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  • 1.
    André, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Simonsson, Louise
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stockholmsregionens anpassning till ett förändrat klimat: Sammanställning av delresultat från studier inom forskningsprogrammet Mistra-Swecia2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Denna   rapport   redovisar   delar   av   resultat   och   analyser   från   Mistra-SWECIAs   arbete   i Stockholmsområdet.   Vår   förhoppning   är   att   den   är   av   intresse   för   de   som   arbetar   med anpassningsfrågor inför klimatförändringar på olika sätt i regionen och i andra delar av Sverige.

    SWECIA står för Swedish Research Programme on Climate, Impacts and Adaptation och finansieras av Stiftelsen  för  miljöstrategisk  forskning,  Mistra.  Forskningsprogrammet  studerar  klimat,  ekonomi, effekter och anpassning med gemensamma socio-ekonomiska förutsättningar, och med hänsyn till kopplingarna   som   finns   mellan   dessa   forskningsområden.   Forskarna   arbetar   vid   Stockholm Environment Institute  (SEI),  Linköpings  universitet, Lunds  universitet,  Stockholms  universitet  och SMHI.  I  Mistra-SWECIA  är  kommunikationen  mellan  forskare  och  avnämare  central  då  dialogen hjälper till att planera forskningen och bidrar dessutom till effektiv omsättning av resultaten. Första programfasen är fyra år (2008–2011). Denna rapport är en första sammanställning av delresultat från den fallstudie som påbörjades i Stockholms län 2008.

    Inledningsvis   diskuteras   delar   av   den   deltagandestudie   som   genomfördes   med   aktörer   i Stockholmsregionen under hösten 2008. Vi redogör översiktligt för hur deltagandeforskningen har genomförts och varför vi valt detta sätt att bedriva forskning; på vilket sätt socialt lärande bidrar till anpassningsarbetet;     vilka     intressenter     som     är     engagerade     direkt     eller     indirekt     i klimatanpassningsarbetet, och vilka faktorer vi har uppfattat som kritiska och viktiga för anpassning,. Rapporten  avslutas  med  att  presentera  resultat  från  Mistra-SWECIAs  forskning  inom  Lunds universitet  och  SMHI  angående  framtida  flöden  och  vattennivåer  i  Mälaren,  samt  beräknade klimatscenarier för Stockholmsregionen. Dessa har ockå använts som underlag för studien.

    Författarna är mycket tacksamma för deltagarnas kommentarer och engagemang i studien men eventuella felaktigheter eller missuppfattningar är helt och hållet författarnas egna. Delar av resultat som presenteras i denna rapport återfinns även i andra kommande publikationer som t ex Simonsson m fl. (kommande); André & Simonsson (2009); Simonsson & André (2009), och Nilsson & Gerger Swartling (2009).

    Information   om   resultat   och   aktiviteter   inom   Mistra-SWECIA   presenteras   fortlöpande   på www.mistra–swecia.se.

  • 2.
    Bohman, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    I vått och torrt? : En studie av nationell vattenkatastrofgrupp VAKA: Underlag till den statliga dricksvattenutredningen2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten har studerat VAKA-gruppens verksamhet med speciellt fokus på hur de som larmat VAKA upplevt hjälpen, vilka konsekvenser som kunnat undvikas genom VAKA:s stöd samt hur insatserna skulle kunna organiseras och finansieras framöver. Studien utgår från 26 intervjuer med aktörer som larmat VAKA någon gång mellan 2010 och 2015.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan det konstateras att de intervjuade kommunerna upplever att VAKA erbjuder en synnerligen effektiv och professionell hjälp som bidragit till att olycksförloppen kunnat både mildras och förkortas avsevärt. Man har bistått med kvalificerad experthjälp vad gäller lägesanalys, provtagningar och analyser, bistått i organisationen av krisledningen och även förmedlat erfarenheter och kunskaper gällande media hantering samt kommunikation gentemot allmänheten. VAKA har dessutom tillgång till ett brett kontaktnät och har i de fall då man själv inte besitter rätt expertis snabbt kunnat förmedla kontakt med rätt person/instans. De intervjuade kommunerna har framhållit att man fått mental stöttning av VAKA i situationer som varit belastande för krisledningen. Att ha tillgång till erfarna människor som bollplank och som en part i diskussionen i ett kritiskt läge framhålls som otroligt viktigt för de inblandade.

