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  • 1.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polarization effects in reflection from the cuticle of scarab beetles studied by spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry2012In: AES 2012, Advanced Electromagnetics Symposium, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Polarization effects in reflection from the cuticle of scarab beetles studied by spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry

     

    H. Arwin*, T. Berlind, J. Birch, L. Fernandez Del Rio, J. Gustafson, J. Landin,

    R. Magnusson, C. Åkerlind, and K. Järrendahl

    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden

    *corresponding author: han@ifm.liu.se

     

    Abstract- Many scarab beetles exhibit structural colors and complex polarization phenomena in reflection. These effects are characterized with spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry in our work. The polarization ellipse of reflected light as well as the degree of polarization is presented including variations with angle of incidence and wavelength. Emphasis is on beetles showing chiral effects and structural modeling of cuticle nanostructure is discussed.

     

    Background Since one hundred years it is known that some scarab beetles reflect elliptically polarized light as demonstrated by Michelson for the beetle Chrysina resplendens [1]. The handedness of the polarization is in a majority of the cases left-handed but also right-handed polarization has been found [2,3]. The ellipticity varies with wavelength and viewing angle but can be close to +1 or -1 (right or left circular polarization, respectively) and in addition these beetles may exhibit beautiful structural colors. The polarization and color effects are generated in the outer part of the exoskeleton, the cuticle. These natural photonic structures are often multifunctional and play important roles for survival of beetles, e.g. for hiding from or scaring predators, for intraspecies communication, etc. [4]. However, such structures may find use in many commercial applications and a major motivation for detailed studies of natural photonic structures is that they inspire to biomimetic applications [5,6].

    Approach Our objective is to use spectral Mueller-matrix data on scarab beetles to parameterize reflection properties in terms of polarization parameters and degree of polarization. The studied beetles all are phytophagous and include species from the Cetoniinae subfamily (e.g. Cetonia aurata and Coptomia laevis,), the Rutelinae subfamily (e.g. Chrysina argenteola and Chrysina resplendens) and the Melolonthinae subfamily (Cyphochilus insulanus). Furthermore, structural modeling is presented on Cetonia aurata and a few more beetles to demonstrate that structural parameters can be extracted by advanced modeling of Mueller-matrix data.

    Experimental A dual rotating compensator ellipsometer (RC2, J. A. Woollam Co., Inc.) is used to record all 16 Mueller-matrix elements mij (i,j=1..4) in the spectral range 300 – 900 nm at angles of incidence in the range 20-70º. The elements are normalized to m11 and thus have values between -1 and +1. All measurements are performed on the scutellum (a small triangular part on the dorsal side of the beetles) with focusing optics resulting in a spot size of the order of 50-100 mm. The software CompleteEASE (J. A. Woollam Co., Inc.) is used for analysis.

    Results and discussion As an example, Fig. 1 shows contour plots of Mueller-matrix data measured on Cetonia aurata. This beetle has a metallic shine and if illuminated with unpolarized white light it reflects left-handed polarized green light as revealed by the non-zero Mueller-matrix elements m14 and m41 in the green spectral region for angles of incidence below about 45º. This is clearly seen in the graph to the right in Fig. 1 which shows a spectrum for Mueller-matrix element m41at 20º as well as fitted model data. A model based on a twisted lamella structure, also called Bouligand structure, is used to model the chiral nanostructure [4]. Given the complexity of the nanostructure, an excellent model fit is achieved. The obtained model parameters are the spectral variation of the refractive index of the birefringent lamellas and the pitch. The model also includes a dielectric surface layer.

     

     

     

    Fig.1. Left: Mueller-matrix data on Cetonia aurata. Each contour plot shows mij, where i and j correspond to the row and column, respectively. m11 =1 and is not shown but is replaced with a photo of the beetle. Right: Experimental and model-generated Mueller-matrix element m41at an angle of incidence of 20º.

     

    From the Mueller-matrix data one can also determine so called derived parameters including azimuth and ellipticity of the polarization ellipse and the degree of polarization. The variations of these parameters with angle of incidence are presented for a selection of scarab beetles. Examples of both left-handed and right-handed polarization effects are shown and the importance of degree of polarization will be discussed.

    Concluding remarks Mueller-matrix spectra at oblique incidence are very rich in information about reflection properties and allows parameterization of polarization parameters of the reflected light. Both left-handed and right-handed reflected light is found in scarab beetles. Mueller-matrix data can also be used for a detailed modeling of the nanostructure of the cuticle of beetles.

