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  • 1.
    Blomqvist, Suzanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    "Ju mer vi är tillsammans ?": Mångprofessionellt teamarbete i vården2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Multiprofessional teamwork has become the preferred model of practice promoted for  many  areas of  health  care services.  This  is  especially  so in areas where  the patients care needs are extensive and multidimensional. This literature review aims to determine:

    -    How  multiprofessional  healthcare  teams (MPHCT)  are described  in  research literature.

    -    What is  described  as the most important factors affecting  work  performed  by MPHCTs.

    -    What the advantages and disadvantage of MPHCTs are described as.

    The source of data includes 89 studies identified from a search of the computerized database PsychInfo done in June 2003 for the period of 1872 - 2003.

    A  common way  to describe  a MPHCT  is  as an identified  collective  in which members  share common  team  goals  and  work   interdependently  in  planning, problem  solving,  decision  making  and implementing  and evaluating  teamrelated tasks. The specialist that may be included in a MPHCT is for example physicians, clinical  nurses, social  workers,  physiotherapists,  psychologists  and  occupational therapists.

    Research on MPHCTs has first of all placed its focus on influencing factors that lies  within the team, and not  so much  on factors concerning  the organizational context.  The  influencing  factor  most  commonly  described  in  literature  is  the professional differences among the team members. Described as important are the team members’ knowledge of each other’s competence, their  attitude  toward  each other, their attitude teamwork and their image of what teamwork is about. Important factors are also how influence over teamwork is distributed, how decisions are made, and how  differences  of opinion are settled.  Important  for  work  outcome is  also clarity and agreement on roles, clarity and agreement on objectives and a leadership that  primarily  is  concentrated  on  the  integration  of  the  different  professional perspectives represented in the team.

    Advantages of MPHCTs as a way to organize health care services are described in literature. An advantage of the professional diversity of the team is the possibility it renders the team members to broaden their view on what the origin of the patients’ symptoms might be, the teamwork may therefore be a stimulating way to work. The multidimensional way to view the patient problems and to design a treatment plan is described as an advantage. Several studies also indicates that team based care might be more efficient than care organized in a traditional way.

    A disadvantage that has been noticed is that different professional backgrounds might lead to conflicts within the team. Another disadvantage described is the time- consuming  process decision-making  might  become when  you  want  to  include several different perspectives.

  • 2.
    Blomqvist, Suzanne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Med förenade krafter: Arbetsmöten i human servicesektorn2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In any organization people recurrently meet to exchange information, and to make decisions on how to organize their work in order to fulfil their tasks. Different kinds of work meetings take place in all sectors of working life, also in what is known as the human service sector.

    The aim if this study was to investigate what research on work meetings in human service sector highlights as important influencing factors on how work is performed during meetings. The study is based on research performed on authentic work groups only.

    To make it possible to meet different the needs of the clients most work groups in human service sector are Multiprofessional ones. To be able to make use of the professional diversity in the work group during work meetings on important influencing factor is how influence is distributed between group members, influence over how discussions are held and how decisions are made. The influence of group members seems to be effected by what status an individual holds in the group, level of education and by how much someone talks during the meeting. The influence of a group member is also influenced by the size of the group, and by what method is used in the group to solve differences of opinion.

    Another important influencing factors that is highlighted in literature is the nature of communication during group meetings, especially concerning the possibility to integrate different perspectives and to have a shared vocabulary when discussing clients.

    If the meeting is or is not conducted by a systematic structure to guide discussion and decision-making is another important influencing factor. The influence of well- known group phenomena such as power of the majority, the value of minority dissent, group polarization, and the group think syndrome is also given attention in research literature. Attention is also given to the effects of emotional, subconscious needs of group members on the work performed during work meetings.

    To enhance performance during work meetings in the human service sector one might consider giving attention to the above-described aspects of work meetings. Influence more equally distributed between group members might be accomplished by using a systematic structure guiding discussion and decision-making. Small size groups and a collaborative way to solve differences of opinion might also contribute to an equal distribution of influence during work meetings.

    To facilitate communication during work meetings one might consider using consulteecentered consultation to help the work group reflect on how language is used during meetings.  To reflect on how work is performed during work meetings might also enable a work group to become aware of how emotional, subconscious needs might influence what is accomplished. Innehållsförteckning

  • 3.
    Einarsson, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ett ärende blir till: föreställningar om hur problem hanteras inom elevhälsan2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    This report is part of a research project called Integration of knowledge and interprofessional learning. Multiprofessional collaboration and negotiation of meaning in relation to student health. Multiprofessional teams have a long history in Swedish schools but recently a new type of multiprofessional teams was proposed by the Swedish Government integrating health services, psychosocial services with special education. The aim of the study presented in this report was to explore and create understanding about professionals conceptions about how students with problems are handled within in the student health teams. Thirteen focus groups were conducted and

    data was analysed with a qualitatively approach. The main findings in this study indicate that problems with a specific student become a case within student health teams. This change from problem to a case is formed in a stair case. The results also indicate that work on cases in the student health can be described in two different dimensions. Based on the first dimension, case management could be considered as based on whether it occurs on a formal or informal way. The second dimension describes whether the efforts made by school health personnel can be seen as direct or indirect.

