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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Formation of Monolithic Ion-Selective Transport Media Based on "Click" Cross-Linked Hyperbranched Polyglycerol2019In: Frontiers in Chemistry, E-ISSN 2296-2646, Vol. 7, article id 484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the emerging field of organic bioelectronics, conducting polymers and ion-selective membranes are combined to form resistors, diodes, transistors, and circuits that transport and process both electronic and ionic signals. Such bioelectronics concepts have been explored in delivery devices that translate electronic addressing signals into the transport and dispensing of small charged biomolecules at high specificity and spatiotemporal resolution. Manufacturing such "iontronic" devices generally involves classical thin film processing of polyelectrolyte layers and insulators followed by application of electrolytes. This approach makes miniaturization and integration difficult, simply because the ion selective polyelectrolytes swell after completing the manufacturing. To advance such bioelectronics/iontronics and to enable applications where relatively larger molecules can be delivered, it is important to develop a versatile material system in which the charge/size selectivity can be easily tailormade at the same time enabling easy manufacturing of complex and miniaturized structures. Here, we report a one-pot synthesis approach with minimal amount of organic solvent to achieve cationic hyperbranched polyglycerol films for iontronics applications. The hyperbranched structure allows for tunable pre multi-functionalization, which combines available unsaturated groups used in crosslinking along with ionic groups for electrolytic properties, to achieve a one-step process when applied in devices for monolithic membrane gel formation with selective electrophoretic transport of molecules.

  • 2.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ion Electron-Coupled Functionality in Materials and Devices Based on Conjugated Polymers2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 22, article id 1805813Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling between charge accumulation in a conjugated polymer and the ionic charge compensation, provided from an electrolyte, defines the mode of operation in a vast array of different organic electrochemical devices. The most explored mixed organic ion-electron conductor, serving as the active electrode in these devices, is poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrelensulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). In this progress report, scientists of the Laboratory of Organic Electronics at Linkoping University review some of the achievements derived over the last two decades in the field of organic electrochemical devices, in particular including PEDOT:PSS as the active material. The recently established understanding of the volumetric capacitance and the mixed ion-electron charge transport properties of PEDOT are described along with examples of various devices and phenomena utilizing this ion-electron coupling, such as the organic electrochemical transistor, ionic-electronic thermodiffusion, electrochromic devices, surface switches, and more. One of the pioneers in this exciting research field is Prof. Olle Inganas and the authors of this progress report wish to celebrate and acknowledge all the fantastic achievements and inspiration accomplished by Prof. Inganas all since 1981.

  • 3.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Malliaras, George G.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    How conducting polymer electrodes operate2019In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 364, no 6437, p. 233-234Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 4.
    Berto, Marcello
    et al.
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; Univ Ferrara, Italy.
    Diacci, Chiara
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    DAgata, Roberta
    Univ Catania, Italy.
    Pinti, Marcello
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Bianchini, Elena
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Di Lauro, Michele
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Casalini, Stefano
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Cossarizza, Andrea
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Spoto, Giuseppe
    Univ Catania, Italy; Univ Catania, Italy.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Bortolotti, Carlo A.
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    EGOFET Peptide Aptasensor for Label-Free Detection of Inflammatory Cytokines in Complex Fluids2018In: ADVANCED BIOSYSTEMS, ISSN 2366-7478, Vol. 2, no 2, article id 1700072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronic transistors are rapidly emerging as ultrahigh sensitive label-free biosensors suited for point-of-care or in-field deployed applications. Most organic biosensors reported to date are based on immunorecognition between the relevant biomarkers and the immobilized antibodies, whose use is hindered by large dimensions, poor control of sequence, and relative instability. Here, an electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistor (EGOFET) biosensor where the recognition units are surface immobilized peptide aptamers (Affimer proteins) instead of antibodies is reported. Peptide aptasensor for the detection of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) with a 1 x 10(-12) M limit of detection is demonstrated. Ultralow sensitivity is met even in complex solutions such as cell culture media containing 10% serum, demonstrating the remarkable ligand specificity of the device. The device performances, together with the simple one-step immobilization strategy of the recognition moieties and the low operational voltages, all prompt EGOFET peptide aptasensors as candidates for early diagnostics and monitoring at the point-of-care.

  • 5.
    Berto, Marcello
    et al.
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Diacci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Theuer, Lorenz
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Di Lauro, Michele
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Bortolotti, Carlo A.
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Label free urea biosensor based on organic electrochemical transistors2018In: FLEXIBLE AND PRINTED ELECTRONICS, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 024001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quantification of urea is of the utmost importance not only in medical diagnosis, where it serves as a potential indicator of kidney and liver disfunction, but also in food safety and environmental control. Here, we describe a urea biosensor based on urease entrapped in a crosslinked gelatin hydrogel, deposited onto a fully printed PEDOT:PSS-based organic electrochemical transistor (OECT). The device response is based on the modulation of the channel conductivity by the ionic species produced upon urea hydrolysis catalyzed by the entrapped urease. The biosensor shows excellent reproducibility, a limit of detection as low as 1 mu M and a response time of a few minutes. The fabrication of the OECTs by screen-printing on flexible substrates ensures a significant reduction in manufacturing time and costs. The low dimensionality and operational voltages (0.5 V or below) of these devices contribute to make these enzymatic OECT-based biosensors as appealing candidates for high-throughput monitoring of urea levels at the point-of-care or in the field.

  • 6.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Acreo, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Acreo, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greyscale and Paper Electrochromic Polymer Displays by UV Patterning2019In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic devices have important implications as smart windows for energy efficient buildings, internet of things devices, and in low-cost advertising applications. While inorganics have so far dominated the market, organic conductive polymers possess certain advantages such as high throughput and low temperature processing, faster switching, and superior optical memory. Here, we present organic electrochromic devices that can switch between two high-resolution images, based on UV-patterning and vapor phase polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films. We demonstrate that this technique can provide switchable greyscale images through the spatial control of a UV-light dose. The color space was able to be further altered via optimization of the oxidant concentration. Finally, we utilized a UV-patterning technique to produce functional paper with electrochromic patterns deposited on porous paper, allowing for environmentally friendly electrochromic displays.

