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  • 1.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Asker, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Ruban, A.V.
    Department of Material Science and Engineering Royal Institute of Technology.
    Phase Stabilities of Alloys From First-Principles2008In: XVII International Materials Research Congress,2008, Mexico: Mexico , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kissavos, Andreas E.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liot, Francois
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peil, O.
    Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ruban, A. V.
    Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Competition between Magnetic Structures in the Fe-Rich FCC FeNi Alloys2007In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 014434-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the results of a systematic ab initio study of the magnetic structure of Fe rich fcc FeNi binary alloys for Ni concentrations up to 50 at. %. Calculations are carried out within density-functional theory using two complementary techniques, one based on the exact muffin-tin orbital theory within the coherent potential approximation and another one based on the projector augmented-wave method. We observe that the evolution of the magnetic structure of the alloy with increasing Ni concentration is determined by a competition between a large number of magnetic states, collinear as well as noncollinear, all close in energy. We emphasize a series of transitions between these magnetic structures, in particular we have investigated a competition between disordered local moment configurations, spin spiral states, the double layer antiferromagnetic state, and the ferromagnetic phase, as well as the ferrimagnetic phase with a single spin flipped with respect to all others. We show that the latter should be particularly important for the understanding of the magnetic structure of the Invar alloys.

  • 3.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Knutsson, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tasnádi, Ferenc
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lind, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phase Stability and Elasticity of TiAlN2011In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 4, no 9, p. 1599-1618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review results of recent combined theoretical and experimental studies of Ti1−xAlxN, an archetypical alloy system material for hard-coating applications. Theoretical simulations of lattice parameters, mixing enthalpies, and elastic properties are presented. Calculated phase diagrams at ambient pressure, as well as at pressure of 10 GPa, show a wide miscibility gap and broad region of compositions and temperatures where the spinodal decomposition takes place. The strong dependence of the elastic properties and sound wave anisotropy on the Al-content offers detailed understanding of the spinodal decomposition and age hardening in Ti1−xAlxN alloy films and multilayers. TiAlN/TiN multilayers can further improve the hardness and thermal stability compared to TiAlN since they offer means to influence the kinetics of the favorable spinodal decomposition and suppress the detrimental transformation to w-AlN. Here, we show that a 100 degree improvement in terms of w-AlN suppression can be achieved, which is of importance when the coating is used as a protective coating on metal cutting inserts.

  • 4.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Russia.
    Ponomareva, A. V.
    National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Russia.
    Steneteg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barannikova, S. A.
    National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Russia; National Research Tomsk State University, Russia; SB RAS, Russia.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Recent progress in simulations of the paramagnetic state of magnetic materials2016In: Current opinion in solid state & materials science, ISSN 1359-0286, E-ISSN 1879-0348, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 85-106Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review recent developments in the field of first-principles simulations of magnetic materials above the magnetic order disorder transition temperature, focusing mainly on 3d-transition metals, their alloys and compounds. We review theoretical tools, which allow for a description of a system with local moments, which survive, but become disordered in the paramagnetic state, focusing on their advantages and limitations. We discuss applications of these theories for calculations of thermodynamic and mechanical properties of paramagnetic materials. The presented examples include, among others, simulations of phase stability of Fe, Fe-Cr and Fe-Mn alloys, formation energies of vacancies, substitutional and interstitial impurities, as well as their interactions in Fe, calculations of equations of state and elastic moduli for 3d-transition metal alloys and compounds, like CrN and steels. The examples underline the need for a proper treatment of magnetic disorder in these systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Configurational and Magnetic Interactions in Multicomponent Systems2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a theoretical study of configurational and magnetic interactions in multicomponent solids. These interactions are the projections onto the configurational and magnetic degrees of freedom of the underlying electronic quantum mechanical system, and can be used to model, explain and predict the properties of materials. For example, the interactions govern temperature induced configurational and magnetic order-disorder transitions in Heusler alloys and ternary nitrides.

    In particular three perspectives are studied. The first is how the interactions can be derived from first-principles calculations at relevant physical conditions. The second is their consequences, like the critical temperatures for disordering, obtained with e.g. Monte Carlo simulations. The third is their origin in terms of the underlying electronic structure of the materials.

    Intrinsic defects in the half-Heusler system NiMnSb are studied and it is found that low-energy defects do not destroy the important half-metallic property at low concentrations. Deliberate doping of NiMnSb with 3d-metals is considered and it is found that replacing some Ni with extra Mn or Cr creates new strong magnetic interactions which could be beneficial for applications at elevated temperature. A self-consistent scheme to include the effects of thermal expansion and one-electron excitations in the calculation of the magnetic critical temperature is introduced and applied to a study of Ni1−xCuxMnSb.

    A supercell implementation of the disordered local moments approach is suggested and benchmarked for the treatment of paramagnetic CrN as a disordered magnetic phase. It is found that the orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transition in this nitride can be understood as a first-order magnetic order-disorder transition. The ferromagnetism in Ti1−xCrxN solid solutions, an unusual property in nitrides, is explained in terms of a charge transfer induced change in the Cr-Cr magnetic interactions.

    Cubic Ti1−xAlxN solid solutions displays a complex and concentration dependent phase separation tendency. A unified cluster expansion method is presented that can be used to simulate the configurational thermodynamics of this system. It is shown that short range clustering do influence the free energy of mixing but only slightly change the isostructural phase diagram as compared to mean-field estimates.

    List of papers
    1. Role of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects on the magnetic properties of the half-metallic ferromagnet NiMnSb
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Role of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects on the magnetic properties of the half-metallic ferromagnet NiMnSb
    2006 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 73, no 6, p. 064418-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The first material to be predicted from first-principles calculations as half-metallic was NiMnSb, and the research on this material has been intense due to its possible applications in spintronics devices. The failure of many experiments to measure spin polarization to more than a fraction of the predicted 100% has partly been blamed on structural defects. In this work a complete first-principles treatise of point defects, including nonstoichiometric antisites, interstitial and vacancy defects, as well as stoichiometric atomic swap defects in NiMnSb, is presented. We find that the formation energies of the defects span a large scale from 0.2 to 14.4 eV. The defects with low formation energies preserve the half-metallic character of the material. We also find that some of the defects increase the magnetic moment and thus can explain the experimentally observed increase of magnetic moments in some samples of NiMnSb. Most interesting in this respect are Mn interstitials which increase the magnetic moment, have a low formation energy, and keep the half-metallic character of the material.

