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  • 1.
    Ekström, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samarbete och delaktighet2016In: Att leva med demens / [ed] Ingrid Hellström, Lars-Christer Hydén, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, p. 55-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Building Coherence in Second-Language Interaction: The Organizations of "Attention" and "Recognition"2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coherence in interaction has already been examined as a pragmatic feature of discourse, or propositional feature of speech. It has even been formally described in the process of producing talk-in-interaction (Craig & Tracy 1983). However, no account of the organization of coherence in second-language interaction has yet been developed.

    The aim of this study is to investigate how coherence is built in second-language interaction occurring among non-Swedish adults who are in the early stages of learning Swedish as a second language. The study shows how coherence is not just a verbal product, rather a shared process in multimodal interaction. The cases collected for the study are taken from ca. 10-hour recordings in classrooms as chosen settings. The methodology adopted for the research is CA with emphasis on the multimodal analysis of interaction.

                Following Goodwin (2000) taking embodied actions, mobility and spatial configurations into account, this study demonstrates how participants, by employing two organizations of attention and recognition via different semiotic resources, co-author the situated meaning and make a collaborative effort to construct coherence in interaction. The organizations of attention and recognition can be described by means of how participants orient to an object or a topic in interaction, and how they reflect the recognition of the topic/object in their actions through audibly and visually recognizable resources.

     

  • 3.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Embodied achievement of learnables through enactment2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embodied Achievement of Learnables through Enactment

    In classroom interaction, sometimes the teacher uses his/her body to depict something or an action for the purpose of solving a problem or problematizing something. This study is about embodied conduct when it is used as an enactment of recurrent and typified actions or things in teaching sequences. In the trajectory of this sequential process, a learnable is an accomplished pedagogical focus in interaction where it is visually observed, witnessed, and recognized (Majlesi & Broth, in press). I have collected video-recorded data from classes where adult learners participate to learn Swedish as an additional language. Drawing upon Ethnomethodology (Garfinkel, 1967; 2002), I will examine the interactional sequences, where enactmentis employed by the participants, to analyze what it does to the sequence of interaction, how it comes about, and what participants in an ongoing interaction achieve with its use. In my analysis, I will also demonstrate how interaction provides affordances(Gibson, 1979) for enactment to be produced and become central in its epistemic ecology (Goodwin, 2010) for all practical purposes. In the presented data, enactment plays a crucial role as to the formation of learnable as an embodied achievement in interaction. Enactment will be claimed to be co-operatively formed and operated on across bodies, and it is sequentially tied to the process of instruction.

  • 4.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Finger Dialogue; a study of hand gesture in classroom interaction2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finger Dialogue; A study of hand gesture in classroom interaction

    In this study I examine the organization of some sequences of interaction in which participants in classroom mobilize their fingers upon the surface of a paper or on the whiteboard to mark or foreground, or to point at something as a point of departure in meaning making. Driven from my classroom video-recorded data, I will show a few excerpts in which such an action prompts the recipient to produce a gloss of what that “reference” might mean or to find and make it relevant to the ongoing local interactional process. The action makes the object a locus of mutual attention/interest or candidate-problem. My analysis eventually draws upon what Goodwin (in press) calls “a co-operative transformation zone", a place where objects and participants are simultaneously transformed. I will try to demonstrate that paper or whiteboard becomes a locus for both co-actions and co-activities of the participants, where a single object can be transformed into a 'learnable' (Majlesi and Broth, forthcoming) linguistic data within a temporally unfolding embodied process. The collection of cases in this study is taken from 50 hours of video recording from Swedish-as-a-second-language classrooms in which the participants are all adults of different linguistic backgrounds. These classes are specially designed for non-Swedes who come to Sweden to live or work and need to learn Swedish as their additional language.