    Flertalet av de intervjuade bedömer att det kan finnas en viss betalningsvilja för VAKA:s tjänster på kommunal nivå men ser en överhängande risk med att vissa kommuner eventuellt avvaktar en kontakt om denna är avgiftsbelagd. I sammanhanget bör man också beakta att andra aktörer än kommuner i dagsläget är berättigade att nyttja VAKA:s tjänster varför en exklusiv kommunavgift inte framstår som en optimal lösning framgent.

    Ingen av de intervjuade ser någon fördel med att VAKA verksamhet skulle organiseras på privat konsultbasis alternativt ersättas med regional kompetensutveckling. Det senare alternativet menar man känns inte realistiskt med tanke på att VAKA besitter vad som måste betraktas som nationell spetskompetens och att det skulle vara svårt att sprida denna till alla regioner.

    Förslag på verksamhetens utveckling som framkommit gäller bl.a. tillgången till nödvattenutrustning där tillgängligheten skulle kunna förbättras både via tätare avstånd mellan lagren samt en koordinering av samutnyttjande av resurser mellan kommuner. Man tror även att kännedomen om VAKA skulle kunna förbättras via informationsinsatser.

    Ytterligare ett förslag på verksamhetens utveckling gäller tillgång till laboratorier där man föreslår att VAKA alternativt Livsmedelsverket skulle administrera en central upphandling för att säkerställa att det alltid finns tillgång till laboratorieresurser.

    Baserat på rapportens samlade bedömning rekommenderas det att VAKA gruppens verksamhet även fortsättningsvis bör bedrivas i sin nuvarande form men med en fast finansiering från näringsdepartementet som möjliggör en mer långsiktig planering av verksamheten.

    Avslutningsvis bör det återigen understrykas att effekterna av framtida klimatförändringar medför att riskerna för dricksvattenförsörjningen ökar och att antalet incidenter kopplat till dricksvattenförsörjning med stor sannolikhet kommer att öka. Behovet av VAKA-gruppens tjänster blir därmed större i framtiden.

  • 3.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A mapping of climate change risks and adaptation guidelines to house owners in Denmark, Norway and Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This briefing informs on ongoing research within the project “Increasing Nordic homeowners adaptive capacity to climate change: research of opinions and development of a web-based tool” (In hac Vita) financed by Nordforsk. The project is subordinated the Nordic Centre of Excellence for Strategic Adaptation Research (NORD-STAR) which aims at bridging the gaps between adaptation science, practice and policy, and at helping public and private stakeholders at all levels to improve strategy development and decision-making. Since this is ongoing research, results and discussions presented in this text should be seen as preliminary.

  • 4.
    Hallgren, Axel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Deep Sea Mining2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This brief is based on a literature review conducted by Axel Hallgren at Linköping University that maps ongoing deep sea mining (DSM) research, scientific debates and controversies and synthesizes major narratives in the field. The brief will first contextualize DSM, pinpoint a few significant challenges, and continue with a short description of the targeted mineral resources. The discussion that follows hone in on a few governance challenges that emanate from the aspirations to achieve an equitable distribution of mining revenues and the lack of scientific knowledge, and the inherently unmanageable task to draft a legitimate regulatory system for the governance of the global and currently uncharted deep sea bed in merely a few years. The brief rounds off by highlighting a few avenues for topical social scientific research.      

  • 5.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Storbjörk, Sofie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anna C
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Brink, Ebba
    Wamsler, Christine
    Svensk forskning om klimatanpassning inom styrning och planering2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan klimat- och sårbarhetsutredningen presenterade sitt betänkande år 2007 har omfattande samhällsvetenskapliga forskningsinsatser riktats mot hur offentliga aktörer och myndigheter styr, planerar och arbetar med klimatanpassning och klimatomställning. Analytisk kompetens inom flera för klimatanpassning centrala områden har byggts upp vid ett flertal lärosäten och inom flera sektorsmyndigheter.

