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  • 1.
    Aerts, Marc
    et al.
    Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics.
    Minalu, Girma
    Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics.
    Bösner, Stefan
    Department of General Practice and Family Medicine, Philipps University Marburg, Germany..
    Buntinx, Frank
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Belgium; Department of General Practice, Maastricht University, The Netherlands..
    Burnand, Bernard
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland..
    Haasenritter, Jörg
    Department of General Practice and Family Medicine, Philipps University Marburg, Germany..
    Herzig, Lilli
    Institute of Family Medicine, University of Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Knottnerus, J André
    Department of General Practice, Maastricht University, The Netherlands..
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Vikbolandet.
    Renier, Walter
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Sox, Carol
    Department of Community and Family Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, USA..
    Sox, Harold
    Department of Community and Family Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH , USA; Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, Washington, USA..
    Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert
    Department of General Practice and Family Medicine, Philipps University Marburg, Germany..
    Pooled individual patient data from five countries were used to derive a clinical prediction rule for coronary artery disease in primary care.2017In: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 0895-4356, E-ISSN 1878-5921, Vol. 81, p. 120-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To construct a clinical prediction rule for coronary artery disease (CAD) presenting with chest pain in primary care.

    STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Meta-Analysis using 3,099 patients from five studies. To identify candidate predictors, we used random forest trees, multiple imputation of missing values, and logistic regression within individual studies. To generate a prediction rule on the pooled data, we applied a regression model that took account of the differing standard data sets collected by the five studies.

    RESULTS: The most parsimonious rule included six equally weighted predictors: age ≥55 (males) or ≥65 (females) (+1); attending physician suspected a serious diagnosis (+1); history of CAD (+1); pain brought on by exertion (+1); pain feels like "pressure" (+1); pain reproducible by palpation (-1). CAD was considered absent if the prediction score is <2. The area under the ROC curve was 0.84. We applied this rule to a study setting with a CAD prevalence of 13.2% using a prediction score cutoff of <2 (i.e., -1, 0, or +1). When the score was <2, the probability of CAD was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.1-3.9%); when the score was ≥ 2, it was 43.0% (95% CI: 35.8-50.4%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Clinical prediction rules are a key strategy for individualizing care. Large data sets based on electronic health records from diverse sites create opportunities for improving their internal and external validity. Our patient-level meta-analysis from five primary care sites should improve external validity. Our strategy for addressing site-to-site systematic variation in missing data should improve internal validity. Using principles derived from decision theory, we also discuss the problem of setting the cutoff prediction score for taking action.

  • 2.
    Anskär, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Mantorp. Region Östergötland, Regional Board, Research and Development Unit.
    Lindberg, Malou
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care. 1177 Med Advisory Serv, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Falk, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Kärna, Linköping.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Regional Board, Research and Development Unit.
    Time utilization and perceived psychosocial work environment among staff in Swedish primary care settings2018In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, article id 166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the past decades, reorganizations and structural changes in Swedish primary care have affected time utilization among health care professionals. Consequently, increases in administrative tasks have substantially reduced the time available for face-to-face consultations. This study examined how work-time was utilized and the association between work time utilization and the perceived psychosocial work environment in Swedish primary care settings. Methods: This descriptive, multicentre, cross-sectional study was performed in 2014-2015. Data collection began with questionnaire. In the first section, respondents were asked to estimate how their workload was distributed between patients (direct and indirect patient work) and other work tasks. The questionnaire also comprised the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, which assessed the psychosocial work environment. Next a time study was conducted where the participants reported their work-time based on three main categories: direct patient-related work, indirect patient-related work, and other work tasks. Each main category had a number of subcategories. The participants recorded the time spent (minutes) on each work task per hour, every day, for two separate weeks. Eleven primary care centres located in southeast Sweden participated. All professionals were asked to participate (n = 441), including registered nurses, primary care physicians, care administrators, nurse assistants, and allied professionals. Response rates were 75% and 79% for the questionnaires and the time study, respectively. Results: All health professionals allocated between 30.9% - 37.2% of their work-time to each main category: direct patient work, indirect patient work, and other work. All professionals estimated a higher proportion of time spent in direct patient work than they reported in the time study. Physicians scored highest on the psychosocial scales of quantitative demands, stress, and role conflicts. Among allied professionals, the proportion of work-time spent on administrative tasks was associated with more role conflicts. Younger staff perceived more adverse working conditions than older staff. Conclusions: This study indicated that Swedish primary care staff spent a limited proportion of their work time directly with patients. PCPs seemed to perceive their work environment in negative terms to a greater extent than other staff members. This study showed that work task allocations influenced the perceived psychosocial work environment.

