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  • 1.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Movin, StaffanStiftelsen Marknadstekniskt centrum.Mähring, MagnusStockholm School of Economics, Sweden.Teigland, RobinStockholm School of Economics, Sweden.Wennberg, KarlLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Managing digital transformation2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization has arrived.

    Digitalization disrupts markets. Changes in power and structures in a fast-paced environment demands strategic and insightful change. A change leaders must act upon.

    The impact upon organisations is multi-dimensional and profound, affecting both internal and external processes and structures in new and unexpected ways. This book serves as a tool to support managers and other stakeholders in pursuing digital transformation. An inspiring collection of chapters from 27 scholars across various academic disciplines provide several insights, frameworks, and perspectives that will help you leverage and govern organisational change and digital transformation.

    This inspiring collection of current research can assist you in facing key challenges in today’s organisations, in the quest to adapt to ever-evolving business environments. This book examines new demands and behaviours, and discusses how businesses need to adapt and re-organise in order to bridge the gap to the digital customer. These visions and actions on digitalization can help corporations and organisations discover new ways of earning money and delivering value. This is just the beginning.

  • 2.
    Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Erlingsson, Gissur Ó
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Jönköping Business School and The Ratio Institute.
    Wittberg, Emanuel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Municipally Owned Enterprises as Danger Zones for Corruption?: How Politicians Having Feet in Two Camps May Undermine Conditions for Accountabilit2019In: Public Integrity, ISSN 1099-9922, E-ISSN 1558-0989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The market-inspired reforms of New Public Management have been particularly pronounced in Swedish local government. Notably, municipally owned enterprises (MOEs) have rapidly grown in numbers. Principal-agent theory gives rise to the hypothesis that the massive introduction of MOEs has impacted negatively on the conditions for accountability in Swedish local government. To study this, social network analysis was employed in mapping networks for 223 MOEs in 11 strategically chosen municipalities, covering a total of 732 politicians. The analysis reveals substantial overlaps between principals (representatives of the ultimate stakeholders, citizens) and agents (the boards of the MOEs). Hence, corporatization of public services seems to imply worrisome entanglements between the politicians who are set to steer, govern, and oversee MOEs on the one hand, and the board members of MOEs on the other. The increasing numbers of MOEs may therefore have adverse effects on accountability in important and growing parts of Swedish local government.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Henrik
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pragmatic entrepreneurs and institutionalized scholars? On the path-dependent nature of entrepreneurship scholarship2016In: Challenging Entrepreneurship Research / [ed] H. Landström, A. Parhankangas, A. Fayolle, P. Riott, New York: Routledge, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Block, Per
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Koskinen, Johan
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Hollway, James
    Geneva University, Switzerland.
    Steglich, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Stadtfeld, Christoph
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Change we can believe in: Comparing longitudinal network modelson consistency, interpretability and predictive power2017In: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 52, p. 180-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While several models for analysing longitudinal network data have been proposed, their main differ-ences, especially regarding the treatment of time, have not been discussed extensively in the literature.However, differences in treatment of time strongly impact the conclusions that can be drawn from data.In this article we compare auto-regressive network models using the example of TERGMs – a temporalextensions of ERGMs – and process-based models using SAOMs as an example. We conclude that theTERGM has, in contrast to the ERGM, no consistent interpretation on tie-level probabilities, as well as noconsistent interpretation on processes of network change. Further, parameters in the TERGM are stronglydependent on the interval length between two time-points. Neither limitation is true for process-basednetwork models such as the SAOM. Finally, both compared models perform poorly in out-of-sampleprediction compared to trivial predictive models.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-08-23 14:10
  • 5.
    Boelaert, Julien
    et al.
    IPOPS SAGE, France.
    Ollion, Etienne
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. CNRS SAGE, France.
    The Great Regression Machine Learning, Econometrics, and the Future of Quantitative Social Sciences2018In: Revue française de sociologie, ISSN 0035-2969, E-ISSN 1958-5691, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 475-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What can social sciences do with machine learning, and what can the latter do to them? A contribution to the emerging debate on the role of machine learning for the social sciences, this article offers an introduction to this class of statistical techniques. It details its premises, logic, and the challenges it faces. This is done by comparing machine learning to more classical approaches to quantification - most notably parametric regression - both at a general level and in practice. The article is thus an intervention in the contentious debates about the role and possible consequences of adopting statistical learning in science. We claim that the revolution announced by many and feared by others will not happen any time soon, at least not in the terms that both proponents and critics of the technique have spelled out. The growing use of machine learning is not so much ushering in a radically new quantitative era as it is fostering an increased competition between the newly termed classic method and the learning approach. This, in turn, results in more uncertainty with respect to quantified results. Surprisingly enough, this may be good news for knowledge overall.

  • 6.
    Borg, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brandén, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Do high levels of home-ownership create unemployment?: Introducing the missing link between housing tenure and unemployment2018In: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 501-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that the proportion of home-owners in a region tend to be positively associated with the unemployment levels in that region. In this paper, we introduce a missing piece of explaining this commonly found pattern. By analysing individual-level population register data on Sweden, we jointly examine the effects of micro- and macro-level home-ownership on individuals’ unemployment. The findings indicate that even though home-owners have a lower probability of being unemployed, there is a penalty for both renters and home-owners on unemployment in regions with high home-ownership rates. Differences in mobility patterns cannot explain this pattern. However, when labour market size is considered, the higher probability of unemployment in high home-owning regions is drastically reduced. This suggests that high home-ownership regions tend to coincide with small labour markets, affecting the job matching process negatively.

  • 7.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Sociologiska Institutionen, Stockholms Universitet.
    Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo.
    Szulkin, Ryszard
    Department of Sociology, Stockholm University.
    Does school segregation lead to poor educational outcomes?: evidence from fifteen cohorts of swedish ninth graders2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the impact of ethnic school segregation on the educational outcomes of students, using Swedish population register data. Through a school fixed effects, family fixed effects, and a two-way school- and family fixed effects design, we adjust for selection effects related to variation in the student composition across schools. The analyses show that students’ grades are relatively unaffected by the proportion of immigrant schoolmates.  However, it has a small negative effect on levels of eligibility for upper secondary school. Furthermore, immigrants’ educational outcomes are weakly positively affected by the proportion of peers with the same national background as themselves.

