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  • 1.
    Olsson, Simon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Al-based Thin Film Quasicrystals and Approximants2013Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, Al-based quasicrystalline and approximant phases have been synthesized in thin films using magnetron sputter deposition. Quasicrystals are structures having long-range order and rotational symmetries which are inconsistent with periodicity. Due to their unusual structure, quasicrystals show many anomalous and unique physical properties, including; high hardness, wear resistance, low friction, and low electrical and thermal conductivities. Approximants are a family of periodic phases that are related to the quasicrystals. These phases share the local atomic arrangement of quasicrystals and have as a result many similar physical properties. Bulk quasicrystals are too brittle for many of the suggested applications, and instead the most important area of applications concerns that of surface  coatings.

    Multilayered Al/Cu/Fe thin films, with a nominal global composition   corresponding to the quasicrystalline phase, have been deposited onto Si and Al2O3 substrates. During isothermal annealing at temperatures up to 700 °C homogeneous thin films were formed. When Si was used as substrate a film-substrate reaction occured already below 390 °C, where Si diffused into the film. This changed the composition, and promoted the formation of the cubic α-approximant phase. Annealing at 600 °C for 4 h the cubic α-approximant phase formed in a polycrystalline state, with a small amount of a second phase, τ7-Al3Fe2Si3. The film was within 1.5 at.% of the ideal composition of the α-approximant phase and contained 8 at.% Si. Continued annealing for 64 h provided for more diffusion of Si to 12 at.%. No degradation of the crystal quality of the remaining α-phase was observed even after as much as 150 h of treatment.

    Nanomechanical and nanotribological properties, including hardness, elastic modulus, friction and toughness, were investigated for the approximant and quasicrystalline samples. The approximant phase, annealed at 600 °C for 4 h, proved to be harder and had higher elastic modulus values than the quasicrystalline phase, about, 15.6 GPa and 258 GPa, respectively. The fracture toughness of the approximant, on the other hand, <0.1 MPa/m½, was inferior to that of the quasicrystals with 1.5 MPa/m½. Low friction coefficients of about 0.13 were measured for both phases.

    When annealing multilayered Al/Cu/Co thin films on Al2O3 the decagonal quasicrystal d-Al-Cu-Co was formed at 500 °C. The XRD peak intensities were rather low, but after raising the temperature to 850 °C a large increase in intensity and a complete texturing with the 10-fold periodic axis aligned with the substrate normal occurred. When annealing the same samples on Si, the decagonal quasicrystal was again found, however, TEM and EDX measurements identified 3-6 at.% Si inside the quasicrystalline grains. Also the decagonal d-Al-Cu-Co-Si quasicrystal was textured with the 10-fold periodic axis aligned with the surface normal. The texture was however not complete as in the thin films grown on Al2O3. Raising the temperature to over 700 °C led to the formation of other crystalline phases in favor of the decagonal d-Al-Cu-Co-Si.

    For the Cu-Al-Sc system quasicrystalline thin films were grown directly from the vapor phase by utilizing ion-assistance during growth at low temperatures, thus eliminating the need for post-annealing. Diffraction experiments revealed that amorphous films were formed at room temperature. The quasicrystalline phase formed at a substrate temperature of 340 °C with an improved quality at higher temperatures up to 460 °C. The quasicrystal film quality was improved by increasing the ion-flux during with ion energies of 26.7 eV. Increasing the ion energy further was however found to cause resputtering and defects in the films. Electron microscopy revealed a polycrystalline microstructure with crystal grains in the shape of thin needles.

    Delarbeid
    1. Formation of α-approximant and quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe thin films
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Formation of α-approximant and quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe thin films
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 526, s. 74-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al/Cu/Fe thin films have been deposited by magnetron sputtering onto Si and Al2O3 substrates with a nominal global composition corresponding to the quasicrystalline phase, 5:2:1. Subsequent annealing was performed on the samples up to 710 degrees C. It is found that when using Si as a substrate a film-substrate reaction occurs already below 390 degrees C, where Si diffuses into the film. This changes the composition, promoting the formation of the alpha-approximant Al55Si7Cu25.5Fe12.5 in the temperature range 400 to 650 degrees C over the quasicrystalline psi-phase. When annealing the same Al-Cu-Fe thin film grown on Al2O3 substrates the Al62.5Cu25Fe12.5 icosahedral quasicrystalline phase is formed.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2012
    Emneord
    Quasicrystal, Approximant, Al-Cu-Fe-Si, X-ray diffraction, Annealing, Phase evolution, Multilayer, Sputtering
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89532 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2012.11.009 (DOI)000313703200012 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) Strategic Research Center in Materials Science for Nanoscale Surface Engineering (MS2E)||