  • 3.
    Borgström Bolmsjö, Beata
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Molstad, Sigvard
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gallagher, Martin
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Chalmers, John
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ödeshög.
    Midlov, Patrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Risk factors and consequences of decreased kidney function in nursing home residents: A longitudinal study2017In: Geriatrics & Gerontology International, ISSN 1444-1586, E-ISSN 1447-0594, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 791-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the renal function and the relationship of deterioration in renal function with major outcomes in elderly nursing home residents. A second aim was to compare the internationally recommended formulae for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) consisting of both creatinine and cystatin C in a nursing home population. Methods: A total of 429 patients from 11 nursing homes were included during 2008-2011. GFR was estimated, from formulae based on both creatinine and cystatin C, at baseline and after 1 and 2 years. The patients were divided into groups based on chronic kidney disease level, and comparisons were made for mortality, morbidity, the use of medications and between the different formulae for eGFR. Results: Survival was lower in the groups with lower renal function. Over 60% of the residents had impaired renal function. Those with impaired renal function were older, had a higher number of medications and a higher prevalence of heart failure. Higher number of medications was associated with a greater risk of rapid decline in renal function with an odds ratio of 1.2 (95% confidence interval 1.06-1.36, P = 0.003). The compared eGFR formulae based on both cystatin C and creatinine were in excellent concordance with each other. Conclusions: Decreased renal function was associated with increased mortality. A majority of nursing home residents had declining renal function, which should be considered when prescribing medications. The more medications, the higher the risk for rapidly declining renal function.

  • 4.
    Eckhardt, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Emergency Medicine.
    Santillán, Dimitri
    Universidad Central del Ecuador, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Quito, Ecuador.
    Faresjö, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Forsberg, Birger C.
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falk, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Kärna, Linköping.
    Universal Health Coverage in Rural Ecuador: A Cross-sectional Study of Perceived Emergencies2018In: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1936-900X, E-ISSN 1936-9018, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 889-900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In many low- and middle-income countries emergency care is provided anywhere in the health system; however, no studies to date have looked at which providers are chosen by patients with perceived emergencies. Ecuador has universal health coverage that includes emergency care. However, earlier research indicates that patients with emergencies tend to seek private care. Our primary research questions were these: What is the scope of perceived emergencies?; What is their nature?; and What is the related healthcare-seeking behavior? Secondary objectives were to study determinants of healthcare-seeking behavior, compare health expenditure with expenditure from the past ordinary illness, and measure the prevalence of catastrophic health expenditure related to perceived emergencies. 

    Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 210 households in a rural region of northwestern Ecuador. The households were sampled with two-stage cluster sampling and represent an estimated 20% of the households in the region. We used two structured, pretested questionnaires. The first questionnaire collected demographic and economic household data, expenditure data on the past ordinary illness, and presented our definition of perceived emergency. The second recorded the number of emergency events, symptoms, further case description, healthcare-seeking behavior, and health expenditure, which was defined as being catastrophic when it exceeded 40% of a household´s ability to pay.

    Results: The response rate was 85% with a total of 74 reported emergency events during the past year (90/1,000 inhabitants). We further analyzed the most recent event in each household (n=54). Private, for-profit providers, including traditional healers, were chosen by 57.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] [44-71%]). Public providers treated one third of the cases. The mean health expenditure per event was $305.30 United States dollars (USD), compared to $135.80 USD for the past ordinary illnesses. Catastrophic health expenditure was found in 24.4% of households. 

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the provision of free health services may not be sufficient to reach universal health coverage for patients with perceived emergencies. Changes in the organization of public emergency departments and improved financial protection for emergency patients may improve the situation.

  • 5.
    Figtree, Gemma A.
    et al.
    Royal North Shore Hosp, Australia; Univ Sydney, Australia; Univ New South Wales, Australia.
    Rådholm, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ödeshög. Univ New South Wales, Australia; Imperial Coll London, England.
    Neal, Bruce
    Univ New South Wales, Australia.
    Response by Figtree et al to Letter Regarding Article, "Canagliflozin and Heart Failure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results From the CANVAS Program (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study)"2019In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 139, no 3, p. 418-419Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 6.
    Hultberg, Josabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Åby.
    Rudebeck, Carl-Edvard
    Kalmar County Council, Sweden; University of Tromso, Norway.
    Patient participation in decision-making about cardiovascular preventive drugs - resistance as agency2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 231-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to describe and explore patient agency through resistance in decision-making about cardiovascular preventive drugs in primary care. Design: Six general practitioners from the southeast of Sweden audiorecorded 80 consultations. From these, 28 consultations with proposals from GPs for cardiovascular preventive drug treatments were chosen for theme-oriented discourse analysis. Results: The study shows how patients participate in decision-making about cardiovascular preventive drug treatments through resistance in response to treatment proposals. Passive modes of resistance were withheld responses and minimal unmarked acknowledgements. Active modes were to ask questions, contest the address of an inclusive we, present an identity as a non-drugtaker, disclose non-adherence to drug treatments, and to present counterproposals. The active forms were also found in anticipation to treatment proposals from the GPs. Patients and GPs sometimes displayed mutual renouncement of responsibility for decision-making. The decision-making process appeared to expand both beyond a particular phase in the consultations and beyond the single consultation. Conclusions: The recognition of active and passive resistance from patients as one way of exerting agency may prove valuable when working for patient participation in clinical practice, education and research about patient-doctor communication about cardiovascular preventive medication. We propose particular attentiveness to patient agency through anticipatory resistance, patients disclosures of non-adherence and presentations of themselves as non-drugtakers. The expansion of the decision-making process beyond single encounters points to the importance of continuity of care.