    AcknowledgementsFinancial support was obtained from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation and the Swedish Research Council. The Museum of Natural History in Stockholm, the National Museum of Natural Science in Madrid, the Berlin Museum of Natural History and the Natural History Museum in London are acknowledged for loan of beetles.

     

    REFERENCES

    1. Michelson, A. A. “On Metallic Colouring in Birds and Insects,” Phil. Mag., 21, 554-567, 1911.
    2. Goldstein, D. H. “Polarization properties of Scarabaeidae,” Appl. Opt., 45, 7944-7950, 2006.
    3. Hodgkinson, I., Lowrey, S., Bourke, L., Parker, A. and McCall, M. W. “Mueller-matrix characterization of beetle cuticle polarized and unpolarized reflections from representative architectures,” Appl. Opt., 49, 4558-4567, 2010.
    4. Vukusic, P. and Sambles, J. R. “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature, 424, 852-855, 2003.
    5. Lenau, T. and Barfoed, M. “Colours and Metallic Sheen in Beetle Shells - A Biomimetic Search for Material Structuring Principles Causing Light Interference,” Adv. Eng. Mat., 10, 299-314. 2008.
    6. Parker, A. R. and Townley, H. E “Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures,” Nature Nanotech., 2, 347-351, 2007.
  • 2.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Boulenquez, J.
    INSP, UMR 7588, CNRS, Paris 6 and Paris 7 universities, Paris, France.
    Berthier, S.
    INSP, UMR 7588, CNRS, Paris 6 and Paris 7 universities, Paris, France.
    Ellipsometry applied to natural biophotonic structures: a review2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Boulenquez, J.
    INSP, UMR 7588, CNRS, Paris 6 and Paris 7 universities, Paris, France.
    Berthier, S.
    INSP, UMR 7588, CNRS, Paris 6 and Paris 7 universities, Paris, France.
    Optical activity in the cuticle of the beetle Cetonia aurata studied by Mueller-matrix ellipsometry2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optical active cuticle structures in the beetle Cetonia aurata2008In: European Optical Society Meeting 2008, 2008, p. 67-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 5.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Optical activity in the cuticle of the beetle Cetonia aurata2008In: Optikdagen 2008,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Spectral confinement of circularly polarized reflection from the cuticle of Cetonia aurata measured by spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry2008In: E-MRS,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Boulenguez, J
    INSP .
    Berthier, S.
    INSP .
    Optical Activity in the Cuticle of the Beetle Cetonia Aurata2009In: 5th Workshop Ellipsometry, Zweibrücken, Germany, March 2-4 2009, 2009, p. 38-38Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mendoza-Galván, Arturo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring polarization features in light reflection from beetles with structural colors2015In: Proc. SPIE  9429, Bioinspiration, Biomimetics, and Bioreplication 2015, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9429, p. 942909-1-942909-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Mueller matrix of a sample can be used to determine the polarization of  reflected light  for  incident light with arbitrary polarization. The polarization can be quantified  in terms of ellipticity, polarization azimuth and degree of polarization. We apply spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry at multiple angles of incidence  to study the cuticle of beetles and derive  polarization features for incident unpolarized light.  In particular we address chiral phenomena in scarab beetles,  the origin of their structural colors and the observed high degree of circular polarization is discussed. Results from beetles in the Scarabaeidae subfamilies Cetoniinae and Rutelinae are presented including specimens with broad-band silver- or gold-like colors with metallic shine as well as specimens with narrow-band green or red reflectors. The variation of polarization with angle of incidence and occurrence of both left-handed and right-handed polarization from a single species are presented. We also use Mueller-matrix spectra in electromagnetic modeling and show how to determine structural parameters including cuticle layer thicknesses and optical properties. Interference oscillations in the observed spectra are due to allowed optical modes and we show how to develop a structural model of a cuticle based on this effect. Sum decomposition of  Mueller matrices measured on a depolarizing cuticle of a beetle is briefly discussed.

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  • 9.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Muñoz-Pineda, Eloy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, 76230 Querétaro, Mexico.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mendoza-Galván, Arturo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Cinvestav-IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, 76230 Querétaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring optics of beetle cuticles with Mueller-matrix ellipsometry2014In: Materials Today, ISSN 1369-7021, E-ISSN 1873-4103, Vol. 1S, p. 155-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectroscopic Mueller-matrix ellipsometry at variable angles of incidence is applied to beetle cuticles using a small (50 -100 μm) spot size. It is demonstrated how ellipticity and degree of polarization of the reflected light can be derived from a Mueller matrix providing a detailed insight into reflection properties. Results from Cetonia aurata, Chrysina argenteola and Cotinis mutabilis are presented. The use of Mueller matrices in regression analysis to extract structural and optical parameters of cuticles is briefly described and applied to cuticle data from Cetonia aurata whereby the pitch of the twisted layered structure in the cuticle is determined as well as the refractive indices of the epicuticle and the exocuticle.