  • 5.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Finger dialogue. The embodied accomplishment of learnables in instructing grammar on a worksheet2014In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 64, p. 35-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about embodied and endogenous grammar instruction on worksheets in teaching Swedish as a second language. It is demonstrated how an ‘awareness’ to produce a linguistic construct ‘grammatically correct’ is co-achieved by the teacher and the student. To see and understand the grammatical features of the words, an interactive instructional sequence is initiated by the teacher. This interactive scaffolding between the teacher and the student, to use meta-talk and to talk about abstract grammar, requires some concrete referents on a surface jointly attended to, and which are seen, pointed to and talked about. It is shown in detail how the interactional business of the interchange is dependent upon a constant integration of talk, gesture and orientation to the written grammatical construct on a sheet of paper. Teaching grammar is, thus, done through the objectification of quite abstract linguistic units and categories, and the transposition of the abstraction onto tangible and visible objects on the paper. Therefore, the result of the organization of order in instruction is a moment-by-moment sense-making, including accounting for how to understand a grammatical phrase, and the rationale behind the relations of the grammatical constructs, and, also, transforming the organization of knowledge. This study shows that foregrounding grammatical learnables on a paper are actualized by the mobilization of diverse semiotic resources resulting in seeing, understanding and reaching an instructed vision (cf. Goodwin, 1994) as the progressive achievement of observable and reportable embodied actions (Garfinkel, 1967, 2002). Grammatical learnables are, therefore, the procedural outcome of the hands-on practices as mutually achieved embodied accomplishments.

  • 6.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Identity work in doing task; Interactional analysis of task-in-progress2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Learnables in Action: The Embodied Achievement of Opportunities for Teaching and Learning in Swedish as a Second Language Classrooms2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral dissertation is an empirical qualitative research study on the emergence of learnables in classrooms of Swedish as a second language. It adopts a dialogical and praxeological approach, and analysis is based on video recorded teacher-student interactivities in classrooms. Learnables are taken to be linguistic items or constructs that are displayed as unknown by students, or problematized by students or teachers, and therefore oriented to as explainable, remediable, or improvable. Learnables are introduced in planned or less planned classroom activities, either in passing, while continuing the current main activity, or in sidesequences. In these activities, teachers and students not only talk, but also use other embodied resources (e.g. pointing) or available artifacts (e.g. worksheets) to highlight linguistic learnables. Teachers and students use these resources for achieving and maintaining intersubjectivity as well as contributing learnables to the interactivities. Through manifest embodied practices, abstract linguistic learnables become objectified, and knowledge about them gets organized in and through joint co-operative activities.

    List of papers
    1. Emergent learnables in second language classroom interaction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emergent learnables in second language classroom interaction
    2012 (English)In: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, ISSN 2210-6561, E-ISSN 2210-657X, Vol. 1, no 3-4, p. 193-207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how unplanned learnablesemerge in classroom interaction. A learnableis defined as whatever is interactively established as relevant and developed to become a shared pedagogical focus. A learnable can thus be related to any social practice. In the context that we are studying, a Swedish as a second language classroom, we show how interactive processes constructing something as a learnable may originate not only in the use of an unknown Swedish word whose meaning is then asked for (which amounts to a verbal source for a learnable), but also in an unknown name for an object (a material source for a learnable) or an unknown meaning of a gesture (a gestural source for a learnable). These last two sources have not been much described in the existing literature on objects of learning. Through detailed analyses of video recorded classroom interaction, focusing on the ways in which participants gradually accomplish learnables, we show how learnables can arise, step by step, in and for the relevant needs of an emergent learning project that may be quite different from the teacher's pedagogical agenda.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    National Category
    Pedagogical Work Learning Social Anthropology General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86980 (URN)10.1016/j.lcsi.2012.08.004 (DOI)000209033900004 ()
    Available from: 2013-01-11 Created: 2013-01-08 Last updated: 2018-07-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Finger dialogue. The embodied accomplishment of learnables in instructing grammar on a worksheet
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finger dialogue. The embodied accomplishment of learnables in instructing grammar on a worksheet
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 64, p. 35-51Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about embodied and endogenous grammar instruction on worksheets in teaching Swedish as a second language. It is demonstrated how an ‘awareness’ to produce a linguistic construct ‘grammatically correct’ is co-achieved by the teacher and the student. To see and understand the grammatical features of the words, an interactive instructional sequence is initiated by the teacher. This interactive scaffolding between the teacher and the student, to use meta-talk and to talk about abstract grammar, requires some concrete referents on a surface jointly attended to, and which are seen, pointed to and talked about. It is shown in detail how the interactional business of the interchange is dependent upon a constant integration of talk, gesture and orientation to the written grammatical construct on a sheet of paper. Teaching grammar is, thus, done through the objectification of quite abstract linguistic units and categories, and the transposition of the abstraction onto tangible and visible objects on the paper. Therefore, the result of the organization of order in instruction is a moment-by-moment sense-making, including accounting for how to understand a grammatical phrase, and the rationale behind the relations of the grammatical constructs, and, also, transforming the organization of knowledge. This study shows that foregrounding grammatical learnables on a paper are actualized by the mobilization of diverse semiotic resources resulting in seeing, understanding and reaching an instructed vision (cf. Goodwin, 1994) as the progressive achievement of observable and reportable embodied actions (Garfinkel, 1967, 2002). Grammatical learnables are, therefore, the procedural outcome of the hands-on practices as mutually achieved embodied accomplishments.