    Det   är   alltför  tidskrävande  att   göra   en   heltäckande  och   rättvisande  bild   av   dessa forskningsaktiviteter, men denna inlaga från Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR, vid Linköpings universitet i samarbete med Lunds universitets centrum för studier av uthållig samhällsutveckling, LUCSUS, gör valda nedslag inom tre huvudområden i vilka kunskapen ökats genom svensk anpassningsforskning. De tre huvudområdena för kunskapsökning är: Klimatanpassning  på  offentliga  aktörers  agenda,  Verktyg  för  att  stimulera  och  stödja klimatanpassning och Klimatanpassning och stadsplanering.

    Det är vår förhoppning att detta ger en tillräckligt god bild av hur kunskapsläget ökar snabbt och att vi ser tecken på att ökningstakten tilltar. Vi vill också på förhand be om ursäkt för de texter och den forskning som vi på grund av begränsade resurser inte fick med i vår framställning.

  • 6.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Baltic Climate Vulnerability Assessment Framework: Introduction and Guidelines2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Vulnerability Assessment Framework was put together within the project Baltic Challenges and Chances for local and regional development generated by Climate Change financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. The purpose of the framework is to guide and assist the Target Areas (TA) within the project in mapping and analysing the challenges and chances created by climate change. The Vulnerability exercises have originally been developed and tested within a number of other research projects within the Key Research Area Vulnerability & Adaptation at the Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research (CSPR). The projects Enhancing Cities’ Capacity to Manage Vulnerability to Climate Change (financed by FORMAS), Participatory Modelling for Assessment of Climate Change– impacts on Water Resources in Southern Africa (financed by SIDA/Sarec), and the Swedish Research Programme on Climate, Impacts and Adaptation (financed by MISTRA) are the most important and we acknowledge the sharing of results made possible by those financing agencies. Apart from the authors, the following persons have contributed to the design of individual exercises: Lotta Andersson, Yvonne Andersson-Sköld, Karin André, Åsa Gerger-Swartling, Erik Glaas, Anna Jonsson and Louise Simonsson. These people all have been generous to share their expertise and are gratefully acknowledged. We are also grateful for all stakeholders that by their participating in the exercises have helped us in developing them. Please refer to any individual exercise use according to the following example: André, K. and Å. Gerger-Swartling, 2010. Exercise VI – Identification of Key Actors and Mapping of their Responsibilities. In Hjerpe and Wilk, 2010. Baltic Climate Vulnerability Assessment Framework: Introduction and Guidelines. CSPR Briefing No 5. 2010.

    At the time of publishing, results based on the methods described in this briefing have still not been published and are still work in progress. The exercises are in a process of modification and adjustment, both within the Baltic Climate project and other initiatives. If you wish to use any of these exercises, please contact Mattias Hjerpe or Julie Wilk at CSPR. The Briefing in an earlier version was primarily intended for use in regional and local applications in the Baltic Sea Region starting December 2009 and forward. Any suggestions for improvement and tests of the VAF pilot version will be of pertinent importance to develop the final version.

    This Briefing consists of three sections and one appendix.

    Section 1 "Introducing Vulnerability to Climate Change" describes the main elements in an assessment of vulnerability to climate variation and climate change. It intends to familiarize project participants within the vulnerability assessment process in the TAs.

    Section 2 "BalticClimate Vulnerability Assessment Framework" presents the VAF and explains the idea of using exercises to systematically discuss the main elements shaping vulnerability to climate change in your TA. It also presents how the WP3 researchers can support the TAs.

    Section 3 "Exercises for analysis of vulnerability and adaptation" contains the aims, outputs, and description of the eight exercises, and the exercises Identification of Challenges & Chances of Climate Change and Introducing Climate Adaptation undertaken during the Inventory phase. The appendix contains a more elaborated description of adaptation and vulnerability to climate change.