  • 10.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chirality-induced polarization effects in the cuticle of scarab beetles: 100 years after Michelson2012In: Philosophical Magazine, ISSN 1478-6435, E-ISSN 1478-6443, Vol. 92, no 12, p. 1583-1599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One hundred years ago Michelson discovered circular polarization in reflection from beetles. Today a novel Mueller-matrix ellipsometry setup allows unprecedented detailed characterization of the beetles polarization properties. A formalism based on elliptical polarization for description of reflection from scarab beetles is here proposed and examples are given on four beetles of different character: Coptomia laevis - a simple dielectric mirror; Cetonia aurata - a left-hand narrow- band elliptical polarizer; Anoplognathus aureus - a broad-band elliptical polarizer; and Chrysina argenteola - a left-hand polarizer for visible light at small angles, whereas for larger angles, red reflected light is right-handed polarized. We confirm the conclusion of previous studies which showed that a detailed quantification of ellipticity and degree of polarization of cuticle reflection can be performed instead of only determining whether reflections are circularly polarized or not. We additionally investigate reflection as a function of incidence angle. This provides much richer information for understanding the behaviour of beetles and for structural analysis.

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  • 11.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mendoza-Galvan, A.
    Cinvestav IPN, Mexico.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Garcia-Caurel, E.
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Ossikovski, R.
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Structural circular birefringence and dichroism quantified by differential decomposition of spectroscopic transmission Mueller matrices from Cetonia aurata2016In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 41, no 14, p. 3293-3296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied to the cuticle of the beetle Cetonia aurata in the spectral range 300-1000 nm. The cuticle is optically reciprocal and exhibits circular Bragg filter features for green light. By using differential decomposition of the Mueller matrix, the circular and linear birefringence as well as dichroism of the beetle cuticle are quantified. A maximum value of structural optical activity of 560 degrees/mm is found. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America

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  • 12.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Distribution of occupied and vacant sites and migration of Lopinga achine (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) in a fragmented landscape2001In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 183-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of occupied and vacant sites and migration of the threatened butterfly Lopinga achine were studied in the province of ╓sterg÷tland, Sweden. The probability of occupation increased with increasing patch area and decreasing distance to the nearest occupied patch, presumably due to different probabilities of colonisation and survival of the populations inhabiting the patches. Probability of female emigration from and immigration to a patch increased with decreasing area. Middle-sized patches produced the largest number of female migrants, although the highest fraction was noted for the smallest patches, and the greatest number of females was marked in the largest patch. The fraction of resident females, but not males, increased with increasing area. The observed occupancy and migration pattern have important conservation implications: all but two populations comprising three or more individuals were within 740 m of the nearest neighbour, indicating the need for networks of suitable, closely situated patches. ⌐ 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Population structure and movements of a threatened butterfly (Lopinga achine) in a fragmented landscape in Sweden2002In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 361-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The red-listed butterfly Lopinga achine was studied by mark-recapture methods in southern Sweden for three seasons. We examined movement within and between populations and egg production in relation to age. The majority of the movements were small with mean movements between recaptures of 45-54 m for males and 94-116 m for females. There were few movements between sites, 20 of 996 recaptured males moved and 36 of 391 recaptured females, even though the distance to other sites was in many cases < 100 m. The distance moved and the number of females moving between sites increased with increasing age. On average, a female that moves does so after laying two-thirds of its eggs in its natal site. It is therefore important to take account of the proportion of reproductive effort involved in dispersal when estimating colonisation ability. The males did not move more with increasing age. Female behaviour can be seen as a "spread-the-risk" strategy, an adaptation to the successional habitat of L. achine, whose natal site sooner or later will deteriorate. Butterflies like L. achine living in successional habitats may exhibit mobility that is intermediate between butterflies living in ephemeral habitats (very mobile) and in long-lived habitats (sedentary). ⌐ 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Mueller Matrix Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Study of Scarab Beetles of the Chrysina Genus2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The attractive shiny metallic colour of jewel scarabs is originating from the structure of the exoskeleton.For some directions and wavelengths of the incident light this structure will also cause the reflectedlight to have a large ellipticity (near-circular polarization). This is due to that the exoskeleton is ahelicoidal structure, formed by layers of chitin molecules. The reflected light is most commonly lefthandedpolarized but right-handed polarization is also observed. In this work six species of Scarabbeetles from the Chrysina genus are investigated. The complete Mueller-matrix is measured with adual rotating compensator ellipsometer (RC2, J.A.Woollam Co., Inc.). The results are presented ascontour plots where we represent different parameters as a function of incidence angle 2[25; 75]and wavelength 2[240; 1000]nm of the incident beam. Parameters of particular interest are the m41element of the Mueller-matrix, which is related to the circular polarization behaviour, the degree ofpolarization, the ellipticity and the absolute value of the azimuth angle. From ocular observationsthrough left- and right-circularly polarizing filters all specimens showed clear polarization effects interms of colour changes. However, the Mueller matrix ellipsometry measurements showed two generaltypes of polarization behaviour depending on the studied species. Chrysina macropus and Chrysinaperuviana had a smaller range of m41 values around zero. Much larger m41 variations were observedfor Chrysina argenteola, Chrysina chrysargyrea and Chrysina resplendens. Chrysina gloriosa hadboth types of polarization behaviour depending on if the measurements where made on the green orgolden parts of this striped beetle. Comparisons among samples of beetles from the same species wereconducted. For instance, different specimens of Chrysina resplendens show rather large differences inthe polarization response whereas specimens of Chrysina chrysargyrea showed very similar polarizationbehaviour. All studied specimens did in some sense reflect both right- and left-handed polarizedlight. In many cases very high ellipticities (near-circular polarization states) were observed. Modelsof structures generating the observed polarization effects as well as biological aspects will also bediscussed.Figure 257: Three pictures of C. chrysargyrea from left to right taken with aleft-circular polarizer, no filters and with a right-circular polarizer in front of thecamera. Two contour plots of m41 for C. chrysargyrea showing a large region withleft-handed near-circular polarization and C. resplendens showing a large regionwith right-handed near-circular polarization.