    Keywords
    Instructed vision, Instructing grammar, Interactive scaffolding, Pointing gestures, Conversation analysis, Ethnomethodology, Multimodal interaction analysis
    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104917 (URN)10.1016/j.pragma.2014.01.003 (DOI)000335281100003 ()
    Available from: 2014-03-03 Created: 2014-03-03 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Matching gestures: Teachers’ repetitions of students’ gestures in second language learning classrooms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Matching gestures: Teachers’ repetitions of students’ gestures in second language learning classrooms
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 30-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about teachers’ responsive matching gestures in small instructing/learning projects in Swedish as a second language classes. Matching gestures are those gestures that are similar, if not identical, to those in the prior turns-at-talk. The focus of this study is on the repeated gestures, which are used, among other practical purposes, as teaching devices. They are examined in different sequence types such as correction, reformulation and explanation sequences. The data used for this study is a collection of excerpts extracted from the video recordings of teacher-student conversations. An ethnomethodological / conversation analytic framework is adapted for examining the phenomenon. The multimodal analysis of the excerpts shows that matching gestures in language learning situations have a double function. They are used for maintaining and sustaining intersubjectivity, and also for constructing teachable moments as well as learning opportunities. They are used as tying devices to connect teachers’ actions to the students’ prior actions, and are resources for the display of interactive coengagements and strong co-participations. Moreover, matching gestures are used as teaching devices indicating lapses in the competence of the students demonstrated in their verbal productions. The teachers employ matching gestures along with some  verbal affiliates, when the matching gestures are crucial parts of the teachers’ contributions foregrounding the verbal forms as substitutes or remedial proposal for (enhancing) the students’ utterances. That is, matching gestures are used in second language learning situations for proffering learnables through highlighting an alternative way of telling and exhibiting in that language.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Conversation Analysis, Ethnomethodology, Multimodal interaction analysis, Matching gestures, Second language learning, Students’ gestures, Teachers’ responses, Jämförande språkvetenskap och lingvistik Tvärvetenskapliga studier Lärande
    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104918 (URN)10.1016/j.pragma.2014.11.006 (DOI)000349268900003 ()
    Note

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

    Available from: 2014-03-03 Created: 2014-03-03 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    4. The intersubjective objectivity of learnables: Theoretical underpinnings of praxeological and dialogical research on opportunities for learning in teacher-student interactivities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The intersubjective objectivity of learnables: Theoretical underpinnings of praxeological and dialogical research on opportunities for learning in teacher-student interactivities
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The question that this article is concerned with is the following: When training new members of a community, for example, in novice-professional, trainer-trainee, or teacher-student activities, what is it that is being learned? What is it that is offered as something to learn, and how do teachers and students make sense of things as learnables? If one assumes that the issue of learning is always the issue of learning something, this article is about that something, and the resources and consequences of its emergence and existence in learning activities. I shall use the term ‘learnable’ about evolving or emergent objects of learning in social activities. Based on the phenomenological-sociological view on intersubjectivity developed by Husserl (1983, 1989; see also Schutz, 1932/1967, 1975), I will argue for a praxeological (Garfinkel & Sacks, 1970/1986) and dialogical (Bakhtin 1981, 1986; Linell, 2009) investigation of learnables as objects of any sort, whose objective reality is accomplished in the social activity at hand. In language learning classroom interactivities, that are this article’s concern, the phenomena we are talking about are  linguistic expressions, their forms, and their functions. It will be argued that their objective reality is an accomplished reality, and their rationale is an achievable phenomenon in social activities.