  • 7.
    Cattelan, Mattia
    et al.
    School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantocks Close, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fox, Neil A.
    School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantocks Close, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shtepliuk, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anodization study of epitaxial graphene: insights on the oxygen evolution reaction of graphitic materials2019In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 30, no 28, article id 285701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The photoemission electron microscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy were utilized for the study of anodized epitaxial graphene (EG) on silicon carbide as a fundamental aspect of the oxygen evolution reaction on graphitic materials. The high-resolution analysis of surface morphology and composition quantified the material transformation during the anodization. We investigated the surface with lateral resolution amp;lt;150 nm, revealing significant transformations on the EG and the role of multilayer edges in increasing the film capacitance.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-04-24 11:07
  • 8.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Knight, Sean
    Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On the anomalous optical conductivity dispersion of electrically conducting polymers: ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry combined with a Drude-Lorentz model2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, no 15, p. 4350-4362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically conducting polymers (ECPs) are becoming increasingly important in areas such as optoelectronics, biomedical devices, and energy systems. Still, their detailed charge transport properties produce an anomalous optical conductivity dispersion that is not yet fully understood in terms of physical model equations for the broad range optical response. Several modifications to the classical Drude model have been proposed to account for a strong non-Drude behavior from terahertz (THz) to infrared (IR) ranges, typically by implementing negative amplitude oscillator functions to the model dielectric function that effectively reduce the conductivity in those ranges. Here we present an alternative description that modifies the Drude model via addition of positive-amplitude Lorentz oscillator functions. We evaluate this so-called Drude-Lorentz (DL) model based on the first ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry study of ECPs, spanning over four orders of magnitude: from 0.41 meV in the THz range to 5.90 eV in the ultraviolet range, using thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): tosylate (PEDOT: Tos) as a model system. The model could accurately fit the experimental data in the whole ultrawide spectral range and provide the complex anisotropic optical conductivity of the material. Examining the resonance frequencies and widths of the Lorentz oscillators reveals that both spectrally narrow vibrational resonances and broader resonances due to localization processes contribute significantly to the deviation from the Drude optical conductivity dispersion. As verified by independent electrical measurements, the DL model accurately determines the electrical properties of the thin film, including DC conductivity, charge density, and (anisotropic) mobility. The ellipsometric method combined with the DL model may thereby become an effective and reliable tool in determining both optical and electrical properties of ECPs, indicating its future potential as a contact-free alternative to traditional electrical characterization.

  • 9.
    Cherian, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Armgarth, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Linderhed, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, David
    Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Large-area printed organic electronic ion pumps2019In: FLEXIBLE AND PRINTED ELECTRONICS, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 022001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological systems use a large variety of ions and molecules of different sizes for signaling. Precise electronic regulation of biological systems therefore requires an interface which translates the electronic signals into chemically specific biological signals. One technology for this purpose that has been developed during the last decade is the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP). To date, OEIPs have been fabricated by micropatterning and labor-intensive manual techniques, hindering the potential application areas of this promising technology. Here we show, for the first time, fully screen-printed OEIPs. We demonstrate a large-area printed design with manufacturing yield amp;gt;90%. Screen-printed cation- and anion-exchange membranes are both demonstrated with promising ion selectivity and performance, with transport verified for both small ions (Na+,K+,Cl-) and biologically-relevant molecules (the cationic neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and the anionic anti-inflammatory salicylic acid). These advances open the iontronics toolbox to the world of printed electronics, paving the way for a broader arena for applications.

  • 10.
    Diacci, Chiara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, Jee Woong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dufil, Gwennael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Méhes, Gábor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Real-Time Monitoring of Glucose Export from Isolated Chloroplasts Using an Organic Electrochemical Transistor2019In: Advanced Materials Technologies, ISSN 2365-709X, article id 1900262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosensors based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECT) are attractive devices for real-time monitoring of biological processes. The direct coupling between the channel of the OECT and the electrolyte enables intimate interfacing with biological environments at the same time bringing signal amplification and fast sensor response times. So far, these devices are mainly applied to mammalian systems; cells or body fluids for the development of diagnostics and various health status monitoring technology. Yet, no direct detection of biomolecules from cells or organelles is reported. Here, an OECT glucose sensor applied to chloroplasts, which are the plant organelles responsible for the light-to-chemical energy conversion of the photosynthesis, is reported. Real-time monitoring of glucose export from chloroplasts in two distinct metabolic phases is demonstrated and the transfer dynamics with a time resolution of 1 min is quantified, thus reaching monitoring dynamics being an order of magnitude better than conventional methods.

  • 11.
    Fahlman, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics.
    Interfaces in organic electronics2019In: Nature Reviews Materials, E-ISSN 2058-8437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Undoped, conjugated, organic molecules and polymers possess properties of semiconductors, including the electronic structure and charge transport, which can be readily tuned by chemical design. Moreover, organic semiconductors (OSs) can be n-doped or p-doped to become organic conductors and can exhibit mixed electronic and ionic conductivity. Compared with inorganic semiconductors and metals, organic (semi)conductors possess a unique feature: no insulating oxide forms on their surface when exposed to air. Thus, OSs form clean interfaces with many materials, including metals and other OSs. OS–metal and OS–OS interfaces have been intensely investigated over the past 30 years, from which a consistent theoretical description has emerged. Since the 2000s, increased attention has been paid to interfaces in organic electronics that involve dielectrics, electrolytes, ferroelectrics and even biological organisms. In this Review, we consider the central role of these interfaces in the function of organic electronic devices and discuss how the physico-chemical properties of the interfaces govern the interfacial transport of light, excitons, electrons and ions, as well as the transduction of electrons into the molecular language of cells.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-01-25 15:13
  • 12.
    Gerasimov, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Roger H
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Evolvable Organic Electrochemical Transistor for Neuromorphic Applications2019In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 6, no 7, article id 1801339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An evolvable organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), operating in the hybrid accumulation-depletion mode is reported, which exhibits short-term and long-term memory functionalities. The transistor channel, formed by an electropolymerized conducting polymer, can be formed, modulated, and obliterated in situ and under operation. Enduring changes in channel conductance, analogous to long-term potentiation and depression, are attained by electropolymerization and electrochemical overoxidation of the channel material, respectively. Transient changes in channel conductance, analogous to short-term potentiation and depression, are accomplished by inducing nonequilibrium doping states within the transistor channel. By manipulating the input signal, the strength of the transistor response to a given stimulus can be modulated within a range that spans several orders of magnitude, producing behavior that is directly comparable to short- and long-term neuroplasticity. The evolvable transistor is further incorporated into a simple circuit that mimics classical conditioning. It is forecasted that OECTs that can be physically and electronically modulated under operation will bring about a new paradigm of machine learning based on evolvable organic electronics.

  • 13.
    Ghosh, Sarbani
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electronic Structures and Optical Absorption of N-Type Conducting Polymers at Different Doping Levels2019In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 123, no 25, p. 15467-15476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical understanding of the electronic structure and optical transitions in n-doped conducting polymers is still controversial for polaronic and bipolaronic states and is completely missing for the case of a high doping level. In the present paper, the electronic structure and optical properties of the archetypical n-doped conducting polymer, double-stranded benzimidazo-benzophenanthroline ladder (BBL), are studied using the density functional theory (DFT) and the time dependent DFT method. We find that a polaronic state in the BBL chain is a spin-resolved doublet where the spin degeneracy is lifted. The ground state of two electrons corresponds to a triplet polaron pair, which is in stark contrast to a commonly accepted picture where two electrons are postulated to form a spinless bipolaron. The total spin gradually increases until the reduction level reaches c(red) = 100% (i.e., one electron per monomer unit). With further increase of the reduction level, the total spin decreases until it becomes 0 for the reduction level c(red) = 200%. The calculated results reproduce the experimentally observed spin signal without any phenomenological parameters. A detailed analysis of the evolution of the electronic structure of BBL and its absorption spectra with increase in reduction level is presented. The calculated UV-vis-NIR spectra are compared with the available experimental results. The electronic structure and optical absorption for different reduction levels presented here are generic to a wide class of conducting polymers, which is illustrated by the corresponding calculations for another archetypical conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (best known as PEDOT).