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  • 15. Habtewold, T
    et al.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology .
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Lifetable for the tef grasshopper, Aiolopus longicornis, under laboratory conditions and demographic effects of the pathogen Nosema locustae1995In: Biological control (Print), ISSN 1049-9644, E-ISSN 1090-2112, Vol. 5, p. 497-502Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berlind, Torun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafson, Johan L.I.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fernández del Río, Lia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polarization of Light Reflected from Chiral Structures - Calculations Compared with Mueller Matrix Ellipsometry Measurements on Natural and Synthetic Samples2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mueller matrix elements mij representing the polarization response from a nanostructured materialis determined by the constituent materials optical properties and the superstructure. Here, we investigate how chiral structures in form of helicoidally stacked uniaxial layers determine mij as a functionof polarization state, wavelength, incidence angle and azimuthal angle of the incoming light. The studied parameters include the layer materials ordinary/extraordinary optical properties, Euler angle values, and layer thickness as well as the thickness and pitch of the helicoidal superstructure. Sub- and superstructure inhomogeneity is also introduced. From the Fresnel-based calculations, mij aswell as the degree of polarization, ellipticity and azimuth of the polarization ellipse are obtained and presented as contour and trace plots to give a complete view of the polarization behavior. The results from the calculations are compared with Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements of both natural and synthesized helicoidal structures. The measurements were performed with a dualrotating compensator system (RC2, J.A. Woollam Co., Inc.) for wavelengths in the range from 245 to 1000 nm and incident angles from 20 to 75°. For some measurements the azimuthal angle of the incident light was varied. The investigated natural chiral structures were exoskeletons from several beetles in the scarab subfamilies Cetoniinae and Rutelinae. As predicted from the calculations it isobserved that the reflection from these beetles can have a high degree of polarization and high ellipticity (near-circular polarization). Both left- and right-polarization was observed. The synthesized structures are helicoidal nanorods of Al1−xInxN grown on sapphire substrates with metal-nitride seedlayers using UHV magnetron sputtering. Due to an internal composition gradient (a variation of x) in the crystalline structure, the nanorods will tilt away from the substrate normal. Helicoidal structures can thus be obtained by rotating the substrate around its normal during deposition. Samples with different pitch and layer thickness with right-handed as well as left-handed chirality were grown. Also for these structures both left and right near-circular polarized light is observed. By combining calculations, ellipsometry measurements and scanning electron microscopy characterization we get agood input to build layered models of the natural and synthetic samples. After regression fitting agood agreement between calculated and measured optical data were obtained.