     

     

    Mattias Hjerpe, Assistant Professor, BalticClimate Work Package 3 Leader Email: mattias.hjerpe@liu.se, Phone: +46-11-36 34 38, Fax: +46-11-36 32 92

    Julie Wilk, Associate Professor, BalticClimate Work Package 3 Co-leader Email: julie.wilk@smhi.se, Phone: +46-13-28 44 63, Fax: +46-11-36 32 92

  • 7.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pros and Cons of International Biofuel Production: An overview of research and policy reports 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This briefing from the Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research presents a summary of

    research and policy reports on positive and negative aspects of liquid biofuels. It covers three areas:  economic  and  energy  security,  rural  development  and  agricultural  production  and environmental challenges. It will also shortly depict the cases of Brazilian ethanol as a model of processing agricultural crops to liquid fuels for transport, and finally cover the future bioenergy production potential in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The purpose of this briefing is to provide an overview of present discussions and to present arguments from a variety of organisations  and  scholars.  As  a  service  to  a  reader,  the  briefing  contains  an  extensive reference list for further studies.

    The reports and research covered in this briefing are quite disparate. Nevertheless, ten significant conclusions can be observed:

    •  Biofuels cannot solely substitute oil in meeting the expected future energy demand in transportation.

    •  Development of next-generation biofuels can ease the food vs. fuel competition since they can be processed from other sources of biomass than the major food crops.

    •  Countries in tropical regions are more suited for biomass production. However,  we lack sufficient research on future stresses compounded due to climate change  and economic globalisation.

    •  International trade rules, particularly governing agricultural commodities, as well  as development of standards and certifications will play a significant role in  shaping global, as well as local conditions of future biofuel production. Thus, the outcomes of trade  agreement  and  policies  will  impinge  on  development  goals  and  livelihood security in developing countries.

    •  An  important  factor  for  developing  countries  will  be  whether  biofuels  will  be considered as an agricultural or non-agricultural good by WTO. If they are classified as agricultural commodities they can be eligible for special measures such as subsidies for environmental reasons. But this may also be used to uphold agricultural subsidies in industrialised countries.

    •  Liquid  biofuel  production  can  be  beneficial  for  developing  countries  in  tropical regions. Present research indicates that rural communities in SSA may benefit if they hold control over the local or regional production conditions.

    •  Taking into account present conditions, food security of several SSA countries could be under strain caused by increased biofuel production.

    •  Depending on production conditions, SSA countries can stand to gain in the future.

    However,  we  lack  comprehensive  research  on  the  conditions  for  a  sustainable development of biofuel production which will benefit development aspirations.

    •  Although economies of scale is one factor to consider, sustainable development  in SSA can benefit from small-scale production since this type of agriculture can put less stress on environment, in contrast to large-scale production projects.

    •  The production of liquid biofuels in SSA should be directed to meet other important needs in addition to transports (in contrast to the Brazilian example)  like  heating, cooking and electricity generation.

  • 8.
    Lindgren, Lina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Including Additional Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry-activities under the Clean Development Mechanism: Discussions in the United Nations Climate Negotiations2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Land use, land use change and forestry activities (LULUCF) can help mitigate climate change by creating a terrestrial carbon sink, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, while at the same time help increasing adaptive capacity and reduce poverty. Still, carbon stored in biomass or soils are only stored temporary since natural or human induced disturbances can cause a total or partial loss of stored carbon.

    LULUCF-activities under the clean development mechanism (CDM),  one of the flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto protocol, have been limited to afforestation and reforestation (A/R) projects under the first commitment period. Joint implementation projects and national accounting  of  greenhouse  gas  reduction  can  in  addition  to  A/R-project  also  include deforestation,  revegetation,  forest  management,  cropland  management  and  grazing  land management. The exclusion of these types of activities from CDM has been questioned and debated recently.

    This briefing tracks the United Nations (UN) climate negotiations in regards to the possibility of including additional LULUCF-activities under CDM, mainly the negotiations occurring after the adoption of the Bali Road map.