  • 14.
    Han, Shaobo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alvi, Naveed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granlof, Lars
    RISE Bioecon, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Bioecon, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Multiparameter Pressure-Temperature-Humidity Sensor Based on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Cellulose Aerogels2019In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 6, no 8, article id 1802128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressure (P), temperature (T), and humidity (H) are physical key parameters of great relevance for various applications such as in distributed diagnostics, robotics, electronic skins, functional clothing, and many other Internet-of-Things (IoT) solutions. Previous studies on monitoring and recording these three parameters have focused on the integration of three individual single-parameter sensors into an electronic circuit, also comprising dedicated sense amplifiers, signal processing, and communication interfaces. To limit complexity in, e.g., multifunctional IoT systems, and thus reducing the manufacturing costs of such sensing/communication outposts, it is desirable to achieve one single-sensor device that simultaneously or consecutively measures P-T-H without cross-talks in the sensing functionality. Herein, a novel organic mixed ion-electron conducting aerogel is reported, which can sense P-T-H with minimal cross-talk between the measured parameters. The exclusive read-out of the three individual parameters is performed electronically in one single device configuration and is enabled by the use of a novel strategy that combines electronic and ionic Seebeck effect along with mixed ion-electron conduction in an elastic aerogel. The findings promise for multipurpose IoT technology with reduced complexity and production costs, features that are highly anticipated in distributed diagnostics, monitoring, safety, and security applications.

  • 15.
    Hwang, Sunbin
    et al.
    KIST, South Korea.
    Jang, Sukjae
    KIST, South Korea.
    Kang, Minji
    KIST, South Korea.
    Bae, Sukang
    KIST, South Korea.
    Lee, Seoung-Ki
    KIST, South Korea.
    Hong, Jae-Min
    KIST, South Korea.
    Lee, Sang Hyun
    Chonnam Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Wang, Gunuk
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kim, Tae-Wook
    KIST, South Korea.
    Two-in-One Device with Versatile Compatible Electrical Switching or Data Storage Functions Controlled by the Ferroelectricity of P(VDF-TrFE) via Photocrosslinking2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 28, p. 25358-25368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronics demand new platforms that can make integrated circuits and undergo mass production while maintaining diverse functions with high performance. The field-effect transistor has great potential to be a multifunctional device capable of sensing, data processing, data storage, and display. Currently, transistor-based devices cannot be considered intrinsic multifunctional devices because all installed functions are mutually coupled. Such incompatibilities are a crucial barrier to developing an all-in-one multifunctional device capable of driving each function individually. In this study, we focus on the decoupling of electric switching and data storage functions in an organic ferroelectric memory transistor. To overcome the incompatibility of each function, the high permittivity needed for electrical switching and the ferroelectricity needed for data storage become compatible by restricting the motion of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) via photocrosslinking with bis-perfluorobenzoazide. The two-in-one device consisting of a photocrosslinked ferroelectric layer exhibits reversible and individual dual-functional operation as a typical transistor with nonvolatile memory. Moreover, a p-MOS depletion load inverter composed of the two transistors with different threshold voltages is also demonstrated by simply changing only one of the threshold voltages by polarization switching. We believe that the two-in-one device will be considered a potential component of integrated organic logic circuits, including memory, in the future.

  • 16.
    Håkansson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shahi, Maryam
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Brill, Joseph W.
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conducting-Polymer Bolometers for Low-Cost IR-Detection Systems2019In: ADVANCED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 5, no 6, article id 1800975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semiconducting polymers are promising materials for manufacturing optoelectronic devices, such as large-area solar cells or small light-emitting diodes, through the use of printing technologies. In their oxidized form, pi-conjugated polymers become good electrical conductors and their optical absorption shifts to the infrared region. It is demonstrated that conducting polymers can be integrated in bolometers for IR detection. A bolometer is a thermally isolated thin device that absorbs IR radiation and translates a temperature change into a change in electrical resistance. While commercial bolometers are usually made of complex architectures comprising several materials (that is, an IR absorbing layer, a conducting layer, and a thermally insulating layer), the first polymer bolometer is demonstrated with a freestanding layer of poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) having high IR absorption, low thermal conductivity, and good thermistor action in one single layer. The solution processability of conducting polymers, their compatibility with high-resolution printing technologies, and their unique combination of optoelectronic properties can lead to a breakthrough for low-cost uncooled IR cameras, which are in high demand for security and safety applications.

  • 17.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Division of Material Science, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Dr. M.A Kazi Institute of Chemistry University of Sindh Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Division of Material Science, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Tang, PengYi
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Morante, Joan Ramon
    Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arbiol, Jordi
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; ICREA, Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Division of Material Science, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    MoSx@NiO Composite Nanostructures: An Advanced Nonprecious Catalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Media2019In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 29, no 7, article id 1807562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of the earth-abundant, nonprecious, efficient, and stable electrocatalysts for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline media is a hot research topic in the field of renewable energies. A heterostructured system composed of MoSx deposited on NiO nanostructures (MoSx@NiO) as a robust catalyst for water splitting is proposed here. NiO nanosponges are applied as cocatalyst for MoS2 in alkaline media. Both NiO and MoS2@NiO composites are prepared by a hydrothermal method. The NiO nanostructures exhibit sponge-like morphology and are completely covered by the sheet-like MoS2. The NiO and MoS2 exhibit cubic and hexagonal phases, respectively. In the MoSx@NiO composite, the HER experiment in 1 m KOH electrolyte results in a low overpotential (406 mV) to produce 10 mA cm(-2) current density. The Tafel slope for that case is 43 mV per decade, which is the lowest ever achieved for MoS2-based electrocatalyst in alkaline media. The catalyst is highly stable for at least 13 h, with no decrease in the current density. This simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly methodology can pave the way for exploitation of MoSx@NiO composite catalysts not only for water splitting, but also for other applications such as lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-01-02 12:00
  • 18.
    Jakesova, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Silverå Ejneby, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Derek, Vedran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Tony
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brask, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Schindl, Rainer
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optoelectronic control of single cells using organic photocapacitors2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 4, article id eaav5265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical control of the electrophysiology of single cells can be a powerful tool for biomedical research and technology. Here, we report organic electrolytic photocapacitors (OEPCs), devices that function as extracellular capacitive electrodes for stimulating cells. OEPCs consist of transparent conductor layers covered with a donor-acceptor bilayer of organic photoconductors. This device produces an open-circuit voltage in a physiological solution of 330 mV upon illumination using light in a tissue transparency window of 630 to 660 nm. We have performed electrophysiological recordings on Xenopus laevis oocytes, finding rapid (time constants, 50 mu s to 5 ms) photoinduced transient changes in the range of 20 to 110 mV. We measure photoinduced opening of potassium channels, conclusively proving that the OEPC effectively depolarizes the cell membrane. Our results demonstrate that the OEPC can be a versatile nongenetic technique for optical manipulation of electrophysiology and currently represents one of the simplest and most stable and efficient optical stimulation solutions.