    Keywords
    nickel alloys, manganese alloys, antimony alloys, ferromagnetic materials, ab initio calculations, interstitials, antisite defects, vacancies (crystal), defect states, magnetic moments
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35025 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.73.064418 (DOI)24646 (Local ID)24646 (Archive number)24646 (OAI)
    Note
    Original Publication: Björn Alling, Sam Shallcross and Igor Abrikosov, Role of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects on the magnetic properties of the half-metallic ferromagnet NiMnSb, 2006, Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, (73), 6, 064418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.73.064418 Copyright: American Physical Society http://www.aps.org/ Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2.
    The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
    3.
    The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
    4. Competition between Magnetic Structures in the Fe-Rich FCC FeNi Alloys
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Competition between Magnetic Structures in the Fe-Rich FCC FeNi Alloys
    Show others...
    2007 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 014434-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the results of a systematic ab initio study of the magnetic structure of Fe rich fcc FeNi binary alloys for Ni concentrations up to 50 at. %. Calculations are carried out within density-functional theory using two complementary techniques, one based on the exact muffin-tin orbital theory within the coherent potential approximation and another one based on the projector augmented-wave method. We observe that the evolution of the magnetic structure of the alloy with increasing Ni concentration is determined by a competition between a large number of magnetic states, collinear as well as noncollinear, all close in energy. We emphasize a series of transitions between these magnetic structures, in particular we have investigated a competition between disordered local moment configurations, spin spiral states, the double layer antiferromagnetic state, and the ferromagnetic phase, as well as the ferrimagnetic phase with a single spin flipped with respect to all others. We show that the latter should be particularly important for the understanding of the magnetic structure of the Invar alloys.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Physical Society, 2007
    Keywords
    Iron alloys, nickel alloys, ferromagnetic materials, magnetic structure, ab initio calculations, density functional theory, linear muffin-tin orbital method, local moments
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14277 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.76.014434 (DOI)
    Note
    Original Publication: Igor A. Abrikosov, Andreas E. Kissavos, Francois Liot, Björn Alling, Sergey Simak, O. Peil and A. V. Ruban, Competition between Magnetic Structures in the Fe-Rich FCC FeNi Alloys, 2007, Physical Review B Condensed Matter, (76), 1, 014434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.76.014434 Copyright: American Physical Society http://www.aps.org/Available from: 2007-02-01 Created: 2007-02-01 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Questionable collapse of the bulk modulus in CrN
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Questionable collapse of the bulk modulus in CrN
    2010 (English)In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 283-284Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this comment we show that the main conclusion in a previous article, claiminga drastic increase in compressibility of CrN at the cubic to orthorhombic phasetransition, is unsupported by first-principles calculations. We show that if thecubic CrN phase is considered as a disordered magnetic material, as supported bydifferent experimental data, rather then non-magnetic, the bulk modulus is almostunaffected by the transition.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London, UK: Nature Publishing Group, 2010
    Keywords
    CrN, phase-transition, magnetism, bulk modulus, first-principles
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60438 (URN)10.1038/nmat2722 (DOI)000275901000002 ()
    Available from: 2010-10-13 Created: 2010-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    6. Effect of magnetic disorder and strong electron correlations on the thermodynamics of CrN
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of magnetic disorder and strong electron correlations on the thermodynamics of CrN
    2010 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 82, p. 184430-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Two different methods for the modeling of a magnetically disordered CrN stateusing a supercell approach are investigated. They are found to give equivalentresults of the total energy, being also similar to results obtained with an effectivemedium approach. Furthermore, CrN is shown to be better described using aLDA+U framework for the treatment of electron-electron correlations as comparedto GGA or LDA calculations. Modeling the cubic paramagnetic phase with ourmodels for magnetic disorder and considering the strong electron correlations, thetemperature and pressure induced phase transitions in CrN can be explained.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American institute of physics, 2010
    Keywords
    CrN, magnetic disorder, nitrides, LDA+U, SQS, phase transition, chromium compounds
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60439 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.82.184430 (DOI)000291462500005 ()
    Available from: 2010-10-13 Created: 2010-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-12
    7. Theory of the ferromagnetism in Ti1-xCrxN solid solutions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Theory of the ferromagnetism in Ti1-xCrxN solid solutions
    2010 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 82, no 5, p. 054408-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    First-principles calculations are used to investigate the magnetic properties of Ti1‑xCrxN solid solutions. We show that the magnetic interactions between Cr spins that favor antiferromagnetism in CrN is changed upon alloying with TiN leading to the appearance of ferromagnetism in the system at approximately x≤0.50 in agreement with experimental reports. Furthermore we suggest that this effect originates in an electron density redistribution from Ti to Cr that decreases the polarization of Crd states with t2g symmetry while it increases the polarization of Crd states with eg symmetry, both changes working in favor of ferromagnetism.

    Keywords
    TiN, CrN, TiCrN, solid solutions, first-principles, magnetic interactions, ferromagnetism, electronic structure
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60441 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.82.054408 (DOI)
    Note
    Original Publication: Björn Alling, Theory of the ferromagnetism in Ti1-xCrxN solid solutions, 2010, Physical Review B Condensed Matter, (82), 5, 054408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.82.054408 Copyright: American Physical Society http://www.aps.org/Available from: 2010-10-13 Created: 2010-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-12
    8. A unified cluster expansion method applied to the configurational thermodynamics of cubic TiAlN
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A unified cluster expansion method applied to the configurational thermodynamics of cubic TiAlN
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 83, no 10, p. 104203-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We use a study of the cubic Ti1−xAlxN system to illustrate a practical way of combining the major methodologies within alloy theory, the Connolly-Williams cluster expansion and the generalized perturbation method, in order to solve difficult alloy problems. The configurational, concentration dependent, Hamiltonian is separated into a fixed-lattice and a local lattice relaxation part. The effective cluster interactions of the first part is obtained primarily with a GPM-based approach while the later is obtained using cluster expansion. In our case the impact on the isostructural phase diagram of considering short range clustering beyond the mean field approximation, obtained from the mixing enthalpy and entropy of the random alloy, is rather small, especially in the composition region x ≤ 0.66, within reach of thin film growth techniques.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Physical Society, 2011
    Keywords
    TiAlN, TiN, AlN, cluster expansion, GPM, spinodal decomposition, first-principles, titanium aluminium nitride, clustering, phase separation
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60442 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.83.104203 (DOI)000288782700004 ()
    Note
    Original Publication: Björn Alling, A. V. Ruban, A Karimi, Lars Hultman and Igor Abrikosov, A unified cluster expansion method applied to the configurational thermodynamics of cubic TiAlN, 2011, Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, (83), 10, 104203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.83.104203 Copyright: American Physical Society http://www.aps.org/ Available from: 2010-10-13 Created: 2010-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-12
    9. Pressure enhancement of the isostructural cubic decomposition in Ti1−xAlxN
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pressure enhancement of the isostructural cubic decomposition in Ti1−xAlxN
    2009 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 95, no 181906Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of pressure on the phase stabilities of Ti1−xAlxN solid solutions has been studied using first principles calculations. We find that the application of hydrostatic pressure enhances the tendency for isostructural decomposition, including spinodal decomposition. The effect originates in the gradual pressure stabilization of cubic AlN with respect to the wurtzite structure and an increased isostructural cubic mixing enthalpy with increased pressure. The influence is sufficiently strong in the composition-temperature interval corresponding to a shoulder of the spinodal line that it could impact the stability of the material at pressures achievable in the tool-work piece contact during cutting operations

    Keywords
    ab initio calculations, aluminium compounds, enthalpy, high-pressure effects, mixing, solid solutions, spinodal decomposition, titanium compounds
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51569 (URN)10.1063/1.3256196 (DOI)
    Note
    Original Publication: Björn Alling, Magnus Odén, Lars Hultman and Igor Abrikosov, Pressure enhancement of the isostructural cubic decomposition in Ti1-xAlxN, 2009, Applied Physics Letters, (95), 181906. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3256196 Copyright: American Institute of Physics http://www.aip.org/ Available from: 2009-11-07 Created: 2009-11-07 Last updated: 2017-12-12
    10. Effects of volume mismatch and electronic structure on the decomposition of ScAlN and TiAlN solid solutions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of volume mismatch and electronic structure on the decomposition of ScAlN and TiAlN solid solutions
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 81, no 22, p. 224101-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Thin solid films of metastable rocksalt structure (c-) Sc1-xAlxN and Ti1-xAlxN were employed as model systems to investigate the relative influence of volume mismatch and electronic structure driving forces for phase separation. Reactive dual magnetron sputtering was used to deposit stoichiometric Sc0.57Al0.43N(111) and Ti0.51Al0.49N(111) thin films, at 675 °C and 600 °C, respectively, followed by stepwise annealing to a maximum temperature of 1100 °C. Phase transformations during growth and annealing were followed in situ using X-ray scattering. The results show that the as-deposited Sc0.57Al0.43N films phase separate at 1000 °C – 1100 °C into non-isostructural c-ScN and wurtzite-structure (w-) AlN, via nucleation and growth at domain boundaries. Ti0.51Al0.49N, however, exhibits spinodal decomposition into isostructural coherent c-TiN and c-AlN, in the temperature interval of 800 °C – 1000 °C. X-ray pole figures show the coherency between c-ScN and w-AlN, with AlN(0001) || ScN(001) and AlN<01ɸ10> || ScN<1ɸ10>. First principles calculations of mixing energy-lattice spacing curves explain the results on a fundamental physics level and open a route for design of novel metastable pseudobinary phases for hard coatings and electronic materials.