  • 17.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mueller-Matrix Ellipsometry Studies of Optically Active Structures in Scarab2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mueller-Matrix Ellipsometry Studies of Optically Active Structures in Scarab Beerles (conf. France)2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mueller-Matrix Ellipsometry Studies of Optically Active Structures in Scarab Beetles2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Lundkvist, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Jackson, M.
    Svensson, C.
    Diving beetles (Dytiscidae) as predators of mosquito larvae (Culicidae) in field experiments and in laboratory tests of prey preference2003In: Bulletin of entomological research, ISSN 0007-4853, E-ISSN 1475-2670, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 219-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field experiments were performed in artificial ponds to evaluate how the density of predatory diving beetles (Dytiscidae) would affect the population levels of mosquito larvae (Culicidae). Mosquitoes colonizing the ponds were predominantly species of the genus Culex. In 2000, most of the dytiscids colonizing the ponds were small (Hydroporus spp.), and these predators had no impact on the size of larval mosquito populations, not even in ponds with added dytiscids. In 2001, larger beetles (Ilybius, Rhantus, and Agabus spp.) were more common, and there were significantly fewer mosquito larvae in ponds with the highest numbers of dytiscids. There was a negative correlation between numbers of diving beetles in the ponds and the mean body length of mosquito larvae. In neither year could dytiscid densities be maintained above a certain level owing to emigration. In laboratory tests, there were marked differences between three common dytiscid species in regard to preferences for Daphnia and Culex species as prey: Colymbetes paykulli Erichson chose mosquito larvae more often, whereas both Ilybius ater (De Geer) and I. fuliginosus (Fabricius) preferred Daphnia spp. All of the tested dytiscids consumed large numbers of prey. Since some dytiscid species can efficiently decrease populations of mosquito larvae, they are probably important in the natural control of these dipterans.

  • 21.
    Lundkvist, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Karlsson, F
    Dispersing diving beetles (Dytiscidae) in agricultural and urban landscapes in south-eastern Sweden2002In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, ISSN 0003-455X, E-ISSN 1797-2450, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 109-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flying dytiscids were trapped in an agricultural landscape with wetlands in different successional stages and in two urban landscapes with young wetlands. We compared the faunas in air and in water. Hydroporus and Agabus were the most frequently trapped genera in air. Most species were trapped near water in the agricultural landscape, species characteristic of later successional stages were common in air and dominated in water. In the urban landscapes, species were mainly trapped far from water and species known to colonise new waters were common in air and in the youngest waters. Overall, females and immature adults were more common in flight catches during April-July than during August-October. Our results indicate that urbanisation would result in a less diverse fauna, but may lead to an assemblage dominated by species that are infrequent in agricultural landscapes. To obtain a rich wetland insect fauna, a wide range of wetland types is required at the landscape scale.

  • 22.
    Lundkvist, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Diving beetle (Dytiscidae) assemblages along environmental gradients in an agricultural landscape in Southeastern Sweden2001In: Wetlands (Wilmington, N.C.), ISSN 0277-5212, E-ISSN 1943-6246, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 48-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated diving beetle (Dytiscidae) assemblages in twelve wetlands in an agricultural landscape in southeastern Sweden. Beetles were trapped in wetlands that varied in permanence (temporary or permanent), area (25 to 4,800 m2), age (11 to >50 yr), and shading (open to wooded surroundings). Our objective was to determine if those environmental factors are important in structuring the local assemblages of diving beetles and how the combination of different types of wetlands influence the diversity of diving beetles in a landscape. Generally, species-area relationships were weak, and shaded wetlands, both permanent and temporary, of intermediate size (240-1,100 m2) had the highest richness after a rarefaction analysis. It was not possible to discern a certain type of wetland where diversity was highest (measured by index a and Shannon-Wiener's index), although, again, intermediate sized wetlands did tend to be more diverse than others. Similarities in species compositions were highest among environmentally similar wetlands, and assemblage structure differed substantially between different types of wetlands. Results of ordination (CCA) and variance partitioning revealed that permanence and degree of shading were the most important factors in structuring assemblages. Our findings imply that high diversity of the diving beetles depends on the number of wetland types represented in a landscape. It is possible to achieve high diversity in a small area by combining permanent and temporary wetlands, as well as many age and successional stages, located in wooded and open environments.

