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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Affärsmodeller för citylogistik & samordnad varudistribution: Handbok för kommuner och privata aktörer2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här handboken är resultatet av forskningsprojektet ”Affärsmodeller för citylogistik” som har finansierats av Vinnova och genomförts av forskare på Linköpings Universitet vid avdelningen Logistik- & Kvalitetsutveckling under perioden 2015 – 2017. Projektet är en direkt uppföljning av Färdplan Citylogistik – Godstransporter i urbana miljöer som visade att citylogistik och samordnad varudistribution behövs för att kunna driva utvecklingen mot mer hållbara och attraktiva städer med emissionsfria godstransporter. Den här boken presenterar en modell som syftar till att hjälpa kommuner och företag att komma igång med citylogistik och samordnad varudistribution – En affärsmodell som också fungerar som ett beslutsunderlag. Projektet grundar sig också i Forsknings- och innovationsagenda för framtidens logistik, där citylogistik lyfts fram som ett av de viktigaste utvecklingsområdena inom logistikområdet i framtiden.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Christopher, Martin
    Cranfield School of Management, Cranfield, Bedford, UK.
    Stensson, Bo-Inge
    SKF, Sverige.
    Mastering Supply Chain Management in an era of uncertainty at SKF2015In: Global Business and Organizational Excellence: a review of research & best practices, ISSN 1932-2054, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 6-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To stay ahead in an increasingly competitive business environment, organizations need agile supply chain systems that are holistically designed and managed. The experiences of SKF, a Swedish multinational firm, point to the benefits of reengineering upstream capabilities to create value downstream. To foster the flexibility, responsiveness, and other dynamic capabilities needed to manage increased supply chain complexity, the company established programs to involve its suppliers in the value creation process, making them an extension of the organization’s resource base. The overall objective has been to migrate from a business model based on economies of scale in operations to one that exploits both economies of scope and economies of integration. As a result of its efforts to create a more agile and cost-efficient supply chain, the company has been able to decrease supply risks while improving its value creation process and responsiveness to new customer demands and advancing its sustainability and social responsibility initiatives. 

  • 3.
    Ahlepil, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Björck, Joel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Evaluating Distribution Structures for Overseas Export of Frozen Food.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The meat producers of the western world needs to develop their export organizations and to streamline their physical distribution in order to take new market shares on the fast growing overseas markets. HKScan is one of those meat producing companies, the group has businesses in Finland, Sweden, Denmark and the Baltic countries. A part of their sales goes frozen on overseas export by container sea freight. Lately the logistics management of HKScan has been interested in investigating the effects of centralizing the physical distribution for the overseas export from Sweden and Denmark. This leads to the purpose of this study, which is:

     “For HKScan, develop and apply a model that evaluates distribution structures for overseas export of frozen food regarding total cost, delivery service, environmental impact and regulations.”

    The case study included comparison between the current distribution structure for HKScan and three pre-determined scenarios. The current setup consists of multiple warehouses in both countries. In the first scenario the distribution structure is centralized to include one warehouse per country. In the second scenario, the total export flow of products from both Sweden and Denmark is redirected and centralized to one warehouse in Denmark. In the third scenario, the total export flow of products from both Sweden and Denmark is instead redirected and centralized to one warehouse in Sweden.

    To evaluate and compare the different distribution structures a general model was first created by combining different theoretical models and adapting them to the context of overseas distribution for frozen food. The study then included the three phases of developing the model to fit the case company, applying the model on the case company and then to finally evaluating the model.

    The resulting model, which was the outcome of the development process, can be seen below. The model illustrates the different included elements.

    By then applying the model onto the case company, HKScan, it was found that a centralization to a joint warehouse in Denmark would make total cost savings of several percents. In addition, this scenario would increase the total service level. However, the environmental impact would be increased due to long cross-border road transport distances and longer land and sea transports from the warehouse. In addition, it was not possible to fully investigate whether such a distribution would be possible from a regulatory point of view.  A centralization in each country would have minor regulatory issues, it would lead to the smallest environmental impact and have a slight increase in service levels as well as a reduction for the total cost of one percent.

    The evaluation of the model showed that it produces reasonable results with the regulatory elements being the hardest to evaluate for the different scenarios. Regarding the detail level, the veterinary element could be accounted for by the warehousing element and the sea freight element split into transport from warehouse to domestic port and sea freight from domestic port to the destination port. The box-model, containing twelve elements, can be seen as generalizable for evaluating distribution structures in similar contexts, Overseas export of frozen food. However, the calculation performed within the model do probably only apply to the specific scenarios in the study.

  • 4.
    Aichigui, Victor
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, SWEDEN.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, SWEDEN.
    Servitization in SME manufacturing firms: A one-way road2015In: 13th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management, Shanghai, June 19-21, 2015, 2015, p. 965-968Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance for manufacturing firms to add services to their offerings has been asserted over and over again (Neu and Brown 2005). Adding services to product sales require manufacturing firms to develop other types of offerings such as maintenance services, hybrid offerings or integrated solutions. This implies using new and often unknown practices to be able to provide services. Previous research has focused on the benefits of servitization (Gebauer, Gustafsson, and Witell 2011), albeit in larger firms. Hence, similar research on Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME) has been scarce. Furthermore, servitization as a unidirectional transition process can be questioned as researchers argue that manufacturing firms might offer different types of services simultaneously and might not have the intention to take the next step that a transition process suggests (Kowalkowski et al. 2015). Moreover, previous research shows that the step from offering after-sales services and repair to offering more advanced services, e.g. process-related services, is rather big. For those services different mindsets are required within the organization; more advanced services would require a service oriented mindset, whereas after-sales services only requires the firm to have a product oriented mindset (Löfberg 2014).

  • 5.
    Akre, Linnea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Wiksten, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Change of organizational structure and replenishment processes for increased customer service and profitability2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case study is based on Company XY's Paper division and aims to present a new organizational structure and best practices for the processes involved in replenishing. Furthermore, proposals for future actions to be executed by Company XY to increase the customer service and profitability will be proposed. The results of the study will be based on a thorough analysis done on the three mills' and eight sales offices' organizational structures and processes. The analysis has a supply chain management perspective with the aim of increasing the customer service and profitability of Company XY.

    Company XY is a world leader paper and board producing company with the Paper division having customers located worldwide and paper producing mills as well as board producing plants located in Europe. Company X and Company Y were two different companies that merged in 2005 which has led to there being three different virgin mills in the Company XY group. At the moment the three mills and eight sales offices all work in different ways and different systems which has led to sub-optimization of the resources available. To increase the customer service and profitability of the Paper division, which the mills and sales offices belong to, a project has started to increase agility, transparency and establish standardized processes.

    The study is of both a qualitative and quantitative character and is based on a literature study, observations, data and interviews conducted at Company XY. Processes regarding replenishing, information and forecasting at Company XY have been identified as areas where there is room for improvement. Problem areas of the organizational structure that Company XY have today have been identified.

    Company XY is recommended to adopt a hybrid virtual organizational structure to enable them to reach their goals of being agile, transparent and standardized. This structure will enable Company XY to utilize the knowledge of sales offices to be responsive while still having the central units macro view to enable visibility and therefore be able to divide the resources in a better manner than today. This structure, since it demands common practices, will make Company XY work according to standardized processes which in turn has the effect of reducing misalignment and duplication of work.

    It is concluded that a centralized unit will be responsible for generating standardized reports to be distributed to mill and sales offices before 2020. After the implementation of SAP this will no longer be part of the central unit's tasks since it will be done by the system, this will decrease the information sharing issues present today. Furthermore, it is concluded that this central unit will be responsible for the allocation distribution therefore preventing the sub optimization of allocation distributions. Moreover, it is suggested that all mills work with allocations to enable more reliable production cycles.

    Through standardizing the processes so that all the sales offices correct the forecasts on a weekly basis the forecast deviation average can be decreased to 2,45% from 4.98% therefore decreasing the wrongly produced products or non-produced products worth 23 239 042 € a year.