    Keywords
    Phenomenology, Dialogical theory, Conversation Analysis, Ethnomethodology, Multimodal interaction, Learnables, Language learning
    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104919 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-03-03 Created: 2014-03-03 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linguistics Violence: A study on the oral discourse in the high schools of Tehran2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I endeavor to define what is meant by Linguistic Violence then as an empirical study,I try to take some elements as representatives of violence in language and descriptively demonstrate theirexistence in the oral discourse in high schools. The existence of linguistic violence is a prime question thatis put forth in this study then proposed as a hypothesis, it will be tried to test with measurable elements ifthere are any possible correlations between linguistic violence and gender and also between linguisticviolence and socio-economic status in a sample population. This research was done in 9 schools in 5 areasof Tehran, Capital of Iran, on 325 students between 15 to 18 years old whose first language was Farsi.

  • 9.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Matching gestures: Teachers’ repetitions of students’ gestures in second language learning classrooms2015In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 30-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about teachers’ responsive matching gestures in small instructing/learning projects in Swedish as a second language classes. Matching gestures are those gestures that are similar, if not identical, to those in the prior turns-at-talk. The focus of this study is on the repeated gestures, which are used, among other practical purposes, as teaching devices. They are examined in different sequence types such as correction, reformulation and explanation sequences. The data used for this study is a collection of excerpts extracted from the video recordings of teacher-student conversations. An ethnomethodological / conversation analytic framework is adapted for examining the phenomenon. The multimodal analysis of the excerpts shows that matching gestures in language learning situations have a double function. They are used for maintaining and sustaining intersubjectivity, and also for constructing teachable moments as well as learning opportunities. They are used as tying devices to connect teachers’ actions to the students’ prior actions, and are resources for the display of interactive coengagements and strong co-participations. Moreover, matching gestures are used as teaching devices indicating lapses in the competence of the students demonstrated in their verbal productions. The teachers employ matching gestures along with some  verbal affiliates, when the matching gestures are crucial parts of the teachers’ contributions foregrounding the verbal forms as substitutes or remedial proposal for (enhancing) the students’ utterances. That is, matching gestures are used in second language learning situations for proffering learnables through highlighting an alternative way of telling and exhibiting in that language.

  • 10.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Open-ended questions as a resource for teaching grammar2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about the design of open-ended questions such as ‘What is X?’ or ‘Where is X?’ as a resource for teaching grammar in Swedish as a second language classroom. Using video recordings of teacher-student interaction, the study suggests that these questions are used, and treated, as a vehicle for foregrounding a grammatical learnable. The questions may not just convey an expectation to recognize and suggest proper grammatical glasses, but they may also provide the students with prospective ‘clues’ (McHoul, 1990) and ‘contextualization cues’ (Gumperz, 1982) to move from repeating grammatical concepts, which have already been taught, to orienting toward new grammatical learnables. Studies on referential versus display questions, or open-ended versus yes/no questions have shown how understanding different question formats are context dependent (e.g. Koshik, 2005). By adopting ethnomethodological conversation analytic theoretical and methodological framework (e.g. Garfinkel & Sacks, 1970), I will also underscore how the design and understanding of these questions depend on both verbal and nonverbal contexts, which are shaped by the participants together in instructing/teaching sequences. It will be highlighted that these questions may be utilized in preliminary sequences (Schegloff, 2007) prior to the production of locally relevant knowledge within the epistemic domain of grammar. The relevance and also the treatment of these questions are, however, not just related to their sequential placements in the stream of talk, but also to the temporal organization of the activity, and to other local contextual constraints made by various semiotic resources such as prosody, bodily movements, gestures, and the use of material artifacts such as worksheets, written sentences on the whiteboard, etc. These questions and their replies (or their lack of replies) are understood as indexical in what comes next in step-by-step orienting toward, and raising, a new linguistic concept/relation/category as a pedagogical focus. The analysis displays that with these questions 1) the teacher proffers an interactional space for the recognition of a new or an improvable/ remediable grammatical construct or category, 2) the teacher’s access to, knowledge of, the answer is visible in her pursuit of the ‘correct’ answer, and 3) the student is also expected to recognize and pinpoint the same answer. Furthermore, the study demonstrates how the procedure of using these questions in order to zero in on a grammatical learnable is also influenced by the order of successive and simultaneous actions, their multimodal contexts, and by the trajectory of the whole activity, its type and purposes.