  • 8.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Sociology, Stockholm University.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Sociology, Stockholm University / Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm.
    School Choice and School Segregation: Lessons from Sweden’s School Voucher System2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate how school choice opportunities affect school segregation. Theoretically, free school choice may affect school segregation in different directions, depending on its design, baseline residential segregation, and underlying preferences for separation. Our test case is the Swedish voucher-based free school choice system, and we utilize Swedish population register data that include 13 cohorts of ninth graders, with geocoded information on schools, their socioeconomic and ethnic composition, and the composition of the neighborhoods surrounding the schools. To identify causal effects of school choice opportunities, we treat fixed school areas as the unit of analysis, and we follow these over time to net out time-invariant area-level confounders. Within-area panel estimates indicate segregation based on both ethnic and educational background to be strongly affected by school choice opportunities. Increased choice opportunities lead to increased school segregation, to a large extent because of a higher propensity among native children and children with well-educated parents to attend newly established (non-public) independent schools. The segregating impact of school choice opportunities is uniform across school areas with different socioeconomic and ethnic profiles, but school segregation increases much more in residentially integrated areas as a consequence of an increase in school choice options. The lesson to be learned from the Swedish case is that large scale school voucher systems need to be designed to include mechanisms that counteract the strong segregating forces that such systems appear to produce.

  • 9.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Inst Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Gaehler, Michael
    Inst Futures Studies, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Can the trailing spouse phenomenon be explained by employer recruitment choices?2018In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, no 6, article id e2141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that couples tend to relocate for the sake of the mans career rather than the womans, also known as the trailing spouse phenomenon. The role of employer choices in this process is unknown however. If employers are hesitant to make job offers to women who live a long way from the workplace (e.g., because of work-family balance concerns or a perceived risk that they will not follow through on their applications, or stay hired if employed), this tendency might constitute an underlying mechanism behind the moving premium of partnered men. Ours is the first study to empirically test whether employers prefer geographically distant men over geographically distant women. We sent applications for 1,410 job openings in the Swedish labour market, randomly assigning gender and parental status to otherwise equivalent applications from cohabiting or married women and men and recorded employer callbacks to these. The results indicate that employers in general tend to disfavour job applicants who live a long way from the employers workplace. This tendency is stronger for women, both for mothers and for women with no children. Our estimated effects are imprecise but clearly suggest that employer recruitment choices contribute to the trailing spouse phenomenon by offering men a larger pool of geographically distant jobs. We call for more research on this hitherto ignored mechanism behind the trailing spouse phenomenon.

  • 10.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ohlsson-Wijk, Sofi
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sharing the Caring: Attitude–Behavior Discrepancies and Partnership Dynamics2018In: Journal of family issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 771-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though ideals in favor of gender equality in the private sphere are wide spread, discrepancies between ideals and actual behavior are common. Such discrepancies and potential dissatisfaction with gender unequal behavior within a couple are expected to influence partnership dynamics negatively. This study examines how discrepancies between the perceived ideal sharing of parental leave and the actual division of leave, as well as satisfaction with the division are associated with (a) relationship satisfaction, (b) continued childbearing, and (c) union dissolution, using Swedish panel data. The findings cannot confirm an effect of discrepancies on partnership dynamics. However, men who wish they had used a larger share of the parental leave have lower relationship satisfaction, lower continued childbearing, and higher probability of union dissolution. Women are seemingly not affected by their (dis)satisfaction with the division. The findings may reflect a changing father role related to the policy setting and norms in Sweden.

  • 11.
    Brouwer, Jasperina
    et al.
    University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Flache, Andreas
    University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Jansen, Ellen
    University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Hofman, Adriaan
    University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Steglich, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Emergent achievement segregation in freshmenlearning community networks2018In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 76, no 3, p. 483-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common assumption about Freshmen Learning Communities (FLCs) is that academic relationships contribute to students’ success. This study investigates how students inlearning communities connect with fellow students for friendship and academic support. Longitudinal social network data across the first year, collected from 95 Dutch students in eight FLCs, measure both social and academic relational choices within and beyond the FLCs. Using stochastic actor-based models, the study tests two competing hypotheses. The alignment hypothesis states that students connect with their similar-achieving friends for both academic and social support, leading to an alignment of both types of networks over time. In contrast, the duality hypothesis states dissimilarity between academic support networks and friendship networks: students should connect with better-achieving fellow students for academic support and to more similar peers for friendship. The data support the alignment hypothesis but not the duality hypothesis; in addition, they show evidence of achievement segregation in FLCs: the higher the students’ achievement level, the more they connect with other students for both academic support and friendship, relating in particular to peers with a similarly high achievement level. The results suggest that lower-achieving students are excluded from the support provided by higher achieving students and instead ask similar lower achievers for support. They thus cannot benefit optimally from the academic integration FLC offer. The article concludes with recommendations of how to support students in an FLC so that they can reach optimal achievement potential.

  • 12.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden; Institute Future Studies, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Anni
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Gahler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Do Employers Prefer Fathers? Evidence from a Field Experiment Testing the Gender by Parenthood Interaction Effect on Callbacks to Job Applications2017In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 337-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In research on fatherhood premiums and motherhood penalties in career-related outcomes, employers discriminatory behaviours are often argued to constitute a possible explanation for observed gender gaps. However, there is as yet no conclusive evidence of such discrimination. Utilizing a field experiment design, we test (i) whether job applicants are subject to recruitment discrimination on the basis of their gender and parenthood status, and (ii) whether discrimination by gender and parenthood is conditional on the qualifications required by the job applied for. We applied for 2,144 jobs in the Swedish labour market, randomly assigning gender and parenthood status to fictitious job applicants. Based on the rate of callbacks, we do not find that employers practise systematic recruitment discrimination on the basis of the job applicants gender or parental status, neither in relation to less qualified nor more highly qualified jobs.