    Keywords
    TiAlN, ScAlN, spinodal decomposition, nitrides, TiN, ScN, AlN, XRD, TEM, first-principles, phase separation, meta stable
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-56270 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.81.224101 (DOI)000278300900004 ()
    Note
    Original Publication: Carina Höglund, Björn Alling, Jens Birch, Manfred Beckers, Per O. Å. Persson, Carsten Baehtz, Zsolt Czigány, Jens Jensen and Lars Hultman, Effects of volume mismatch and electronic structure on the decomposition of ScAlN and TiAlN solid solutions, 2010, Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, (81), 22, 224101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.81.224101 Copyright: American Physical Society http://www.aps.org/ Available from: 2010-05-06 Created: 2010-05-06 Last updated: 2017-12-12
    11.
    The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
  • 6.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hårda ytors egenskaper avslöjas med beräkningar2010In: Fysikaktuellt, no 3, p. 6-8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    n/a

  • 7.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Metal to semiconductor transition and phase stability of Ti1-xMgxNy alloys investigated by first-principles calculations2014In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 89, no 8, p. 085112-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium nitride based materials are applied in several technological applications owing to their stability at high temperatures, mechanical and optical properties, as well as good electrical conductivity. Here, I use theoretical first-principles methods to investigate the possibilities for a semiconducting state as well as the phase stability of Ti1-x MgxNy ternary alloys and compounds. I demonstrate that B1 (NaCl) solid solutions of Ti1-xMgxN with x less than= 0.5 are thermodynamically stable with respect to all previously reported phases in the Ti-Mg-N system. For the composition x = 0.5, an ordered TiMgN2 phase with an L1(1)-type order of Ti and Mg on the metal sublattice is predicted to be the configurational ground state at low temperatures. Other ordered phases present in neighboring materials systems are considered but are found to be unstable. The electronic origin of the stability of the B1 structure solid solutions is identified. A metal to semiconductor transition is observed as the Mg content is increased to x = 0.5. TiMgN2 as well as disordered Ti0.5Mg0.5N solid solution are investigated with hybrid functional calculations and predicted to be semiconductors with band gaps of 1.1 eV and around 1.3 eV, respectively, the latter depending on the details of the Ti and Mg configuration.

  • 8.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Theory of the ferromagnetism in Ti1-xCrxN solid solutions2010In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 82, no 5, p. 054408-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    First-principles calculations are used to investigate the magnetic properties of Ti1‑xCrxN solid solutions. We show that the magnetic interactions between Cr spins that favor antiferromagnetism in CrN is changed upon alloying with TiN leading to the appearance of ferromagnetism in the system at approximately x≤0.50 in agreement with experimental reports. Furthermore we suggest that this effect originates in an electron density redistribution from Ti to Cr that decreases the polarization of Crd states with t2g symmetry while it increases the polarization of Crd states with eg symmetry, both changes working in favor of ferromagnetism.

  • 9.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Ekholm, Marcus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Doping the half-Heusler alloy NiMnSb with magnetic 3d-metals2008In: Workshop New Challenges in the Electronic Structure of Complex Materials,2008, Hungary: Hungary , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ekholm, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energetics and magnetic impact of 3d-metal doping of the half-metallic ferromagnet NiMnSb2008In: Physical Review B Condensed Matter, ISSN 0163-1829, E-ISSN 1095-3795, Vol. 77, no 14, p. 144414-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have performed a theoretical study of the effect of doping the half-Heusler alloy NiMnSb with the magnetic 3d metals Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, with respect to both energetics and magnetic properties. Starting from the formation energies, we discuss the possibility of placing the dopant on different crystallographic positions in the alloy. We calculate total and local magnetic moments, effective exchange interactions, and density of states and also outline strategies to tune the magnetic properties of the alloy. Doping of NiMnSb with Cr as well as substituting some Ni with extra Mn have the largest impact on magnetic interactions in the system while preserving its half-metallic property. Therefore, we suggest the possibility that these dopants increase the thermal stability of half-metallicity in NiMnSb, with implications for its possible usage in spintronics applications.

  • 11.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultberg, L
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strong electron correlations stabilize paramagnetic cubic Cr1-xAlxN solid solutions2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of rock salt structure cubic Cr1-xAlxN solid solutions at high Al content and high temperature has made it one of the most important materials systems for protective coating applications. We show that the strong electron correlations in a material with dynamic magnetic disorder is the underlying reason for the observed stability against isostructural decomposition. This is done by using the first-principles disordered local moments molecular dynamics technique, which allows us to simultaneously consider electronic, magnetic, and vibrational degrees of freedom.

  • 12.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Armiento, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A theoretical investigation of mixing thermodynamics, age-hardening potential, and electronic structure of ternary (M1-xMxB2)-M-1-B-2 alloys with AlB2 type structure2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition metal diborides are ceramic materials with potential applications as hard protective thin films and electrical contact materials. We investigate the possibility to obtain age hardening through isostructural clustering, including spinodal decomposition, or ordering-induced precipitation in ternary diboride alloys. By means of first-principles mixing thermodynamics calculations, 45 ternary (M1-xMxB2)-M-1-B-2 alloys comprising (MB2)-B-i (M-i = Mg, Al, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) with AlB2 type structure are studied. In particular Al1-xTixB2 is found to be of interest for coherent isostructural decomposition with a strong driving force for phase separation, while having almost concentration independent a and c lattice parameters. The results are explained by revealing the nature of the electronic structure in these alloys, and in particular, the origin of the pseudogap at E-F in TiB2, ZrB2, and HfB2.

  • 13.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hall-Wilton, R.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mixing thermodynamics of TM(1-x)Gd(x)N (TM=Ti, Zr, Hf) from first principles2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, no 24, p. 241911-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mixing thermodynamics of GdN with TiN, ZrN, and HfN is studied using first-principles methods. We find that while Ti(1-x)Gd(x)N has a strong preference for phase separation due to the large lattice mismatch, Zr(1-x)Gd(x)N and Hf(1-x)Gd(x)N readily mix, possibly in the form of ordered compounds. In particular, ZrGdN(2) is predicted to order in a rocksalt counterpart to the L1(1) structure at temperatures below 1020 K. These mixed nitrides are promising candidates as neutron absorbing, thermally and chemically stable, thin film materials.

  • 14.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isaev, Eyvas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Flink, Axel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Metastability of fcc-related Si-N phases2008In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 78, no 13, p. 132103-132103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of superhardening in TiN/SiNx nanocomposites and the prediction of extreme hardness in bulk gamma-Si3N4 have attracted a large interest to this material system. Attempts to explain the experimental findings by means of first-principles calculations have so far been limited to static calculations. The dynamical stability of suggested structures of the SiNx tissue phase critical for the understanding of the nanocomposites is thus unknown. Here, we present a theoretical study of the phonon-dispersion relations of B1 and B3 SiN. We show that both phases previously considered as metastable are dynamically unstable. Instead, two pseudo-B3 Si3N4 phases derived from a L1(2)- or D0(22)-type distribution of Si vacancies are dynamically stable and might explain recent experimental findings of epitaxial SiNx in TiN/SiNx multilayers.

