (range, 2.8-4.8) milliseconds in the fecal incontinence group (P <3 0.03). Median right sacral root terminal motor latency was 3 (range, 2.6-5.8) milliseconds in the control group and 3.9 (range, 2.5-7.2) milliseconds in the fecal incontinence group (P =0.15).

    CONCLUSIONS: Combined pudendal nerve terminal motor latency and sacral root terminal motor latency measurements may allow us to study both proximal and distal pudendal nerve motor function in patients with fecal incontinence. Values of sacral root terminal motor latency have to be interpreted cautiously because of the uncertainty about the exact site of magnetic stimulation and the limited magnetic field strength.

  • 10.
    Morren, Geert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Walter, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindehammar, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Latency of compound muscle action potentials of the anal sphincter after magnetic sacral stimulation2001In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 24, no 9, p. 1232-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to present the failure rate and normal values for motor latency of the anal sphincter after magnetic sacral stimulation (LMSS) using a modified recording technique. A bipolar sponge electrode was placed in the anal canal for recording. A ground electrode was placed in the rectum to reduce stimulus artifact. Magnetic stimulation was induced through a twin coil energized by a Maglite-r25 generator. Two groups were examined: 14 healthy volunteers and 14 patients with a spinal cord injury (SCI) above the conus. Nine of 56 studies (16%) failed. There were no significant differences in latency between right- and left-sided stimulation or between the healthy group and the SCI patients. As described, LMSS measurements are minimally invasive and have a low failure rate. They may be used to test the integrity of the distal motor pathway in patients with bladder or bowel dysfunction who may benefit from continuous electrical sacral root stimulation.

  • 11.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Obstruktivt sömnapnesyndrom - inget nytt om diagnostik och behandling2002In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 50, p. 5100-5100Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Sömnapné hos äldre2001In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 4, p. 17-20Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Upper airway inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea2002In: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970, Vol. 165, no 7, p. 1023-1024Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Upper airway nerve lesions in obstructive sleep apnea2001In: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970, Vol. 164, no 2, p. 187-189Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Varför behöver vi sova?2001In: Parkinson-journalen, ISSN 1104-2435, Vol. 4, p. 42-43Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Weinberg, J
    et al.
    KI Stockholm.
    Klefbeck, B
    KI Stockholm.
    Borg, J
    Uppsala.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Polysomnograhpy in chronic neuromuscular disease2003In: Respiration, ISSN 0025-7931, E-ISSN 1423-0356, Vol. 70, p. 349-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sleep is a risk factor for respiratory failure in patients with chronic neuromuscular diseases (NMD). Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of monitoring sleep parameters in addition to nocturnal respiratory parameters. Methods: Thirty-one patients with chronic NMD underwent whole-night polysomnograms including EMG from accessory respiratory muscles. Results: Sleep macrostructure was normal on average. The number of respiratory arousals per hour of sleep was above the upper limit observed in a control group (>2.1) in 71 of the patients, but was moderate in most cases. Nadir oxygen saturation <85% was the most common finding indicating respiratory dysfunction and was present in 80% of the patients. Noninvasive blood gas monitoring identified all but 2 patients with respiratory-induced sleep abnormalities. The respiratory arousal rate was correlated with the oxygen desaturation index, but otherwise there were no significant correlations between sleep and nocturnal respiratory parameters. Vital capacity was significantly positively correlated with obstructive apnea index and daytime base excess to nadir oxygen saturation. Inspiratory activity in accessory respiratory muscles was present during REM sleep and/or slow wave sleep in 70% of the patients. Conclusion: The severity of nocturnal respiratory dysfunction is not reflected in the extent of sleep impairment in patients with chronic neuromuscular diseases.

  • 17.
    Widhe, Mona
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Grusell, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vrethem, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cytokines in Lyme borreliosis: lack of early tumour necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-β1 responses are associated with chronic neuroborreliosis2002In: Immunology, ISSN 0019-2805, E-ISSN 1365-2567, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clinical outcome of the tick born infection Lyme borreliosis seems to be influenced by the type of immune response mounted during the disease, as suggested by various animal models. Here we report the serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in samples drawn at different disease intervals during the course of non-chronic neuroborreliosis (n=10), chronic neuroborreliosis (n=15), erythema migrans (n=8, serum only) and controls (n=7). When comparing early neuroborreliosis cerebrospinal fluid samples, significantly higher levels of TNF-α were found in non-chronic patients than in chronic patients (P<0·05). Moreover, TGF-β1 was increased in the early serum samples of non-chronic patients, as compared to chronic patients (P<0·01). Elevated serum levels of TGF-β1 were also found in erythema migrans as compared to neuroborreliosis and controls (P<0·05). The high TNF-α levels noted in early cerebrospinal fluid samples of non-chronic patients only, possibly reflects an ongoing pro-inflammatory immune response in the central nervous system, which could be beneficial in eliminating disease. High serum levels of TGF-β1 probably mirror an anti-inflammatory response, which might play a role in controlling the systemic immune response.

  • 18.
    Widhe, Mona
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jarefors, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vrethem, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bergström, Sven
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borrelia-specific interferon-γ and interleukin-4 secretion in cerebrospinal fluid and blood during Lyme borreliosis in humans: association with clinical outcome2004In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, E-ISSN 1537-6613, Vol. 189, no 10, p. 1881-1891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Borrelia-specific interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 responses of 113 patients and control subjects were analyzed using the sensitive enzyme-linked immunospot method. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were obtained, during the course of disease, from patients with chronic or nonchronic neuroborreliosis (NB) and from control subjects without NB. Blood samples were obtained from patients with Lyme skin manifestations and from healthy blood donors. Early increased secretion of Borrelia-specific IFN-γ (P < .05) and subsequent up-regulation of IL-4 ( P < .05) were detected in the CSF cells of patients with nonchronic NB. In contrast, persistent Borrelia-specific IFN-γ responses were observed in the CSF cells of patients with chronic NB ( P < .05). In patients with erythema migrans, increased IFN-γ (P < .001 ) was observed in blood samples obtained early during the course of disease, whereas increased IL-4 ( P < .05) was observed after clearance. On the contrary, patients with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans had Borrelia-specific IFN-γ (P < .001 ), but not IL-4, detected in blood samples. The present data suggest that an initial IFN-γ response, followed by up-regulation of IL-4, is associated with nonchronic manifestations, whereas a persistent IFN-γ response may lead to chronic Lyme borreliosis.

  • 19. Zettergren-Wijk, Lena
    et al.
    Linder-Aronsson, Sten
    Nordlander, Britt
    Ågren, Karin
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Longitudinal Effect on Facial Growth After Tonsillectomy in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea2002In: World Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 1530-5678, E-ISSN 1941-6741, Vol. 3, p. 67-72Article in journal (Refereed)
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