  • 19.
    Jakešová, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arbring, Theresia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics.
    Đerek, Vedran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wireless organic electronic ion pumps driven by photovoltaics2019In: npj Flexible Electronics, ISSN 2397-4621, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 14-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) is an emerging bioelectronic technology for on-demand and local delivery of pharmacologically active species, especially targeting alkali ions, and neurotransmitters. While electrical control is advantageous for providing precise spatial, temporal, and quantitative delivery, traditionally, it necessitates wiring. This complicates implantation. Herein, we demonstrate integration of an OEIP with a photovoltaic driver on a flexible carrier, which can be addressed by red light within the tissue transparency window. Organic thin-film bilayer photovoltaic pixels are arranged in series and/or vertical tandem to provide the 2.5–4.5 V necessary for operating the high-resistance electrophoretic ion pumps. We demonstrate light-stimulated transport of cations, ranging in size from protons to acetylcholine. The device, laminated on top of the skin, can easily be driven with a red LED emitting through a 1.5-cm-thick finger. The end result of our work is a thin and flexible integrated wireless device platform.

  • 20.
    Janson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, Keon Jae
    Korea Adv Inst Sci and Technol, South Korea.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Ionic Capacitor for Integrated Iontronic Circuits2019In: ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES, ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 1800494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronics, in combination with custom polyelectrolytes, enables solid- and hydrogel-state circuit components using ionic charges in place of the electrons of traditional electronics. This growing field of iontronics leverages anion- and cation-exchange membranes as analogs to n-type and p-type semiconductors, and conjugated polymer electrodes as ion-to-electron converters. To date, the iontronics toolbox includes ionic resistors, ionic diodes, ionic transistors, and analog and digital circuits comprised thereof. Here, an ionic capacitor based on mixed electron-ion conductors is demonstrated. The ionic capacitor resembles the structure of a conventional electrochemical capacitor that is inverted, with an electronically conducting core and two electrolyte ionic conductors. The device is first verified as a capacitor, and then demonstrated as a smoothing element in an iontronic diode bridge circuit driving an organic electronic ion pump (ionic resistor). The ionic capacitor complements the existing iontronics toolbox, enabling more complex and functional ionic circuits, and will thus have implications in a variety of mixed electron-ion conduction technologies.

  • 21.
    Jiao, Fei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puzinas, Skomantas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mäkie, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Naderi, Ali
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Lindstrom, Tom
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nanofibrillated Cellulose-Based Electrolyte and Electrode for Paper-Based Supercapacitors2018In: ADVANCED SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 2, no 1, article id UNSP 1700121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar photovoltaic technologies could fully deploy and impact the energy conversion systems in our society if mass-produced energy-storage solutions exist. A supercapacitor can regulate the fluctuations on the electrical grid on short time scales. Their mass-implementation requires the use of abundant materials, biological and organic synthetic materials are attractive because of atomic element abundancy and low-temperature synthetic processes. Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) coming from the forest industry is exploited as a three-dimensional template to control the transport of ions in an electrolyte-separator, with nanochannels filled of aqueous electrolyte. The nanochannels are defined by voids in the nanocomposite made of NFC and the proton transporting polymer polystyrene sulfonic acid PSSH. The ionic conductivity of NFC-PSSH composites (0.2 S cm(-1) at 100% relative humidity) exceeds sea water in a material that is solid, feel dry to the finger, but filled of nanodomains of water. A paper-based supercapacitor made of NFC-PSSH electrolyte-separator sandwiched between two paper-based electrodes is demonstrated. Although modest specific capacitance (81.3 F g(-1)), power density (2040 W kg(-1)) and energy density (1016 Wh kg(-1)), this is the first conceptual demonstration of a supercapacitor based on cellulose in each part of the device; which motivates the search for using paper manufacturing as mass-production of energy-storage devices.

  • 22.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Varde nanoljus!2019In: Ett kalejdoskop av kunskap: Sveriges unga akademi om vetenskap och samhälle / [ed] David Håkansson, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2019Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Kang, Evan S. H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shiran Chaharsoughi, Mina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rossi, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hybrid plasmonic metasurfaces2019In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 126, no 14, article id 140901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmonic metasurfaces based on ensembles of distributed metallic nanostructures can absorb, scatter, and in other ways shape light at the nanoscale. Forming hybrid plasmonic metasurfaces by combination with other materials opens up for new research directions and novel applications. This perspective highlights some of the recent advancements in this vibrant research field. Particular emphasis is put on hybrid plasmonic metasurfaces comprising organic materials and on concepts related to switchable surfaces, light-to-heat conversion, and hybridized light-matter states based on strong coupling.

  • 24.
    Karami Rad, Meysam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rezania, Alireza
    Aalborg Univ, Denmark.
    Omid, Mahmoud
    Univ Tehran, Iran.
    Rajabipour, Ali
    Univ Tehran, Iran.
    Rosendahl, Lasse
    Aalborg Univ, Denmark.
    Study on material properties effect for maximization of thermoelectric power generation2019In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 138, p. 236-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have mostly been used in niche applications due to the low efficiency. This study aims to evaluate the effect of different material transport properties such as Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity, on the system-level performance of the TEGs. A mathematical model was developed in MATLAB and verified by the experimental data to evaluate various thermoelectric (TE) materials with unit figure of merit (ZT=1) and with a diverse combination of properties. The results shows increment in the power factor with a factor of 15, which corresponds an enhancement in the thermal conductivity by factor of 13.33 for fixed Zr, can increase the power output up to 45%. The results moreover shows, higher power factor has more impact on the power generation at lower fill factors (FFs) and smaller thermal resistance of the heat sink and heat source. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Kim, Donghyun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Why Is Pristine PEDOT Oxidized to 33%? A Density Functional Theory Study of Oxidative Polymerization Mechanism2019In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 123, no 24, p. 5160-5167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, a theoretical understanding of thermodynamics and kinetics of the oxidative polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (best known as PEDOT) is missing. In the present study, step-by-step density functional theory calculations of the radical polymerization of PEDOT with tosylate counterions (PEDOT:TOS) using Fe3+(TOS-)(3) as oxidant and dopant are performed. We calculate the Gibbs free energy for the conventional mechanism that consists of the polymerization of neutral PEDOT oligomers first, followed by their oxidation (doping). We also propose an alternative mechanism of polymerization, in which the already oxidized oligomers are used as reactants, leading to doped (oxidized) oligomers as products during polymerization. Our calculations indicate that the alternative mechanism is more efficient for longer PEDOT oligomers (chain length N amp;gt; 6). We find that the oxidation of the EDOT monomer is the rate-limiting step for both mechanisms. Another focus of our study is the understanding of the maximum oxidation level that can be achieved during polymerization. Our calculations provide a theoretical explanation of "the magic number" of 33% for the oxidation level typically reported for the pristine (i.e., as-polymerized) materials and relate it to the change of the character of the bonds in the oligomers (aromatic to quinoid) that occurs at this oxidation level.