  • 15.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karimi, A
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Electronic origin of the isostructural decomposition in cubic M1-xAlxN (M=Ti, Cr, Sc, Hf): A first-principles study2008In: Surface and Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, Vol. 203, no 5-7, p. 883-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used first-principles calculations to investigate the mixing enthalpies, lattice parameters and electronic density of states of the ternary nitride systems Ti1-xAlxN, Cr1-xAlxN, Sc1-xAlxN and Hf1-xAlxN in the cubic B1 structure where the transition metals and aluminium form a solid solution on the metal sublattice. We discuss the electronic origins of the possible isostructural decomposition in these materials relevant for hard coatings applications. We find that in the systems Ti1-xAlxN and Hf1-xAlxN the electronic structure effects strongly influences the phase stability as d-states are localised at the Fermi level in AlN-rich samples. This leads to a strongly asymmetric contribution to the mixing enthalpy, an effect not present in Cr1-xAlxN and Sc1-xAlxN. The lattice mismatch is large in Sc1-xAlxN and Hf1-xAlxN, giving a symmetric contribution to the mixing enthalpies in those systems.

  • 16.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Karimi, A.
    Institute of Physics of Complex Matter.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    First-principles study of the effect of nitrogen vacancies on the decomposition pattern in cubic Ti1-xAlxN1-y2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 92, p. 071903-1-071903-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      The effect of nitrogen substoichiometry on the isostructural phase stabilities of the cubic Ti1−xAlxN1−y system has been investigated using first-principles calculations. The preferred isostructural decomposition pattern in these metastable solid solutions was predicted from the total energy calculations on a dense concentration grid. Close to the stoichiometric Ti1−xAlxN1 limit, N vacancies increase the tendency for phase separation as N sticks to Al while the vacancies prefers Ti neighbors. For nitrogen depleated conditions, N sticks to Ti forming TiN (0<<1) while Al tends to form nitrogen-free fcc-Al or Al–Ti alloys.

  • 17.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khatibi, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Theoretical investigation of cubic B1-like and corundum (Cr1−xAlx)2O3 solid solutionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    First-principles calculations are employed to investigate the stability and properties of cubic rock-salt like (Cr1−xAlx)2O3 solid solutions, stabilized by metal site vacancies as recently reported experimentally. It is demonstrated that the metal site vacancies can indeed be ordered in a way that gives rise to a favorable coordination of all O atoms in the lattice. B1-like structures with ordered and disordered metal site vacancies are studied for (Cr0.5Al0.5)2O3 and found to a have cubic lattice spacing close to the values reported experimentally, in contrast to fluorite-like and perovskite structures. The obtained B1-like structures are higher in energy than corundum solid solutions for all compositions, but with an energy offset per atom similar to other metastable systems possible to synthesize with physical vapor deposition techniques. The obtained electronic structures show that the B1-like systems are semiconducting although with smaller band gaps than the corundum structure.

  • 18.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khatibi, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Theoretical investigation of cubic B1-like and corundum (Cr1−xAlx)2O3 solid solutions2013In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 31, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    First-principles calculations are employed to investigate the stability and properties of cubic rock-salt-like (Cr1−xAlx)2O3 solid solutions, stabilized by metal site vacancies as recently reported experimentally. It is demonstrated that the metal site vacancies can indeed be ordered in a way that gives rise to a suitable fourfold coordination of all O atoms in the lattice. B1-like structures with ordered and disordered metal site vacancies are studied for (Cr0.5Al0.5)2O3 and found to have a cubic lattice spacing close to the values reported experimentally, in contrast to fluorite-like and perovskite structures. The obtained B1-like structures are higher in energy than corundum solid solutions for all compositions, but with an energy offset per atom similar to other metastable systems possible to synthesize with physical vapor deposition techniques. The obtained electronic structures show that the B1-like systems are semiconducting although with smaller band gaps than the corundum structure.

  • 19.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Koermann, F.
    Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany; Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Grabowski, B.
    Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Glensk, A.
    Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Russia.
    Neugebauer, J.
    Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Strong impact of lattice vibrations on electronic and magnetic properties of paramagnetic Fe revealed by disordered local moments molecular dynamics2016In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B, ISSN 2469-9950, Vol. 93, no 22, article id 224411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the impact of lattice vibrations on magnetic and electronic properties of paramagnetic bcc and fcc iron at finite temperature, employing the disordered local moments molecular dynamics (DLM-MD) method. Vibrations strongly affect the distribution of local magnetic moments at finite temperature, which in turn correlates with the local atomic volumes. Without the explicit consideration of atomic vibrations, the mean local magnetic moment and mean field derived magnetic entropy of paramagnetic bcc Fe are larger compared to paramagnetic fcc Fe, which would indicate that the magnetic contribution stabilizes the bcc phase at high temperatures. In the present study we show that this assumption is not valid when the coupling between vibrations and magnetism is taken into account. At the gamma-delta transition temperature (1662 K), the lattice distortions cause very similar magnetic moments of both bcc and fcc structures and hence magnetic entropy contributions. This finding can be traced back to the electronic densities of states, which also become increasingly similar between bcc and fcc Fe with increasing temperature. Given the sensitive interplay of the different physical excitation mechanisms, our results illustrate the need for an explicit consideration of vibrational disorder and its impact on electronic and magnetic properties to understand paramagnetic Fe. Furthermore, they suggest that at the gamma-delta transition temperature electronic and magnetic contributions to the Gibbs free energy are extremely similar in bcc and fcc Fe.

  • 20.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marten, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of magnetic disorder and strong electron correlations on the thermodynamics of CrN2010In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 82, p. 184430-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different methods for the modeling of a magnetically disordered CrN stateusing a supercell approach are investigated. They are found to give equivalentresults of the total energy, being also similar to results obtained with an effectivemedium approach. Furthermore, CrN is shown to be better described using aLDA+U framework for the treatment of electron-electron correlations as comparedto GGA or LDA calculations. Modeling the cubic paramagnetic phase with ourmodels for magnetic disorder and considering the strong electron correlations, thetemperature and pressure induced phase transitions in CrN can be explained.

  • 21.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marten, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Questionable collapse of the bulk modulus in CrN2010In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 283-284Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this comment we show that the main conclusion in a previous article, claiminga drastic increase in compressibility of CrN at the cubic to orthorhombic phasetransition, is unsupported by first-principles calculations. We show that if thecubic CrN phase is considered as a disordered magnetic material, as supported bydifferent experimental data, rather then non-magnetic, the bulk modulus is almostunaffected by the transition.

  • 22.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Marten, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Karimi, A.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Comparison of thermodynamic properties of cubic Cr 1-x Al x N and Ti 1-x Al x N from first-principles calculations2007In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 102, no 044314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate the stability of the cubic phase of Cr1−xAlxN at high AlN content, first principles calculations of magnetic properties, lattice parameters, electronic structure, and mixing enthalpies of the system were performed. The mixing enthalpy was calculated on a fine concentration mesh to make possible the accurate determination of its second concentration derivative. The results are compared to calculations performed for the related compound Ti1−xAlxN and with experiments. The mixing enthalpy is discussed in the context of isostructural spinodal decomposition. It is shown that the magnetism is the key to understand the difference between the Cr- and Ti-containing systems. Cr1−xAlxN turns out to be more stable against spinodal decomposition than Ti1−xAlxN, especially for AlN-rich samples which are of interest in cutting tools applications.