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-02-26 Laget: 2013-02-26 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06
    2. Structure and Composition of Al(Si)CuFe Approximant Thin Films Formed by Si Substrate Diffusion
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Structure and Composition of Al(Si)CuFe Approximant Thin Films Formed by Si Substrate Diffusion
    Vise andre…
    2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 550, nr 1, s. 105-109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al/Cu/Fe thin films with composition close to the quasicrystalline phase have been prepared by magnetron sputtering. Annealing at 600 °C yields a homogeneous film of the cubic a-approximant phase by Si substrate diffusion, which prevents the formation of the quasicrystalline phase. After 4 h annealing the film contained 8 at.% Si, which corresponds to the expected value of the a-approximant. The amount of Si in the films was found to slowly increase to ~12 at.% during continued annealing (64 h) while the α-approximant phase was retained. The lattice parameter was found to  continuously decrease as Al became substituted with Si. The film is observed to be polycrystalline with individual grains being strained in varying magnitude, and with no preferential orientation relationship to the substrate or each other.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2014
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96906 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2013.10.121 (DOI)000328499700017 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-08-29 Laget: 2013-08-29 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Mechanical and Tribological Properties of AlCuFe Quasicrystal and Al(Si)CuFe Approximant Thin Films
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Mechanical and Tribological Properties of AlCuFe Quasicrystal and Al(Si)CuFe Approximant Thin Films
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 232-240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered thin films of Al/Cu/Fe have been prepared by magnetron sputtering and annealed into the quasicrystalline or approximant phases, for Al2O3 or Si substrates, respectively. The nanomechanical and nanotribological properties; hardness, elastic modulus, friction and toughness, have been measured using a triboindenter and analytical methods. The approximant phase, annealed at 600 °C for 4 h, proved to be harder and had higher elastic modulus values than the quasicrystalline phase, about, 15.6 GPa and 258 GPa, respectively. The fracture toughness of the approximant, <0.1 MPa/m½, was however inferior to that of the quasicrystals with 1.5 MPa/m½. The friction coefficients were measured in a range of 0.10-0.14 for the quasicrystalline and approximant thin films.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Cambridge University Press, 2016
    Emneord
    quasicrystal, approximant, thin film, hardness, elastic modulus, friction, toughness, tribology, TEM, STEM, XRD
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96907 (URN)10.1557/jmr.2015.384 (DOI)000371704900007 ()
    Merknad

    Funding agencies:  Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area Grant in Materials Science (SFO Mat-LiU) on Advanced Functional Materials

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-08-29 Laget: 2013-08-29 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Phase Evolution of Multilayered Al/Cu/Co Thin Films into Decagonal Al-Cu-Co and Al-Cu-Co-Si Quasicrystalline Phases
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Phase Evolution of Multilayered Al/Cu/Co Thin Films into Decagonal Al-Cu-Co and Al-Cu-Co-Si Quasicrystalline Phases
    Vise andre…
    2013 (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al/Cu/Co thin films have been prepared by magnetron sputtering on Al2O3(0001) and Si(001) substrates and the phase evolution has been investigated. The decagonal d-Al-Cu-Co and d-Al-Cu-Co-Si phases were found to form at 500 °C, and at 600 °C these were the only phases. At increasing temperatures, the quasicrystals grew larger in size, up to 500 nm, although always smaller for the d-Al-Cu-Co-Si, and obtained a texturing with the 10-fold periodic axis aligned with the substrate normal. The d-Al-Cu-Co phase persisted to more than 850 °C, with a complete texturing, while the d-Al-Cu-Co-Si phase was replaced by other crystalline phases at 800 °C.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96908 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-08-29 Laget: 2013-08-29 Sist oppdatert: 2016-08-31bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Ion-assisted Growth of Quasicrystalline Cu-Al-Sc Directly from the Vapor Phase
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Ion-assisted Growth of Quasicrystalline Cu-Al-Sc Directly from the Vapor Phase
    Vise andre…
    2013 (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion assisted depositions have been used to grow the Al38Cu46Sc16 quasicrystalline phase directly from the vapor phase in thin film form. Diffraction experiments reveal that amorphous films are formed at room temperature. The quasicrystalline phase formed at a substrate temperature of 340 °C with an improved quality at higher temperatures up to 460 °C. The quasicrystal film quality is improved by increasing the ion flux during ion-assisted growth with ion energies of 26.7 eV. Increasing the ion energy further was however found to cause resputtering and defects in the film. Electron microscopy reveals a polycrystalline microstructure with crystal grains in the shape of thin needles.