    LULUCF under CDM has been discussed mainly in the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP). There are diverging ideas on whether a more holistic approach should be applied to the treatment of LULUCF under CDM or whether current structure should be kept. Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, El Salvador, New Zealand, Norway, Canada, Australia and several of the Least Developed Countries have been positive towards including additional LULUCF-activities. Some of the arguments brought up are that the LULUCF-sector holds a large potential to mitigate climate change that is lost with the current structure and that a broader inclusion of LULUCF-activities would lead to an inclusion of all parts of the world in the benefits from CDM. China, Brazil and  Alliance of Small  Island States  have, on the other hand, been sceptical towards including additional activities arguing that there are too large uncertainties and that it creates an offset allowing developed nations to delay emission reduction in other sectors. The EU supports the current structure and rules but is open to discuss alternatives.

    The  AWG-KP  has  been  negotiating  a  new  LULUCF-decision,  which  has  not  yet  been adopted. In the draft LULUCF-decision from the Conference of Parties in Copenhagen 2009, the possibility of expanding LULUCF under CDM was however opened. In the draft decision the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) is requested to initiate a work programme on additional LULUCF-activities. Since the LULUCF-decision is not yet adopted, SBSTA cannot initiate this work programme and whether they will be able to do so is dependent upon the outcome of the negotiations on the LULUCF-decision. LULUCF- activities under CDM have so far received little negotiation time.

    LULUCF and CDM have also been discussed outside the formal UN climate negotiations. Several  side events,  for  example,  have treated these questions,  both  for and  against  the inclusion of additional activities.

  • 9.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sammanfattning för beslutsfattare av Syntesrapporten av IPCC:s fjärde bedömningsrapport2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Så mycket syntes i betydelsen "ett åtagande att sätta samman delar för att forma en ny helhet" är inte rapporten. Det är mer ett väl avvägt urval och sammanställning av slutsatser från de tre föregående delrapporterna. Vissa synteser har dock gjorts. Exempelvis innehåller rapporten en sammanställning av en figur som sammanför scenarier för växthusgasutsläpp från 2000 till 2100 i avsaknad av klimatpolitik med projektioner för marktemperaturer utifrån SRES samt en om projicerade relativa förändringar i avrinning till mitten av detta århundrade. Den senare finns inte med i sammanfattningen för beslutsfattare, men återfinns i bakgrundsrapporten.

    Rapporten nämner inte specifikt problematiken med ojämlikheter i sårbarheten för klimatförändringar, t.ex. genusskillnader. Den nämner skillnader i kapacitet och rättvisa i mer allmänna ordalag. Det vetenskapliga underlaget visar dock att detta är viktiga aspekter.

    Sverige försökte, utan framgång, få in genusaspekter i sammanfattningen för beslutsfattare. Däremot bidrog man till skrivningar om bl.a. livsstilsfrågor, försurningen, biodiversitet, teknologispridning, kopplingen till FN:s milleniemål och syntetisering för beslutsfattarna av klimatmodelleringens resultat, t.ex. vad gäller utsatta områden för avrinning.

    IPCC har kritiserats för att inte lyfta fram dagsaktuella forskningsrapporter samt att man beslutar med konsensus. Till IPCC:s förtjänst kan man dock anföra att det är viktigt att ha ett forum där representanter för över 130 länder diskuterar forskningsresultat och vilka konsekvenser av forskningens slutsatser. Det har sannolikt betydelse för att höja beredskapen och skapa större samsyn. Med tanke på att länder med radikalt olika utgångspunkter i klimatpolitiken har kunnat enas om en minsta gemensamma nämnare, ger rapporten möjlighet att kunna bli ett kraftfullt redskap i de stundande förhandlingarna inom FN:s klimatkonvention och i nationellt beslutsfattande. Syntesrapportens sammanfattning för beslutsfattare har förutsättningar att vara ett effektivt sätt att nå ut med resultaten från flera år av välgranskad internationell forskning till beslutsfattare runt om i världen.

  • 10. Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Henders, Sabine
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sustainability and climate impact of selected CDM projects: A compilation of seven student papers from a course in climate science and policy2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    P R E FACE

    This CSPR briefing is a compilation of seven course papers written in an advanced level university course called "Climate science and policy" led by the Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research (CSPR) in Norrköping. Madelene Ostwald, assistant professor at the centre, was the course leader. The students are all from different backgrounds and took the course as a Single Subject Course.