  • 23.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pressure enhancement of the isostructural cubic decomposition in Ti1−xAlxN2009In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 95, no 181906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of pressure on the phase stabilities of Ti1−xAlxN solid solutions has been studied using first principles calculations. We find that the application of hydrostatic pressure enhances the tendency for isostructural decomposition, including spinodal decomposition. The effect originates in the gradual pressure stabilization of cubic AlN with respect to the wurtzite structure and an increased isostructural cubic mixing enthalpy with increased pressure. The influence is sufficiently strong in the composition-temperature interval corresponding to a shoulder of the spinodal line that it could impact the stability of the material at pressures achievable in the tool-work piece contact during cutting operations

  • 24.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ruban, A V
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of thermal expansion, electronic excitations, and disorder on the Curie temperature of Ni1-xCuxMnSb alloys2009In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 79, no 13, p. 134417-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the importance of thermal effects such as temperature-induced electronic, magnetic and vibrational excitations, as well as structural defects in the first-principles calculations of the magnetic critical temperature of complex alloys using half-Heusler Ni1-xCuxMnSb alloys as a case study. The thermal lattice expansion and one-electron excitations have been accounted for self-consistently in the Curie temperature calculations. In the Ni-rich region, electronic excitations, thermal expansion, and structural defects substantially decrease the calculated Curie temperature. At the same time, some defects are shown to increase T-C in Cu-rich samples.

  • 25.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ruban, A. V.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Material Science and Engineering.
    Karimi, A
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, IPMC.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A unified cluster expansion method applied to the configurational thermodynamics of cubic TiAlN2011In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 83, no 10, p. 104203-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a study of the cubic Ti1−xAlxN system to illustrate a practical way of combining the major methodologies within alloy theory, the Connolly-Williams cluster expansion and the generalized perturbation method, in order to solve difficult alloy problems. The configurational, concentration dependent, Hamiltonian is separated into a fixed-lattice and a local lattice relaxation part. The effective cluster interactions of the first part is obtained primarily with a GPM-based approach while the later is obtained using cluster expansion. In our case the impact on the isostructural phase diagram of considering short range clustering beyond the mean field approximation, obtained from the mixing enthalpy and entropy of the random alloy, is rather small, especially in the composition region x ≤ 0.66, within reach of thin film growth techniques.

  • 26.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ruban, A. V.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Karimi, A.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL).
    Peil, O. E.
    Uppsala University.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mixing and decomposition thermodynamics of c-Ti1-xAlxN from first-principles calculations2007In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 75, no 045123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wedescribe an efficient first-principles method that can be used tocalculate mixing enthalpies of transition metal nitrides with B1 structureand substitutional disorder at the metal sublattice. The technique isbased on the density functional theory. The independent sublattice modelis suggested for the treatment of disorder-induced local lattice relaxationeffects. It supplements the description of the substitutional disorder withinthe coherent potential approximation. We demonstrate the excellent accuracy ofthe method by comparison with calculations performed by means ofthe projector augumented wave method on supercells constructed as specialquasirandom structures. At the same time, the efficiency of thetechnique allows for total energy calculations on a very finemesh of concentrations which enables a reliable calculation of thesecond concentration derivative of the alloy total energy. This isa first step towards first-principles predictions of concentrations and temperatureintervals where the alloy decomposition proceeds via the spinodal mechanism.We thus calculate electronic structure, lattice parameter, and mixing enthalpiesof the quasibinary alloy c-Ti1−xAlxN. The lattice parameter follows Vegard'slaw at low fractions of AlN but deviates increasingly withincreasing Al content. We show that the asymmetry of themixing enthalpy and its second concentration derivative is associated withsubstantial variations of the electronic structure with alloy composition. Thephase diagram is constructed within the mean-field approximation.

  • 27.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shallcross, Sam
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Role of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects on the magnetic properties of the half-metallic ferromagnet NiMnSb2006In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 73, no 6, p. 064418-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first material to be predicted from first-principles calculations as half-metallic was NiMnSb, and the research on this material has been intense due to its possible applications in spintronics devices. The failure of many experiments to measure spin polarization to more than a fraction of the predicted 100% has partly been blamed on structural defects. In this work a complete first-principles treatise of point defects, including nonstoichiometric antisites, interstitial and vacancy defects, as well as stoichiometric atomic swap defects in NiMnSb, is presented. We find that the formation energies of the defects span a large scale from 0.2 to 14.4 eV. The defects with low formation energies preserve the half-metallic character of the material. We also find that some of the defects increase the magnetic moment and thus can explain the experimentally observed increase of magnetic moments in some samples of NiMnSb. Most interesting in this respect are Mn interstitials which increase the magnetic moment, have a low formation energy, and keep the half-metallic character of the material.

  • 28.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Steneget, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tholander, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tasnádi, Ferenc
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Configurational disorder effects on adatom mobilities on Ti1-xAlxN(001) surfaces from first principles2012In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 85, no 24, p. 245422-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use metastable NaCl-structure Ti0.5Al0.5N alloys to probe effects of configurational disorder on adatom surface diffusion dynamics which control phase stability and nanostructural evolution during film growth. First-principles calculations were employed to obtain energy potential maps of Ti and Al adsorption on an ordered TiN(001) reference surface and a disordered Ti0.5Al0.5N(001) solid-solution surface. The energetics of adatom migration on these surfaces are determined and compared to isolate effects of configurational disorder. The results show that alloy surface disorder dramatically reduces Ti adatom mobilities. Al adatoms, in sharp contrast, experience only small disorder-induced differences in migration dynamics.

  • 29.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phase stability of Ti2AlC upon oxygen incorporation: A first-principles investigation2010In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 81, no 2, p. 024111-1-024111-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase stability of Ti2AlC upon oxygen incorporation has been studied by means of first-principles calculations. Recent experimental observations of this so-called MAX phase (M = early transition metal, A = A-group element, and X = C or N) show that the characteristic nanolaminated structure is retained upon oxygen incorporation, with strong indications of O substituting for C. Therefore, a solid solution of C and O on the carbon sublattice has been simulated by the so-called special quasirandom structure method. Through a developed systematic approach, the enthalpy of formation of Ti2Al(C1−x,Ox) has been compared to all experimentally known competing phases, and has been found favorable for all C to O ratios at the composition of the MAX phase. A negative isostructural formation enthalpy has also been predicted for Ti2Al(C1−x,Ox). Altogether, the results indicate that a large amount of oxygen, at least up to x=0.75, might be present in the Ti2AlC MAX-phase structure without decomposition of the material into its competing phases. Furthermore, an effect of an increased oxygen content is a corresponding increase in the bulk modulus and a change in electronic properties. These results are of importance for further understanding and identification of possible composition range of the MAX-phase oxycarbide, and hence for the prospect of tuning the material properties by a varying incorporation of oxygen.

  • 30.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnetic nanoscale laminates with tunable exchange coupling from first principles2011In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 84, no 22, p. 220403-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The M(n+1)AX(n) (MAX) phases are nanolaminated compounds with a unique combination of metallic and ceramic properties, not yet including magnetism. We carry out a systematic theoretical study of potential magnetic MAX phases and predict the existence of stable magnetic (Cr(1-x)Mn(x))(2)AlC alloys. We show that in this system ferromagnetically ordered Mn layers are exchange coupled via nearly nonmagnetic Cr layers, forming an inherent structure of atomic-thin magnetic multilayers, and that the degree of disorder between Cr and Mn in the alloy can be used to tune the sign and magnitude of the coupling.