    It is recommended that the replenishing of service stocks should be done by the sales offices. Suggested effects will be stock out costs to be lowered by 26 686 € a year.

    By adopting the suggested structure and change of processes it is believed that Company XY can become more agile, transparent and standardized leading them to increase their profitability and customer service. 

  • 6.
    Al Farra, Hussni
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Acceptance Tests – FAT & SAT: An Empirical Case Study of Utility Poles2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this project is to devise improved quality acceptance procedures to examine quality characteristics of utility poles at the factory of the supplier (FAT) and on-site upon receipt by the customer (SAT). To that end, the thesis draws upon available standards, literature, and industry practices regarding wood, fiberglass and steel poles. As far as the design of the research, a single case study of a major power company was chosen. Then, a data collection plan was developed in order to build upon the existing knowledge found in the literature, and upon the data that can be collected from three of the Company’s suppliers, in addition to the Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP). Documents’ analysis, interviews, observations, and a survey were the tools of that plan. It was found that criteria, inspection and test methods of wood poles are all sufficiently covered in the standards and the literature; for wood is the most commonly used material for utility poles. Next, in coverage of research, are the steel poles; while there is currently no standard that covers fiberglass utility poles. Indeed, quality characteristics, criteria, and acceptance procedures can altogether form parts of a sustainable solution, as long as the quality is managed as a process whether at the Company’s end or at the fabrication sites; that is especially true if there is some form of backward partnership between the Company and its suppliers.

  • 7.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Andersson Gare, Boel
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Interrupted Time Series Versus Statistical Process Control in Quality Improvement Projects2016In: Journal of Nursing Care Quality, ISSN 1057-3631, E-ISSN 1550-5065, Vol. 31, no 1, p. E1-E8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To measure the effect of quality improvement interventions, it is appropriate to use analysis methods that measure data over time. Examples of such methods include statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis. This article compares the use of statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis for evaluating the longitudinal effects of quality improvement interventions, using an example study on an evaluation of a computerized decision support system.

  • 8.
    Antonsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Ek, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Transportkostnader i HKScans distribution: En utredning av vilka faktorer som driver transportkostnader och hur de kan påverkas2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a case study of the company HKScan and focuses on their internal handling of transports to customers. As HKScan operates in a competitive industry with small margins, it is important that all money is used in the best way. An activity that costs money but rarely is investigated is the transportation since it is seen as a very operative activity. It has, however, been found that although different functions of a company are traditionally controlled separately, there are strong links between transports and functions such as sales, marketing, purchasing, finance, human resource management and production. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate which factors that affect transport costs and provide suggestions on how transport costs can be reduced.

    The study of which factors that affect transport costs was carried out in several stages. First, factors mentioned in the theory were compiled and complemented by the factors that the Supply Chain department at HKScan believed could affect the cost. This resulted in a list of 18 possible influencing factors that were then demarcated depending on what HKScan measures and which was considered relevant to investigate. This demarcated list consisted of seven factors, which were then investigated using a multiple regression analysis. From this analysis, it could be mathematically proven that the parameters quantity, distance, weight per transport package, temperature, and the type of customer to which the transport went, affects the transport cost both at the shipping level and per transport package.

    After these drivers had been identified, interviews were held to investigate which departments have the greatest potential to influence them and, in the long run, affect transport costs. These interviews showed that it was primarily the sales and Supply Chain departments that affect the shipping costs, even though market and production have a more indirect impact.

    Finally, interviews were conducted with staff from the relevant departments to investigate how awareness and management of transport costs can be improved. This resulted in a large number of proposals where the most frequent one mentioned was a continuous follow-up on transport costs. This follow-up should point out which patterns in orders and shipments that gave rise to the higher cost. If this follow-up is to be done manually or by means of an automated tool, there are different views, but the staff feels that in order to reduce transport costs, they need increased awareness of what affects them.

  • 9.
    Antony, Jiju
    et al.
    Heriot Watt University, Scotland.
    Setijono, Djoko
    University of Strathclyde, Scotland.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lean Six Sigma and Innovation - an exploratory study among UK organisations2016In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 27, no 1-2, p. 124-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although research has been carried out linking Total Quality Management and Innovation, it was found that there is a dearth of literature exploring the relationship between Lean Six Sigma (LSS) and Innovation. The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between LSS and Process/Product/Service Innovation. A number of interviews were carried out with 10 UK-based companies to explore how LSS and Process/Product/Service Innovation are linked. The interviewees (Six Sigma Black Belts and Master Black Belts) were carefully chosen to ensure that sound and valid conclusions could be derived from the investigation. Due to constraints of limited time, the number of people who participated in the study was relatively small. However, the authors argue that this study can provide a good foundation to various researchers and practitioners to further explore the nature of the relationship between one of the most popular business process improvement methodologies (LSS) and Process/Product/Service Innovation. Based on the interviews of 10 companies in the UK engaging with LSS initiatives, the authors found that LSS is commonly viewed as fostering Process/Product/Service Innovation, Incremental Innovation, or Innovation Capability. The authors also identify seven features specific to LSS that are likely to have significant influence on the above types of Innovation.

  • 10.
    Barrdahl, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Adolfson, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Reducering av kapitalbindning genom förändrad lagerstyrning: En studie på Husqvarna Group med fokus på inköp från avlägsna leverantörer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study was conducted during the spring -18 as a graduate work at Husqvarna Group towards the company's purchasing department. The authors study the master’s program Logistics as part of their MSc in Engineering at Linköping University. 

    The main subjects of the study are purchasing and inventory management, focusing on the latter part and intended to reduce capital tied up without increasing overall costs through a change. Security stock, order quantities and consignment storage were the three key areas investigated and four different scenarios were created within these. In addition to cost and tied up capital, the scenarios were also evaluated according to how they affected the flexibility of Husqvarna. The two scenarios investigated in security stock were the service level method Scenario 1 - SERV1 and Scenario 2 - Percentage of demand during lead time. Within order quantities, a scenario based on economic order quantity, Scenario 3 - EOK, was investigated. Qualitatively, a consignment inventory was also investigated through Scenario 4 - Consignment storage

    Interviews and information from the company's business systems have been the key sources of information for the study, where the safety stock and order quantity changes were quantitatively evaluated and consignment storage qualitatively. The study has focused on two remote suppliers located in Asia. 

    The study found that using the SERV1 service-level methodology reduces the company's tied up capital by 13.6% and total costs by 15.9%, with the additional effect of a higher and more even service level for the entire product range. Also, deciding the order quantities by using economic order quantity resulted in a reduction of 9,8% in capital tied up and a marginal decrease in total costs. The percentage changes are in relation to the current situation and the costs which change in connection with the introduction of the scenarios are included. A consignment storage will reduce capital tied up, but the costs would probably increase in the transition from the present. In this scenario, it is important to evaluate the profit of decreasing tied up capital to the increased costs. Scenario 2 - Percentage of demand during the lead time was not considered to give a sufficiently good result and is for that reason not worth for Husqvarna to move forward with. 

    The conclusion of the study is that Husqvarna Group should dimension its security stocks and review its order quantities for the existing articles according to the recommended methods. They should also focus on determining the order quantity when starting to buy new articles. Consignment storage should be further investigated on the basis of difficulties to quantitatively investigate costs. The result of the study can be used for both remote and nearby suppliers and is therefore considered to be generalizable for all Husqvarna products and also for other companies.

  • 11.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pavlasevic, Vanja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Understanding the user beyond ‘common sense’ – teaching Product Ergonomics to design engineering students2015In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, International Ergonomics Association , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidisciplinary frameworks are needed to develop products that fit the human. Ergonomics is a multifaceted field that encompasses physical, cognitive and organizational aspects, and it is therefore a suitable subject to be taught to design engineering students.