  • 7.
    Jonasson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergstrand, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ödeshög.
    Bjarnegård, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Fredriksson, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Perimed AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Skin microvascular endothelial dysfunction is associated with type 2 diabetes independently of microalbuminuria and arterial stiffness2017In: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research, ISSN 1479-1641, E-ISSN 1752-8984, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 363-371, article id UNSP 1479164117707706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skin and kidney microvascular functions may be affected independently in diabetes mellitus. We investigated skin microcirculatory function in 79 subjects with diabetes type 2, where 41 had microalbuminuria and 38 not, and in 41 age-matched controls. The oxygen saturation, fraction of red blood cells and speed-resolved microcirculatory perfusion (% red blood cells x mm/s) divided into three speed regions: 0-1, 1-10 and above 10 mm/s, were assessed during baseline and after local heating of the foot with a new device integrating diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry. Arterial stiffness was assessed as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Subjects with diabetes and microalbuminuria had significantly higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity compared to subjects without microalbuminuria and to controls. The perfusion for speeds 0-1 mm/s and red blood cell tissue fraction were reduced in subjects with diabetes at baseline and after heating, independent of microalbuminuria. These parameters were correlated to HbA1c. In conclusion, the reduced nutritive perfusion and red blood cell tissue fraction in type 2 diabetes were related to long-term glucose control but independent of microvascular changes in the kidneys and large-vessel stiffness. This may be due to different pathogenic pathways in the development of nephropathy, large-vessel stiffness and cutaneous microvascular impairment.

  • 8.
    Jonasson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Fredriksson, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Perimed AB, Järfälla, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergstrand, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ödeshög.
    Larsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    In vivo characterization of light scattering properties of human skin in the 475- to 850-nm wavelength range in a Swedish cohort2018In: Journal of Biomedical Optics, ISSN 1083-3668, E-ISSN 1560-2281, Vol. 23, no 12, article id 121608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have determined in vivo optical scattering properties of normal human skin in 1734 subjects, mostly with fair skin type, within the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study. The measurements were performed with a noninvasive system, integrating spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry. Data were analyzed with an inverse Monte Carlo algorithm, accounting for both scattering, geometrical, and absorbing properties of the tissue. The reduced scattering coefficient was found to decrease from 3.16 ± 0.72 to 1.13 ± 0.27 mm-1 (mean ± SD) in the 475- to 850-nm wavelength range. There was a negative correlation between the reduced scattering coefficient and age, and a significant difference between men and women in the reduced scattering coefficient as well as in the fraction of small scattering particles. This large study on tissue scattering with mean values and normal variation can serve as a reference when designing diagnostic techniques or when evaluating the effect of therapeutic optical systems.

  • 9.
    Jones, Alexandra
    et al.
    George Inst Global Hlth, Australia; Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Rådholm, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ödeshög. George Inst Global Hlth, Australia.
    Neal, Bruce
    George Inst Global Hlth, Australia; Univ Sydney, Australia; Imperial Coll London, England.
    Defining Unhealthy: A Systematic Analysis of Alignment between the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the Health Star Rating System2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs) and Health Star Rating (HSR) front-of-pack labelling system are two national interventions to promote healthier diets. Our aim was to assess the degree of alignment between the two policies. Methods: Nutrition information was extracted for 65,660 packaged foods available in The George Institutes Australian FoodSwitch database. Products were classified core or discretionary based on the ADGs, and a HSR generated irrespective of whether currently displayed on pack. Apparent outliers were identified as those products classified core that received HSR amp;lt;= 2.0; and those classified discretionary that received HSR amp;gt;= 3.5. Nutrient cut-offs were applied to determine whether apparent outliers were high in salt, total sugar or saturated fat, and outlier status thereby attributed to a failure of the ADGs or HSR algorithm. Results: 47,116 products (23,460 core; 23,656 discretionary) were included. Median (Q1, Q3) HSRs were 4.0 (3.0 to 4.5) for core and 2.0 (1.0 to 3.0) for discretionary products. Overall alignment was good: 86.6% of products received a HSR aligned with their ADG classification. Among 6324 products identified as apparent outliers, 5246 (83.0%) were ultimately determined to be ADG failures, largely caused by challenges in defining foods as core or discretionary. In total, 1078 (17.0%) were determined to be true failures of the HSR algorithm. Conclusion: The scope of genuine misalignment between the ADGs and HSR algorithm is very small. We provide evidence-informed recommendations for strengthening both policies to more effectively guide Australians towards healthier choices.

  • 10.
    Kalkan, Almina
    et al.
    AstraZeneca Nordic Balt, Sweden.
    Bodegård, Johan
    AstraZeneca Nordic Balt, Sweden.
    Sundstrom, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Svennblad, Bodil
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ödeshög.
    Nilsson Nilsson, Peter
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ekman, Manias
    AstraZeneca Nordic Balt, Sweden.
    Increased healthcare utilization costs following initiation of insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes: A long-term follow-up in clinical practice2017In: Primary Care Diabetes, ISSN 1751-9918, E-ISSN 1878-0210, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 184-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To compare long-term changes in healthcare utilization and costs for type 2 diabetes patients before and after insulin initiation, as well as healthcare costs after insulin versus non-insulin anti-diabetic (NIAD) initiation. Methods: Patients newly initiated on insulin (n = 2823) were identified in primary health care records from 84 Swedish primary care centers, between 1999 to 2009. First, healthcare costs per patient were evaluated for primary care, hospitalizations and secondary outpatient care, before and up to seven years after insulin initiation. Second, patients prescribed insulin in second line were matched to patients prescribed NIAD in second line, and the healthcare costs of the matched groups were compared. Results: The total mean annual healthcare cost increased from 1656 per patient 2 years before insulin initiation to 3814 seven years after insulin initiation. The total cumulative mean healthcare cost per patient at year 5 after second-line treatment was 13,823 in the insulin group compared to 9989 in the NIAD group. Conclusions: Initiation of insulin in type 2 diabetes patients was followed by increased healthcare costs. The increases in costs were larger than those seen in a matched patient population initiated on NIAD treatment in second-line. (C) 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Primary Care Diabetes Europe. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