  • 31.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ingason, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnus, F.
    2Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Thore, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petruhins, Andrejs
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mockute, Aurelija
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Meshkian, Rahele
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sahlberg, M.
    3Department of Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjörvarsson, B.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Abrikosov, A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Complex magnetism in nanolaminated Mn2GaC2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used first-principles calculations and Heisenberg Monte Carlo simulations to search for the magnetic ground state of Mn2GaC, a recently synthesized magnetic nanolaminate. We have, independent on method, identified a range of low energy collinear as well as non-collinear magnetic configurations, indicating a highly frustrated magnetic material with several nearly degenerate magnetic states. An experimentally obtained magnetization of only 0.29 per Mn atom in Mn2GaC may be explained by canted spins in an antiferromagnetic configuration of ferromagnetically ordered sub-layers with alternating spin orientation, denoted AFM[0001]. Furthermore, low temperature X-ray diffraction show a new basal plane peak appearing upon a magnetic transition, which is consistent with the here predicted change in inter-layer spacing for the AFM[0001] configuration.

  • 32.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A critical evaluation of GGA plus U modeling for atomic, electronic and magnetic structure of Cr2AlC, Cr2GaC and Cr2GeC2015In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 095601-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we critically evaluate methods for treating electron correlation effects in multicomponent carbides using a GGA + U framework, addressing doubts from previous works on the usability of density functional theory in the design of magnetic MAX phases. We have studied the influence of the Hubbard U-parameter, applied to Cr 3d orbitals, on the calculated lattice parameters, magnetic moments, magnetic order, bulk modulus and electronic density of states of Cr2AlC, Cr2GaC and Cr2GeC. By considering non-, ferro-, and five different antiferromagnetic spin configurations, we show the importance of including a broad range of magnetic orders in the search for MAX phases with finite magnetic moments in the ground state. We show that when electron correlation is treated on the level of the generalized gradient approximation (U = 0 eV), the magnetic ground state of Cr(2)AC (A = Al, Ga, Ge) is in-plane antiferromagnetic with finite Cr local moments, and calculated lattice parameters and bulk modulus close to experimentally reported values. By comparing GGA and GGA + U results with experimental data we find that using a U-value larger than 1 eV results in structural parameters deviating strongly from experimentally observed values. Comparisons are also done with hybrid functional calculations (HSE06) resulting in an exchange splitting larger than what is obtained for a U-value of 2 eV. Our results suggest caution and that investigations need to involve several different magnetic orders before lack of magnetism in calculations are blamed on the exchange-correlation approximations in this class of magnetic MAX phases.

  • 33.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Correlation between magnetic state and bulk modulus of Cr2AlC2013In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, no 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of magnetism on the bulk modulus (B0) of M2AlC (M  = Ti, V, and Cr) has been studied using first principles calculations. We find that it is possible to identify an energetically favorable magnetic Cr2AlC phase without using any adjustable parameter, such as the Hubbard U. Furthermore, we show that an in-plane spin polarized configuration has substantially lower B0 as compared to the non-magnetic model. The existences of local magnetic moments on Cr atoms considerably improve agreement between theory and experiment regarding trends in B0 for M2AlC phases.

  • 34.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnetic ground state of Cr2AlC, Cr2GaC, and Cr2GeC from first-principles interplay of spin configurations and strong electrons correlation2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the interplay between spin configuration and electron correlations approximations as well as their influence on calculated lattice parameters, magnetic moments, and bulk modulus of the nanolaminated MAX phase materials Cr2AlC, Cr2GaC, and Cr2GeC. By considering non-, ferro- and, and five different antiferromagnetic configurations, we show the importance of including a broad range of magnetic states in search for the ground state. Our calculations show that when electron correlation is treated on the level of the generalized gradient approximation or with an additional Hubbard U interaction term up to a value of 1 eV, the magnetic ground state of Cr2AC (A=Al, Ga, Ge) is in-plane antiferromagnetic with finite Cr local moments and calculated lattice parameters and bulk modulus close to experimentally reported values.

  • 35.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stability trends of MAX phases from first principles2010In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 81, no 22, p. 220102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a systematic method to investigate the phase stability of M(n+1)AX(n) phases, here applied for M=Sc, Ti, V, Cr, or Mn, A=Al, and X=C or N. Through a linear optimization procedure including all known competing phases, we identify the set of most competitive phases for n=1-3 in each system. Our calculations completely reproduce experimental occurrences of stable MAX phases. We also identify and suggest an explanation for the trend in stability as the transition metal is changed across the 3d series for both carbon- and nitrogen-based systems. Based on our results, the method can be used to predict stability of potentially existing undiscovered phases.

  • 36.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ingason, Arni Sigurdur
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnus, F.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Thore, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petruhins, Andrejs
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mockuté, Aurelija
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arnalds, U. B.
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Sahlberg, M.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hjorvarsson, B.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Russia; Tomsk State University, Russia.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnetically driven anisotropic structural changes in the atomic laminate Mn2GaC2016In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 014410-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inherently layered magnetic materials, such as magnetic M(n+1)AX(n) (MAX) phases, offer an intriguing perspective for use in spintronics applications and as ideal model systems for fundamental studies of complex magnetic phenomena. The MAX phase composition M(n+1)AX(n) consists of M(n+1)AX(n) blocks separated by atomically thin A-layers where M is a transition metal, A an A-group element, X refers to carbon and/or nitrogen, and n is typically 1, 2, or 3. Here, we show that the recently discovered magnetic Mn2GaC MAX phase displays structural changes linked to the magnetic anisotropy, and a rich magnetic phase diagram which can be manipulated through temperature and magnetic field. Using first-principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations, an essentially one-dimensional (1D) interlayer plethora of two-dimensioanl (2D) Mn-C-Mn trilayers with robust intralayer ferromagnetic spin coupling was revealed. The complex transitions between them were observed to induce magnetically driven anisotropic structural changes. The magnetic behavior as well as structural changes dependent on the temperature and applied magnetic field are explained by the large number of low energy, i.e., close to degenerate, collinear and noncollinear spin configurations that become accessible to the system with a change in volume. These results indicate that the magnetic state can be directly controlled by an applied pressure or through the introduction of stress and show promise for the use of Mn2GaC MAX phases in future magnetoelectric and magnetocaloric applications.

  • 37.
    Ekholm, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Petter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ab initio calculations and synthesis of the off-stoichiometric half-Heusler phase Ni1-xMn1+xSb2010In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 108, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform a combined theoretical and experimental study of the phase stability and magnetism of the off-stoichiometric Ni1-xMn1+xSb in the half-Heusler crystal phase. Our work is motivated by the need for strategies to engineer the magnetism of potentially half-metallic materials, such as NiMnSb, for improved performance at elevated temperatures. By means of ab initio calculations we investigate Ni1-xMn1+xSb over the whole composition range 0 andlt;= x andlt;= 1 of Ni replacing Mn and show that at relevant temperatures, the half-Heusler phase should be thermodynamically stable up to at least x=0.20 with respect to the competing C38 structure of Mn2Sb. Furthermore we find that half-Heusler Ni1-xMn1+xSb retains half-metallic band structure over the whole concentration range and that the magnetic moments of substitutional Mn-Ni atoms display magnetic exchange interactions an order of magnitude larger than the Ni-Mn interaction in NiMnSb. We also demonstrate experimentally that the alloys indeed can be created by synthesizing off-stoichiometric Ni1-xMn1+xSb films on MgO substrates by means of magnetron sputtering.