  • 13.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Szulkin, Ryszard
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Using register data to estimate causal effects of interventions: An ex post synthetic control-group approach2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, p. 50-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: It is common in the context of evaluations that participants have not been selected on the basis of transparent participation criteria, and researchers and evaluators many times have to make do with observational data to estimate effects of job training programs and similar interventions. The techniques developed by researchers in such endeavours are useful not only to researchers narrowly focused on evaluations, but also to social and population science more generally, as observational data overwhelmingly are the norm, and the endogeneity challenges encountered in the estimation of causal effects with such data are not trivial. The aim of this article is to illustrate how register data can be used strategically to evaluate programs and interventions and to estimate causal effects of participation in these. Methods: We use propensity score matching on pretreatment-period variables to derive a synthetic control group, and we use this group as a comparison to estimate the employment-treatment effect of participation in a large job-training program. Results: We find the effect of treatment to be small and positive but transient. Conclusions: Our method reveals a strong regression to the mean effect, extremely easy to interpret as a treatment effect had a less advanced design been used (e.g. a within-subjects panel data analysis), and illustrates one of the unique advantages of using population register data for research purposes.

  • 14.
    Criaco, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Rotterdam School of Managementm Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Sieger, Philipp
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chirico, Francesco
    Centre for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO), Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden; Tecnológico de Monterrey EGADE Business School, San Pedro Garza Garcia, Mexico.
    Minola, Tommaso
    Department of Economics and Technology Management, University of Bergamo, Dalmine, Italy; Center for Young and Family Enterprise (CYFE), University of Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy.
    Parents’ performance in entrepreneurship as a “double-edged sword” for the intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurship2017In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 49, p. 841-864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how perceived parents’ performance in entrepreneurship (PPE) affects the entrepreneurial career intentions of offspring. We argue that while perceived PPE enhances offspring’s perceived entrepreneurial desirability and feasibility because of exposure mechanisms, it inhibits the translation of both desirability and feasibility perceptions into entrepreneurial career intentions due to upward social comparison mechanisms. Thus, perceived PPE acts as a double-edged sword for the intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurship. Our predictions are tested and confirmed on a sample of 21,895 individuals from 33 countries. This study advances the literature on intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurship by providing a foundation for understanding the social psychological conditions necessary for such transmission to occur

  • 15.
    Demir, Robert
    et al.
    Ratio Institute, Sweden; Lancaster University Management School, United Kingdom.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    McKelvie, Alexander
    Whitman School of Management, Syracuse University, New York, USA.
    The Strategic Management of High-Growth Firm: A Review and Theoretical Conceptualization2017In: Long range planning, ISSN 0024-6301, E-ISSN 1873-1872, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 431-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars’ knowledge of the factors behind high-growth firms remains fragmented. This paper provides a systematic review of the empirical literature concerning high-growth firms with a focus on the strategic aspects contributing to growth. Based on our review of 39 articles, we identify five drivers of high growth: human capital, strategy, human resource management, innovation, and capabilities. These drivers are combined to develop a conceptual model of high-growth firms that includes potential contingency factors among the five drivers. We also propose a research agenda to deepen the study of high-growth firms in strategic management.

  • 16. DeTienne, Dawn R.
    et al.
    Wennberg, KarlLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Research handbook of entrepreneurial exit2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With contributions from authors around the globe, Research Handbook of Entrepreneurial Exit explores this most important phenomenon in the entrepreneurial journey. This book presents a comprehensive review of the current issues in entrepreneurial exits, and provides theoretical and methodological insights for future research. It explores the historical perspective and discusses topics such as gender and exit, retirement, psychological barriers, emotional aspects, venture capital funding firm relocation and exit from social ventures.

  • 17.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Brandén, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Fahlen, Susanne
    Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate ISF, Sweden.
    Ohlsson-Wijk, Sofi
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Women have a stronger say in couples decisions to have a child2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 307-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden stands out as a forerunner in the development of gender equality and family dynamics. To deepen the knowledge on power distribution and gender dynamics of couple relations, we investigate how women and mens childbearing intentions influence actual childbearing behavior. The Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS) has information on both partners childbearing intentions in 2009, which we follow for five years with register data on childbearing. The results indicate that womens childbearing intentions are more important than mens intentions in determining actual childbirths.

  • 18.
    Eerola, Mervi
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Helske, Satu
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Analysis of Life History Calendar Data2018In: Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online / [ed] N. Balakrishnan, Theodore Colton, Brian Everitt, Walter Piegorsch, Fabrizio Ruggeri and Jozef L. Teugels, John Wiley & Sons, 2018, p. 1-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The life history calendar (LHC) is a data‐collection tool for obtaining reliable retrospective data on several life domains. LHC data can be analyzed either with probabilistic modeling of transitions between the life states or with sequence analysis, a data‐mining method that requires minimal simplification of the original data. The life events define the multistate model and its event‐specific hazards and the parallel life domains in multidimensional sequence analysis. These two approaches complement each other, and recently also several ways to combine them have been suggested.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Malardalen University, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden; Institute Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Andersson, Per A
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Costly punishment in the ultimatum game evokes moral concern, in particular when framed as payoff reduction2017In: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-1031, E-ISSN 1096-0465, Vol. 69, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimatum game is a common economic experiment in which some participants reject anothers unfair offer of how to split some money, even though it leaves them both worse off. This costly behavior can be seen as enforcement of a fairness norm and has been labeled "altruistic punishment", suggesting that it is a Moral thing to do. But is this behavior viewed as moral by participants? Is it viewed as punishment? And are the payoff consequences of the behavior sufficient to determine the answers to these questions? To investigate this we framed costly punishment in two different ways: either as rejection of an offer (the standard ultimatum game framing) or as reduction of payoff. In a series of paid and hypothetical experiments we found that moral concerns about costly punishment depended on the framing. Specifically, the reduction frame elicited more moral concern about, and less use of, costly punishment than did the rejection frame. Several implications are discussed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Gremmen, Mariola
    et al.
    University of Groningen.
    Berger, Christian
    Pontifical Catholic University of Chile.
    Ryan, Alison
    University of Michigan.
    Steglich, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Veenstra, René
    University of Groningen.
    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis
    University of Gronigen.
    Adolescents’ Friendships, Academic Achievement, and Risk Behaviors: Same-Behavior and Cross-Behavior Selection and Influence Processes2018In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined to what extent adolescents’ and their friends’ risk behaviors (i.e., delinquency and alcohol use) hinder or promote their academic achievement (grade point average [GPA]), and vice versa. Longitudinal data were used (N = 1,219 seventh- to ninth-grade adolescents; Mage = 13.69). Results showed that risk behaviors negatively affected adolescents’ GPA, whereas GPA protected against engaging in risk behaviors. Moreover, adolescents tended to select friends who have similar behaviors and friends’ behaviors became more similar over time (same-behavior selection and influence). Furthermore, although same-behavior effects seemed to dominate, evidence was found for some cross-behavior selection effects and a tendency in seventh grade for cross-behavior influence effects. Concluding, it is important to investigate the interplay between different behaviors with longitudinal social network analysis.