  • 23.
    Lundström, J.O.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Schäfer, M.L.
    Uppsala University.
    Petersson, E.
    Uppsala University.
    Persson Vinnersten, T.Z.
    Uppsala University.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brodin, Y.
    Uppsala University.
    Production of wetland Chironmidae (Diptera) and the effects of using Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis for mosquito control2010In: Bulletin of entomological research, ISSN 0007-4853, E-ISSN 1475-2670, Vol. 100, p. 117-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive mosquito nuisance problems, caused by the flood-water mosquito Aedes sticticus, occur after floods in the flood plains of the River Dalälven, central Sweden. Since 2002, the biological mosquito larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) has been used to control these mosquitoes. Here, we report results from the first six years of monitoring Chironomidae, the most susceptible non-target organisms, in three wetlands with Bti-treatment against mosquitoes and in three wetlands without treatment. Emergence traps were used for continuous insect sampling from May to September each year, 2002–2007, and were emptied once a week. A total of 21,394 chironomids of 135 species were collected, and the subfamily Orthocladiinae dominated the fauna followed by Chironominae and Tanypodinae. The annual chironomid production in the wetlands was low, with an average of 1917 individuals per m2, and 42 g ash-free dry weight per m2. We found no reduced production of chironomids at neither family, nor subfamily level, in Bti-treated as compared to untreated wetlands. This is the first long-term follow-up study of the possible effects of Bti-based mosquito larval control on chironomid species production. In the short-term view, one species had higher production in treated areas. In the long-term view, four species had higher and one species had lower production in treated areas. We conclude that the Bti-based control of flood-water mosquitoes does not cause any major direct negative effects on chironomid production, and therefore does not seem to induce any risk for indirect negative effects on birds, bats or any other predators feeding on chironomids.

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  • 24.
    Muñoz-Pineda, Eloy Guadalupe
    et al.
    Cinvestav-Unidad Queretaro, Mexico.
    Mendoza-Galván, Arturo
    Cinvestav-Queretaro, Mexico.
    Mauricio-Sánchez, Reina Araceli
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polarization properties and structural color of the scarab beetle Cotinis mutabilis (Mayatl)2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature offers a plethora of possibilities for optical biomimetics. Some birds, butterflies, insects and other creatures exhibit brilliant colors as result of diverse optical phenomena produced by micro- and nanostructures at the near surface. Particularly, the shiny metallic colors reflected by the exoskeleton (the so called cuticle) of some beetles show elliptical polarization properties; most commonly of the left-handed type but also the right-handed type has been found [1]. These color and polarization properties have been related to a twisted plywood or Bouligand structure which is comprised by the clustering of chitin nanofibrils wrapped by proteins in a planar woven.

    In this work we report the polarization properties of light reflected from the scarab beetle Cotinis mutabilis (Gory and Percheron 1833) and the microstructure of its cuticle. This species is found in Mexico and the southwestern part of the United States. The specimen under study was collected at the facilities of Cinvestav in Querétaro, Mexico where it is known as mayate (Mayatl in Náuhtl, the language of Aztecs). The Mayatl presents a green mate color in its dorsal side with red-orange stripes in the elytra. On the other hand, the abdominal side shows a shiny green metallic color which is subject of the present study. The polarization properties are investigated by the complete Mueller matrix (M) measured with a dual rotating compensator ellipsometer (J. A. Woollam Co., Inc.) at angles of incidence of 20-75° and wavelength range of 250-1000 nm. In particular, the elements m41 and m14 of M show that green left-handed polarized light is reflected when the beetle is illuminated at near-normal angles of incidence with unpolarized white light. As the angle of incidence increases the maximum of light reflected is blue-shifted. The degree of polarization, ellipticity, and azimuth calculated with relationships between mj1 elements provide a full description of the polarization state of light reflected from the beetle’s cuticle for incident un-polarized light. Scanning electron microscopy images of the cuticle reveal that the epicuticle and exocuticle comprise a (hard) layer ca. 15 μm thick. Two regions can be differentiated in the exocuticle: the outer exocuticle without any clear structure and the inner exocuticle where a clear multilayer structure is observed. Beneath the inner exocuticle is the endocuticle which is comprised by unidirectional layers of microfibrils alternate with layers running at nearly right angles to each other in a pseudo-orthogonal arrangement. The cuticle also was imaged with a microscope coupled to a FTIR system allowing further identification of bands due to chitin.