  • 38.
    Eklund, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kerdsongpanya, Sit
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Transition-metal-nitride-based thin films as novel energy harvesting materials2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 4, no 18, p. 3905-3914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last few years have seen a rise in the interest in early transition-metal and rare-earth nitrides, primarily based on ScN and CrN, for energy harvesting by thermoelectricity and piezoelectricity. This is because of a number of important advances, among those the discoveries of exceptionally high piezoelectric coupling coefficient in (Sc,Al)N alloys and of high thermoelectric power factors of ScN-based and CrN-based thin films. These materials also constitute well-defined model systems for investigating thermodynamics of mixing for alloying and nanostructural design for optimization of phase stability and band structure. These features have implications for and can be used for tailoring of thermoelectric and piezoelectric properties. In this highlight article, we review the ScN-and CrN-based transition-metal nitrides for thermoelectrics, and drawing parallels with piezoelectricity. We further discuss these materials as a models systems for general strategies for tailoring of thermoelectric properties by integrated theoretical-experimental approaches.

  • 39.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Inst Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Stability of SnSe1-xSx solid solutions revealed by first-principles cluster expansion2018In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 30, no 29, article id 29LT01Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The configurational thermodynamics of a pseudo-binary alloy SnSe1-xSx in the Pnma phase is studied using first-principles cluster-expansion method in combination with canonical Monte Carlo simulations. We find that, despite the alloy having a tendency toward a phase decomposition into SnSe and SnS at 0 K, the two constituent binaries readily mix with each other to form random SnSe1-xSx solid solutions even at a temperature below room temperature. The obtained isostructural phase diagram of SnSe1-xSx reveals that the alloy is thermodynamically stable as a single-phase random solid solution over a whole composition range above 200 K. These findings provide a fundamental understanding on the alloying behavior of SnSe1-xSx and bring clarity to the debated clustering tendency in this alloy system.

  • 40.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Chulalongkorn Univ, Thailand; Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore; Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore; Thailand Ctr Excellence Phys, Thailand.
    Feng, Y. P.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phase stability of two-dimensional monolayer As1-xPx solid solutions revealed by a first-principles cluster expansion2019In: PHYSICAL REVIEW MATERIALS, ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 3, no 5, article id 054005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase stability of two-dimensional monolayer As1-xPx solid solutions, exhibiting the puckered (alpha phase) and buckled (beta phase) structures are investigated using a first-principles cluster-expansion method. Canonical Monte Carlo simulations, together with harmonic approximation, are performed to capture the influences of thermally induced configurational disorder and lattice vibrations on the phase stability of monolayer As1-xPx. We first demonstrate that, as the temperature approaches 0 K, the monolayer As1-xPx displays a tendency toward phase separation into its constituent elemental phases, and thus no stable ordered structures of As1-xPx, both alpha and beta phases, are predicted to be thermodynamically stable. We further reveal with the inclusion of the lattice vibrational contributions that beta-As1-xPx is thermodynamically favored over alpha-As1-xPx, across the entire composition range even at 0 K and increasingly so at higher temperature, and a continuous series of disordered solid solution of beta-As1-xPx, where 0 amp;lt;= x amp;lt;= 1, is predicted at the temperature above 550 K. These findings not only indicate that the ordered structures of monolayer alpha-As1-xPx, and beta-As1-xPx, frequently studied in the literature, may not exist in nature, but also presumably suggest that monolayer alpha-As1-xPx is metastable with respect to monolayer beta-As1-xPx.

  • 41.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Configurational order-disorder induced metal-nonmetal transition in B13C2 studied with first-principles superatom-special quasirandom structure method2015In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 92, no 1, article id 014202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a large discrepancy between theory and experiment, the electronic character of crystalline boron carbide B13C2 has been a controversial topic in the field of icosahedral boron-rich solids. We demonstrate that this discrepancy is removed when configurational disorder is accurately considered in the theoretical calculations. We find that while the ordered ground state B13C2 is metallic, the configurationally disordered B13C2, modeled with a superatom-special quasirandom structure method, goes through a metal to nonmetal transition as the degree of disorder is increased with increasing temperature. Specifically, one of the chain-end carbon atoms in the CBC chains substitutes a neighboring equatorial boron atom in a B-12 icosahedron bonded to it, giving rise to a B11Ce(BBC) unit. The atomic configuration of the substitutionally disordered B13C2 thus tends to be dominated by a mixture between B-12(CBC) and B11Ce(BBC). Due to splitting of valence states in B11Ce(BBC), the electron deficiency in B-12(CBC) is gradually compensated.

  • 42.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    First-principles study of configurational disorder in B4C using a superatom-special quasirandom structure method2014In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 90, no 2, article id 024204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Configurationally disordered crystalline boron carbide, with the composition B4C, is studied using first-principles calculations. We investigate both dilute and high concentrations of carbon-boron substitutional defects. For the latter purpose, we suggest a superatoms picture of the complex structure and combine it with a special quasirandom structure approach for disorder. In this way, we model a random distribution of high concentrations of the identified low-energy defects: (1) bipolar defects and (2) rotation of icosahedral carbon among the three polar-up sites. Additionally, the substitutional disorder of the icosahedral carbon at all six polar sites, as previously discussed in the literature, is also considered. Two configurational phase transitions from the ordered to the disordered configurations are predicted to take place upon an increase in temperature using a mean-field approximation for the entropy. The first transition, at 870 K, induces substitutional disorder of the icosahedral carbon atoms among the three polar-up sites; meanwhile the second transition, at 2325 K, reveals the random substitution of the icosahedral carbon atoms at all six polar sites coexisting with bipolar defects. Already the first transition removes the monoclinic distortion existing in the ordered ground-state configuration and restore the rhombohedral system (R3m). The restoration of inversion symmetry yielding the full rhombohedral symmetry (R (3) over barm) on average, corresponding to what is reported in the literature, is achieved after the second transition. Investigating the effects of high pressure on the configurational stability of the disordered B4C phases reveals a tendency to stabilize the ordered ground-state configuration as the configurationally ordering/disordering transition temperature increases with pressure exerted on B4C. The electronic density of states, obtained from the disordered phases, indicates a sensitivity of the band gap to the degree of configurational disorder in B4C.

  • 43.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tasnádi, Ferenc
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Fei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Effects of configurational disorder on the elastic properties of icosahedral boron-rich alloys based on B6O, B13C2, and B4C, and their mixing thermodynamics2016In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 144, no 13, article id 134503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The elastic properties of alloys between boron suboxide (B6O) and boron carbide (B13C2), denoted by (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x, as well as boron carbide with variable carbon content, ranging from B13C2 to B4C are calculated from first-principles. Furthermore, the mixing thermodynamics of (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x is studied. A superatom-special quasirandom structure approach is used for modeling different atomic configurations, in which effects of configurational disorder between the carbide and suboxide structural units, as well as between boron and carbon atoms within the units, are taken into account. Elastic properties calculations demonstrate that configurational  disorder in B13C2, where a part of the C atoms in the CBC chains substitute for B atoms in the B12 icosahedra, drastically increase the Young’s and shear modulus, as compared to an atomically ordered state, B12(CBC). These calculated elastic moduli of the disordered state are in excellent agreement with experiments. Configurational disorder between boron and carbon can also explain the experimentally observed almost constant elastic moduli of boron carbide as the carbon content is changed from B4C to B13C2. The elastic moduli of the (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x system are also practically unchanged with composition if boron-carbon disorder is taken into account. By investigating the mixing thermodynamics of the alloys, in which the Gibbs free energy is determined within the mean-field approximation for the configurational entropy, we outline the pseudo-binary phase diagram of (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x. The phase diagram reveals the existence of a miscibility gap at all temperatures up to the melting point. Also, the coexistence of B6O-rich as well as ordered or disordered B13C2-rich domains in the material prepared through equilibrium routes is predicted.