  • 11.
    Karlsson, Lars O.
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Vikbolandet.
    Charitakis, Emmanouil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Clinical decision support for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (CDS-AF): Rationale and design of a cluster randomized trial in the primary care setting2017In: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 187, p. 45-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with substantial morbidity, in particular stroke. Despite good evidence for the reduction of stroke risk with anticoagulant therapy, there remains a significant undertreatment. The main aim of the current study is to investigate whethera clinical decision support tool for stroke prevention (CDS) integrated in the electronic health record can improve adherence to guidelines for stroke prevention in patients with AF. Methods We will conduct a cluster randomized trial where 43 primary care clinics in the county of Ostergotland, Sweden (population 444,347), will be randomized to be part of the CDS intervention or serve as controls. The CDS will alert responsible physicians of patients with AF and increased risk for thromboembolism according to the CHA(2)DS(2)VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age 74 years, Diabetes mellitus, previous Stroke/TIA/thromboembolism, Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category (i.e. female sex)) algorithm without anticoagulant therapy. The primary end point will be adherence to guidelines after 1 year. Conclusion The present study will investigate whether a clinical decision support system integrated in an electronic health record can increase adherence to guidelines regarding anticoagulant therapy in patients with AF.

  • 12.
    Kastbom, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ljungsbro.
    Milberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Department of Advanced Home Care in Norrköping. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Center of Palliative Care.
    Karlsson, Marit
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Advanced Home Care in Linköping.
    A good death from the perspective of palliative cancer patients2017In: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 933-939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has indicated some recurrent themes and similarities between what patients from different cultures regard as a good death, the concept is complex and there is lack of studies from the Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to explore the perception of a good death in dying cancer patients in Sweden. Interviews were conducted with 66 adult patients with cancer in the palliative phase who were recruited from home care and hospital care. Interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Participants viewed death as a process. A good death was associated with living with the prospect of imminent death, preparing for death and dying comfortably, e.g., dying quickly, with independence, with minimised suffering and with social relations intact. Some were comforted by their belief that death is predetermined. Others felt uneasy as they considered death an end to existence. Past experiences of the death of others influenced participants views of a good death. Healthcare staff caring for palliative patients should consider asking them to describe what they consider a good death in order to identify goals for care. Exploring patients personal experience of death and dying can help address their fears as death approaches.

  • 13.
    Kärner Köhler, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Vikbolandet.
    Jaarsma, Tiny
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Tingström, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Health beliefs about lifestyle habits differ between patients and spouses 1 year after a cardiac event – a qualitative analysis based on the Health Belief Model2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 332-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Spousal concordance on risk factors and lifestyle habits exists and can partly be explained by patients' and spouses' health beliefs and underuse of cardiac rehabilitation. However, there have been very few qualitative comparisons of health beliefs between patients and spouses after a cardiac event.

    AIM:

    To examine and qualitatively compare the health beliefs of patients with coronary heart disease and their spouses about lifestyle habits, 1 year after the cardiac event.

    DESIGN:

    Explorative and descriptive.

    METHOD:

    Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with patients (n = 14) 1 year after a cardiac event, as well as individual interviews with spouses (n = 8). The transcriptions underwent a deductive qualitative content analysis, within the framework of the Health Belief Model.

    FINDINGS:

    Patients' and spouses' health beliefs about lifestyle habits qualitatively differed in most predetermined main analytical categories of the Health Belief Model. The patients relied more on their own capacity and the healthcare system than on collaboration with their spouses who instead emphasised the importance of mutual activities to establish lifestyle habits. The spouses therefore experienced problems with different family preferences compared to the patients' wishes. Moreover, only patients believed supervised exercise was beneficial for risk reduction of coronary heart disease and they related barriers for medication to a self-healing body and a meaningless life without relatives and old habits. Patients and spouses agreed that despite the severity of illness, life was captured and that normalisation to a life as usual was possible.

    CONCLUSION:

    The patients' and spouses' qualitatively different health beliefs regarding health-related behaviours imply a new approach. Nurses and associated professionals need to follow-up patients' and spouses' in primary health care to support them in a tailored way, for example in problem-based sessions. Recognition and understanding of their different views and otherness could lead to compromises and goals to work with.