    Emneord
    Quasicrystal, thin film, ion-assisted depositions, magnetron sputtering, TEM, XRD
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96909 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-08-29 Laget: 2013-08-29 Sist oppdatert: 2016-08-31bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 2.
    Olsson, Simon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Approximant Phases in Quasicrystalline AlCuFe Thin Films2012Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Quasicrystalline materials exhibit properties that are very different from conventional metallic materials. They are mostly metallic alloys, and show high hardness and stiffness but low electrical and thermal conductivity. The coefficient of friction and surface energy of the quasicrystalline materials are also very low. Approximants are a family of phases that are related to the quasicrystals. These phases share the local atomic arrangement of quasicrystals and have as a result many similar physical properties. Bulk quasicrystals are too brittle for many of the suggested applications, instead the most important area of applications concerns that of surface coatings.

    In this work, quasicrystalline and approximant phases have been synthesized in thin films. Multilayered Al/Cu/Fe thin films, with a nominal global composition corresponding to the quasicrystalline phase, have been deposited by magnetron sputtering onto Si and Al2O3 substrates. During isothermal annealing at temperatures up to 700 °C homogeneous thin films were formed.

    It is found that when using Si as substrate a film-substrate reaction occurs already below 390 °C, where Si diffuses into the film. This changes the composition, promoting the formation of the cubic α-approximant phase. Annealing at 600 °C for 4 h the cubic a-approximant phase forms in a polycrystalline state, with a small amount of a second phase, τ7-Al3Fe2Si3. The film is within 1.5 at.% of the ideal composition of the a-approximant phase, and contains 8 at.% Si. Continued annealing for 64 h provides for more diffusion of Si to 12 at.%, which result in an increase of the t7-phase. The rate of Si in-diffusion was observed to decrease with annealing time, and the lattice parameter of the a-phase was continuously decreasing as diffused Si substituted for Al. No degradation of the crystal quality of the remaining α-phase was observed even after as much as 150 h of treatment.

    When annealing the same Al/Cu/Fe thin film grown on non-reactant Al2O3 substrates the icosahedral Al62.5Cu25Fe12.5 quasicrystalline phase is formed.

    Delarbeid
    1. Formation of α-approximant and quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe thin films
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Formation of α-approximant and quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe thin films
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al-Cu-Fe thin films have been deposited by magnetron sputtering onto Si and Al2O3 substrates with a nominal global composition corresponding to the quasicrystalline phase, 5:2:1. Subsequent annealing was performed on samples up to 710 °C. It is found that when using Si as substrate a film-substrate reaction occurs already below 390 °C, where Si diffuses into the film. This changes the composition, promoting the formation of the α-approximant Al55Si7Cu25.5Fe12.5 in the temperature range 400 to 650 °C over the quasicrystalline ψ-phase. When annealing the same Al-Cu-Fe thin film grown on Al2O3 substrates the Al62.5Cu25Fe12.5 icosahedral quasicrystalline phase is formed.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77382 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-05-14 Laget: 2012-05-14 Sist oppdatert: 2016-08-31bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Structure and Composition of Approximant Thin Films Formed by Substrate Diffusion
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Structure and Composition of Approximant Thin Films Formed by Substrate Diffusion
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al/Cu/Fe thin films with composition close to the quasicrystalline phase have been prepared by magnetron sputtering. Annealing at 600 °C yields a homogeneous film of the cubic approximant phase by Si substrate diffusion, which prevented the formation of the quasicrystalline phase. After 4 h annealing the film contained 8 at.% Si corresponding well to the expected value of the approximant. The amount of Si in the films is found to slowly increase to ~12 at.% during continued annealing (64 h) while the approximant phase was retained. The lattice parameter was continuously decreasing as Si substituted for Al.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77383 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-05-14 Laget: 2012-05-14 Sist oppdatert: 2016-08-31bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 3.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mechanical and Tribological Properties of AlCuFe Quasicrystal and Al(Si)CuFe Approximant Thin Films2016Inngår i: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 232-240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered thin films of Al/Cu/Fe have been prepared by magnetron sputtering and annealed into the quasicrystalline or approximant phases, for Al2O3 or Si substrates, respectively. The nanomechanical and nanotribological properties; hardness, elastic modulus, friction and toughness, have been measured using a triboindenter and analytical methods. The approximant phase, annealed at 600 °C for 4 h, proved to be harder and had higher elastic modulus values than the quasicrystalline phase, about, 15.6 GPa and 258 GPa, respectively. The fracture toughness of the approximant, <0.1 MPa/m½, was however inferior to that of the quasicrystals with 1.5 MPa/m½. The friction coefficients were measured in a range of 0.10-0.14 for the quasicrystalline and approximant thin films.