  • 25.
    Persson Vinnersten, T Z
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Lundstrom, J O
    Uppsala University.
    Schafer, M L
    Uppsala University.
    Petersson, E
    Uppsala University.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A six-year study of insect emergence from temporary flooded wetlands in central Sweden, with and without Bti-based mosquito control2010In: BULLETIN OF ENTOMOLOGICAL RESEARCH, ISSN 0007-4853, Vol. 100, no 6, p. 715-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In temporary wetlands in the River Dalalven floodplains, recurrent but irregular floods induce massive hatching of the flood-water mosquito Aedes sticticus, which causes enormous nuisance. Flood-water mosquito control using the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) was commenced in parts of the floodplains during 2002, and here we report the first six years of full-season monitoring of general insect emergence from temporary wetlands with and without treatment. Emergence traps, which were emptied weekly, were used from May to September each year. A total of 137,153 insects of 13 taxonomic orders were collected. Diptera was highly dominating and especially the sub-order Nematocera with 18 families was a very prominent taxon. Bti-treatment effects were analysed by taxonomic order, by sub-order in Diptera and Hemiptera, and by family for Nematocera and Coleoptera for the whole study period. We found no significant negative effects of Bti treatments on the production of insects by taxonomic order, with the exception of Coleoptera in the long term. However, no significant negative effects were found for the Coleoptera families, neither in the short term nor in the long term. There was no significant negative treatment effect on Nematocera production, neither when analyzed for the whole sub-order nor when analyzed by family. However, abundance of Ceratopogonidae was significantly higher in experimental than in reference wetlands. We conclude that Bti-treatment effects on insect production may be minute in comparison to other environmental factors structuring the insect fauna of the temporary wetlands studied.

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  • 26.
    Persson Vinnersten, Thomas Z.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and EVolution/Population Biology.
    Lundström, Jan O.
    Department of Ecology and EVolution/ Animal Ecology.
    Petersson, Erik
    Institute of Freshwater Research.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Diving beetle assemblages of flooded wetlands in relation to time, wetland type and Bti-based mosquito control2009In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, no 635, p. 189-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the abundance and taxonomic composition of the aquatic predatory insect fauna, with focus on adult diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), in eight temporary flooded wet meadows and two alder swamps in the River Dalälven floodplains, central Sweden from 2002 to 2006. Diving beetles are generalist predators and often abundant in various waters, including temporary wetlands. In the River Dalälven floodplains, recurrent floods induce massive hatching of flood-water mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), which constitute a superabundant patchy and irregular food resource for aquatic predatory insects. Our aims were (1) to characterize the assemblage of adult diving beetles occurring in the wetlands during floods in relation to time and wetland type and (2) to evaluate the effect on the aquatic predator assemblage of strongly reducing the abundance of a potential prey, flood-water mosquito larvae with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) during floods. We found diving beetles to be the dominating aquatic predatory insect taxa in all 10 wetlands. There was a difference in Dytiscidae species richness but not in diversity between wet meadows and alder swamps after rarefaction. The cluster analysis based on dytiscid species and abundances showed very high similarities between the wetlands. The variance component analysis was unable to distinguish any factor that could explain more than 7.4% of the variation in the dytiscid species assemblages. The only effect of Bti-treatment against flood-water mosquito larvae, potential food for the predatory dytiscids, was a slight increase in abundance of the medium-sized dytiscid species. Our results are in accordance with previous studies, suggesting that irregular and recurrent flood dynamic structure the dytiscid fauna more than food limitations and environmental factors.

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  • 27.
    Schafer, M.L.
    et al.
    Schäfer, M.L., Department of Population Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Sweden, Biol. Mosquito Contr. Nedre Dalalven, Österfärnebo, Sweden, Department of Population Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lundstrom, J.O.
    Lundström, J.O., Department of Population Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pfeffer, M.
    Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Munich, Germany.
    Lundkvist, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Biological diversity versus risk for mosquito nuisance and disease transmission in constructed wetlands in southern Sweden2004In: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, ISSN 0269-283X, E-ISSN 1365-2915, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 256-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In southern Sweden, many wetlands have been constructed, and maintaining or increasing biological diversity is often included in the aims. Some wetlands are constructed near human settlements, thus raising the problem of wetlands being associated with mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Increased biodiversity (including mosquito diversity) is considered desirable, whereas mosquito nuisance from a human point of view is not. Adult mosquito abundance, diversity and species assemblages of constructed wetlands were compared to natural wetlands. The potential of constructed wetlands for mosquito nuisance and transmission of mosquito-borne viruses was evaluated. The study areas included five constructed and four natural wetlands. Mosquito abundance and species richness were higher in the natural than in the constructed wetlands, and showed a positive correlation with wetland size. Mosquito species assemblages formed three clusters, which were not explained by origin, size and water permanence of wetlands. In a redundancy analysis, however, mosquito faunas showed significant relationships with these variables, and size and origin of wetlands were most important. Major nuisance species (multivoltine species feeding on mammals and laying eggs on soil) were found in all wetlands, although in relatively low numbers. Risk assessment for Sindbis virus transmission showed moderate risk for two constructed wetlands near human settlements. It is concluded that small size of constructed wetlands has the advantage of low mosquito numbers from a human point of view. The use of functional groups is recommended as a tool for presenting mosquito data to the public, and for helping communication between scientists and administrative decision makers.