  • 14.
    Lyth, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Falk, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Kärna, Linköping.
    Maroti, M.
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Eriksson, H.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ingvar, C.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Prognostic risk factors of first recurrence in patients with primary stages I-II cutaneous malignant melanoma - from the population-based Swedish melanoma register2017In: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, ISSN 0926-9959, E-ISSN 1468-3083, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 1468-1474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Prognostic factors in patients with localized primary cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) are well described. However, prognostic factors for recurrence are less documented. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify prognostic risk factors for first recurrence in patients with localized stages I-II CMM using population-based data. Methods This study included 1437 CMM patients registered in one region of Sweden during 1999-2012 follow-up through 31 December 2012. To identify first recurrence of CMM disease, data from a care data warehouse, the pathology and radiology department registries were used. Patients were also followed through a census register and the national Cause of Death Register. Results The 5- and 10-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) were 85.7% and 81.2%, respectively. The most common site of first recurrence was regional lymph node metastasis closely followed by distant metastasis. After adjusting for all prognostic factors, women had 50% lower risk of recurrence than men (HR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.7) and patients = 70 had higher risk compared to patients 55-69 years (HR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.5). Other significant prognostic factors for risk of recurrence were tumour thickness, presence of ulceration, Clarks level of invasion and histogenetic type. Conclusion Tumour thickness was found to be the predominant risk factor for recurrence. The prognostic factors for recurrence coincided with prognostic factors for CMM death. The most common site of first recurrence in stages I-II CMM is regional lymph node (42.8%) closely followed by distant metastases (37.6%), a fact which has to be taken into consideration when choosing follow-up strategies.

  • 15.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    O'Hanlon, Martina
    Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Mjölby.
    Pralica, Anna
    Centrala elevhälsan, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Ensamstående mamma och timanställd: En tolkande fenomenologisk analys av sju kvinnors berättelser2017In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 77-98Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Milovanovic, Micha
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Department of Internal Medicine in Norrköping.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Vikbolandet.
    Winblad, B
    NVS, Neurogeriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Karolinska University Hospital, Geriatrics, Huddinge.
    Jelic, V
    NVS, Neurogeriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Karolinska University Hospital, Geriatrics, Huddinge.
    Behbahani, H
    NVS, Neurogeriatrics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Shahnaz, T
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Department of Internal Medicine in Norrköping. NVS, Neurogeriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge .
    Oweling, M
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Department of Internal Medicine in Norrköping.
    Järemo, Petter
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Department of Internal Medicine in Norrköping.
    Inverse relationship between erythrocyte size and platelet reactivity in elderly.2017In: Platelets, ISSN 0953-7104, E-ISSN 1369-1635, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 182-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous work indicates that erythrocytes (RBCs) accumulate β-amyloid X-40 (Aβ40) in individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) and to a lesser extent in healthy elderly. The toxin damages RBCs and increases their mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Furthermore, AD platelets demonstrate lower reactivity. This study investigated interactions between RBCs and platelets. Older individuals with moderate hypertension (n = 57) were classified into two groups, depending on MCV in whole blood: The MCV(high) group comprised individuals with higher MCV (n = 27; 97 ± 3(SD) fl) and MCV(low) group had relatively lower MCV (n = 30; 90 ± 3(SD) fl). Flow cytometry was used to determine platelet reactivity, i.e., the surface binding of fibrinogen after provocation. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a thrombin receptor-activating protein (TRAP-6) were used as agonists. Subsequently, blood cells were divided according to density into 17 subfractions. Intra-RBC Aβ40 content was analyzed and in all platelet populations surface-bound fibrinogen was determined to estimate platelet in vivo activity. We found Aβ40 inside RBCs of approximately 50% of participants, but the toxin did not affect MCV and platelet reactivity. In contrast, MCV associated inversely with platelet reactivity as judged from surface-attached fibrinogen after ADP (1.7 μmol/L) (p < 0.05) and TRAP-6 provocation (57 μmol/L (p = 0.01) and 74 μmol/L (p < 0.05)). In several density fractions (nos. 3, 4, 8, 11-13 (p < 0.05) and nos. 5-7 (p < 0.01)) MCV linked inversely with platelet-attached fibrinogen. In our community-dwelling sample, enhanced MCV associated with decreased platelet reactivity and lower in vivo platelet activity. It resembles RBCs and platelet behavior in AD-type dementia.

  • 17.
    Nowak, Christoph
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, "Primary Health Care in Motala". Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ödeshög.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Alam, Moudud
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Feldreich, Tobias
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Sundstrom, Johan
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Carrero, Juan-Jesus
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Par
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Henriksen, Egil
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Cordeiro, Antonio C.
    Dante Pazzanese Inst Cardiol, Brazil.
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Arnlov, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Multiplex proteomics for prediction of major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes2018In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, no 8, p. 1748-1757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis Multiplex proteomics could improve understanding and risk prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in type 2 diabetes. This study assessed 80 cardiovascular and inflammatory proteins for biomarker discovery and prediction of MACE in type 2 diabetes. Methods We combined data from six prospective epidemiological studies of 30-77-year-old individuals with type 2 diabetes in whom 80 circulating proteins were measured by proximity extension assay. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was used in a discovery/replication design to identify biomarkers for incident MACE. We used gradient-boosted machine learning and lasso regularised Cox regression in a random 75% training subsample to assess whether adding proteins to risk factors included in the Swedish National Diabetes Register risk model would improve the prediction of MACE in the separate 25% test subsample. Results Of 1211 adults with type 2 diabetes (32% women), 211 experienced a MACE over a mean (+/- SD) of 6.4 +/- 2.3 years. We replicated associations (amp;lt; 5% false discovery rate) between risk of MACE and eight proteins: matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12, IL-27 subunit alpha (IL-27a), kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, protein S100-A12, TNF receptor (TNFR)-1, TNFR-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R)2. Addition of the 80-protein assay to established risk factors improved discrimination in the separate test sample from 0.686 (95% CI 0.682, 0.689) to 0.748 (95% CI 0.746, 0.751). A sparse model of 20 added proteins achieved a C statistic of 0.747 (95% CI 0.653, 0.842) in the test sample. Conclusions/interpretation We identified eight protein biomarkers, four of which are novel, for risk of MACE in community residents with type 2 diabetes, and found improved risk prediction by combining multiplex proteomics with an established risk model. Multiprotein arrays could be useful in identifying individuals with type 2 diabetes who are at highest risk of a cardiovascular event.