    The objective of this paper was to describe and reflect upon how a systems perspective on Ergonomics is developed and conveyed in a course in Product Ergonomics to engineering students at the Design and Product Development (DPD) programme at Linköping University, Sweden. The paper is based on the authors’ experiences from teaching the course in Product Ergonomicsas well ason 52 students’ written reflections about their view on Ergonomics before and after taking the course.

    Means and ideas for teaching Ergonomics with a systems perspective included organizing a theoretical introduction into weekly themes and thereafter integrating and applying these themes in a product concept project under supervision of a multidisciplinary teacher team.

    The paper also reflects on how the systems perspective of Ergonomics is planned for and realized in the intended, implemented and attained curriculum.

  • 12.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Kock, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Wallo, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    HELIX Competence Centre – Knowledge for Sustainable Working Life2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe HELIX Competence Centre at Linköping University and its work to contribute to sustainable working life. Research in HELIX Competence Centre is based on an interactive approach between researchers from different disciplines and partner organizations, including industrial organizations, public organizations, labour market organizations, and civil society organizations. The research programme includes four research themes: 1) Sustainable development processes in industrial production systems; 2) Growth and development in small enterprises; 3) Sustainable, innovative, and coordinated health and welfare processes; and 4) Diversity and inclusion in working life. Other activities include seminars and partnership meetings with different topics and a yearly HELIX day. The research and activities led by HELIX Competence Centre constitute an approach to integrate social and economic sustainability, produce scientific knowledge, and add value to practice in the partner organizations.

  • 13.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pavlasevic, Vanja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Theme-based assessment of education in design and product development2014In: Proceedings of the 10th International CDIO Conference, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One fundamental challenge in choosing an examination form to assess student achievements is to find an examination which, both encourages students to continuously elaborate the course content and constitutes a learning process itself. The objective of this paper is to share and reflect on the development and implementation of a new theme-based examination in a six credit course in Product Ergonomics given in the engineering programme Design and Product Development at Linköping University, Sweden. The course runs during four months and has two parts: one theoretical and one applied. The former focuses on theoretical ergonomic topics, models and methods while the latter is a project aiming at consolidating the students’ understanding of the theory by implementing the knowledge in a product development case. To encourage the students to adapt a deep learning approach, the traditional written mid-term exam for the theoretical part was abandoned and another concept developed. In the new concept, the theoretical part was split onto six weekly themes. Each theme was introduced at the beginning of the week by high-lighting main theories and models followed by a group-work assignment to be elaborated on by the students during the week. The theme was examined at the end of the week through a short written exam and a seminar to discuss and reflect upon the theme. From a student perspective, the positive outcome of the theme-based examination was peer learning and a more active learning style. The students appreciated the theme-based structure of the course. Occasionally, some students commented that weekly examinations could be perceived as stressful. The teachers perceived the students to be more acquainted with ergonomics theory and methods which increased the quality of the course project. The reported theme-based assessment is one example of implementing among others the CDIO syllabus parts 2.2 and 3.1and CDIO standards 8 and 11.

  • 14.
    Bergvall, Jacob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    För- och nackdelar med varuförsörjning via lokala mikroterminaler: En studie av köpcentrum i Linköping och Norrköping2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att världens städer blir allt mer tätbefolkade ökar behovet av varor i städerna. Varutransporter inom tätbebyggda områden för med sig många problem, så som luftföroreningar, buller och trängsel, men är vitala för städernas överlevnad. En av åtgärderna som föreslås i litteraturen för att minska dessa problem kallas lokal mikroterminal (LMT), som är en logistisk anläggning i utkanten av ett tätbebyggt område där varor konsolideras innan de levereras till mottagare inom det tätbebyggda området. Lokala mikroter- minaler har stor potential till att minska den miljöpåverkan som varutrans- porter i tätbebyggda områden för med sig, men de är ändå sällsynta.

    Studiens syfte var att ”identifiera potentiella för- och nackdelar, ur ett ekonomiskt, ekologiskt och socialt perspektiv, med att styra varuflödet till köp- centrum i Linköping och Norrköping via lokala mikroterminaler”. Efter lit- teratursökningen stod det klart att ur de ekologiska och sociala hållbarhets- dimensionerna hade flera fördelar med LMT:er identifierats och uppmätts. Fördelarna i dessa två dimensioner uppnås genom att varutransporten utförs effektivare om en lokal mikroterminal används. Eftersom LMT:n även har en driftskostnad så har många LMT:er dock lagts ner på grund av att de blev för dyra. Studien fokuserades därför på det ekonomiska perspektivet. Ifall fler möjliga ekonomiska fördelar med LMT:er identifierades skulle det öka sannolikheten att fler lönsamma LMT:er kan införas.

    Valet av aktörsperspektiv preciserades ytterligare genom att studien fo- kuserades på butiker och hur de påverkas av ett införande av en LMT. Den mest centrala utgångspunkten var hur personalens butikslogistiska (Kotzab & Teller, 2005) arbetsuppgifter påverkade deras möjlighet att erbjuda så bra service som möjligt och ifall en LMT kan motverka eventuella butikslogis- tiska problem hos butikerna. De butikslogistiska aktiviteter som undersök- tes var leveransmottagning, uppackning, prismärkning, larmning samt skräp- hantering/återvinning. Dessutom undersöktes butikernas behov av ett större lagringsutrymme. Studiens frågeställningar besvarades med hjälp av 51 semi- strukturerade intervjuer hos butiker i köpcentrum i Linköping och Norrkö- ping, samt till en viss del med hjälp av litteraturen.

    Den största potentialen till ekonomiska fördelar för butikerna identifiera- des som möjligheten till att få alla leveranser tidigt under dagen och möjlig- heten till att kunna utnyttja LMT:n som en lagringspunkt. 75 % av butikerna angav antingen butikslogistiska aktiviteter eller lagring som ett problem och därmed bör en stor andel av butikerna ha någon form av intresse för vad en LMT kan erbjuda. För att uppnå dessa ekonomiska fördelar är det därför viktigt att en LMT kan erbjuda ett stort antal tilläggstjänster. 

  • 15.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hållbar logistik: Hur skapas innovation och lönsamhet?2016In: Supply chain effect, no 1, p. 10-12Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Logistics decision levels, activities and sustainability focus among swedish retailers2015In: Book of proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Björklund, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sustainable logistics business cases2017In: Book of abstract, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    What constitute a functioning business model for urban consolidation centres?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Critical factors for viable business models for urban consolidation centres2017In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 64, p. 36-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Although urban consolidation centres (UCC) worldwide have improved urban freight distribution and reduced externalities, other UCC initiatives have not materialised due to problems such as for example, business model limitations. All the same, researchers have rarely described business model components relevant to city logistics. In response, the purpose of this article is to analyse critical factors for viable business models of city logistics initiatives involving UCCs. Following an extensive literature review and multiple-case study of five initiatives with UCCs, we identified seven critical factors of viable city logistics business models: the ability to scale up and down the UCC solution; an ability to continuously develop and adapt to a dynamic environment; the important entrepreneurial role of the initiator as well; the acknowledgment of society; ability to innovate new services; logistics and supply chain management competence; and the ability to take full advantage of advanced IT. All seven factors describe continuously redeveloped business models seeking to seize new and unexpected opportunities, yet also indicate that city logistics systems require local authorities and municipalities to act as initiators, enablers, and customers. The models also underscore differences between purely commercial and purely municipal city logistics initiatives.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-10-06 17:38
  • 20.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    A framework for classifying sustainable logistics innovation2018In: Logistics research, ISSN 1865-035X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers and practitioners alike need support in the challenges to develop sustainable logistics, and one cannot afford to have a limited view of what constitutes sustainable logistics innovation (SLI). In order to inspire researchers and practitioners to expand their mindset when addressing sustainable logistics, the purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for classifying sustainable logistics innovations, and by classifying some SLIs evaluating the applicability of the framework. The study is based on a literature review within logistics innovation, sustainable innovation, and sustainable logistics innovation, resulting in a framework. It contains three areas: softness, extent of change and scope, which in turn contain nine dimensions. Interviews in three retailers acting in Sweden were conducted. SLIs were illustrated and classified in the framework. By moving outside how research so far has studied SLIs, examples of SLIs in logistics activities other than transport were identified, in forms aside from technological solutions, and in industries outside of logistics service providers. It was found that it was possible to classify SLIs in all dimensions, with some difficulties in extent of change in output, which also shows the applicability of the framework. Using the framework, SLIs can be understood in a more concrete and applicable way, which can inspire practitioners to develop and expand their efforts towards sustainable logistics. Therefore the study has implications for research, practice and society. Several suggestions for future research are presented.