  • 21.
    Gremmen, Mariola C.
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Van den Berg, Yvonne H. M.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Steglich, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Veenstra, Rene
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    The importance of near-seated peers for elementary students academic engagement and achievement2018In: Journal of applied developmental psychology, ISSN 0193-3973, E-ISSN 1873-7900, Vol. 57, p. 42-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although students are part of a group of classmates, they spend the majority of time during lessons with students who are seated next or close to them. Therefore, near-seated peers in elementary school classrooms might play a crucial role in students academic development. It was hypothesized that near-seated peers influence students academic engagement and achievement, especially when they are also friends. Participants were 559 fourth sixth grade students (21 classrooms; 51.9% boys; Mage = 10.65 years, range = 8-12). Longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena) showed that students academic engagement and achievement got better when friends scored better, and vice versa, regardless of their physical position in the classroom. In contrast, near-seated peers who were not befriended got more diverse scores over time. These results imply that teachers should consider students friendships and academic engagement and achievement in designing seating arrangements. Moreover, it is recommended to actively monitor ongoing peer influence processes.

  • 22.
    Habinek, Jacob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Haveman, Heather
    Department of Sociology, 410 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Making a Free Market: Professionals and Populists in the Transformation of US Medicine, 1787-18602019In: Socio-Economic Review, ISSN 1475-1461, E-ISSN 1475-147XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early decades of the 19th century, physicians in the USA enjoyed unquestioned authority in medicine and increasing state recognition. But by mid-century, their monopoly had given way to a raucous free market for medical care. To explain the causes and consequences of this dismantling of a professional monopoly, we draw on political sociology. We argue that to maintain a monopoly, a dominant profession must defend its cultural authority against rival claims and preserve its institutional support from the state. A dominant profession can lose its monopoly if rival occupations mobilize to challenge its cultural authority and if populist political coalitions mobilize to repeal laws upholding professional monopolies. Our analysis, which covers all states in the Union by 1860, reveals that the dynamics of contention, both within the system of professions and in the wider political arena, can erode the foundations of professional monopolies.

  • 23.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Ratio Inst, Sweden.
    Korpi, Martin
    Ratio Inst, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Entrepreneurship and income inequality2018In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 145, p. 275-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship research highlights entrepreneurship as a simultaneous source of enhanced income mobility for some but a potential source of poverty for others. Research on inequality has furthered new types of models to decompose and problematize various sources of income inequality, but attention to entrepreneurship as an increasingly prevalent occupational choice in these models remains scant. This paper seeks to bridge these two literatures using regression-based income decomposition among entrepreneurs and paid workers distinguishing between self-employed (SE) and incorporated self-employed (ISE) individuals in Sweden. We find that the proportion of self-employed in the workforce increases income dispersion by way of widening the bottom end of the distribution, whereas the proportion of incorporated self-employed contributes to income dispersion at the top end of the distribution. Implications for research are discussed. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 24.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Raymond Boudon (1934-2013)2013In: Revue Française de Sociologie, Sciences Po University Press , 2013, p. 1-2Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Hedström, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Causal mechanisms in organization and innovation studies2017In: Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice, ISSN 1447-9338, E-ISSN 2204-0226, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 91-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We outline the guiding ideas behind mechanisms-based theorizing in analytical sociology as a fruitful alternative to economics-inspired research on identification of causal effects, and discuss the potential of mechanisms-based theorizing for further development in organization and innovation studies. We discuss the realist stance on providing broader explanations as an identifying characteristic of the mechanism approach, its focus on the dynamic processes through which outcomes to be explained are brought about, and outline theoretical and methodological implications for organization and innovation studies.

  • 26.
    Hedström, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Causal mechanisms in organization and innovation studies2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We outline the guiding ideas behind mechanisms-based theorizing in analytical sociology as a fruitful alternative to economics-inspired research on identification of causal effects, and discuss the potential of mechanisms-based theorizing for further development in organization and innovation studies. We discuss the realist stance on providing broader explanations as an identifying characteristic of the mechanism approach, its focus on the dynamic processes through which outcomes to be explained are brought about, and outline theoretical and methodological implications for organization and innovation studies.

  • 27.
    Hedström, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ylikoski, Petri
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Analytical sociology and social mechanisms2013In: Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences / [ed] Byron Kaldis, Sage Publications, 2013, p. 27-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Helske, Satu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Helske, Jouni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mixture Hidden Markov Models for Sequence Data: The seqHMM Package in R2019In: Journal of Statistical Software, ISSN 1548-7660, E-ISSN 1548-7660, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 32p. 1-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sequence analysis is being more and more widely used for the analysis of social sequences and other multivariate categorical time series data. However, it is often complex to describe, visualize, and compare large sequence data, especially when there are multiple parallel sequences per subject. Hidden (latent) Markov models (HMMs) are able to detect underlying latent structures and they can be used in various longitudinal settings: to account for measurement error, to detect unobservable states, or to compress information across several types of observations. Extending to mixture hidden Markov models (MHMMs) allows clustering data into homogeneous subsets, with or without external covariates. The seqHMM package in R is designed for the efficient modeling of sequences and other categorical time series data containing one or multiple subjects with one or multiple interdependent sequences using HMMs and MHMMs. Also other restricted variants of the MHMM can be fitted, e.g., latent class models, Markov models, mixture Markov models, or even ordinary multinomial regression models with suitable parameterization of the HMM. Good graphical presentations of data and models are useful during the whole analysis process from the first glimpse at the data to model fitting and presentation of results. The package provides easy options for plotting parallel sequence data, and proposes visualizing HMMs as directed graphs.less thanbr /greater thanComment: 33 pages, 8 figures