    References

    Garfinkel, Harold & Sacks, Harvey (1970). On formal structures of practical action. In John C. McKinney & Edward A. Tiryakian (Eds.), Theoretical sociology: perspectives and developments (pp.338-66). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

    Gumperz, J. J. (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Koshik, I. (2005). Beyond rhetorical questions: Assertive questions in everyday interaction. John Benjamins B.V.

    McHoul, A. W. (1990). The organization of repair in classroom talk. Language in Society, 19(3), 349-377.

    Schegloff, E. A. (2007). Sequence Organization in Interaction: A Primer in Conversation Analysis, Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • 11.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pointing for mutual orientation to learnables in Swedish as a second language classroom2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pointing for mutual orientation to learnables in Swedish as a second language classroom

    This study aims at analyzing grammar lessons in Swedish as a second language classroom where the participants point at something using their fingersor pens on the surface of a paper to produce or/and manage an object of inquiry. By doing so, they make that ‘object’ for the practical purpose of the occasion observable, accountable and, in a learning activity, learnable (Majlesi and Broth, sub-mitted). The collected data comprises video recordings of one to one student-teacher interaction in a Swedish language course for immigrants (SFI). This study will show how the embodied gesture of pointing as a main part of employed resources is central to the mutual orientation and mutual under-standing of co-participants in a grammar task in regard to the recognition of a learnable and the pro-vision of a possible explanation for it. It is used to make an object of inquiry foregrounded, recogni-zed and/or understood; that is, for all practical purposes in a learning activity, an object becomes a learnable by being localized, visualized, linked to and/or accounted for through verbal and non-verbal acts among which pointing is at the forefront. In this way, pointing gestures facilitate inter-subjectivity, the understanding of learnables, and the whole learning activity.

  • 12.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Repeated Repetition in Second Language Classroom Interaction2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Majlesi, Ali RezaRepeated Repetition; What is done by repetition in second language interactionThis is a study of ‘repetition’ in SLA classrooms. The study is a work in progress on interaction between SLA teacher and her students who are learning Swedish as a second language. I have gathered more than 15 hours recordings of classroom activities. I focus specially on the repetition of linguistic forms in interaction and what is it that is getting done by ‘repeated repetition’. In the midst of their activities, I have observed that participants in interaction use whole or partial repetitions of an utterance to accomplish a certain communicative action. Although the repetitions are differently managed, I have found a similar action done by different types of repetitions. Among my collections, I will thoroughly examine one case and demonstrate how hearably and visibly repetitions among other actions do alter or maintain the focus of participants’ attention in the participatory framework, and change or maintain the frame via repeating the form in focus.

  • 13.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The emergence of learnables in Swedish as second language classroom2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergence of learnable objectsin Swedish-as-a-second-language classroom