  • 21.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Exploring the sustainable logistics innovation process2018In: Industrial management + data systems, ISSN 0263-5577, E-ISSN 1758-5783, Vol. 118, no 1, p. 204-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The development of more sustainable logistics calls for innovative thinking. In order to accelerate the development in the field, there is a need for increased understanding of the process behind successful implementation of sustainable logistics innovations (SLI). The purpose of this paper is to explore the SLI process, in order to identify critical factors, challenges as well as actors involved. Design/methodology/approach - A multiple-case study in six Swedish retailers and logistics service providers (LSPs), successful in SLI implementations, was conducted. Both within-case and cross-case analyses were applied. Findings - The SLI process consists of five phases. The positive relationship between formalisation and SLI success is supported. Critical activities and challenges not known from literature were found in each phase. Examples are the use of logistics and customer KPIs, quickness, developing simple concepts, using a sustainability business case template and selecting where to test SLIs. Some phases are involving many internal and external actors, while others involve few internal actors. Customers are not particularly involved, and retailers involve their LSP suppliers. Research limitations/implications - This study addresses the lack of empirical research in logistics innovation and has bridged the gap of innovation studies in other companies than in LSPs. Furthermore it has combined two developing areas, sustainable innovation and logistics innovation, into SLI. A number of critical activities and challenges, and complex patterns for actors involvement in the SLI process phases are explored as insights from particular cases; these results could be analytically generalised to theory. Practical implications - The practical implications lie in guiding managers who wish to improve sustainability and innovativeness in logistics and, consequently, business success. Knowledge from successful companies about which phases to go through in which sequence, which challenges that can be expected and who to include in the SLI process could imply that more companies focus on SLI. Social implications - Knowledge on how to include sustainability in a clear innovation process, e.g., by making strong business cases, should imply an accelerated development of sustainable logistics in society. Originality/value - This study addresses the lack of empirically-based research in logistics innovation and expands the concept to retailers.

  • 22.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linnéuniversitetet,Växjö, Sweden.
    Framgångsfaktorer för logistikrelaterat hållbarhetsarbete2017In: Supply Chain Effect, no 4, p. 24-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Hållbara logistikinnovationer (HLI) i handels- och logistikföretag2016In: / [ed] Peter Berling & Helena Forslund, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linnaeus university.
    Illustrating and Classifying Sustainable Logistics Innovation2016In: LRN conference 2016: proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linneaus University.
    In search of sustainable logistics innovation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linnaeus University, School of Business & Economics, Växjö, Sweden.
    The sustainable logistics innovation process: an exploratory study2016In: NOFOMA 2016 - Proceedings of the 28th Annual Nordic Logistics Research Network Conference / [ed] Lauri Ojala, Juuso Töyli, Tomi Solakivi, Harri Lorentz, Sini Laari, Ninni Lehtinen, Turku, Finland: University of Turku Press , 2016, p. 35-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Sustainability has become an important aspect for improving logistics, and the development ofmore sustainable logistics operations calls for innovative thinking. The purpose of this study isto explore how the sustainable logistics innovation (SLI) process is managed by some retailersand LSPs in order to suggest a framework for describing and analysing the SLI process.

    Design/methodology/approach: Literature on general, logistics and sustainable innovation processes is studied. A multiple-casestudy in five Swedish retailers and LSPs is conducted. With a pattern-matching approach, theSLI processes in the companies are analysed and a framework is suggested.

    Findings: A framework for the SLI process is suggested and its differences from general innovationprocesses are highlighted, such as the use of 3BL business cases. It shows the characteristics ofthe SLI process and which actors that are involved. The SLI process can vary largely and stillgenerate SLIs. However, managerial improvement potentials were found in several phases ofthe process.

    Research limitations/implications: This study addresses the lack of empirically based research in logistics innovation and expandsit to retailers. It expands our knowledge into SLI, where the framework can be applied tostructure and understand SLI processes, and to identify improvement potentials.

    Practical limitations/implications: Managerial implications are found in the limited customer involvement in idea generation andthe often “secret” way of evaluating ideas. As the companies can be seen as forerunners in SLI,managers can get inspiration by studying how the process is managed.

    Originality/value: Very few studies are found in the area of sustainable logistics innovation.

  • 27.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Institutionen för ekonomistyrning och logistik, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Transportrelaterar CSR-arbete: för ökad lönsamhet och innovation2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att möta trender såsom ökad internationell konkurrens måste framtida transportsystem inte bara vara ekonomiskt utan även socialt och miljömässigt hållbara. CSR-arbetet måste lyftas till en affärsmässighet där hållbara transportsatsningar blir en integrerad del av affärsutvecklingen och stödjer näringslivets långsiktiga och hållbara konkurrenskraft. För detta krävs nytänkande och innovationskraft. Kunskapen kring hur CSR-arbete kan göras företagsekonomiskt intressant är starkt begränsad. Det saknas kunskap kring hur företagsekonomiskt intressanta tjänster och processer kan utformas som stödjer en utveckling mot satta transportpolitiska mål och miljömål, och som stöds av mätning och uppföljning.

    Fokus i detta projekt har legat på att identifiera, beskriva och analysera innovationer som kan medföra att transportrelaterat CSR-arbete ger effektivare verksamheter och/eller kundservice. Transportutövare och transportköpare (här handelsföretag) har fokuserats. Handelsföretag kan i sin roll som länk mellan kunder och producenter och med sin ofta starka förhandlingskraft påverka CSR-arbetet även utanför företagsgränserna. De stora potentialer som finns i gränssnitten mellan transportsystemets aktörer har därmed lyfts fram.

  • 28.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Department of Accounting and Logistics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Persdotter Isaksson, Maria
    School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Exploring logistics-related environmental sustainability in large retailers2016In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 38-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore and illustrate ways in which the world’s largest retailers describe their logistics-related environmental considerations, their environmental indicators applied to measure the effects of these considerations and their environmental consciousness in their CSR reports.

    Design/methodology/approach – Classification models are developed via a literature review on logistics-related environmental considerations, indicators and consciousness. A content analysis approach is then applied to examine CSR reports from 12 of the world’s largest retailers.

    Findings – Few retailers show environmental considerations in all logistics activities, but purchasing is especially well described. Even if many retailers claim to use the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) framework, no one uses is completely. Judging consciousness from CSR reports raised a number of questions.

    Research limitations/implications – A contribution to theory is the development of two classification models. The first provides a description structure for environmental considerations related to logistics activities. The second expands the GRI indicator framework by incorporating a structure for logistics activities.

    Practical implications – The classification models developed can be an important mean for managers and also consumers to judge the environmental sustainability of retailers by their CSR reports.

    Social implications – The study makes a social contribution with its input on sustainability and especially environmental issues.

    Originality/value – Few studies have focused upon environmentally sustainable logistics in retail chains, and even fewer address how to measure environmental sustainability in this context.