  • 26.
    Kim, Nara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electric Transport Properties in PEDOT Thin Films2019In: Conjugated Polymers: Properties, Processing, and Applications / [ed] John R. Reynolds; Barry C. Thompson; Terje A. Skotheim, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2019, p. 45-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the authors summarize their understanding of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), with respect to its chemical and physical fundamentals. They focus upon the structure of several PEDOT systems, from the angstrom level and up, and the impact on both electronic and ionic transport. The authors discuss the structural properties of PEDOT:X and PEDOT:poly(styrenesulfonate) based on experimental data probed at the scale ranging from angstrom to submicrometer. The morphology of PEDOT is influenced by the nature of counter-ions, especially at high oxidation levels. The doping anions intercalate between PEDOT chains to form a “sandwich” structure to screen the positive charges in PEDOT chains. The authors provide the main transport coefficients such as electrical conductivity s, Seebeck coefficient S, and Peltier coefficient σ, starting from a general thermodynamic consideration. The optical conductivity of PEDOT has also been examined based on the effective medium approximation, which is normally used to describe microscopic permittivity properties of composites made from several different constituents.

  • 27.
    Lach, Stefan
    et al.
    Univ Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Altenhof, Anna
    Univ Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Shi, Shengwei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Wuhan Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ziegler, Christiane
    Univ Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Electronic and magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic cobalt surface by adsorbing ultrathin films of tetracyanoethylene2019In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 21, no 28, p. 15833-15844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrathin films of tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) on Co(100) were investigated by means of spin-integrated and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy ((sp-)UPS), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), near edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We found a coverage-dependent modulation of the interface dipole and a switching between a metallic and a resistive spin filtering at the interface triggered by two distinct adsorption geometries of TCNE. The strongest hybridization and spin structure modifications are found at low coverage with a face-on adsorption geometry indicating changes in the distance between the surface Co atoms beneath. TCNE has the potential to manipulate the magnetic moments in the Co surface itself, including the possibility of magnetic hardening effects. In summary, the system TCNE/Co offers an experimentally rather easy and controllable way to build up a stable molecular platform stabilizing the reactive ferromagnetic Co surface and customizing the electronic and magnetic properties of the resulting spinterface simultaneously. This makes this system very attractive for spintronic applications as an alternative, less reactive but highly spin polarized foundation beside graphene-based systems.

  • 28.
    Li, Guowei
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Fu, Chenguang
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Shi, Wujun
    ShanghaiTech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jiao, Lin
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Wu, Jiquan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Qun
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Saha, Rana
    Max Planck Inst Microstruct Phys, Germany.
    Kamminga, Machteld E.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Srivastava, Abhay K.
    Max Planck Inst Microstruct Phys, Germany.
    Liu, Enke
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Yazdani, Aliza N.
    Carleton Coll, MN 55057 USA.
    Kumar, Nitesh
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Zhang, Jian
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Blake, Graeme R.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wirth, Steffen
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Auffermann, Gudrun
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Gooth, Johannes
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Parkin, Stuart
    Max Planck Inst Microstruct Phys, Germany.
    Madhavan, Vidya
    Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Feng, Xinliang
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Sun, Yan
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Felser, Claudia
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Dirac Nodal Arc Semimetal PtSn4: An Ideal Platform for Understanding Surface Properties and Catalysis for Hydrogen EvolutionIn: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conductivity, carrier mobility, and a suitable Gibbs free energy are important criteria that determine the performance of catalysts for a hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, it is a challenge to combine these factors into a single compound. Herein, we discover a superior electrocatalyst for a HER in the recently identified Dirac nodal arc semimetal PtSn4. The determined turnover frequency (TOF) for each active site of PtSn4 is 1.54 H-2 s(-1) at 100 mV. This sets a benchmark for HER catalysis on Pt-based noble metals and earth-abundant metal catalysts. We make use of the robust surface states of PtSn4 as their electrons can be transferred to the adsorbed hydrogen atoms in the catalytic process more efficiently. In addition, PtSn4 displays excellent chemical and electrochemical stabilities after long-term exposure in air and long-time HER stability tests.

  • 29.
    Liu, Xianjie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electronic Structure Characterization of Soft Semiconductors2019In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 6, no 16, article id 1900439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft semiconductors are a class of materials that have seen increased interest in terms of both basic research and development of technology, in particular optoelectronic devices. These materials, organic semiconductors and metal halide perovskites, are defined by being more mechanically malleable than the traditional crystalline inorganic semiconductors and with thin film fabrication done at lower temperatures and often from solution. In this short perspective article, basic properties of the materials are introduced, as well as their typical applications and a number of advanced characterization techniques that offer distinct advantages for studying soft semiconductor thin films.

  • 30.
    Malekian, Bita
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Xiong, Kunli
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kang, Evan S. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, John
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Emilsson, Gustav
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rommel, Marcus
    Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sannomiya, Takumi
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 4259 Nagatsuta Midoriku, Yokohama, Japan.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlin, Andreas
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Optical Properties of Plasmonic Nanopore Arrays Prepared by Electron Beam and Colloidal Lithography2019In: Nanoscale Advances, E-ISSN 2516-0230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid state nanopores are central structures for many applications. To date, much effort has been spent on controlled fabrication of single nanopores, while relatively little work has focused on large scale fabrication of arrays of nanopores. In this work we show wafer-scale fabrication of plasmonic nanopores in 50 nm thick silicon nitride membranes with one or two 30 nm gold films, using electron beam lithography with a negative resist or a new version of colloidal lithography. Both approaches offer good control of pore diameter (even below 100 nm) and with high yield (>90%) of intact membranes. Colloidal lithography has the advantage of parallel patterning without expensive equipment. Despite its serial nature, electron beam lithography provides high throughput and can make arbitrary array patterns. Importantly, both methods prevent metal from ending up on the membrane pore sidewalls. The new fabrication methods make it possible to compare the optical properties of structurally identical plasmonic nanopore arrays with either long-range order (e-beam) or short-range order (colloidal). The resonance features in the extinction spectrum are very similar for both structures when the pitch is the same as the characteristic spacing in the self-assembled colloidal pattern. Long-range ordering slightly enhances the magnitude of the extinction maximum and blueshift the transmission maximum by tens of nm. Upon reducing the diameter in long-range ordered arrays, the resonance is reduced in magnitude and the transmission maximum is further blue shifted, just like for short-range ordered arrays. These effects are well explained by interpreting the spectra as Fano interference between the grating-type excitation of propagating surface plasmons and the broad transmission via individual pores in the metal film. Furthermore, we find that only the short-range ordered arrays scatter light, which we attribute to the highly limited effective period in the short-range ordered system and the corresponding lack of coherent suppression of scattering via interference effects.