    The main examination in the course was to write a paper, assessing sustainable development and climate impacts for different Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects as well as to discuss this in relation to the methodological parameters in a CDM project; baseline, additionality, permanence, leakage and monitoring. The students chose themselves which project to assess as well as which aspects to focus on. Out of the seven assessed CDM projects, five are Afforestation/Reforestation projects, one of which is large-scale and the rest small-scale projects. Two biomass projects are also assessed, one small-scale and one large- scale.

    The editor for this CSPR briefing has been Lina Lundgren with assistance from Sabine Henders and Madelene Ostwald.

     

    IN T R O DU CT IO N

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was created in 1992 in order to address the threats of climate change. The main aim of the convention is to stabilize the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere on a level where no dangerous interference with the climate system should occur. The Kyoto Protocol 4, created in 1997 during a UNFCCC parties meeting, sets binding targets for the identified Annex I 5 parties to reduce GHG emissions. Although emission targets are set in the Kyoto Protocol, it is up to each individual country to decide how the reduction should occur. As a supplement to national measures in reducing emissions three market-based mechanisms were established: Emissions Trading, The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI). The CDM focuses on projects in developing countries (see below for more details). These so-called flexible mechanisms were created to allow reducing emissions of GHGs in a cost efficient way, based on the assumption that one ton of emissions reduction has a global effect regardless of where it occurs - so it can be implemented where it is least expensive to reach the reduction (UNFCCC, 2008).

  • 11.
    Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anna C.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Assessment of social vulnerability: a literature review of vulnerability related to climate change and natural hazards2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change will cause long term effects on ecosystems and human systems. Different systems are however not equally susceptible to and have different possibilities of coping with these effects. A system’s vulnerability refers to the degree to which the system can cope with changes and whether it is susceptible to it or not (Parry 2007). Vulnerability therefore depends on the exposure to climate change (the character, magnitude or rate of change or effect), the sensitivity and the adaptive capacity of the system. Still, all components and people in the system will not be affected equally and will have different vulnerabilities.

    This is a literature review of scientific studies in social vulnerability aiming at finding groups of people in a society who are vulnerable to the effects of climate change (such as heat waves, flooding and landslides/erosion). Much of the focus when it comes to social vulnerability studies have been in regards to natural hazards, and since the effect from climate change can be  similar,  this  literature  review  has  included  vulnerability  assessments  both  of  natural hazards risks and climate related risks or crisis. This is a summary of the findings where socio-economic vulnerability is presented together with common approaches for assessing vulnerability.

    A total of ten scientific articles were chosen as a basis for this summery, both from the natural hazards field and the field of climate change research. The articles were chosen to show a broad range of approaches to study and view social vulnerability, be suitable and useful for a Swedish setting and also to be relevant in relation to the goals of the project in which the study was made. One article (Füssel 2007) serves to give a general orientation in the field and a meta-analytical perspective, while the other texts provide examples of recent frameworks developed for assessing vulnerability (Cutter et al. 2003, Cutter et al. 2008, Wilhelmi and Hayden 2010, Holand et al. 2011, Reid et al. 2009), whereas some texts discuss the use of social  indicators  (King  and  MacGregor  2000),  seek  to  contextualize  social  vulnerability (Kuhlicke et al. 2011) or review recent finding on certain climate related risks (Oudin Åström et al. 2011, Rocklöv et al. 2011).  In addition to the scientific literature in the field, Swedish tools  designed  by  the  research  programme  CLIMATOOLS  for  the  specific  purpose  of assessing vulnerability have been included.

    The literature review was made as a background study for designing focus group interviews with vulnerable population segments, as part of the project Adapting cities to climate induced risks – a coordinated approach, which is a trans-disciplinary project aiming at developing methodology and knowledge on how to manage climate induced risk and increase resilience towards climate change in Swedish cities. This literature review is part of the work package aiming at developing a tool for assessing and finding vulnerable groups of people in Swedish cities or municipalities.