  • 29.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    S.Ülgen, Veronica
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hållbarhetsarbete i transportförsörjningskedjor2017In: Hållbarhetsarbete i transportförsörjningskedjor, Göteborg, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huge-Brodin, MariaLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greening logistics2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging awareness of climate threats and other environmentally related problems creates challenges for logistics.Greening logistics introduces various avenues to understand and improve logistics systems from an environmental perspective.Freight transport is part of, as well as a consequence of, the logistics 
system, where the environmental challenges cannot, and should not, be met at the cost of efficiency and competitiveness.During the last decade, research into green logistics has expanded and matured dramatically. From being in the outskirts of the logistics field, environmental considerations have become a more natural part of logistics research. This book provides examples of research performed by Swedish PhD students, and illuminates parts of the multifaceted area of green logistics research. The PhD students have each contributed with one chapter, in which they present their research in their own words.Greening logistics is aimed at various audiences: for students and teachers in universities and professional programmes – to facilitate the understanding of a complex, important, and emerging area; for business – to demonstrate green logistics’ important role, and provide inspiration and guidance for further development; for funding bodies – to demonstrate the strength of a joint funding initiative: the development of research competence at various universities; and for researchers – as inspiration and introduction to the area of green logistics.

  • 31.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huge-Brodin, MariaLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greening Logistics2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging awareness of climate threats and other environmentally related problems creates challenges for logistics. Greening logistics introduces various avenues to understand and improve logistics systems from an environmental perspective. Freight transport is part of, as well as a consequence of, the logistics 
system, where the environmental challenges cannot, and should not, be met at the cost of efficiency and competitiveness. During the last decade, research into green logistics has expanded and matured dramatically. From being in the outskirts of the logistics field, environmental considerations have become a more natural part of logistics research. This book provides examples of research performed by Swedish PhD students, and illuminates parts of the multifaceted area of green logistics research. The PhD students have each contributed with one chapter, in which they present their research in their own words. Greening logistics is aimed at various audiences: for students and teachers in universities and professional programmes – to facilitate the understanding of a complex, important, and emerging area; for business – to demonstrate green logistics’ important role, and provide inspiration and guidance for further development; for funding bodies – to demonstrate the strength of a joint funding initiative: the development of research competence at various universities; and for researchers – as inspiration and introduction to the area of green logistics.

  • 32.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Designing a business model for redistribution of surplus food2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Urban consolidation centre - a literature review, categorisation, and a future research agenda2018In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 745-764Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Urban consolidation centre (UCC) is a popular initiative targeting the challenge of negative environmental and social impacts from freight transports in cities. Despite this, UCC often fails in practice, which indicates a knowledge gap. Furthermore, research within the field can be described as fragmented, transdisciplinary and fast growing. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the field by describing dominant categories and themes within the area, identify gaps in order to propose a future research agenda, and provide insights into the needs of practitioners. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature review (SLR) targeting journal articles based on UCCs has been constructed with a supplementary snowball approach. A content analysis was performed to categorise themes in the research on UCCs and to identify research gaps, both within and outside the categories identified. Findings Despite substantial research on UCC, very little research ends up in academic journals. In all, 56 articles address UCC. The most common topics were the role of stakeholders, design of distribution structures and transport resources, environmental and social consideration, and economic considerations. Much focus is directed towards finding optimal solutions and designs for potential initiatives with very little, if any, consideration to financial viability or the management of the UCC initiative. Research limitations/implications This research points out existing gaps in the literature and proposes a future research agenda with UCCs as the focus. For example, although environmental and social arguments are often applied to justify the implementation of UCCs, few studies measure or evaluate their impact. Another important research gap is the economical consideration, both how to generate revenue and how to consider economies of scale. Practical implications The practical contribution of most studies is directed towards municipalities. Few findings are presented in a way to support companies. Additionally, by bridging the gaps related to how stakeholders can collaborate and describe what is happening in a UCC, practitioners can use such information as guidelines. Originality/value The results provide a research agenda for the fragmented research targeting UCCs, supporting the viability of future initiatives.

  • 34.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paulsson, Ulf
    Ekonomihögskolan, Lunds universitet.
    Academic papers and theses: to write and present and to act as an oponent2014 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An educational method that is becoming all the more common at colleges and universities is that of the seminar. In the seminar, students write academic papers and reports, present them, and act as opponents on each other’s work. The book covers all the sections that are normally included in the seminar. The learning environment of the seminar is based on a scientific way of thinking and on scientific methods. With its point of departure in this foundation, the book aims to provide easily accessible information and advice about the ways in which academic work can be organized and carried out. Furthermore, the book takes up issues regarding layout, presentation of one’s work, opposition, and cheating, as well as criteria used to assess academic papers and theses.

    The book is intended for use on first-cycle levels at university colleges and universities, and within other forms of post-secondary school education.

    There is also a Swedish version of the book with the title: Seminarieboken – att skriva, presentera och opponera.

  • 35.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Piecyk, Maja
    Herriot watt University, UK.
    Why logistics service providers do (not) report on CSR: a swedis perspective2015In: Book of proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Björklund, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Supplier relations and sustainability2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Braun, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Leffers, Eicke
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Service Data Management: How data around services can help to manage services internally - a case study at the Volvo Group2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional manufacturing firms today are on the way to extend their product portfolio with services in order to broaden their offering and to strengthen the relation to their customers. New services are being developed, old services are substituted and replaced and existing services adapted, while the amount of services tends to increase in total. As the number of services increases, so does the administrative work and complexity that comes along with services.

    This thesis aims at investigating how to handle the rising amount of data internally created around services and which service data need to be managed to describe a service. The objective is to find a way that allows Volvo to focus on the development and adaptation of services and not being distracted with work on administration of data around services, but rather focus on value-creating work. Different types of metadata are identified that describe a service along its lifecycle, e.g. versions, lifecycle stages, dependencies to other services, etc. The way is summarized in a framework that illustrates which data are needed and how this information can be managed.

    Besides the literature study, a benchmarking study is conducted within three other, global operating companies that have made their way from a manufacturer to a service provider or are still on the way to become one. The objective is to analyze their way on handling service data and to compare those to the one of Volvo and use the gathered information to provide a recommendation that suits Volvo’s way of working. The benchmarking study aimed at investigating the current status and future objectives of the firms through interviews with service experts.

    The results show that there is a great variation among the firms, including Volvo. While the third benchmarking firm has a mature way of dealing with services in their administration, Volvo and the benchmarking firm 2 are at an early stage in the servitization process. However, benchmarking firm 1 has an intermediate state that is strongly supported by an existing ERP system that is capable of registering service data.

    The Volvo Group acts in a strong competitive market that demands fleet management services, maintenance agreements and repair contracts in addition to the product offering. A lean way of service data management with high efficiency allows Volvo to compete in this market successfully. Services can be developed quicker by reuse of existing modules, a tracking of changes allows users to see the evolution of a particular service and the impact of a change can be estimated with the right system that considers dependencies among services.

    A solution to improve in the service data management is presented in the developed framework of this thesis. It is one way to account for the growing number of data and services and to simplify the daily work with services with a software-based solution. It can help to approach the growing number of services and to structure them in a daily work environment as well as from a more holistic portfolio management perspective.

  • 38.
    Calmfors, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Werdin, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Utveckling av en beräkningsmodell för effekten av transportåtgärder med fokus på miljöpåverkan för Runsvengruppen AB2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Runsvengruppen AB is a Swedish retail company that is interested in working towards reducing the environmental impact of their transports. Because they are acting in a price-competitive market it is also important to evaluate how changes impact the costs and the level of service. Because of that, the objective of this study was to develop a calculation method that can be used to evaluate the environmental impact as well as the cost and service effects of different measures. The method to calculate the effects was developed to be able to assess measures on the operating level of the transportation, with a focus on measures to change the mode of transportation, change fuel type, improve exhaust emission control and engine technology, implement new vehicle design and implement eco-driving. The development of the calculation methods was divided into three parts: environment, costs and service. The method was developed for transports conducted by truck, ship and train which are the three most common means of transportation for goods. At first theoretical methods was derived from relevant literature. Because the theoretical method does not take into consideration which information is available to the company the method had to be adapted to the information that was available at Runsvengruppen AB. The first step was therefore to investigate which necessary information was available at Runsvengruppen AB and after that analyze how the method could be adapted to ensure its relevance for the company. Regarding the environmental calculation method, the results were different for different means of transportation. For transports conducted by truck the required inputs were available to Runsvengruppen AB. This was mainly due to the company’s close relationship to its haulage contractors and thus the theoretical calculation method could be used. For transports conducted by boat and train however, the situation was different. In these cases, Runsvengruppen AB did not have access to a large portion of the required inputs that the theoretical method demands. To handle this, standard values had to be calculated to provide adequate estimates. Therefore, these calculations are less accurate. To calculate the cost effects, the theoretical calculation method could be used without modification since Runsvengruppen AB had access to the required inputs. The service effect was evaluated by the change in lead time and the amount of deliveries that arrive on time. Lead time was possible to calculate according to the theoretical method while input was missing for the amount on deliveries that arrive on time. Since it also proved difficult to estimate this effect it was not included in the final calculation method.