  • 31.
    Poxson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bonisoli, Alberto
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy; St Anna Sch Adv Studies, Italy.
    Linderhed, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matthiesen, Isabelle
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Capillary-Fiber Based Electrophoretic Delivery Device2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 15, p. 14200-14207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronic ion pumps (OEIPs) are versatile tools for electrophoretic delivery of substances with high spatiotemporal resolution. To date, OEIPs and similar iontronic components have been fabricated using thin-film techniques and often rely on laborious, multistep photolithographic processes. OEIPs have been demonstrated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo settings for controlling biological systems, but the thin-film form factor and limited repertoire of polyelectrolyte materials and device fabrication techniques unnecessarily constrain the possibilities for miniaturization and extremely localized substance delivery, e.g., the greater range of pharmaceutical compounds, on the scale of a single cell. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new OEIP form factor based on capillary fibers that include hyperbranched polyglycerols (dPGs) as the selective electrophoretic membrane. The dPGs enable electrophoretic channels with a high concentration of fixed charges and well-controlled cross-linking and can be realized using a simple one-pot fluidic manufacturing protocol. Selective electrophoretic transport of cations and anions of various sizes is demonstrated, including large substances that are difficult to transport with other OEIP technologies. We present a method for tailoring and characterizing the electrophoretic channels fixed charge concentration in the operational state. Subsequently, we compare the experimental performance of these capillary OEIPs to a computational model and explain unexpected features in the ionic current for the transport and delivery of larger, lower-mobility ionic compounds. From this model, we are able to elucidate several operational and design principles relevant to miniaturized electrophoretic drug delivery technologies in general. Overall, the compactness of the capillary OEIP enables electrophoretic delivery devices with probelike geometries, suitable for a variety of ionic compounds, paving the way for less-invasive implantation into biological systems and for healthcare applications.

  • 32.
    Ruoko, Tero-Petri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Chemistry and Advanced Materials, Laboratory of Chemistry and Bioengineering,Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland..
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Tampere Univ Technol, Finland.
    Iivonen, Tomi
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Ulkuniemi, Riina
    Tampere Univ Technol, Finland.
    Lahtonen, Kimmo
    Tampere Univ Technol, Finland.
    Ali-Loeytty, Harri
    Tampere Univ Technol, Finland.
    Mizohata, Kenichiro
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Valden, Mika
    Tampere Univ Technol, Finland.
    Leskelae, Markku
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Tkachenko, Nikolai V.
    Tampere Univ Technol, Finland.
    Charge carrier dynamics in tantalum oxide overlayered and tantalum doped hematite photoanodes2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 3206-3215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We employ atomic layer deposition to prepare 50 nm thick hematite photoanodes followed by passivating them with a 0.5 nm thick Ta2O5-overlayer and compare them with samples uniformly doped with the same amount of tantalum. We observe a three-fold improvement in photocurrent with the same onset voltage using Ta-overlayer hematite photoanodes, while electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under visible light irradiation shows a decreased amount of surface states under water splitting conditions. The Tadoped samples have an even higher increase in photocurrent along with a 0.15 V cathodic shift in the onset voltage and decreased resistivity. However, the surface state capacitance for the Ta-doped sample is twice that of the reference photoanode, which implies a larger amount of surface hole accumulation. We further utilize transient absorption spectroscopy in the sub-millisecond to second timescale under operating conditions to show that electron trapping in both Ta2O5-passivated and Ta-doped samples is markedly reduced. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy in the sub-picosecond to nanosecond timescale shows faster charge carrier dynamics and reduced recombination in the Ta-doped hematite photoanode resulting in the increased photoelectrochemical performance when compared with the Ta2O5-overlayer sample. Our results show that passivation does not affect the poor charge carrier dynamics intrinsic to hematite based photoanodes. The Ta-doping strategy results in more efficient electron extraction, solving the electron trapping issue and leading to increased performance over the surface passivation strategy.

  • 33.
    Sardar, Samim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wojcik, Pawel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kang, Evan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shanker, Ravi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Structural coloration by inkjet-printing of optical microcavities and metasurfaces2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, no 28, p. 8698-8704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural color generation by plasmonic and other means has attracted significant interest as a solution to avoid inks based on dyes. Prominent advantages include better robustness compared with organic dyes while also providing high chromaticity and brightness in ultrathin films. However, lack of cheap and scalable fabrication techniques has so far limited structural coloration to only a few applications and functional devices. Here, we demonstrate reflective (plasmonic) structural coloration at high resolution by inkjet printing on non-patterned surfaces. The method is flexible, scalable to large areas, and avoids complicated or costly fabrication steps. Optical microcavities on flexible plastic substrates were made starting with an inkjet-printed silver film as a bottom mirror. Inkjet-printed organic dielectric micropixels then served as the spacer layer, resulting in optical microcavities with reflective structural colors after coating with a thin semi-transparent metallic top layer. Optimization of ink formulation allowed for uniform pixels with minimum coffee stain effects as well as control of spacer thickness (around 50-150 nm) and color by varying the solid content of the ink. We investigate the possibility to obtain red, green and blue (RGB) pixels and demonstrate the improvement of particularly the blue coloration using wavelength-dependent plasmon absorption of gold nanoislands as a top mirror. Inkjet printing of optical microcavities and plasmonic cavities may find use in various applications, such as reflective displays in color.

  • 34.
    Seitanidou, Maria S
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Overcoming transport limitations in miniaturized electrophoretic delivery devices2019In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 1427-1435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronic ion pumps (OEIPs) have been used for delivery of biological signaling compounds, at high spatiotemporal resolution, to a variety of biological targets. The miniaturization of this technology provides several advantages, ranging from better spatiotemporal control of delivery to reduced invasiveness for implanted OEIPs. One route to miniaturization is to develop OEIPs based on glass capillary fibers that are filled with a polyelectrolyte (cation exchange membrane, CEM). These devices can be easily inserted and brought into close proximity to targeted cells and tissues and could be considered as a starting point for other fiber-based OEIP and iontronic technologies enabling favorable implantable device geometries. While characterizing capillary OEIPs we observed deviations from the typical linear current-voltage behavior. Here we report a systematic investigation of these irregularities by performing experimental characterizations in combination with computational modelling. The cause of the observed irregularities is due to concentration polarization established at the OEIP inlet, which in turn causes electric field-enhanced water dissociation at the inlet. Water dissociation generates protons and is typically problematic for many applications. By adding an ion-selective cap that separates the inlet from the source reservoir this effect is then, to a large extent, suppressed. By increasing the surface area of the inlet with the addition of the cap, the concentration polarization is reduced which thereby allows for significantly higher delivery rates. These results demonstrate a useful approach to optimize transport and delivery of therapeutic substances at low concentrations via miniaturized electrophoretic delivery devices, thus considerably broadening the opportunities for implantable OEIP applications.

  • 35.
    Shiran Chaharsoughi, Mina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermodiffusion-Assisted Pyroelectrics-Enabling Rapid and Stable Heat and Radiation Sensing2019In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 29, no 28, article id 1900572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensors for monitoring temperature, heat flux, and thermal radiation are essential for applications such as electronic skin. While pyroelectric and thermoelectric effects are suitable candidates as functional elements in such devices, both concepts show individual drawbacks in terms of zero equilibrium signals for pyroelectric materials and small or slow response of thermoelectric materials. Here, these drawbacks are overcome by introducing the concept of thermodiffusion-assisted pyroelectrics, which combines and enhances the performance of pyroelectric and ionic thermoelectric materials. The presented integrated concept provides both rapid initial response upon heating and stable synergistically enhanced signals upon prolonged exposure to heat stimuli. Likewise, incorporation of plasmonic metasurfaces enables the concept to provide both rapid and stable signals for radiation-induced heating. The performance of the concept and its working mechanism can be explained by ion-electron interactions at the interface between the pyroelectric and ionic thermoelectric materials.