  • 28. Schäfer, Martina
    et al.
    Lundkvist, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Persson, Thomas Z
    Lundström, Jan O
    Influence of landscape structure on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and dytiscids (Coleoptera2006In: Wetlands (Wilmington, N.C.), ISSN 0277-5212, E-ISSN 1943-6246, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 57-68Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterns of species diversity and community structure depend on scales larger than just a single habitat and might be influenced by the surrounding landscape. We studied the response of two insect families, mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and dytiscids (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), to landscape variables at five spatial scales. We studied adult mosquito and dytiscid abundance, diversity, and species assemblages in relation to water permanence (area of permanent water bodies versus temporary wetlands) and forest cover (area covered by forest versus open land) within nested circles of 100 to 3000 m around trap sites in four wetlands in southern Sweden and in five wetlands in central Sweden. We found that mosquito abundance was greatest in areas with plentiful forest cover and a high proportion of temporary water, while most dytiscids favored open areas with a high proportion of permanent wetlands. However, diversity of both mosquitoes and dytiscids was positively correlated with high permanence and little forest cover. Mosquito species assemblages were mainly influenced by forest cover at a large spatial scale, whereas permanence was more important at local scales. Dytiscid species assemblages were mainly influenced by water permanence, especially at intermediate spatial scales. These results can be explained by the flight capability and dispersal behavior of mosquito and dytiscid species. The observed landscape associations of mosquitoes and dytiscids could be useful when creating new wetlands. Mosquito colonization could be reduced by creating permanent wetlands in an open landscape, which would favor colonization by dytiscids, a potential predator of mosquito larvae, while also supporting the diversity of both taxa.

  • 29.
    Widerlund, A.
    et al.
    Division of Applied Geology, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87, Luleå, Sweden.
    Ebenå, Gustav
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Potential biogeochemical and ecological development of a flooded tailings impoundment at the Kristineberg Zn-Cu mine, northern Sweden2004In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 333, no 1-3, p. 249-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential short-term (=102 years) and long-term (>102 years) biogeochemical and ecological effects of diverting stream water (pH 4.9-6.7) into a limed, flooded tailings impoundment (pH 8-12) were studied by combining geochemical and biological data. In the long-term perspective, the successional development of lakes was used as a natural analogue. Based on the vertical distribution of temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS<0.22 µm), the impoundment can be characterised as a continuous/discontinuous cold polymictic lake, with holomictic summer circulation. A re-inoculation study indicated that the growth of autotrophic, aerobic bacteria (presumably Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans) presently is inhibited by the high pH in the impoundment. In a short-term perspective, termination of liming and diversion of stream water into the impoundment will result in a complex interplay between physical, biogeochemical and ecological effects. A reduced vertical mixing of the ~2-m-deep water column, dissolution of calcite and gypsum (compounds of a sludge formed in the impoundment) and an enhanced microbiological activity are major expected effects. The dissolution of calcite may act as a pH buffer and result in metal remobilisation from the sludge. Excluding autochthonous organic matter produced in the impoundment, streamwater input of suspended matter and formation of settling flocculants are expected to result in a sediment accumulation rate of ~1.5 mg cm-2 year-1 (1.6-3.3 cm/102 years). Settling allochthonous organic C (0.15-0.30 mg C cm-2 year -1) may serve as an oxygen barrier and as a reservoir of organic compounds capable of driving redox reactions. In a long-term perspective, a hydroseral development into a wetland/peatland can be expected, with a bog lake, poor fen or flat bog as final stage. This development presupposes a decreasing pH when liming is terminated and stream water is diverted into the impoundment. It also assumes that the impoundment will be similar to an acidified lake, and that the succession is driven by Sphagnum colonizing the impoundment. If the hydrological conditions/water level is affected (e.g., by climatic changes or a dam failure), a terrestrialization culminating in coniferous forest on peat soil may occur. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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