  • 4.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Formation of α-approximant and quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe thin filmsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al-Cu-Fe thin films have been deposited by magnetron sputtering onto Si and Al2O3 substrates with a nominal global composition corresponding to the quasicrystalline phase, 5:2:1. Subsequent annealing was performed on samples up to 710 °C. It is found that when using Si as substrate a film-substrate reaction occurs already below 390 °C, where Si diffuses into the film. This changes the composition, promoting the formation of the α-approximant Al55Si7Cu25.5Fe12.5 in the temperature range 400 to 650 °C over the quasicrystalline ψ-phase. When annealing the same Al-Cu-Fe thin film grown on Al2O3 substrates the Al62.5Cu25Fe12.5 icosahedral quasicrystalline phase is formed.

  • 5.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Formation of α-approximant and quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe thin films2012Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 526, s. 74-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al/Cu/Fe thin films have been deposited by magnetron sputtering onto Si and Al2O3 substrates with a nominal global composition corresponding to the quasicrystalline phase, 5:2:1. Subsequent annealing was performed on the samples up to 710 degrees C. It is found that when using Si as a substrate a film-substrate reaction occurs already below 390 degrees C, where Si diffuses into the film. This changes the composition, promoting the formation of the alpha-approximant Al55Si7Cu25.5Fe12.5 in the temperature range 400 to 650 degrees C over the quasicrystalline psi-phase. When annealing the same Al-Cu-Fe thin film grown on Al2O3 substrates the Al62.5Cu25Fe12.5 icosahedral quasicrystalline phase is formed.

  • 6.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Structure and Composition of Approximant Thin Films Formed by Substrate DiffusionManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al/Cu/Fe thin films with composition close to the quasicrystalline phase have been prepared by magnetron sputtering. Annealing at 600 °C yields a homogeneous film of the cubic approximant phase by Si substrate diffusion, which prevented the formation of the quasicrystalline phase. After 4 h annealing the film contained 8 at.% Si corresponding well to the expected value of the approximant. The amount of Si in the films is found to slowly increase to ~12 at.% during continued annealing (64 h) while the approximant phase was retained. The lattice parameter was continuously decreasing as Si substituted for Al.

  • 7.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Structure and Composition of Al(Si)CuFe Approximant Thin Films Formed by Si Substrate Diffusion2014Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 550, nr 1, s. 105-109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al/Cu/Fe thin films with composition close to the quasicrystalline phase have been prepared by magnetron sputtering. Annealing at 600 °C yields a homogeneous film of the cubic a-approximant phase by Si substrate diffusion, which prevents the formation of the quasicrystalline phase. After 4 h annealing the film contained 8 at.% Si, which corresponds to the expected value of the a-approximant. The amount of Si in the films was found to slowly increase to ~12 at.% during continued annealing (64 h) while the α-approximant phase was retained. The lattice parameter was found to  continuously decrease as Al became substituted with Si. The film is observed to be polycrystalline with individual grains being strained in varying magnitude, and with no preferential orientation relationship to the substrate or each other.

  • 8.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ion-assisted Growth of Quasicrystalline Cu-Al-Sc Directly from the Vapor Phase2013Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion assisted depositions have been used to grow the Al38Cu46Sc16 quasicrystalline phase directly from the vapor phase in thin film form. Diffraction experiments reveal that amorphous films are formed at room temperature. The quasicrystalline phase formed at a substrate temperature of 340 °C with an improved quality at higher temperatures up to 460 °C. The quasicrystal film quality is improved by increasing the ion flux during ion-assisted growth with ion energies of 26.7 eV. Increasing the ion energy further was however found to cause resputtering and defects in the film. Electron microscopy reveals a polycrystalline microstructure with crystal grains in the shape of thin needles.

  • 9.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Phase Evolution of Multilayered Al/Cu/Co Thin Films into Decagonal Al-Cu-Co and Al-Cu-Co-Si Quasicrystalline Phases2013Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayered Al/Cu/Co thin films have been prepared by magnetron sputtering on Al2O3(0001) and Si(001) substrates and the phase evolution has been investigated. The decagonal d-Al-Cu-Co and d-Al-Cu-Co-Si phases were found to form at 500 °C, and at 600 °C these were the only phases. At increasing temperatures, the quasicrystals grew larger in size, up to 500 nm, although always smaller for the d-Al-Cu-Co-Si, and obtained a texturing with the 10-fold periodic axis aligned with the substrate normal. The d-Al-Cu-Co phase persisted to more than 850 °C, with a complete texturing, while the d-Al-Cu-Co-Si phase was replaced by other crystalline phases at 800 °C.

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