  • 18.
    Rådholm, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, "Primary Health Care in Motala".
    Tengblad, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, "Primary Health Care in Motala".
    Dahlén, Elsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, "Primary Health Care in Motala".
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ödeshög.
    The impact of using sagittal abdominal diameter to predict major cardiovascular events in European patients with type 2 diabetes2017In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 418-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Obesity is associated with diabetes type 2 and one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We explored if sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is a better predictor of major cardiovascular events than waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) in type 2 diabetes. Methods and results: The CARDIPP study consists of a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study we used data from 635 participants with no previous myocardial infarction or stroke, with a mean follow-up time of 7.1 years. SAD, WC and BMI were measured at baseline and the end-point was first cardiovascular event, measured as a composite of ICD-10 codes for acute myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular mortality. SAD was significantly higher in the major cardiovascular event group compared to participants that did not suffer a major cardiovascular event during follow-up (p amp;lt; 0.001). SAD amp;gt; 25 cm was the only anthropometric measurement that remained associated with major cardiovascular events when adjusted for modifiable and non-modifiable factors (hazard ratio 2.81, 95% confidence interval 1.37-5.76, p = 0.005). Conclusion: SAD with the cut off level of amp;gt; 25 cm, if confirmed in larger studies, may be used as a more independent risk-assessment tool compared with WC in clinical practice, to identify persons with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk. (C) 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Rådholm, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ödeshög. Univ New South Wales, Australia.
    Chalmers, John
    Univ New South Wales, Australia.
    Ohkuma, Toshiaki
    Univ New South Wales, Australia; Kyushu Univ, Japan.
    Peters, Sanne
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Poulter, Neil
    Imperial Coll, England.
    Hamet, Pavel
    Univ Montreal, Canada.
    Harrap, Stephen
    Univ Melbourne, Australia; Royal Melbourne Hosp, Australia.
    Woodward, Mark
    Univ New South Wales, Australia; Univ Oxford, England; Johns Hopkins Univ, MD USA.
    Use of the waist-to-height ratio to predict cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes: Results from the ADVANCE-ON study2018In: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, ISSN 1462-8902, E-ISSN 1463-1326, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 1903-1910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims Patients with type 2 diabetes have a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Central obesity has been particularly associated with this risk relationship. We aimed to evaluate waist to height ratio (WHtR) as a predictor of risk in such patients. Methods WHtR was evaluated as a predictor of the risk of CVD and mortality amongst 11125 participants with type 2 diabetes in the ADVANCE and ADVANCE-ON studies, and was compared with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist hip ratio (WHR). Primary outcome was a composite of death from CVD, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke. Secondary outcomes were myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death and death from any cause. Cox models were used, with bootstrapping to compare associations between anthropometric measures for the primary outcome. Results Median follow-up time was 9.0 years. There was a positive association between WHtR and adverse outcomes. The hazard ratio (HR) (confidence interval), per SD higher WHtR, was 1.16 (1.11-1.22) for the primary endpoint, with no heterogeneity by sex or region, but a stronger effect in individuals aged 66 years or older. The other 3 anthropometric measurements showed similar associations, although there was evidence that WHtR marginally outperformed BMI and WHR. Based on commonly used BMI cut-points, the equivalent WHtR cut-points were estimated to be 0.55 and 0.6, with no evidence of a difference across subgroups. Conclusions In patients with diabetes, WHtR is a useful indicator of future adverse risk, with similar effects in different population subgroups.

  • 20.
    Sabale, Ugne
    et al.
    AstraZeneca Nordic Balt, Sweden.
    Bodegard, Johan
    AstraZeneca Nordic Balt, Sweden.
    Svennblad, Bodil
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ödeshög.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ekman, Mattias
    AstraZeneca Nordic Balt, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Nilsson, Peter
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Weight change patterns and healthcare costs in patients with newly-diagnosed type-2 diabetes in Sweden2017In: Primary Care Diabetes, ISSN 1751-9918, E-ISSN 1878-0210, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 217-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To describe weight-change pathways in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and associated healthcare costs using repeated BMI measurements and healthcare utilization data. Methods: Patients with newly-diagnosed T2D with body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) at diagnosis and subsequent measures at year 1-3 were identified. Based on three-year BMI change, patients were assigned to one of 27 BMI change pathways defined by annual BMI change: BMI NE arrow (amp;gt;= 1 BMI unit increase), BMI -amp;gt; (amp;lt;1 BMI unit change), and BMI SE arrow (amp;gt;= 1 BMI unit decrease). Mean annual and three-year cumulative healthcare costs were estimated for each pathway by combining Swedish unit costs with resource use from primary care and national patient registers. Results: Cohort consisted of 15,819 patients; 44% women, mean age of 61 years, HbA1c of 6.7% (50 mmol/mol), BMI of 30.6 kg/m(2). Most common BMI pathways (mean costs): BMI -amp;gt;-amp;gt;-amp;gt; ((sic)5,311), BMI SE arrow -amp;gt;-amp;gt;((sic)5,461), and BMI -amp;gt;-amp;gt;SE arrow((sic)6,281). General trends: BMI)-amp;gt;-amp;gt;-amp;gt; linked to lowest, BMI NE arrow -amp;gt;NE arrow linked to highest costs. Conclusion: In patients with newly -diagnosed T2D, weight stability was the most common BMI change pattern over 3 years and associated with lowest healthcare costs. Relationship between weight change and healthcare costs appears complex warranting further investigation. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Primary Care Diabetes Europe.