  • 39.
    Carlsson, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Högskolan i Gävle, Sweden.
    Resources to Form Logistics Capabilities: from the Perspective of a Small- or Medium-Sized Subcontractor2008In: Supply Chain Forum: an International Journal, ISSN 1625-8312, E-ISSN 1624-6039, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 6-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way for a small subcontractor to meet increasing global competitionis to develop a system supplying ability, which implies more focus onlogistical issues and a larger overall responsibility in the supply chain.Certain logistics capabilities have been identified as important to a smallormedium-sized subcontractor in order to cope with the systemsupplying role. Interviews have been carried out in a multiple case studywith the purpose of identifying important resources for a smaller supplierwith the ambition of forming logistics capabilities to support systemsupply. Resources within three different areas have been identified:organizational, competence base, and tools. Conclusions from acomparison among three companies, with different degrees of systemsupplying services, point out the importance of an organization with clearand distinct responsibilities and authorities. Competencies in logistics andenhanced understanding and use of IT support and communicationsystems are identified as areas to improve for the smaller companies.

  • 40.
    Carlsson, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aronsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Investing in Lean to Improve Basic Capabilities: A strategy for System Supply?2017In: Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, ISSN 2013-8423, E-ISSN 2013-0953, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 28-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper describes the perceived effects of implementing lean production in aSwedish SME contract manufacturer. Especially focused are the effects on, and possible tradeoffsbetween, cost-efficiency and flexibility.Design/methodology/approach: SME suppliers need basic capabilities of qualitativeproduction performance as stepping-stones to develop more system supplier capabilities foradded customer value. Development of stable production processes is seen as a way to reachstable basic performance, efficient and with higher resource utilization. Quality is a precursor todelivery performance as well as to cost reduction and flexibility. This is a longitudinal single casestudy of a SME supplier striving to become a system supplier. Two main sources of datacollection are used: interviews and the main author’s presence as employee and businessdeveloper, participating in and following up the ongoing change process.Findings: Analyzing the development over time illustrated the importance of context andcontent for the change process. Two specific findings appeared: (1) An initial effect was animportant “eye-opener” for the balance between cost efficiency and flexibility in the organization.(2) Process orientation, as the basis of both lean and agile approaches, allows many improvementswithout any conflicts or trade-offs between these two goals. Stability in the production leads to increased controllability, initially resulting in both higher cost-efficiency and higher flexibility. Asthe organization develops however, strategic considerations relating to the chosen market strategymight occur: cost leadership or differentiation.Research limitations/implications: These results reflect the experiences of one SME supplierand further studies are needed for generalizability.Originality/value: The study increases the understanding of how a SME may develop stableprocesses in its different supplier-customer contexts. The study points at some necessary basiccomponents of this process approach as a first step for the transition to system supplier.

  • 41.
    Carlsson, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Developing system supplier capability by integrating knowledge with customers2017In: International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, ISSN 1742-7967, E-ISSN 1742-7975Article in journal (Refereed)
    The full text will be freely available from 2019-01-01 15:00
  • 42.
    Cronemyr, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Åsa
    SIQ - Swedish Insititute for Quality, Sweden.
    A Tool For Measuring Quality Culture2016In: 19th QMOD Proceedings: International Conference on Quality and Service Sciences / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park, Jens J. Dahlgaard, Lund University Library Press , 2016, p. 1272-1285Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s organizations face the challenge of measuring the right things and then using those measurements as a starting point to work with improved quality.  It is important to design a measurement tool that corresponds to the initiatives taken when a new management implementation such as adopting quality values is carried out. The failure to generate a shared value base is pointed out as one main cause for the inability to effectively apply Quality Management and Lean within organizations, thus it appears central to measure these values. However, the measuring of values and organizational culture, e.g. the soft side, seems to be missing within both concepts. The managers have great influence on what culture will be predominant in an organization, and how they act and behave affects the attitudes and behaviours of the co-workers within the organization. Therefore, there is a need for a tool that measures not only quality values, but also behaviours that support or obstruct a quality culture. Furthermore, it is of interest how the employees rank both the performance and the importance of quality values and behaviours. The tool should not be a ‘certification’ but rather a diagnostic tool for continuous improvement.

  • 43.
    Dahlgaard, Jens J.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlgaard-Park, Su MiLund university, Lund, Sweden.
    Best Papers from QMOD 2014 Conference in Prague2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pugna, Adrian
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    Potra, Sabina
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    Negrea, Romeo
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    Mocan, Marian
    Politehn University of Timisoara, Romania.
    A greenhouse approach for value cultivation2016In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 27, no 7-8, p. 836-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper explores design requirements to take into consideration when designing and developing new products or services. The purpose of this article is to develop a strategic approach for analysing variations between potential customer needs in order better to understand what qualities should be further cultivated before product launch. This new approach is called A Greenhouse Approach for Value Cultivation. Case study data of a new web-based customisation service for a Romanian shoe manufacturing company has been re-analysed by using questionnaire data on 166 respondents perceptions on 14 attributes importance and value. A nonlinear regression model was developed and used to understand relations between importance and value. Such relations were used together with the Greenhouse Model to better understand the service attributes potential life cycles if selected for further cultivation. The Greenhouse Model envisages new perspectives of the evaluation of customer needs to support strategic decision-making regarding further value cultivation for profound affection (= customer delight). Even if there is a need for further tests the suggested Greenhouse Approach for Value Cultivation is regarded as a new and original contribution to the theory of attractive quality creation which deepens its position in the theory of attractive quality and transforms it into a practical management tool to support new product and service design.

  • 45.
    Dahlgaard-Park, Su Mi
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Editorial Material: Untitled in TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT and BUSINESS EXCELLENCE, vol 26, issue 9-10, pp 933-9372015In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 26, no 9-10, p. 933-937Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 46.
    Dahlgaard-Park, Su Mi
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Francesca Renzi, Maria
    University of Roma Tre, Italy.
    Editorial in TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT and BUSINESS EXCELLENCE2017In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 28, no 9-10, p. 931-933Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 47.
    Dronamraju, Deepika
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Process Improvement Strategy for Public Sector Organizations: A case study at Linköping Municipality - MoS department2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The public-sector organizations have been in limelight for research work about the implementation of various quality management approaches with the evolution of process management ideology into this sector. The awareness among the citizens regarding their rights and demand for qualitative service has been increased which led to the focus on the quality management approaches like Six Sigma and Lean. The public-sector organizations such as municipalities, health care, social administrators and others are not driven by profits unlike private sectors making it complex to implement these approaches. This led to the purpose of the thesis to research on proposing a process improvement strategy for increased customer satisfaction in the public sector. Seven tools from Lean and Six Sigma methodologies have been chosen to propose the strategy and they are – Process Mapping, Voice of the Customer, Critical to Quality, Cause & Effect Analysis, 5 Why’s, Benchmarking and Standardization.