  • 44.
    Flink, Axel
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Andersson, J.M.
    Seco Tools AB.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Daniel, R.
    Christian Doppler Laboratory for Advanced Hard Coatings.
    Sjölén, J.
    Seco Tools AB.
    Karlsson, L.
    Seco Tools AB.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Structure and thermal stability of arc evaporated (Ti0.33Al0.67)1 − xSixN thin films2008In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 517, no 2, p. 714-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (Ti0.33Al0.67)1 − xSixN (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.29) thin solid films were deposited onto cemented carbide substrates by arc evaporation and analyzed using analytical electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation, and density functional theory. As-deposited films with x ≤ 0.02 consisted mainly of a metastable c-(Ti,Al)N solid solution for which Si serves as a veritable grain refiner. Additional Si promoted growth of a hexagonal wurtzite (Al,Ti,Si)N solid solution, which dominated at 0.02 < x < 0.17. For x ≥ 0.17, the films were X-ray amorphous. Despite these widely different microstructures, all as-deposited films had nanoindentation hardness in the narrow range of 22–25 GPa. Isothermal annealing of the x = 0.01 alloy film at a temperature of 900 °C, corresponding to that in turning operation, resulted in spinodal decomposition into c-AlN and TiN and precipitation of h-AlN. For x = 0.09 films, annealing between 600 °C and 1000 °C yielded c-TiN precipitation from the h-(Al,Ti,Si)N phase. Furthermore, the x = 0.01 and x = 0.09 films exhibited substantial age hardening at 900 °C, to 34 GPa and 29 GPa due to spinodal decomposition and c-TiN precipitation, respectively. Films with a majority of c-(Ti,Al)N phase worked best in steel turning tests, while films with x > 0.02 developed cracks during such operation. We propose that the cracks are due to tensile strain which is caused by a decrease in molar volume during the phase transformation from hexagonal wurtzite (Al,Ti,Si)N into cubic TiN phase, which results in degradation in machining performance.

  • 45.
    Forsén, Rikard
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics.
    Schramm, I. C.
    Functional Materials, Department Materials Science, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O Å
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mücklich, F.
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nanostructuring and coherency strain in multicomponent hard coatings2014In: APL MATERIALS, ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 2, no 11, p. 116104-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lattice resolved and quantitative compositional characterizations of the microstructure in TiCrAlN wear resistant coatings emerging at elevated temperatures are performed to address the spinodal decomposition into nanometer-sized coherent cubic TiCr- and Al-rich domains. The domains coarsen during annealing and at 1100 ºC, the Al-rich domains include a metastable cubic Al(Cr)N phase containing 9 at.% Cr and a stable hexagonal AlN phase containing less than 1 at.% Cr. The cubic and the hexagonal phases form strained semi-coherent interfaces with each other.

  • 46.
    Gambino, Davide
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Inst Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Lattice relaxations in disordered Fe-based materials in the paramagnetic state from first principles2018In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 98, no 6, article id 064105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first-principles calculation of many material properties, in particular related to defects and disorder, starts with the relaxation of the atomic positions of the system under investigation. This procedure is routine for nonmagnetic and magnetically ordered materials. However, when it comes to magnetically disordered systems, in particular the paramagnetic phase of magnetic materials, it is not clear how the relaxation procedure should be performed or which geometry should be used. Here we propose a method for the structural relaxation of magnetic materials in the paramagnetic regime, in an adiabatic fast-magnetism approximation within the disordered local moment (DLM) picture in the framework of density functional theory. The method is straightforward to implement using any ab initio code that allows for structural relaxations. We illustrate the importance of considering the disordered magnetic state during lattice relaxations by calculating formation energies and geometries for an Fe vacancy and C insterstitial atom in body-centered cubic (bcc) Fe as well as bcc Fe1-xCrx random alloys in the paramagnetic state. In the vacancy case, the nearest neighbors to the vacancy relax toward the vacancy of 0.14 angstrom (-5% of the ideal bcc nearest-neighbor distance), which is twice as large as the relaxation in the ferromagnetic case. The vacancy formation energy calculated in the DLM state on these positions is 1.60 eV, which corresponds to a reduction of about 0.1 eV compared to the formation energy calculated using DLM but on ferromagnetic-relaxed positions. The carbon interstitial formation energy is found to be 0.41 eV when the DLM relaxed positions are used, as compared to 0.59 eV when the FM-relaxed positions are employed. For bcc Fe0.5Cr0.5 alloys, the mixing enthalpy is reduced by 5 meV/atom, or about 10%, when the DLM state relaxation is considered, as compared to positions relaxed in the ferromagnetic state.

  • 47.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Patscheider, J.
    Empa, Switzerland.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Control of Ti1-xSixN nanostructure via tunable metal-ion momentum transfer during HIPIMS/DCMS co-deposition2015In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 280, p. 174-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti1-xSixN (0 less than= x less than= 0.26) thin films are grown in mixed Ar/N-2 discharges using hybrid high-power pulsed and dc magnetron co-sputtering (HIPIMS/DCMS). In the first set of experiments, the Si target is powered in HIPIMS mode and the Ti target in DCMS; the positions of the targets are then switched for the second set. In both cases, the Si concentration in co-sputtered films, deposited at T-s = 500 degrees C, is controlled by adjusting the average DCMS target power. A pulsed substrate bias of -60 V is applied in synchronous with the HIPIMS pulse. Depending on the type of pulsed metal-ion irradiation incident at the growing film, Ti+/Ti2+ vs. Si+/Si2+, completely different nanostructures are obtained. Ti+/Ti2+ irradiation during Ti-HIPIMS/Si-DCMS deposition leads to a phase-segregated nanocolumnar structure with TiN-rich grains encapsulated in a SiNz tissue phase, while Si+/Si2+ ion irradiation in the Si-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS mode results in the formation of Ti1-xSixN solid solutions with x less than= 024. Film properties, including hardness, modulus of elasticity, and residual stress exhibit a dramatic dependence on the choice of target powered by HIPIMS. Ti-HIPIMS/Si-DCMS TiSiN nanocomposite films are superhard over a composition range of 0.04 less than= x less than= 0.26, which is significantly wider than previously reported. The hardness H of films with 0.13 less than= x less than= 0.26 is similar to 42 GPa; however, the compressive stress is also high, ranging from -6.7 to -8.5 GPa. Si-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS films are softer at H similar to 14 GPa with 0.03 less than= x less than= 0.24, and essentially stress-free (sigma similar to 0.5 GPa). Mass spectroscopy analyses at the substrate position reveal that the doubly-to-singly ionized metal-ion flux ratio during HIPIMS pulses is 0.05 for Si and 029 for Ti due to the difference between the second ionization potentials of Si and Ti vs. the first ionization potential of the sputtering gas. The average momentum transfer to the film growth surface per deposited atom per pulse less than p(d)greater than is similar to 20 x higher during Ti-HIPIMS/Si-DCMS, which results in significantly higher adatom mean-free paths (mfps) leading, in turn, to a phase-segregated nanocolumnar structure. In contrast, relatively low less than p(d)greater than values during Si-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS provide near-surface mixing with lower adatom mfps to form Ti1-xSixN solid solutions over a very wide composition range with x up to 0.24. Relaxed lattice constants decrease linearly, in agreement with ab-initio calculations for random Ti1-xSixN alloys, with increasing x. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 48.
    Höglund, Carina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baehtz, Carsten
    Structural Diagnostics Division, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., P.O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden, Germany.
    Czigány, Zsolt
    Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.