  • 29.
    Helske, Satu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Sociology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK / Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Helske, Jouni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Eerola, Mervi
    Centre of Statistics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Combining Sequence Analysis and Hidden Markov Models in the Analysis of Complex Life Sequence Data2018In: Sequence Analysis and Related Approaches / [ed] Gilbert Ritschard, Matthias Studer, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, p. 185-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life course data often consists of multiple parallel sequences, one for each life domain of interest. Multichannel sequence analysis has been used for computing pairwise dissimilarities and finding clusters in this type of multichannel (or multidimensional) sequence data. Describing and visualizing such data is, however, often challenging. We propose an approach for compressing, interpreting, and visualizing the information within multichannel sequences by finding (1) groups of similar trajectories and (2) similar phases within trajectories belonging to the same group. For these tasks we combine multichannel sequence analysis and hidden Markov modelling. We illustrate this approach with an empirical application to life course data but the proposed approach can be useful in various longitudinal problems.

  • 30.
    Hjorth-Trolle, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Beliefs, parental investments, and intergenerational persistence: A formal model2018In: Rationality and Society, ISSN 1043-4631, E-ISSN 1461-7358, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 108-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical research documents persistent socioeconomic and race gaps in parental investments in children. This article presents a formal model that describes the process through which parents beliefs about the returns on investments in children evolve over time in light of new information that they receive regarding the outcomes of past investments. The model, which is based on Bayesian learning, accounts for how parents of low socioeconomic status may come to underinvest in their children because they have false low beliefs about the returns on investments. Moreover, the model describes how beliefs are transmitted across generations, thus creating dynasties of underinvesting parents who reproduce inequalities in childrens socioeconomic outcomes. Finally, this article uses National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data to provide illustrative empirical evidence on key aspects of the proposed model. The main contribution of this article is to integrate parents beliefs about returns on investments into existing models of intergenerational transmissions.

  • 31.
    Hjorth-Trolle, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Copenhagen.
    Asta, Breinholt
    Sociologisk Institut, University of Copenhagen.
    Forældreinvesteringer og social ulighed2017In: Social arv og social ulighed / [ed] Niels Ploug, Copenhagen: Hans Reitzels Forlag, 2017, 2, p. 45-67Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Jarvis, Benjamin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kawalerowicz, Juta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valdez, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impact of ancestry categorisations on residential segregation measures using Swedish register data2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, p. 62-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Country-of-birth data contained in registers are often aggregated to create broad ancestry group categories. We examine how measures of residential segregation vary according to levels of aggregation. Method: We use Swedish register data to calculate pairwise dissimilarity indices from 1990 to 2012 for ancestry groups defined at four nested levels of aggregation: (1) micro-groups containing 50 categories, (2) meso-groups containing 16 categories, (3) macro-groups containing six categories and (4) a broad Western/non-Western binary. Results: We find variation in segregation levels between ancestry groups that is obscured by data aggregation. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the practice of aggregating country-of-birth statistics in register data can hinder the ability to identify highly segregated groups and therefore design effective policy to remedy both intergroup and intergenerational inequalities.

  • 33.
    Jarvis, Benjamin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Song, Xi
    Department of Sociology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Rising Intragenerational Occupational Mobility in the United States, 1969 to 20112017In: American Sociological Review, ISSN 0003-1224, E-ISSN 1939-8271, Vol. 82, no 3Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the theoretical importance of intragenerational mobility and its connection to intergenerational mobility, no study since the 1970s has documented trends in intragenerational occupational mobility. The present article fills this intellectual gap by presenting evidence of an increasing trend in intragenerational mobility in the United States from 1969 to 2011. We decompose the trend using a nested occupational classification scheme that distinguishes between disaggregated micro-classes and progressively more aggregated meso-classes, macro-classes, and manual and nonmanual sectors. Log-linear analysis reveals that mobility increased across the occupational structure at nearly all levels of aggregation, especially after the early 1990s. Controlling for structural changes in occupational distributions modifies, but does not substantially alter, these findings. Trends are qualitatively similar for men and women. We connect increasing mobility to other macro-economic trends dating back to the 1970s, including changing labor force composition, technologies, employment relations, and industrial structures. We reassert the sociological significance of intragenerational mobility and discuss how increasing variability in occupational transitions within careers may counteract or mask trends in intergenerational mobility, across occupations and across more broadly construed social classes.

  • 34.
    Kacperczyk, Aleksandra
    et al.
    London Business Sch, England.
    Balachandran, Chanchal
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vertical and Horizontal Wage Dispersion and Mobility Outcomes: Evidence from the Swedish Microdata2018In: Organization science (Providence, R.I.), ISSN 1047-7039, E-ISSN 1526-5455, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 17-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using employer-employee matched data from Sweden between 2001 and 2008, we test hypotheses designed to assess the contingent nature of the relationship between wage dispersion and cross-firm mobility. Whereas past research has mostly established that dispersed wages increase interfirm mobility, we investigate the conditions under which pay variance might have the opposite effect, serving to retain workers. We propose that the effect of wage dispersion is contingent on organizational rank and that it depends on whether wages are dispersed vertically (between job levels) or horizontally (within the same job level). We find that vertical wage dispersion suppresses cross-firm mobility because it is associated with outcomes beneficial for employees, such as attractive advancement opportunities. By contrast, horizontal wage dispersion increases cross-firm mobility because it is associated with outcomes harmful for employees, such as inequity concerns. We further find that the vertical-dispersion effect is amplified (mitigated) for bottom (top) different-levelwage earners because bottom (top) wage earners have the most (least) to gain from climbing the job ladder. Similarly, the horizontal-dispersion effect is amplified (mitigated) for bottom (top) same-levelwage earners because bottom (top) wage earners are most (least) subject to negative consequences of this dispersion. More broadly, this study contributes to our understanding of the relationship between wage dispersion and cross-firm mobility.