    This study focuses on how learnable objects emerge in classroom interaction amongstudents who are studying Swedish as a second language. Learnable objects maybedefined as those practices (verbal or otherwise embodied) that are interactionallyoriented to in an emergent sequence of actions as forming an object for instruction(cf. Markee, 2000). Just like repairables (Schegloff et al., 1977) and laughables (Sacks,1974), learnables are constituted retrospectively by a subsequent action that pointsout a prior practice as possibility not known to the participants in interaction. In theSwedish as a second language classroom, learnable objects are typically Swedishlanguage forms that students demonstrably lack when speaking or do not recognize/understand in the talk of the teacher or fellow students as publicly displayed insubsequent talk. Central to this study is how these learnables are collectively topicalizedand collaboratively developed into a "pedagogical focus" (Johnson, 1995), in contrastto those learning objects that already form part of the teacher's pedagogical agenda.Three cases occurring in three different situations form the empirical basis for thestudy. The first case occurs within a task-oriented activity; the second case occurs ina transition between a task in hand and upcoming instruction; and the third caseoccurs during a break in the curricular activities. All cases are taken from approximatelytwenty hours of recordings in second language classrooms with adult immigrants toSweden. The study shows that it is not only the teacher who can make relevant learningobjects in the classroom, but that can also be a more collaborative achievement of theparticipants who orient to an emergent object and talk it into pedagogical activity.Unlike teacher-centered-analyses in second language settings (cf. Seedhouse, 2004),this investigation will pinpoint the practical and embodied achievement of sharedpedagogical foci between students of second language and their teacher. In this way,the multimodal analysis will demonstrate that what is to be instructed, who participatesin the activity of instruction and in which role are not always based on the "primaryframework" (Goffman, 1974) of a pedagogical activity i.e. a pre-planned lesson or aspecific pedagogical task. Instead, such matters turn out to be a matter of negotiationamong the participants to the situated interaction.

  • 14.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The intersubjective objectivity of learnables: Theoretical underpinnings of praxeological and dialogical research on opportunities for learning in teacher-student interactivitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The question that this article is concerned with is the following: When training new members of a community, for example, in novice-professional, trainer-trainee, or teacher-student activities, what is it that is being learned? What is it that is offered as something to learn, and how do teachers and students make sense of things as learnables? If one assumes that the issue of learning is always the issue of learning something, this article is about that something, and the resources and consequences of its emergence and existence in learning activities. I shall use the term ‘learnable’ about evolving or emergent objects of learning in social activities. Based on the phenomenological-sociological view on intersubjectivity developed by Husserl (1983, 1989; see also Schutz, 1932/1967, 1975), I will argue for a praxeological (Garfinkel & Sacks, 1970/1986) and dialogical (Bakhtin 1981, 1986; Linell, 2009) investigation of learnables as objects of any sort, whose objective reality is accomplished in the social activity at hand. In language learning classroom interactivities, that are this article’s concern, the phenomena we are talking about are  linguistic expressions, their forms, and their functions. It will be argued that their objective reality is an accomplished reality, and their rationale is an achievable phenomenon in social activities.

  • 15.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Broth, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emergent learnables in second language classroom interaction2012In: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, ISSN 2210-6561, E-ISSN 2210-657X, Vol. 1, no 3-4, p. 193-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies how unplanned learnablesemerge in classroom interaction. A learnableis defined as whatever is interactively established as relevant and developed to become a shared pedagogical focus. A learnable can thus be related to any social practice. In the context that we are studying, a Swedish as a second language classroom, we show how interactive processes constructing something as a learnable may originate not only in the use of an unknown Swedish word whose meaning is then asked for (which amounts to a verbal source for a learnable), but also in an unknown name for an object (a material source for a learnable) or an unknown meaning of a gesture (a gestural source for a learnable). These last two sources have not been much described in the existing literature on objects of learning. Through detailed analyses of video recorded classroom interaction, focusing on the ways in which participants gradually accomplish learnables, we show how learnables can arise, step by step, in and for the relevant needs of an emergent learning project that may be quite different from the teacher's pedagogical agenda.