    To execute this research, a qualitative case study methodology has been conducted at MoS department of Linköping Municipality on one of their ground process – customer request handling process. The research questions were designed to understand how to map the process, the customer orientation and process efficiency specific to the case and finally grasp the effectiveness of the selected tools for public sector. Various data sources were collected for this study. The empirical findings led to interesting analysis and discussion on the case study in relation to the previous literatures reviewed in this area. Moreover, the usefulness of these tools has been clearly identified and the strategy for process improvements has been proposed.

    From the overall discussion, major conclusions on the thesis work have been made with respect to the research questions. Firstly, while mapping the process it is important to consider the customer perspective and identify the process steps which lead to customer satisfaction. Further, communication with the customers and considering their feedback for future improvements is identified to be vital. Finally, the selected tools contribute majorly for the process improvements in public sector where the numerical data availability is limited and the importance of the strategic order for the tools has been highlighted.

    Key Words: Process Improvements, Six Sigma, Lean, Public Sector, Municipal Organizations, Customer Orientation, Customer Satisfaction.

  • 48.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Mätningarnas roll i chefers styrning och förbättringsarbete2016In: Mot ett förändrat ledarskap?: om chefers arbete och ledarskap i ett organisationsperspektiv / [ed] Per-Erik Ellström, Anna Fogelberg Eriksson, Henrik Kock, Andreas Wallo, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 2, p. 147-161Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Berglund, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Kock, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Wallo, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Sustainable Working Life development through interactive research2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive research has emerged as a new approach to collaborative research in working life research, and it is characterized by a continuous joint learning process between the researchers and the practitioners. In this paper we argue that interactive research is a way to advance scientific knowledge about the development of new types of work arrangements and development of sustainable working life. We present the basic ideas and benefits of the interactive research approach, illustrated through a practical case, the HELIX Competence Centre and discuss potential limitation and challenges associated with this form of collaborative research.

  • 50.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Daneryd, Peter
    Kommunalförbundet Avancerad Strålbehandling.
    Lindmark, Jan
    Hållbart sjukdomsförebyggande arbete?: En studie av hur man arbetar med sjukdomsförebyggande arbete i två vårdsystem i USA2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en stor enighet om att vårdens uppdrag behöver förändras för att möta behoven hos befolkningen på ett bättre sätt. Hälsoläget i de rika delarna av världen är i hög grad beroende av den demografiska utvecklingen (med åldrande befolkning) och våra levnads­vanor, som gör att vi drabbas av livsstilssjukdomar. I WHOs nuvarande globala strategi för “health for all” ingår hörnpelare som integrerad befolkningsorienterad hälso- och sjukvård där aspekter som prevention, sjukdomsförebyggande, patientmedverkan lyfts fram (WHO 2015). I EUs forsknings- och utvecklingsprogram och strategiska planering stödjer man projekt som visar hur man kan identifiera, sprida och stödja ”best practices” för kostnadseffektiv prevention vad beträffar rökning, missbruk av alkohol, övervikt och HIV/AIDS (EU 2016).

    I Sverige har vi utvecklat nationella riktlinjer för sjukdomsförebyggande metoder. Rikt­linjerna har tagits fram av Socialstyrelsen för att stärka det sjukdomsförebyggande arbetet i vården och därigenom förbättra patienternas levnadsvanor. I riktlinjerna fokuseras fyra områden – tobak, riskbruk av alkohol, fysisk aktivitet och matvanor. Landstingen och kommunerna, har sedan introduktionen av riktlinjerna år 2011 arbetat med implemente­ringen. Huvudmännen har kommit olika långt i arbetet men bland annat utifrån den an­strängande situationen i stora delar av den svenska vården har det varit svårt att få till­räckligt genomslag för arbetet. Som ett led i insatserna för att stärka upp det sjukdoms­förebyggande arbetet i Sverige har Socialstyrelsen uppdragit åt Linköpings universitet att belysa hur de sjukdomsförebyggande insatserna hanteras i två framstående hälso- och sjukvårdsorganisationer i USA. Den huvudsakliga frågeställningen är hur man organise­rar arbetet med det sjukdomsförebyggande arbetet. Uppdraget innefattar även en genom­gång av internationell vetenskaplig litteratur med syftet att komplettera de två ovan nämn­da fallstudierna. Socialstyrelsen vill härigenom bidra med ökad kunskap om förutsätt­ningar och metoder för att arbeta med sjukdomsförebyggande metoder i kliniskt arbete, företrädesvis primärvården. Denna studie vill därför bidra till kunskapsunderlag om hur realiseringen av de sjukdomsförebyggande metoderna kan ske.

    En utgångspunkt för att kunna ringa in de relevanta frågeställningarna ur ett svenskt perspektiv är de resultat som identifierats i tidigare rapport Översättning av riktlinjer – Fallstudier av sjukdomsförebyggande metoders genomslag av Elg m.fl. (2016). Här stu­derades fyra svenska vårdsystem och deras väg fram i det sjukdomsförebyggande arbetet. Fokus i föreliggande arbete är i likhet med tidigare studie de strukturer och processer som används för att styra, leda och organisera det sjukdomsförebyggande arbetet. Vi tar således utgångspunkt i slutsatserna från den tidigare studien och undersöker empiriskt hur man försöker utveckla och vidmakthålla lösningar på Southcentral Foundation (SCF) och Intermountain Healthcare (IH), två vårdsystem i USA.

    De studerade verksamheterna arbetar aktivt med sjukdomsförebyggande arbete, men uti­från delvis olika utgångspunkter. En viktig skillnad är att medan Intermountain Health­care successivt, med nya initiativ, utökar sitt uppdrag, så ligger det sjukdomsförebyggan­de arbetet redan inbäddat i Southcentral Foundations grundläggande idé för primärvår­den. Det är också stora skillnader i patientpopulationernas storlek och socioekonomiska förhållanden. I analysen gör vi jämförelser mellan de två verksamheterna för att identi­fiera likheter och särdrag i hur man organiserar styrning och ledning om och för sjuk­domsförebyggande. Genom denna analys identifierar vi angreppssätt och metoder som vi bedömer kan ha betydelse ur ett svenskt perspektiv.

    Fyra, som vi ser det, viktiga dimensioner av hur man i de två fallen arbetar med sjukdoms­förebyggande presenteras i studien, nämligen 1) strategiskt styrnings- och ledningsfokus på frågorna; 2) lärande om sjukdomsförebyggande arbete i vårdens vardag; 3) skapande av tekniska stödsystem och processer som underlättar för sjukdomsförebyggande arbetet i vardagen; samt 4) vikten av att genom fysisk design av vårdens arbetsplatser underlätta integration av arbetsmoment och tekniska stödsystem och därigenom genomförandet av strategier för sjukdomsförebyggande arbete. Vi ser även i fallstudierna hur digitala designlösningar möjliggör för medskapande av sjukdomsförebyggande metoder hos med­borgare och patienter.

    Såväl Intermountain Healthcare som Southcentral Foundation har visioner som betonar vikten av hälsofrämjande och sjukdomsförebyggande verksamheter, vilket för båda inne­bär att det strategiska styr- och ledningsarbetet också har fokus på sjukdomsförebyggande arbete som en naturlig del i verksamhetens uppdrag.

    Men en vision kan bli verkningslös om det inte finns strategier och ägarskap på högsta ledningsnivå, som aktivt arbetar för realisering av frågorna. I diskussionen lyfter vi fram betydelsen av detta aktiva ägarskap i termer av resurssättande, hur man knyter strategiskt viktiga partners till arbetet, hur man på strategisk nivå prioriterar sjukdomsförebyggande bland olika patientgrupper samt hur man också knyter an analys och uppföljning på strateginivå.