  • 36.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Sekretareva, Alina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Graphens AB, Teknikringen 1F, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Graphens AB, Teknikringen 1F, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Graphens AB, Teknikringen 1F, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bioelectrocatalysis on Anodized Epitaxial Graphene and Conventional Graphitic Interfaces2019In: CHEMELECTROCHEM, ISSN 2196-0216, Vol. 6, no 14, p. 3791-3796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphitic materials exhibit significant anisotropy due to the difference in conductivity in a single layer and between adjacent layers. This anisotropy is manifested on epitaxial graphene (EG), which can be manipulated on the nanoscale in order to provide tailor-made properties. Insertion of defects into the EG lattice was utilized here for controllable surface modification with a model biocatalyst and the properties were quantified by both electrochemical and optical methods. A comparative evaluation of the electrode reaction kinetics on the enzyme-modified 2D material vs conventional carbon electrode materials revealed a significant enhancement of mediated bioelectrocatalysis at the nanoscale.

  • 37.
    Wang, Gang
    et al.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Swick, Steven M.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Matta, Micaela
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Mukherjee, Subhrangsu
    NIST, MD 20899 USA.
    Strzalka, Joseph W.
    Argonne Natl Lab, IL 60439 USA.
    Logsdon, Jenna Leigh
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huang, Wei
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Aldrich, Thomas J.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Yang, Tony
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Timalsina, Amod
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Powers-Riggs, Natalia
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Alzola, Joaquin M.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Young, Ryan M.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    DeLongchamp, Dean M.
    NIST, MD 20899 USA.
    Wasielewski, Michael R.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Kohlstedt, Kevin L.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Schatz, George C.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Melkonyan, Ferdinand S.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Facchetti, Antonio
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA; Flexterra Corp, IL 60077 USA.
    Marks, Tobin J.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Photovoltaic Blend Microstructure for High Efficiency Post-Fullerene Solar Cells. To Tilt or Not To Tilt?2019In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 141, no 34, p. 13410-13420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving efficient polymer solar cells (PSCs) requires a structurally optimal donor-acceptor heterojunction morphology. Here we report the combined experimental and theoretical characterization of a benzodithiophene-benzo-thiadiazole donor polymer series (PBTZF4-R; R = alkyl substituent) blended with the non-fullerene acceptor ITIC-Th and analyze the effects of substituent dimensions on blend morphology, charge transport, carrier dynamics, and PSC metrics. Varying substituent dimensions has a pronounced effect on the blend morphology with a direct link between domain purity, to some extent domain dimensions, and charge generation and collection. The polymer with the smallest alkyl substituent yields the highest PSC power conversion efficiency (PCE, 11%), reflecting relatively small, high-purity domains and possibly benefiting from "matched" donor polymer-small molecule acceptor orientations. The distinctive morphologies arising from the substituents are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations which reveal that substituent dimensions dictate a well-defined set of polymer conformations, in turn driving chain aggregation and, ultimately, the various film morphologies and mixing with acceptor small molecules. A straightforward energetic parameter explains the experimental polymer domain morphological trends, hence PCE, and suggests strategies for substituent selection to optimize PSC materials morphologies.

  • 38.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Emerging efficient charge-transport landscape based on short-range order in conjugated polymers2019In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 251, p. 16p. 104-119Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The booming of classic semicrystalline polymers has led to the assumption and thus design guidelines that long-range order is a prerequisite to endow conjugated polymers with high charge carrier mobility. Consequently, tremendous research effort has been devoted to increasing the crystallinity of conjugated polymers, as a principal strategy to improve the solid-state long-range charge-transport properties. Indeed, noticeable progress in the polymer performance has been witnessed. However, only a limited level of crystallinity can be achieved due to the inherently disordered nature of the polymer chains, resulting in the bottlenecks of the charge carrier mobility of conjugated polymers. Encouragingly, the recent reports of substantially disordered, high-performance conjugated polymers have opened a new route for achieving efficient charge transport, and lead to new waves of progress in the field of organic electronics. The universal observation of short-range order (in the form of aggregation) in the emerging class of poorly ordered conjugated polymers seems to suggest that local order is sufficient for efficient charge transport, and that extended long-range crystallinity is not essential. This review discusses the molecular origin of the high mobilities observed in the state-of-the-art low-crystalline conjugated polymers, especially highlighting the crucial role of short-range order.

  • 39.
    Wang, Suhao
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fazzi, Daniele
    Univ Cologne, Germany.
    Puttisong, Yuttapoom
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Zhihua
    Flexterra Corp, IL 60077 USA.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Facchetti, Antonio
    Flexterra Corp, IL 60077 USA; Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA; Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of Backbone Regiochemistry on Conductivity, Charge Density, and Polaron Structure of n-Doped Donor-Acceptor Polymers2019In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 3395-3406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the influence of backbone regiochemistry on the conductivity, charge density, and polaron structure in the widely studied n-doped donor-acceptor polymer poly[N,N-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenediimide-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5-(2,2-bithiophene) [P-(NDI2OD-T2)]. In contrast to classic semicrystalline polymers such as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), the regioirregular (RI) structure of the naphthalenediimide (NDI)-bithiophene (T2) backbone does not alter the intramolecular steric demand of the chain versus the regioregular (RR) polymer, yielding RI-P(NDI2OD-T2) with similar energetics and optical features as its RR counterpart. By combining the electrical, UV-vis/infrared, X-ray diffraction, and electron paramagnetic resonance data and density functional theory calculations, we quantitatively characterized the conductivity, aggregation, crystallinity, and charge density, and simulated the polaron structures, molecular vibrations, and spin density distribution of RR-/RI-P(NDI2OD-T2). Importantly, we observed that RI-P(NDI2OD-T2) can be doped to a greater extent compared to its RR counterpart. This finding is remarkable and contrasts benchmark P3HT, allowing us to uniquely study the role of regiochemistry on the charge-transport properties of n-doped donor-acceptor polymers.

