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  • 1.
    Hänninen, Tuomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wissting, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stoichiometric silicon oxynitride thin films reactively sputtered in Ar/N2O plasmas by HiPIMS2016In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 49, no 13, article id 135309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy, x = 0.2 − 1.3, y = 0.2 − 0.7) thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering from a pure silicon target in Ar/N2O atmospheres. It is found that the composition of the material can be controlled by the reactive gas flow and the average target power. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that high average powers result in more silicon-rich films, while lower target powers yield silicon-oxide-like material due to more pronounced target poisoning. The amount of nitrogen in the films can be controlled by the percentage of nitrous oxide in the working gas. The nitrogen content remains at a constant level while the target is operated in the transition region between metallic and poisoned target surface conditions. The extent of target poisoning is gauged by the changes in peak target current under the different deposition conditions. XPS also shows that varying concentrations and ratios of oxygen and nitrogen in the films result in film chemical bonding structures ranging from silicon-rich to stoichiometric silicon oxynitrides having no observable Si−Si bond contributions. Spectroscopic ellipsometry shows that the film optical properties depend on the amount and ratio of oxygen and nitrogen in the compound, with film refractive indices measured at 633 nm ranging between those of SiO2 and Si3N4.

  • 2.
    Khan, Azam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wissting, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Piezoelectric nanogenerator based on zinc oxide nanorods grown on textile cotton fabric2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 101, no 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation explores piezoelectricity generation from ZnO nanorods, which were grown on silver coated textile cotton fabrics using the low temperature aqueous chemical growth method. The morphology and crystal structure studies were carried out by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopic and high resolution transmission electron microscopic techniques, respectively. ZnO nanorods were highly dense, well aligned, uniform in spatial distribution and exhibited good crystal quality. The generation of piezoelectricity from fabricated ZnO nanorods grown on textile cotton fabrics was measured using contact mode atomic force microscopy. The average output voltage generated from ZnO nanorods was measured to be around 9.5 mV. This investigation is an important achievement regarding the piezoelectricity generation on textile cotton fabric substrate. The fabrication of this device provides an alternative approach for a flexible substrate to develop devices for energy harvesting and optoelectronic technology on textiles.

  • 3.
    Schmidt, Susann
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Czigany, Zsolt
    Hungarian Academic Science, Hungary.
    Wissting, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A comparative study of direct current magnetron sputtering and high power impulse magnetron sputtering processes for CNX thin film growth with different inert gases2016In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 64, p. 13-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges of carbon in different inert gas mixtures (N-2/Ne, N-2/Ar, and N-2/Kr) were investigated for the growth of carbon-nitride (CNX) thin films. Ion mass spectrometry showed that energies of abundant plasma cations are governed by the inert gas and the N-2-to-inert gas flow ratios. The population of ion species depends on the sputter mode; HiPIMS yields approximately ten times higher flux ratios of ions originating from the target to process gas ions than DCMS. Exceptional are discharges in Ne with N-2-to-Ne flow ratios <20%. Here, cation energies and the amount of target ions are highest without influence on the sputter mode. CNX thin films were deposited in 14% N-2/inert gas mixtures at substrate temperatures of 110 degrees C and 430 degrees C. The film properties show a correlation to the substrate temperature, the applied inert gas and sputter mode. The mechanical performance of the films is mainly governed by their morphology and composition, but not by their microstructure. Amorphous and fullerene-like CN0.14 films exhibiting a hardness of similar to 15 GPa and an elastic recovery of similar to 90% were deposited at 110 degrees C in reactive Kr atmosphere by DCMS and HiPIMS.

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