    Att man även prioriterar resurser för förbättringsarbete och forskning med inriktning mot sjukdomsförebyggande skapar också en förutsättning för långsiktighet. Det finns som vi ser det en dynamik och ett tilltagande fokus för just dessa frågor. I rapporten vill vi ringa in och sätta fokus på hur realiseringen av det sjukdomsförebyggande arbetet har gått till – vad som kan ligga bakom ett framgångsrik införande. Det är därför de organisatoriska processerna snarare än innehållet som vi tar fasta på och som vi också vill lyfta fram som avgörande för ett långsiktigt hållbart sjukdomsförebyggande arbete.

    Att lära om och för det sjukdomsförebyggande är en viktig del i framgången. Här ser vi exempel från våra fall där man via kontinuerlig träning och utbildning av de professionel­la lär sig att hantera frågorna genom vidareutbildningsinsatser. Det finns även fasta rutiner för att kontinuerligt träffas över organisationsgränser där frågorna diskuteras av kliniskt verksamma. Vi ser också att man proaktivt arbetar med berättelser om vad som kan åstad­kommas genom sjukdomsförebyggande arbete. Därutöver finns på SCF särskilda funktio­ner inom primärvården som är specialister på att åstadkomma beteendeförändring hos patienter. Denna kompetens vill vi särskilt lyfta fram då den skapar goda möjligheter att hantera de ofta komplexa problem som behöver hanteras i primärvården.

    Både SCF och IH arbetar mycket aktivt för att skapa tekniska stödsystem och processer som underlättar arbetet i vardagen. Ett uttryck som används är ”det ska vara lätt att göra rätt” och i våra amerikanska fallstudier arbetas det aktivt med att identifiera lösningar som faktiskt gör det lättare att göra rätt. Det gäller till exempel arbetsprocedurer för sjuk­domsförebyggande som bäddas in i den elektroniska patientjournalen, kriterier för att identifiera patienter som är i behov av förebyggande insatser samt standardiserade analys- och utvärderingsinstrument som underlättar beslut i vardagens vårdproduktion. Före­trädare för de studerade vårdsystemen menar att nya sätt att kommunicera med patienter behöver utvecklas, ett arbete som man anser ännu är i sin linda. Digitaliseringen lyfts fram som en möjliggörare där tid och rum inte är avgörande för god vård.

    Man pekar speciellt inom SCF också på vikten av den fysiska designen av vårdens arbets­platser. Det handlar om arbetsplatsens miljö och hur funktioner och kompetenser fysiskt är arrangerade i förhållande till varandra. När det gäller stöd för patienters sjukdomsföre­byggande arbete spelar dessa frågor en viktig roll. Framförallt ser vi hur man fysiskt sam­lokaliserar team och hur man rumsligt placerar undersökningsrum, samtalsrum och led­ning av primärvårdspersonal i avsikt att försöka optimera arbetet. Devisen ”out of sight, out of control” beskriver väl hur man anstränger sig för att ordna den fysiska miljön så att patienten konkret sätts i centrum. Inom IH breddas uppdraget bland annat genom att eftersträva lokalisering av sjukdomsförebyggande aktiviteter på nya sätt i kultur- och samhällscentrala institutioner. Dessa förebyggande insatser bedrivs inom ramen för det definierade vårduppdraget.

    Sammanfattningsvis, baserat på de reflekterade iakttagelser vi har gjort i de två amerikanska organisationerna, finns det en rad möjligheter till tips och råd som kan underlätta det svenska arbetet med sjukdomsförebyggande. Dessa sammanfattar vi i följande punkter:

    1. Ha en strategisk avsikt – De sjukdomsförebyggande insatserna har strategisk betydelse i de båda studerade vårdsystemens arbete. Ägarskapet i vårdsystemens ledningar är påtagligt. Detta är nödvändigt för att man ska få till ett hållbart arbete. Ta bort det ägarskapet och frågan är förlorad.
    2. Säkra resurser – framförallt säkerställande av kompetens – behöver prio­riteras för att kunna hantera uppdrag som omfattar sjukdomsförebyggande in­satser. Vi ser att både SFC och IH gör strategiska prioriteringar av resurser till primärvården för att detta uppdrag ska kunna få fotfäste.
    3. Balansera styrningen – Frågan om detaljstyrning av de sjukdomsföre­byggande insatserna är komplex och hanteras olika på SCF och IH. På SCF är ansvaret för beslut om vård i primärvården fördelat till integrerade team som gör en kollektiv, professionell bedömning tillsammans med patient och anhöriga om patientens problem och behov av insatser utifrån önskemål och förmåga att ta emot. På IH är processtyrningen mer betydelsefull. Här arbetar man efter vad som kallas ”shared baselines” och ”care process models”, man kommer överens om hur arbete ska utföras och följer sedan upp processvariationer.
    4. Arbeta behovsstyrt med utgångspunkt i kunskap om patientens problem – Analyser av behov hos befolkningen spelar en viktig roll i hur uppdragen formuleras. Här behöver vårdsystemen fortsätta driva och fördjupa forskning och utvecklingsin­satser i syfte att förstå behoven på ett djupare plan. Utredningar från forskare och kvalificerade utredare är förstås en viktig del i detta, men det finns även behov av att involvera patienter och medborgare på en regelbunden basis för att få större förståelse om var och hur insatser bör sättas in. Det kan till exempel göras genom olika former av segmenteringar av patienter med olika önskemål och behov. Kon­kret kan behovsanalyser genomföras t.ex. med fokusgrupper eller patientinflytan­de i olika beslutsorgan.
    5. Utveckla kompetens i förbättringskunskap – Både SCF och IH har bred kunskap om hur man driver förbättringsarbete på säkra och effektiva sätt. Till exempel genomförs pilottester – en form av lärandestyrt förbättringsarbete – i specifika verksamhets­delar för att maximera lärande och minimera effekterna av misstag. De pekar på risker att tidigt i utvecklingsprocesser genomdriva fullskaliga implementeringar – att istället testa i begränsad skala för att se effekter av satsningar. En annan viktig ingrediens i förbättringskunskapens verktygslåda är kompetens om mätningar. Här behöver man förstå och kunna argumentera syfte och vilka mätningar som behöver genomföras samt hur man använder mätningar för olika former av beslut i organisationen.
    6. Konstnärligt utvärdera insatser för sjukdomsförebyggande – De insatser som görs för att förebygga sjukdom behöver utvärderas ur flera perspektiv. Det är viktigt att den personal som utför arbetet också kan delta i eller åtminstone följa processerna för utvärdering. På så sätt ges möjligheter till lärande. Kompetens för att genom­föra utvärderingar bör byggas i vårdsystemet, exempelvis:
    1. Analys av behovsbilden hos befolkningen och verksamhetens bidrag till dess utveckling.
    2. Analys av värdet av insatserna för det egna vårdsystemet.
    3. Proaktiv identifiering av patienter som bedöms ha behov av sjukdomsföre­byggande insatser.
    4. Utvärdering av insatsernas effektivitet utifrån professionens perspektiv.
    5. Utvärdering av insatsernas effektivitet utifrån patientens perspektiv.
    6. Utvärdering av hur ofta insatser genomförs.
    7. Utvärdering av resultat och effekter av insatser.

    Författarna till denna rapport har inspirerats under vår datainsamling och analys. Svenska initiativ som möjliggör fördjupade jämförelser och analyser av svenska primärvårdssys­tem utifrån exempelvis de studerade amerikanska vårdsystemen skulle kunna göras. Vad skulle då framstå som möjliga utvecklingsområden för svensk primärvård på makro-, meso och mikronivå? Vi skulle också gärna se mer lust och möjligheter till systematiska experiment inom svensk primärvård, i det här fallet inom området sjukdomsförebyggande metoder. Sådana experiment kräver naturligtvis design, metodkunskap, förbättringskun­skap, utvärdering och diskussion av resultat.

    Vi menar att såväl fördjupade jämförelser och experimentsituationer bör gå att ordna i samverkan mellan landsting, kommuner, verksamheter och forskarsamhället för att for­mulera frågeställningar, design för aktiviteter, föreslå metoder för utvärdering, ordna kommunikation runt resultat med mera.

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