  • 12.
    Lövbrand, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anna C
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Democratizing Expertise in Theory and Practice:: Exploring Knowledge Gaps and New Research Ideas2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This CSPR briefing report is a summary of an international workshop hosted by the Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research and Department of Thematic Studies: Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University in Norrköping on 21 November 2011. The workshop brought together some 20 scholars interested in the role of science in democratic societies. In the following report we present the analytical aim, setup and outcomes of the workshop. We also reflect upon promising ideas for future research that were discussed during the workshop deliberations. With this brief summary we would like to thank all participants for their thoughtful input to the workshop theme. While the report is intended to reflect the rich and vibrant debate that took place in the CSPR conference room this sunny November day, it is of course difficult to fully represent the diversity of views and perspectives presented by our workshop participants. Hence, any arguments  (and  mistakes)  forwarded  in  this  briefing  remain  those  of  the  authors. Finally,  we  would  also  like  to  acknowledge  the  workshop  support  provided by  the Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research and the Department of Thematic Studies: Water  and  Environmental  Studies.  By  positioning  our  research  environment  in  an ongoing scholarly debate and by identifying promising project ideas for spring 2012, we hope that time and money was well spent.

    Workshop aim

    The role of science in democratic societies has been widely debated in recent years. In an age of food scares such as the BSE crisis in the UK and environmental mega-risks such as nuclear disasters and anthropogenic climate change, scholars and practitioners alike have suggested that scientific experts need to test the validity of their knowledge claims outside the laboratory in order to gain public trust and legitimacy. The aim of this workshop  is  to  take  stock  of  this  scholarly  debate  by  discussing  its  theoretical foundations and practical implications. We use climate change as our main empirical case, although the debate extends well beyond this policy domain. What do calls for more  democratic  modes  of  climate  science  and  expertise  entail?  What  ideals  of democracy  do  they  rest  upon?  What  can  we  learn  from  practical  efforts  to  engage publics  and  stakeholders  in  the  making  and  interpretation  of  climate  science?  By bringing  together  scholars  at  the  intersection  of  science  and  technology  studies, environmental  studies  and  democratic  theory  the  workshop  sets  out  to  identify promising  ideas  for  future  research  that  may  advance  the  science  and  democracy research agenda.

  • 13.
    Neset, Tina-Simone
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    In Hac Vita: Increasing Nordic Homeowners’ Adaptative Capacity to Climate Change: research and development of a web-based tool VisAdaptTM2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The NordForsk funded research project In Hac Vita project is a collaboration between the Nordic insurance companies If, Gjensidige, Trygg-Hansa/ Codan and Tryg Insurance, and the Top-level Research Initiative the Nordic Centre of Excellence NORD-STAR.

    The project concerns climate change adaptation and insurance in the Nordic countries and focuses on  the design and implementation of the web-based visualisation tool VisAdaptTM, allowing homeowners to assess potential climate related risk factors that may have an impact on their living conditions, and to get an overview of existing guidelines of how to adapt to climate change and extreme weather effects.

  • 14.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Palm, Matilda
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ravindranath, N.H.
    Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
    Land use and forest issues at COP13 on Bali December 20072008Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Wibeck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Himmelsbach, Raffael
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Anshelm, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Policy brief on climate engineering2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate engineering (geoengineering) has been widely discussed as a potential instrument for curbing global warming if politics fails to deliver green house gas emission reductions. This debate has lost momentum over the last couple of years, but is now being renewed in the wake of the December 2015 Paris climate change agreement. Resurgent interest primarily stems from two elements of the Paris agreement. First, by defining the long term goal as “achiev[ing] a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases” instead of decarbonization, the agreement can be interpreted as providing leeway for climate engineering proposals. Second, the agreement formulated a temperature goal of “well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C”. In response, several scientists argued that these goals may require climate engineering.

    As these discussions will affect the forthcoming review of pathways toward 1.5°C warming, this policy brief takes stock of climate engineering. It draws on the expertise of Linköping University’s Climate Engineering (LUCE) interdisciplinary research programme. The brief provides an overview of the status of academic debate on climate engineering regarding bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS);  stratospheric aerosol injection; and mass media reporting and public engagement.

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