  • 35.
    Kacperczyk, Aleksandra (Olenka)
    et al.
    Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Balachandran, Chanchal
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vertical and horizontal wage inequality and mobility outcomes: evidence from the swedish microdata2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using employer–employee matched data from Sweden between 2001 and 2008, we test hypotheses designed to assess the contingent nature of the relationship between wage inequality and cross-firm mobility. Whereas past research has mostly established that wage inequality increases inter-firm mobility, we investigate the conditions under which pay variance might have an opposite effect, serving to retain workers. We propose that the effect of wage inequality is contingent on organizational rank and that it depends on whether wages are dispersed vertically (between job levels) or horizontally (within the same job level). We find that vertical wage inequality suppresses cross-firm mobility because it is associated with outcomes beneficial for employees, such as attractive advancement opportunities. In contrast, horizontal wage dispersion increases cross-firm mobility because it is associated with outcomes harmful for employees, such as inequity concerns or job dissatisfaction. We further find that the vertical-inequality effect is amplified (mitigated) for bottom (top) different-level wage earners, consistent with the notion that bottom wage earners have the most to gain from climbing job ladders. Similarly, the horizontalinequality effect is amplified (mitigated) for bottom (top) same-level wage earners, consistent with the notion that bottom wage earners are most subject to negative consequences of this inequality. More broadly, the study contributes to our understanding of the relationship  between wage inequality and cross-firm mobility.

  • 36.
    Kawalerowicz, Juta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Radicals, Revolutionaries, and Terrorists2017In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 89-90Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 37.
    Kawalerowicz, Juta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Too many immigrants: what shapes perceptions and attitudes towards immigrants in England and Wales?2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the link between natives’ residential context, perception of immigration levels and attitudes towards immigrants. We use British Election Study to extract individual level measures for 17,000 respondents in England and Wales and match them with contextual characteristics at the level of Westminster constituency. The paper focuses on three questions: (1) is perception of demographic changes affected by actual growth of the immigrant population? (2) if local context is associated with natives’ attitudes towards immigrants, which immigrant groups are most salient? (3) are base levels and changes in immigrant population affecting anti-immigration attitudes in the same way? We find that local context predicts both perception and attitudes, although individual characteristics seem to play a bigger role. Natives seem to be more sensitive to immigrant groups defined by ethnic criteria, rather than skills or religion. Natives are sensitive to changes of immigrant population but base levels of immigrant population are associated with less frequent reporting of high immigration levels. Similarly, natives are more hostile towards immigrants if they reside in areas where the immigrant population grew rapidly, but higher base levels of immigrant population mitigate this response.

  • 38.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kratz, Fabian
    Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.
    Thou Shalt Recycle: How Social Norms of Environmental Protection Narrow the Scope of the Low-Cost Hypothesis2018In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 50, no 10, p. 1059-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the “low-cost hypothesis” (LCH), attitudes explain behavior only if complying with personal convictions requires little effort. Environmental research has seized this argument to explain moderate participation in proenvironmental action against a backdrop of rising environmental awareness. However, evidence for the LCH remains ambiguous, and recent studies have reported contradictory results. Here, we reconcile prior findings on household waste recycling and argue that many environmental behaviors evolved into every day, “normal” practices increasingly encouraged by social norms, and thus slip out of the LCH’s scope. We combine a natural experiment exploiting households’ variation in geocoded walking distances to drop-off recycling sites in Munich, Germany (N=754) with an independent online survey (N=640) measuring local intensities of recycling norms for two distinct waste categories, plastics and glass. Our results suggest that normative change narrows the LCH’s scope to include only environmental action for which normative expectations are weak.

  • 39.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lovsjö, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Analytical sociology and computational social science2018In: Journal of Computational Social Science, ISSN 2432-2717, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analytical sociology focuses on social interactions among individuals and the hard-to-predict aggregate outcomes they bring about. It seeks to identify generalizable mechanisms giving rise to emergent properties of social systems which, in turn, feed back on individual decision-making. This research program benefits from computational tools such as agent-based simulations, machine learning, and large-scale web experiments, and has considerable overlap with the nascent field of computational social science. By providing relevant analytical tools to rigorously address sociology’s core questions, computational social science has the potential to advance sociology in a similar way that the introduction of econometrics advanced economics during the last half century. Computational social scientists from computer science and physics often see as their main task to establish empirical regularities which they view as “social laws.” From the perspective of the social sciences, references to social laws appear unfounded and misplaced, however, and in this article we outline how analytical sociology, with its theory-grounded approach to computational social science, can help to move the field forward from mere descriptions and predictions to the explanation of social phenomena.

  • 40.
    Keuschnigg, Marc
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wimmer, Thomas
    Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany.
    Is Category Spanning Truly Disadvantageous? New Evidence from Primary and Secondary Movie Markets2017In: Social Forces, ISSN 0037-7732, E-ISSN 1534-7605, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 449-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genre assignments help audiences make sense of new releases. Studies from a wide range of market contexts have shown that generalists defying clear mapping to established categories suffer penalties in market legitimacy, perceived quality, or audience attention. We introduce an empirical strategy to disentangle two mechanisms, reduced niche fitness and audience confusion, causing devaluation or ignorance of boundary-crossing offers. Our data on 2,971 feature films released to US theaters and subsequently made available on DVD further reveal that consequences of category spanning are subject to strong moderating influences. Negative effects are far from universal, manifesting only if (a) combined genres are culturally distant, (b) products are released to a stable and highly institutionalized market context, and (c) offers lack familiarity as an alternative source of market recognition. Our study provides ramifications as to the scope conditions of categorization effects and modifies some widely acknowledged truisms regarding boundary crossing in cultural markets.

  • 41.
    Kim, Phillip H
    et al.
    Babson College, USA.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Croidieu, Grégoire
    Linköping University, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Grenoble Ecole de Management, France.
    Hidden in plain sight: untapped riches of meso-level entrepreneurship mechanisms2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial action is embedded within a variety of complex social structures, not all of which can be as easily defined or measured as macro-institutional or micro-individual characteristics, but collectively hold rich insights into the actual causal mechanisms influencing action. To address this problem, we call upon researchers to broaden their levels of analysis and direct their focus to mesolevel structures. Although meso-level social structures are widely studied independently, these intermediate levels are seldom integrated into existing multi-level models. We argue that meso-level structures offer untapped riches for enhancing multi-level entrepreneurial mechanisms and discuss how social groups, associations, and other collectives operating at a meso-level can play a more distinct integrative role in between the two ends of the institutional spectrum. To provide practical guidance for pursuing such investigations, we adapt Coleman’s Bathtub model to form a robust framework that integrates micro, meso, and macro levels of analysis. Our framework helps alleviate the shortcomings produced by an overdependence on either solely macro- or micro-level entrepreneurial mechanisms and brings the hidden intermediate level into plain sight.