  • 40.
    Wang, Xin
    et al.
    Department of Printed Electronics, RISE Acreo, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Grimoldi, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hakansson, Karl
    RISE Bioeconomy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fall, Andreas
    RISE Bioeconomy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Bioeconomy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mengistie, Desalegn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Department of Printed Electronics, RISE Acreo, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, David
    Department of Printed Electronics, RISE Acreo, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Goran
    Department of Printed Electronics, RISE Acreo, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Anisotropic conductivity of Cellulose-PEDOT:PSS composite materials studied with a generic 3D four-point probe tool2019In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 66, p. 258-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conducive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is widely used in organic electronics and printed electronics due to its excellent electronic and ionic conductivity. PEDOT:PSS films exhibit anisotropic conductivities originating from the interplay of film deposition processes and chemical structure. The previous studies found that high boiling point solvent treated PEDOT:PSS exhibits an anisotropy of 3-4 orders magnitude. Even though both the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities are important for the device performance, the out-of-plane conductivity is rarely studied due to the complexity with the experiment procedure. Cellulose-based paper or films can also exhibit anisotropic behavior due to the combination of their intrinsic fibric structure and film formation process. We have previously developed a conducive paper based on PEDOT:PSS and cellulose which could be used as the electrodes in energy storage devices. In this work we developed a novel measurement set-up for studying the anisotropy of the charge transport in such composite materials. A tool with two parallel plates mounted with spring loaded probes was constructed enabling probing both lateral and vertical directions and resistances from in-plane and out-of-plane directions to be obtained. The measurement results were then input and analyzed with a model based on a transformation method developed by Montgomery, and thus the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities could be detangled and derived. We also investigated how the conductivity anisotropy depends on the microstructure of the cellulose template onto which the conducive polymer self-organizes. We show that there is a relatively small difference between the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities which is attributed to the unique 3D-structure of the composites. This new knowledge gives a better understanding of the possibilities and limitations for using the material in electronic and electrochemical devices.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-12-17 00:01
  • 41.
    Wang, Zhen
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Tian, Weiqian
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Marais, Andrew
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wagberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Hamedi, Mahiar Max
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Layer-by-Layer Assembly of High-Performance Electroactive Composites Using a Multiple Charged Small Molecule2019In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 35, no 32, p. 10367-10373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is a versatile tool for fabricating multilayers with tailorable nanostructures. LbL, however, generally relies on polyelectrolytes, which are mostly insulating and induce large interlayer distances. We demonstrate a method in which we replace polyelectrolytes with the smallest unit capable of LbL self-assembly: a molecule with multiple positive charges, tris(3-aminopropyl)amine (TAPA), to fabricate LbL films with negatively charged single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). TAPA introduces less defects during the LbL build-up and results in more efficient assembly of films with denser micromorphology. Twenty bilayers of TAPA/CNT showed a low sheet resistance of 11 k Omega, a high transparency of 91% at 500 nm, and a high electronic conductivity of 1100 S/m on planar substrates. We also fabricated LbL films on porous foams with a conductivity of 69 mS/m and used them as electrodes for supercapacitors with a high specific capacitance of 43 F/g at a discharging current density of 1 A/g.

  • 42.
    Willfahrt, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stuttgart Media Univ, Germany.
    Steiner, Erich
    Stuttgart Media Univ, Germany.
    Hoetzel, Jonas
    Stuttgart Media Univ, Germany.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Printable acid-modified corn starch as non-toxic, disposable hydrogel-polymer electrolyte in supercapacitors2019In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 125, no 7, article id 474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corn starch and citric acid, two low-cost and abundant materials, were used for establishing a novel screen printable hydrogel for printed electronics applications. Corn starch was modified with citric acid by melt-blending; the so obtained thermoplastic starch was ground to powder and added to a water-starch suspension. Ultrasonication was used to prepare hydrogels of different citric acid concentrations. The most promising hydrogel contained 10% citric acid by weight, provided an ionic conductivity of (2.30 +/- 0.07)mScm(-1) and appropriate rheological properties for screen and stencil printing. The hydrogel shows superb printability and prolonged stability against degradation. The corn starch hydrogel was used as printable gel polymer electrolyte in fully printed supercapacitors. The specific capacitance of the printed supercapacitor reached 54Fg(-1). The printable hydrogel-polymer electrolyte is easy to produce without in-depth chemical knowledge, is based on widely used and non-toxic materials, and may be used as a functional layer in other printed electronics applications such as printed batteries.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-06-22 07:23
  • 43.
    Xiong, Kunli
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Tordera, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. TNO, Netherlands.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlin, Andreas B.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Active control of plasmonic colors: emerging display technologies2019In: Reports on progress in physics (Print), ISSN 0034-4885, E-ISSN 1361-6633, Vol. 82, no 2, article id 024501Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of plasmonic nanostructures for color generation, a technology that dates back to ancient times. Plasmonic structural colors have several attractive features but once the structures arc prepared the colors arc normally fixed. Lately, several concepts have emerged for actively tuning the colors, which opens up for many new potential applications, the most obvious being novel color displays. In this review we summarize recent progress in active control of plasmonic colors and evaluate them with respect to performance criteria for color displays. It is suggested that actively controlled plasmonic colors are generally less interesting for emissive displays but could be useful for new types of electrochromic devices relying on ambient light (electronic paper). Furthermore, there are several other potential applications such as images to be revealed on demand and colorimetric sensors.

  • 44.
    Xiong, Sixing
    et al.
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Hu, Lin
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Hu, Lu
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Lulu
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Qin, Fei
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhou, Yinhua
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    12.5% Flexible Nonfullerene Solar Cells by Passivating the Chemical Interaction Between the Active Layer and Polymer Interfacial Layer2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 22, article id 1806616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonfullerene (NF) organic solar cells (OSCs) have been attracting significant attention in the past several years. It is still challenging to achieve high-performance flexible NF OSCs. NF acceptors are chemically reactive and tend to react with the low-temperature-processed low-work-function (low-WF) interfacial layers, such as polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE), which leads to the S shape in the current-density characteristics of the cells. In this work, the chemical interaction between the NF active layer and the polymer interfacial layer of PEIE is deactivated by increasing its protonation. The PEIE processed from aqueous solution shows more protonated N+ than that processed from isopropyl alcohol solution, observed from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. NF solar cells (active layer: PCE-10:IEICO-4F) with the protonated PEIE interfacial layer show an efficiency of 13.2%, which is higher than the reference cells with a ZnO interlayer (12.6%). More importantly, the protonated PEIE interfacial layer processed from aqueous solution does not require a further thermal annealing treatment (only processing at room temperature). The room-temperature processing and effective WF reduction enable the demonstration of high-performance (12.5%) flexible NF OSCs.

  • 45.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Singh, Amritpal
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Singh, Sandeep Kumar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Polarons, Bipolarons, And Absorption Spectroscopy of PEDOT2019In: ACS APPLIED POLYMER MATERIALS, ISSN 2637-6105, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 83-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic structure and optical absorption spectra of poly(3,4-ethyl-enedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) for different oxidation levels were studied using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT. It is shown, that the DFT-based predictions for the polaronic and bipolaronic states and the nature of corresponding optical transitions are qualitatively different from the widely used traditional picture based on semi-empirical pre-DFT approaches that still dominate the current literature. On the basis of the results of our calculations, the experimental Vis/NIR absorbance spectroscopy and the electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy are re-examined, and a new interpretation of the measured spectra and the spin signal, which is qualitatively different from the traditional interpretation, is provided. The findings and conclusions concerning the nature of polaronic and bipolaronic states, band structure and absorption spectra presented for PEDOT, are generic for a wide class of conducting polymers (such as polythiophenes and their derivatives) that have a similar structure of monomer units.

1 - 45 of 45
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