  • 21.
    Samefors, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Scragg, R.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ödeshög.
    Association between serum 25(OH)D-3 and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes: a community-based cohort study2017In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 372-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim We aimed to explore the association between vitamin D and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes recruited from a community-based study because there is limited and inconsistent research of this group. Methods A prospective community-based cohort study among people aged 55-66 years with Type 2 diabetes as part of The Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes -A Prospective Study in Primary Care (CARDIPP). We analysed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 [25(OH)D-3] at baseline. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for the first myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular mortality according to 25(OH)D-3. Results We examined 698 people with a mean follow-up of 7.3 years. Serum 25(OH)D-3 was inversely associated with the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality: HR 0.98 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 0.99, P = 0.001]. Compared with the fourth quartile (Q4) [25(OH)D-3 amp;gt; 61.8 nmol/l], HR (with 95% CI) was 3.46 (1.60 to 7.47) in Q1 [25(OH)D-3 amp;lt; 35.5 nmol/l] (P = 0.002); 2.26 (1.01 to 5.06) in Q2 [25(OH)D-3 35.5-47.5 nmol/l] (P = 0.047); and 1.62 (0.70 to 3.76) in Q3 [25(OH)D-3 47.5-61.8 nmol/l] (P = 0.26) when adjusting for age, sex and season. The results remained significant after adjusting also for cardiovascular risk factors, physiological variables including parathyroid hormone and previous cardiovascular disease (P = 0.027). Conclusions Low 25(OH)D-3 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes independent of parathyroid hormone. Vitamin D could be considered as a prognostic factor. Future studies are needed to explore whether vitamin D deficiency is a modifiable risk factor in Type 2 diabetes.

  • 22.
    Tingström, Pia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jaarsma, Tiny
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Vikbolandet.
    Patient empowerment and general self-efficacy in patients with coronary heart disease: a cross-sectional study2018In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 19, article id 76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background:

    In managing a life with coronary heart disease and the possibility of planning and following a

    rehabilitation plan, patients

    ’ empowerment and self-efficacy are considered important. However, currently there is

    limited data on levels of empowerment among patients with coronary heart disease, and demographic and clinical

    characteristics associated with patient empowerment are not known.

    The purpose of this study was to assess the level of patient empowerment and general self-efficacy in patients six

    to 12 months after the cardiac event. We also aimed to explore the relationship between patient empowerment,

    general self-efficacy and other related factors such as quality of life and demographic variables.

    Methods:

    A sample of 157 cardiac patients (78% male; age 68 ± 8.5 years) was recruited from a Swedish hospital.

    Patient empowerment was assessed using the SWE-CES-10. Additional data was collected on general self-efficacy

    and well-being (EQ5D and Ladder of Life). Demographic and clinical variables were collected from medical records

    and interviews.

    Results:

    The mean levels of patient empowerment and general self-efficacy on a 0–4 scale were 3.69 (±0.54) and

    3.13 (±0.52) respectively, and the relationship between patient empowerment and general self-efficacy was weak

    (

    r = 0.38). In a simple linear regression, patient empowerment and general self-efficacy were significantly correlated

    with marital status, current self-rated health and future well-being. Multiple linear regressions on patient empowerment

    (Model 1) and general self-efficacy (Model 2) showed an independent significant association between patient

    empowerment and current self-rated health. General self-efficacy was not independently associated with any of the

    variables.

    Conclusions:

    Patients with a diagnosis of coronary heart disease reported high levels of empowerment and general

    self-efficacy at six to 12 months after the event. Clinical and demographic variables were not independently associated

    with empowerment or low general self-efficacy. Patient empowerment and general self-efficacy were not mutually

    interchangeable, and therefore both need to be measured when planning for secondary prevention in primary health

    care.

    Trial registration:

    NCT01462799.