  • 42.
    Koskinen, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Manchester, England; Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Wang, Peng
    Swinburne Univ Technol, Australia.
    Robins, Garry
    Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Pattison, Philippa
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Outliers and Influential Observations in Exponential Random Graph Models2018In: Psychometrika, ISSN 0033-3123, E-ISSN 1860-0980, Vol. 83, no 4, p. 809-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss measuring and detecting influential observations and outliers in the context of exponential family random graph (ERG) models for social networks. We focus on the level of the nodes of the network and consider those nodes whose removal would result in changes to the model as extreme or central with respect to the structural features that matter. We construe removal in terms of two case-deletion strategies: the tie-variables of an actor are assumed to be unobserved, or the node is removed resulting in the induced subgraph. We define the difference in inferred model resulting from case deletion from the perspective of information theory and difference in estimates, in both the natural and mean-value parameterisation, representing varying degrees of approximation. We arrive at several measures of influence and propose the use of two that do not require refitting of the model and lend themselves to routine application in the ERGM fitting procedure. MCMC p values are obtained for testing how extreme each node is with respect to the network structure. The influence measures are applied to two well-known data sets to illustrate the information they provide. From a network perspective, the proposed statistics offer an indication of which actors are most distinctive in the network structure, in terms of not abiding by the structural norms present across other actors.

  • 43.
    Laninga, Lydia
    et al.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Harakeh, Zeena
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Steglich, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis
    University of Groningen.
    Veenstra, René
    University of Groningen.
    Vollebergh, Wilma
    Utrecht University.
    Populaire jongeren zetten een norm voor vriendschappen en agressie inde klas2017In: Kind en Adolescent, ISSN 0167-2436, Vol. 38, p. 212-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [nl]

    In deze studie onderzoeken wij of agressieve peer-normen, meer specifiek populariteitsnormen en descriptieve normen, een versterkende rol spelen in de mate waarin jongeren hun vrienden uitkiezen op basis van agressief gedrag en in de mate waarin jongeren door hun vrienden worden beïnvloed in agressie (N=1.134 eerstejaars leerlingen van middelbare school; leeftijd M=12,66 jaar). Zoals verwacht kwam uit longitudinale sociale-netwerkanalyses met peer-nominatie data naar voren dat vooral populaire jongeren in de klas een norm kunnen zetten voor de ontwikkeling van vriendschappen en agressie. In klassen met agressieve populaire jongeren blijken jongeren hun vrienden te selecteren op basis van gelijkheid in agressie, terwijl dit niet gebeurt in klassen met niet agressieve populaire jongeren. Daarnaast is de vriendschapsinvloed op agressie significant groter in klassen met agressieve populaire jongeren. Descriptieve normen spelen geen rol in vriendschapsprocessen omtrent agressie. Blijkbaar wordt agressie enkel en alleen als een belangrijk, waardevol kenmerk voor vriendschapsprocessen gezien als zij geassocieerd is met populariteit in de klas.

  • 44.
    Liss, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Utvärdering av LuMiNk Akademin2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport undersöker LuMiNk Akademin (hädanefter “LuMiNk”) som är ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Linköpings universitet (LiU), Mirum galleria och Norrköpings kommun. Projektet startades hösten 2015 med niondeklassare från Söderportens skola i Norrköping där elever regelbundet träffar rekryterade studenter från olika programutbildningar på Linköpings universitet med syftet att ge stöd i studierna och inspirera till fortsatta studier. Då Söderportens högstadieverksamhet hösten 2017 flyttade till Klingsborgsskolan följde LuMiNk med och är alltså numera verksamt på Klingsborgsskolan.

    Rapporten har som syfte att kvantitativt utvärdera effekten av projektet samt ge rekommendationer till LuMiNks styrelsegrupp. Data på avgångna elever från Klingsborgsskolan har använts för att skatta huruvida deras betyg, val efter högstadiet samt närvaro påverkats av att gå programmet. Detta görs genom att de elever på Klingsborgsskolan som gått programmet jämförs med de som inte deltagit i programmet. Den mån som eleverna som deltog i LuMiNk (LuMiNk-gruppen) höjt sina betyg relativt de som inte deltagit programmet (kontrollgruppen) tar vi som indikation på vilken effekt som programmet har.

    Resultaten visar att de som gått LuMiNk haft signifikant höjda betyg i ämnena engelska, so, no, svenska som andraspråk samt höjda meritvärden relativt kontrollgruppen. Vi finner dock inte att de som gått LuMiNk höjt sina betyg relativt kontrollgruppen i varken matematik eller i praktiska ämnen.

    LuMiNk-gruppen har under hela terminen högre skolnärvaro än kontrollgruppen men eftersom det inte sker någon noterbar divergering mellan grupperna under terminens gång kan vi inte visa på att LuMiNk lett till högre närvaro i skolan.

    Eftersom ett syfte med LuMiNk är att inspirera till eftergymnasiala studier har vi följt upp hur det gått för elever som tidigare gick ut högstadiet från Söderporten för att på så sätt undersöka huruvida LuMiNk-gruppen i högre grad väljer att gå högskoleförberedande program jämfört med kontrollgruppen. Vi finner att LuMiNk-elever i dubbelt så hög grad väljer högskoleförberedande program jämfört med kontrollgruppen.

