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  • 1.
    Elbe, Pia
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Sweden; Univ Konstanz, Germany.
    Marsja, Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division.
    Sörman, Daniel
    Umea Univ, Sweden; Lulea Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Vega-Mendoza, Mariana
    Lulea Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umea Univ, Sweden; Lulea Univ Technol, Sweden; Umea Univ, Sweden; Univ Oslo, Norway; Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Lulea Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Effects of auditory and tactile distraction in adults with low and high ADHD symptoms2024In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) impact distraction by unexpected deviant sounds and vibrations. The hypothesis was a difference between individuals with low and high ADHD symptom severity in deviance distraction. In a cross-modal oddball task, we measured the impact of to-be-ignored deviating auditory and vibrotactile stimuli in 45 adults. No difference was observed between groups with low and high symptoms of ADHD in their propensity for distraction between modalities using both frequentist and Bayesian methods. The impact of the deviating sounds and vibrations on performance was similar between groups. However, the amount of missed trials, which possibly reflects mind wandering or attention away from the focal task, was higher in the high-symptom group. The findings indicate some differences in habituation across the duration of the task. The complexity of adult ADHD symptomatology, especially differences in attentional control is discussed.

  • 2.
    Marsh, John
    et al.
    Human Factors Laboratory, School of Psychology and Computer Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK; Engineering Psychology, Humans and Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Vachon, Francois
    École de Psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Marsja, Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division.
    Röer, Jan
    Department of Psychology and Psychotherapy, Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, Germany.
    Richardson, Beth
    Human Factors Laboratory, School of Psychology and Computer Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    K. Ljungberg, Jessica
    Engineering Psychology, Humans and Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Irrelevant changing-state vibrotactile stimuli disrupt verbal serial recall: implications for theories of interference in short-term memory2023In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What causes interference in short-term memory? We report the novel finding that immediate memory for visually-presented verbal items is sensitive to disruption from task-irrelevant vibrotactile stimuli. Specifically, short-term memory for a visual sequence is disrupted by a concurrently presented sequence of vibrations, but only when the vibrotactile sequence entails change (when the sequence “jumps” between the two hands). The impact on visual-verbal serial recall was similar in magnitude to that for auditory stimuli (Experiment 1). Performance of the missing item task, requiring recall of item-identity rather than item-order, was unaffected by changing-state vibrotactile stimuli (Experiment 2), as with changing-state auditory stimuli. Moreover, the predictability of the changing-state sequence did not modulate the magnitude of the effect, arguing against an attention-capture conceptualisation (Experiment 3). Results support the view that interference in short-term memory is produced by conflict between incompatible, amodal serial-ordering processes (interference-by-process) rather than interference between similar representational codes (interference-by-content).

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  • 3.
    Marsja, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Interplay between working memory and speech recognition declines over time2024Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Age-related changes in auditory and cognitive functions are well-documented, with increased hearing thresholds (e.g., Wiley et al., 2008) and reduced working memory capacity (WMC; e.g., Wingfield et al., 1988) among older adults. Moreover, aging has been linked to poorer speech recognition in noise (e.g., Marsja et al., 2022), highlighting the multifaceted impact of age on auditory and cognitive domains. Our study examined the dynamic relationship between auditory and cognitive changes over time to shed light on the direction of influence between the two. To this aim, we employed change score modeling.

    Methods: We analyzed data from 111 normally hearing individuals from the n200 study (https://2024.speech-in-noise.eu/proxy.php?id=81). At Time 1 (T1), their mean age was 61.2 years (SD = 8.00), and at Time 2 (T2), their mean age was 67.0 years (SD = 8.06). We used Latent Change Score modeling to explore the changes in WMC and speech recognition in noise. To measure speech recognition in noise, we used signal-to-noise ratios from the Hearing in Noise Test during speech-shaped noise. The reading span test was used as a measure for WMC.

    Results and Conclusion: Preliminary results showed a decline in WMC, signified by the negative relationship between Reading Span at T1 and changes in Reading Span at T2. This negative relationship indicates that individuals with higher initial WMC experienced subsequent declines in their cognitive abilities. Furthermore, our analysis revealed a negative relationship between changes in speech recognition in noise at T2 and Reading Span at T1. This relationship suggests that individuals with higher initial WMC experienced less decline in their speech recognition in noise over time. Further research with additional time points may be needed to fully elucidate the complex relationship between cognitive and auditory changes over time.

  • 4.
    Marsja, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Moradi, Shahram
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Department of Health, Social and Welfare Studies, University of South-Eastern Norway, Porsgrunn, Norway.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Is Having Hearing Loss Fundamentally Different?: Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling of the Effect of Cognitive Functioning on Speech Identificatio2022In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 1437-1446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Previous research suggests that there is a robust relationship between cognitive functioning and speech-in-noise performance for older adults with age-related hearing loss. For normal-hearing adults, on the other hand, the research is not entirely clear. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between cognitive functioning, aging, and speech-in-noise, in a group of older normal-hearing persons and older persons with hearing loss who wear hearing aids.

    Design: We analyzed data from 199 older normal-hearing individuals (mean age = 61.2) and 200 older individuals with hearing loss (mean age = 60.9) using multigroup structural equation modeling. Four cognitively related tasks were used to create a cognitive functioning construct: the reading span task, a visuospatial working memory task, the semantic word-pairs task, and Raven’s progressive matrices. Speech-in-noise, on the other hand, was measured using Hagerman sentences. The Hagerman sentences were presented via an experimental hearing aid to both normal hearing and hearing-impaired groups. Furthermore, the sentences were presented with one of the two background noise conditions: the Hagerman original speech-shaped noise or four-talker babble. Each noise condition was also presented with three different hearing processing settings: linear processing, fast compression, and noise reduction.