  • 23.
    Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson
    et al.
    National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Sweden. Electronic address helle.unnerstad@sva.se.
    Mieziewska, Kristina
    Swedish Board of Agriculture, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Sweden.
    Hedbäck, Helena
    Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Mantorp.
    Strand, Karin
    Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Hallgren, Thorild
    District Veterinary Organisation, Sweden.
    Landin, Håkan
    Växa Sverige, Sweden.
    Skarin, Joakim
    National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Björn
    National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Sweden.
    Suspected transmission and subsequent spread of MRSA from farmer to dairy cows2018In: Veterinary Microbiology, ISSN 0378-1135, E-ISSN 1873-2542, Vol. 225, p. 114-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study we describe an outbreak where PVL positive MRSA belonging to spa-type t002 and multi-locus sequence type ST2659 persisted in a Swedish dairy herd for at least two years, despite efforts to hinder transmission between animals and between the farmer and his animals. This is the first description of persistence and spread of MRSA in a dairy herd in Sweden. Sampling of animals in the herd was initiated by the finding of MRSA in the farmer and was performed at eight occasions from November 2012 to September 2014. In total, MRSA was detected in 25 animals and in 16 of these MRSA was detected in milk samples. In addition, MRSA was also detected in bulk milk samples. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of twelve isolates from farmer (n?=?1), animals (n?=?9) and bulk milk (n?=?2) revealed high relatedness, implying a common source. MRSA may initially have been transmitted from humans to cows with further spread within the herd. WGS showed minor differences in one isolate (loss of phage FN315) which could indicate adaption of the strain to an animal host.

  • 24.
    Wennerholm, Carina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bromley, Catherine
    Public Health Observatory Division, NHS Health Scotland, Edinburgh, UK..
    Johansson, AnnaKarin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Vikbolandet.
    Frank, John
    Scottish Collaboration of Public Health Research & Policy (SCPHRP); Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Faresjö, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Two tales of cardiovascular risks-middle-aged women living in Sweden and Scotland: a cross-sectional comparative study2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 8, article id e016527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To compare cardiovascular risk factors as well as rates of cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged women from urban areas in Scotland and Sweden.

    DESIGN: Comparative cross-sectional study.

    SETTING: Data from the general population in urban areas of Scotland and the general population in two major Swedish cities in southeast Sweden, south of Stockholm.

    PARTICIPANTS: Comparable data of middle-aged women (40-65 years) from the Scottish Health Survey (n=6250) and the Swedish QWIN study (n=741) were merged together into a new dataset (n=6991 participants).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We compared middle-aged women in urban areas in Sweden and Scotland regarding risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD diagnosis, anthropometrics, psychological distress and lifestyle.

    RESULTS: In almost all measurements, there were significant differences between the countries, favouring the Swedish women. Scottish women demonstrated a higher frequency of alcohol consumption, smoking, obesity, low vegetable consumption, a sedentary lifestyle and also more psychological distress. For doctor-diagnosed coronary heart disease, there were also significant differences, with a higher prevalence among the Scottish women.

    CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first studies that clearly shows that Scottish middle-aged women are particularly affected by a worse profile of CVD risks. The profound differences in CVD risk and outcome frequency in the two populations are likely to have arisen from differences in the two groups of women's social, cultural, political and economic environments.

  • 25.
    Westerlind, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Geriatrics, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Ödeshög.
    Mölstad, Sigvard
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Midlöv, Patrik
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Hägg, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology. Futurum, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics is associated with falls in nursing home residents: a longitudinal cohort study2018In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Falls and related injuries are common among older people, and several drug classes are considered to increase fall risk.

    Aims

    This study aimed to investigate the association between the use of certain drug classes and falls in older nursing home residents in Sweden, and relate these to different age groups.

    Methods

    Information on falls that occurred in the previous year and regular use of possible fall risk drugs including non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (zopiclone and zolpidem) was collected from 331 nursing home residents during 2008–2011. Over the following 6 months, the occurrence of serious falls, requiring a physician visit or hospital care, was registered. Association between serious falls and drug use was compared between an older (≥ 85 years) and a younger group.

    Results

    An increased fall risk (Downton Fall Risk Index ≥ 3) was found in 93% of the study subjects (aged 65–101 years). Baseline data indicated an association between falls that occurred in the previous year and regular use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (p = 0.005), but not with the other studied drug classes. During the following 6 months, an association between use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics and serious falls in the older group (p = 0.017, odds ratio 4.311) was found. No association was found between the other studied drug classes and serious falls.

    Discussion

    These results indicate an association between falls and the use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, compounds that previously have been considered generally well-tolerated in older people.

    Conclusions

    Caution is advocated when using non-benzodiazepine hypnotics regularly in older people living in nursing homes.

  • 26.
    Widemar, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Falk, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Kärna, Linköping.
    Sun Exposure and Protection Index (SEPI) and Self-Estimated Sun Sensitivity2018In: Journal of Primary Prevention, ISSN 0278-095X, E-ISSN 1573-6547, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 437-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide, mostly because of increasing exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. The Sun Exposure and Protection Index (SEPI) questionnaire, developed in Linkoping and validated in Sweden and Australia, is used to map sun habits, sun protection behaviour, and readiness to increase sun protection. We sought to examine differences in sun habits or sun protection behaviour and propensity to increase sun protection, based on SEPI as related to self-estimated skin UV sensitivity according to the Fitzpatrick classification. The study population comprised students at Linkoping University, who were asked to complete the SEPI questionnaire. We examined differences in sun habits and sun protection behaviour according to skin type and gender. Individuals with lower UV sensitivity had significantly riskier sun habits and sun protection behaviour and were significantly less likely to increase sun protection. Women spent significantly more time tanning than men, more time in the midday sun, used sunscreen more frequently, and were more likely to seek the shade for sun protection. Individuals with higher UV sensitivity were significantly more likely to increase sun protection; individuals with low UV sensitivity tended to have a riskier attitude to sunbathing. In conclusion, self-estimated skin type and gender are important factors influencing sun exposure habits and sun protection behaviour.

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