  • 16.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Charlotta, Plejert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Interpreter-mediated dementia evaluations: On the use of artifacts in tests of cognitive functioning2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interpreter-mediated demenƟa evaluaƟons: On the use of artefacts in tests ofcogniƟve funcƟoningThe current paper presents results from an invesƟgaƟon of interpreter-mediated interacƟon between clinical staff andethnic minority paƟents during demenƟa assessment in a Swedish memory clinic. More specifically, the study deals withthe part of the assessment in which tests of cogniƟve funcƟoning are carried out. Within such tests, various artefacts areused, such as pen, paper, pictures and other objects (e.g. a torch, a comb etc.). The use of these artefacts is constrainedby the formal nature of the test, i.e. quesƟons are to be asked in a specific way in order for test answers to count as valid.However, due to mulƟlingual and mulƟcultural aspects of the context, and the fact that the interacƟon between clinicianand paƟent is mediated by an interpreter, parƟcipants are faced with many challenges. In the current presentaƟon,we will demonstrate, by means of mulƟmodal interacƟon analysis, how parƟcipants orient to problems related to thefact that the test is neither adapted to the language and culture of the paƟent, nor to paƟents with limited readingand wriƟng skills. The paƟent's unfamiliarity with an object or picture may, for example, lead to extensive repair-workbetween paƟent and interpreter, which in turn, negaƟvely affects the administraƟon (and validity) of the test and testanswers.The results presented are supported by current research and reports from clinicians that state that European memoryclinics are generally unprepared for a rapidly growing number of immigrants, that there is a lack of clinical rouƟnes forthis kind of interacƟonal encounter, and that test materials are not adapted to the needs of these clients (Nielsen, 2011;Nielsen et al., 2011).

  • 17.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Clelia, König
    University of Neuchâtel.
    Learnables in the sequences initiated by ‘how do you say X’2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The asymmetries of knowledge and information seeking are the normative warrants of spoken interaction (Goodwin, 1979; Heritage 2012). This may also be claimed to be the basis for pedagogical activities. Drawing on CA, we analyze L2 speakers’ use of “how do you say X?” and the related family of questions: “how to say X”, “what do you call X?”, etc. when the speakers show some difficulties in knowing the substitution for X and producing their turns.

    Our analyses are based on two sets of data involving educational and non-educational settings. The data consists of videotaped Swedish L2 classroom interaction, and audiotaped dinner-table conversations between au-pair girls learning French and their host families.

    We have focused on sequences in which the use of “how do you say”-questions by the L2 speakers provides the other interlocutors with a slot for answering, and this, in turn, gives a possibility to initiate a side sequence (Jefferson, 1972; De Pietro et al., 1989) in which an opportunity for learning emerges. To exemplify our phenomenon, the following is an extract in which the host mother (Mom) offers the au-pair girl (Julie) a cup of tea:

     

  • 18.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University. Department of Education, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekström, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Video data as a method to understand non-verbal communication in couples where one person is living wih dementia2018In: Social research methods in dementia studies: inclusion and innovation / [ed] John Keady, Lars-Christer Hydén, Ann Johnson, Caroline Swarbrink, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2018, p. 56-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Simfors, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Modern Languages. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ‘Test in Swedish for Universities and Higher Education (TISUS)’: On the use of conversation as an oral proficiency test situation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Test in Swedish for Universities and Higher Education (TISUS)’: On the use of conversation as an oral proficiency test situation

    The current paper presents results from an investigation of interaction between the examiners of TISUS (Test in Swedish for Universities and Higher Education), and test takers during their oral proficiency assessment of Swedish as a second language. More specifically, the study deals with the interactional procedure of the test, which is usually carried out in a group of two or three test takers. Even though the test takers are informed beforehand about the topics discussed during the exam, within such tests, various questions and topics are also exchanged that may change the trajectory of the talk and impact the test takers’ performances as well. The encouragement of keeping the conversation natural between the test takers may be constrained by the formal nature of the test, i.e. the distribution of topics and turns by the examiners. Furthermore, due to the contingencies of talk-in-interaction and co-construction of the context, participants are faced with many challenges. In this presentation, we will demonstrate, by means of conversation analysis, how participants orient to problems related to the fact that the conversation is neither totally natural, nor is it open-ended. The test takers’ preparation for thematic talk may, for example, lead to ‘mediated turn distributions’, which in turn, negatively affects the performances and also the administration of the test situation. 

    The results show that despite the possible benefits of having conversation as a test situation, problems arise in interaction; thus, assessing the test takers’ performance, such interactional context and its construction may be taken into account.

  • 20.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Antelius, Eleonor
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Flerspråkiga möten vid minnesklinik2016In: Att leva med demens / [ed] Ingrid Hellström, Lars-Christer Hydén, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, 1, p. 133-142Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekström, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Plejert, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kommunikation vid demens2016In: Att leva med demens / [ed] Ingrid Hellström & Lars-Christer Hydén, Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, 1, p. 63-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
1 - 21 of 21
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