    Results: Cognitive functioning was significantly related to speech-in-noise identification. Moreover, aging had a significant effect on both speech-in-noise and cognitive functioning. With regression weights constrained to be equal for the two groups, the final model had the best fit to the data. Importantly, the results showed that the relationship between cognitive functioning and speech-in-noise was not different for the two groups. Furthermore, the same pattern was evident for aging: the effects of aging on cognitive functioning and aging on speech-in-noise were not different between groups.

    Conclusion: Our findings revealed similar cognitive functioning and aging effects on speech-in-noise performance in older normal-hearing and aided hearing-impaired listeners. In conclusion, the findings support the Ease of Language Understanding model as cognitive processes play a critical role in speech-in-noise independent from the hearing status of elderly individuals.

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  • 5.
    Rosa, Eduardo
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Psychology, Gävle University, Gävle, Sweden.
    Marsja, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Division of Human Work Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Exploring Residual Capacity:: The Effectiveness of a Vibrotactile Warning During Increasing Levels of Mental Workload in Simulated Flight Tasks2020In: Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, ISSN 2192-0923, E-ISSN 2192-0931, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 13-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alarm systems may take advantage of the tactile modality for allocation of attentional resources during the performance of demanding tasks in complex environments. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a tactile warning during increasing levels of mental workload in a primary task. Three simulated flight task conditions varying in mental workload were presented while an “on-thigh” vibrotactile warning was randomly assessed. Generally, there was a decrement in overall warning response performance when task workload increased, but this tendency faded and plateaued as the level of task workload progressed. The observed pattern indicates that vibrotactile warning signals may offer a plausible mode for conveying information during increasing levels of primary task workload.

  • 6.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Marsja, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Ellis, Rachel J.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Relationships between behavioural and self-report measures in speech recognition in noise2023In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Using data from the n200-study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between behavioural (the Swedish HINT and Hagerman speech-in-noise tests) and self-report (Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Questionnaire (SSQ)) measures of listening under adverse conditions.

    Design

    The Swedish HINT was masked with a speech-shaped noise (SSN), the Hagerman was masked with a SSN and a four-talker babble, and the subscales from the SSQ were used as a self-report measure. The HINT and Hagerman were administered through an experimental hearing aid.

    Study sample

    This study included 191 hearing aid users with hearing loss (mean PTA4 = 37.6, SD = 10.8) and 195 normally hearing adults (mean PTA4 = 10.0, SD = 6.0).ResultsThe present study found correlations between behavioural measures of speech-in-noise and self-report scores of the SSQ in normally hearing individuals, but not in hearing aid users.

    Conclusion

    The present study may help identify relationships between clinically used behavioural measures, and a self-report measure of speech recognition. The results from the present study suggest that use of a self-report measure as a complement to behavioural speech in noise tests might help to further our understanding of how self-report, and behavioural results can be generalised to everyday functioning.

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  • 7.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marsja, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Sensory Organs and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Sensory Organs and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology.
    Informational masking and listening effort in speech recognition innoise: the role of working memory capacity and inhibitory control in older adults with and without hearing impairmen2022In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 65, no 11, p. 4417-4428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study aimed to assess the relationship between 1) speech-recognition-in-noise, mask type, working memory capacity (WMC), inhibitory control, and 2) self-rated listening effort, speech material, and mask type, in older adults with and without hearing-impairment. It was of special interest to assess the relationship between WMC, inhibitory control, and speech-recognition-in-noise when informational maskers masked target speech.

    Method: A mixed design was used. A group (N= 24) of older (mean age = 69.7 years) HI individuals, and a group of age-normal hearing adults (mean age = 59.3 years, SD = 6.5) participated in the study. The participants were presented with auditory tests in a sound attenuated room and the cognitive tests in a quiet office. The participants were asked to rate listening effort after being presented with energetic and informational background maskers in two different speech materials used in this study (i.e., Hearing in Noise Test and the Hagerman Test). Linear-Mixed Effects models were set up to assess the effect of the two different speech materials, energetic and informational maskers, hearing ability, WMC, inhibitory control, and self-rated listening effort.

    Results: Results showed that WMC and inhibitory control was of importance for speech-recognition-in-noise, even when controlling for PTA4 (pure tone average 4) hearing thresholds and age, when the maskers were informational. Concerning listening effort, on the other hand,  the results suggest that hearing ability, but not cognitive abilities, is important for self-rated listening effort in speech-recognition-in-noise.

    Conclusion: Speech-in-noise recognition is more dependent on WMC for older adults in informational maskers than in energetic maskers. Hearing ability is a stronger predictor than cognition for self-rated listening effort.

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  • 8.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marsja, Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division.
    Anund, Anna
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Will It Yield: Expectations on Automated Shuttle Bus Interactions With Pedestrians and Bicyclists2023In: HRI '23: Companion of the 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, p. 292-296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles that operate on public roads need to be predictable to others, including vulnerable road users. In this study, we asked participants to take the perspective of videotaped pedestrians and cyclists crossing paths with an automated shuttle bus, and to (1) judge whether the bus would stop safely in front of them and (2) report whether the bus's actual stopping behavior accorded with their expectations. The results show that participants expected the bus to brake safely in approximately two thirds of the human-vehicle interactions, more so to pedestrians than cyclists, and that they tended to underestimate rather than overestimate the bus's capability to yield in ways that they considered as safe. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of automated shuttle bus services.

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