    Eftersom LuMiNk är ett program som eleverna själva väljer att söka till kan det förekomma så kallad ’självselektering’. Detta kan exempelvis innebära att redan mer ambitiösa elever väljer att söka LuMiNk, och att den uppmätta relativa ökningen i betyg och frekvens att gå högskoleförberedande program på gymnasiet hade skett även utan LuMiNk. Detta försöker vi att kontrollera för genom att kontrollera för skillnader i elevkompositionen mellan LuMiNk-gruppen och kontrollgruppen, använda oss av kompletterande statistiska modeller samt genom att jämföra de skattade effekterna med en skapad variabel för förväntad effekt per ämne. Vi bedömer efter ha genomfört dessa tillvägagångssätt att LuMiNk med hög sannolikhet faktiskt bidragit till den relativa skillnaden i betygstrenden mellan LuMiNk-gruppen och kontrollgruppen.

    Skillnaden i sannolikhet mellan LuMiNk- och kontrollgruppen att välja ett högskoleförberedande gymnasieprogram är behäftat med högre osäkerhet då tillgängliga data inte möjliggör lika omfattande statistiska modeller som för betygsvariabeln. Om vi dock kontrollerar för skillnader i elevkompositionen gällande betyg innan LuMiNk, kön, samt huruvida en elev kom till Sverige under grundskoletiden eller ej kvarstår dock en tämligen stor skillnad i sannolikheten att välja ett högskoleförberedande program (9 procent) mellan LuMiNk-gruppen och kontrollgruppen.

    Vidare har enkätsvar, närvaro vid LuMiNks läxhjälpstillfällen samt tidigare forskning studerats för att komplettera resultaten från effektstudien. Svaren från enkäterna visar inte på att LuMiNk-eleverna verkar välja att gå till LuMiNk på grund av brister i hemmamiljön, utan snarare att de finner LuMiNk stimulerande. Eleverna rapporterar vidare att de får mycket hjälp med studierna på LuMiNk jämfört med hemma. LuMiNks studiemiljö har eleverna olika åsikter om. Vissa uttrycker att miljön är något för stökig medan andra elever just uppskattar miljöombytet från skolan till en mer avslappnad miljö.

    Statistik på generell skolnärvaro och tidigare forskning som gjorts på läxhjälpsprojekt visar att äldre elever ofta har lägre närvaro och är svårare att locka till deltagande i läxhjälpsprojekt. Det är därför positivt att närvaron på LuMiNk-tillfällena generellt sett är hög samtidigt som ungefär hälften av eleverna på skolan valt att gå LuMiNk. Den höga närvaron bekräftar enkätsvaren att LuMiNk är populärt bland eleverna.

    Tidigare forskning visar på att det inte är självklart att läxläsningsprojekt ger effekt på studieresultat. Vi bedömer att LuMiNks tydliga struktur där eleverna förpliktigar sig att ha hög närvaro och den tydliga kopplingen till skolan bidrar till att LuMiNk tillhör de läxläsningsprojekt som faktiskt visar ha effekt på studieresultaten.

  • 45.
    Mähring, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Demir, Robert
    Lancaster University Management School, UK.
    Reaping value from digitalization in swedish manufacturing firms: untapped opportunities?2018In: Managing digital transformation / [ed] Per Andersson, Staffan Movin, Magnus Mähring, Robin Teigland, Karl Wennberg, Stockholm: SSE Institute for Research, Stockholm School of Economics , 2018, p. 41-63Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Müller, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Humboldt Univ, Germany.
    Grund, Thomas U.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Ireland.
    Koskinen, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Manchester, England.
    Residential Segregation and Ethnic Flight vs. Ethnic Avoidance in Sweden2018In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 268-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential segregation along ethnic categories has been associated with social disadvantages of minority group members. It is considered a driving factor in the reproduction of social inequalities and a pressing issue in many societies. While most research focuses on neighbourhood segregation in the United States, less is known about the origins of ethnic enclaves in European cities. We use complete data of residential moves within Stockholm municipality between 1990 and 2003 to test whether `ethnic flight or ` ethnic avoidance drives segregation dynamics. On the macro level, we analyse the binary infrastructure of natives and immigrants movement flows between 128 neighbourhoods with exponential random graph models, which account for systemic dependencies in the structure of the housing market. On the micro level, we analyse individual-level panel data to account for differences between native and immigrant in-and out-movers. Our results show strong support for ` ethnic avoidance on both levels-native Swedes avoid moving into neighbourhoods where ethnic minorities live. This is even more pronounced when controlling for socio-economic factors. At the same time, there is only little support for ` ethnic flight on the micro level-native Swedes are only marginally more likely to move out of neighbourhoods where many immigrants live.

  • 47.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS.
    Clustering/blockmodeling of valued networks2018Report (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    International Networks2013In: Encyclopedia of Social Networks / [ed] Barnett, G., Sage Publications, 2013, p. 425-431Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Center for Network Science, Central European University, Hungary, Department of Economic History, Lund university, Sweden.
    Power-relational core–periphery structures: Peripheral dependency and core dominance in binary and valued networks2018In: Network Science, ISSN 2050-1242, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 348-369-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With origins in post-war development thinking, the core-periphery concept has spread across the social and, increasingly, the natural sciences. Initially reflecting divergent socioeconomic properties of geographical regions, its relational connotations rapidly led to more topological interpretations. In today’s network science, the standard core-periphery model consists of a cohesive set of core actors and a peripheral set of internally disconnected actors.

    Exploring the classical core-periphery literature, this paper finds conceptual support for the characteristic intra-categorical density differential. However, this literature also lends support to the notions of peripheral dependency and core dominance, power-relational aspects that existing approaches do not capture.

    To capture such power-relations, this paper suggests extensions to the correlation-based core-periphery metric of Borgatti-Everett (2000). Capturing peripheral dependency and, optionally, core dominance, these extensions allow for either measuring the degree of such power-relational features in given core-periphery partitions, or as part of a criteria function to search for power-relational core-periphery structures.

    Applied to the binary and valued citation data in Borgatti and Everett (2000), the proposed extensions seemingly capture dependency and dominance features of core-periphery structures. This is particularly evident when, circling back to to the original domains of the concept, examining the network of European commodity trade in 2010.

  • 50.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Preceding and governing measurements: an Emmanuelian conceptualization of ecological unequal exchange2014In: Structures of the World Political Economy / [ed] Suter, S., Chase-Dunn, C., Zurich: Lit-Verlag , 2014, p. 315-346Chapter in book (Refereed)
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