  • 4.
    Einarsson, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Konflikter mellan grupper: teorier om intergruppskonflikter1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The aim of this report is to present and discuss different theories about intergroup conflicts.  By  way  of  introduction  some  concepts  are  discussed  and  explored; intergroup behaviour and relations, interpersonal relations, intergroup relations and boundaries.  Further,  how  conflicts  between  groups  arise  are  explored.  Different theories trying to explain intergroup conflicts are presented and discussed.

    A conclusion in the report is that most of the theories explaining intergroup conflicts are  based  on  individual psychology theories.  The  extent to  what  these  different theories can explain intergroup conflicts differs. An extension of group theories ought be a better way to explain this area.

  • 5.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Undervisa med grupparbete som arbetsmetod2008Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Undervisning med grupparbete som arbetsform2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Pedagogiskt arbete utgör ett karaktärsämne på lärarprogrammen i Linköping. Ämnet eller ämnesfältet är mångvetenskapligt och hämtar perspektiv, teorier och metoder från olika discipliner och kunskapsområden. En stor del av verksamheten organiseras som gemensamma lärprojekt där flera individer, både studenter och lärare (tutorer) är involverade i sökande efter kunskap (www.liu.se/iuv/pedarb/block3). Detta skapar en syn på kunskap som något som utvecklas i interaktion mellan människor i den kontext de  befinner  sig  i  (Säljö,  2005),  där  seminarier  och  grupparbete  blir  centrala arbetsformer för kunskapsutvecklingen. I kursplan för Block 3 som har titeln Läraren och lärarens arbete står under rubriken undervisning och examination följande.

    • Undervisningen  sker i form av verksamhetsförlagd  utbildning, föreläsningar, seminarier, arbete i grupp, samt individuellt arbete (ibid. s.21).

    Ovanstående kan tolkas som om olika former av interaktion och samarbete mellan studenter ska utgöra en betydande del av undervisningen. Som tutor är det därför viktigt att ha kunskap om interaktiva arbetsformer.

    I  Linköpings  Universitets  arbete  med  studentinflytande  som  en  god   kraft  i utbildningsarbetet (dnr LIU 1757/02-10, 2003-04-16) är ett av målen att utveckla studentaktiva utbildningsformer med mångfald i fråga om utformning och omfattning. Detta innebär att studenterna tillskrivs ett stort mått av ansvar för de egna studierna och samtidigt tilltros de förmåga att av egen kraft utforska nya kunskapsfält och lösa komplicerade problem. Författarna menar att bl. a. lärarprogrammen har långtgående studentaktiv pedagogik och nämner PBL och olika projektinriktade modeller som exempel   på   studentaktiva  arbetsformer.   Eftersom   innebörden   av   studentaktiv pedagogik  inte  är  explicit  uttryckt  måste  detta  bli  en  tolkningsfråga  men  olika studentinteraktiva arbetsformer bör innefattas.

  • 7.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att göra det okända känt: Om bedömning av kunskaper och färdigheter vid arbete i grupp2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An encompassing knowledge interest in this project is to study what happens in the meetingbetween group work and assessment in the pedagogical practice. There seems to be adilemma between the demand for individual assessment of student’s knowledge and abilitiesand the demand of teaching collaboration abilities through group work. A previous studyconcerning teachers’ management of group work as classroom activity (Hammar Chiriac &Forslund Frykedal, 2010) reveals that assessment is a highly relevant factor when organisinggroup work in a school setting. In addition, teachers seem to experience difficulties andacknowledge some challenges and problems about assessing students working in a group. Toour knowledge this is a rather neglected research area and very little attention has been paid toresearch on assessment of students’ performance in collaborative situations.The main purpose in this study is to explore and comprehend teachers’ conceptions ofdifficulties and worries in connection with assessing students in collaborative situations.Furthermore, we intend to scrutinize what knowledge previous research may provide as acontribution to proficiency about assessment of group work.In the empirical study we have applied a grounded theory methodology and data havebeen assembled by means of group interviews. The informants were teachers, from forms 5-9in the nine-year compulsory school in Sweden.Previous research provides little theoretical knowledge or useful tools aiding the teachersin their task but comprises more of self- and peer assessment and how group members couldcontribute to the assessment.The result shows that teachers rather use informal than formal assessment. The informalassessment is mostly done by circulating in the classroom and observing the groups.Additionally, the result discloses that the teachers have difficulties to concretize and putwords on what and how they assess. In the discussion we present some pedagogicalimplications, which may be useful in the pedagogical practice. The pedagogical implicationsare based on empirical results and previous research.

  • 8.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Demokrati och storgruppsdynamik: Analys av grupprocesser och beslutsfattande i en extrainkallad kongress1993Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Hejarramsor och dess symboliska betydelse2007Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hejarramsor och dess symboliska innebörder2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Different sports have developed different traditions among the supporters. A silent and discreet audience signifies sports such as golf and tennis as long as the players are active at the green or at the court. Other sports, as for instance football and ice hockey, are known to have a more loud-voiced audience that cheers and clap hands while the performance is in progress. One reason for that could be that golf and tennis are highly individual sports with a personal dimension including high concentration, while ice hockey and football is team based with stress on co- operative actions (Farred, 2007).

    The main purpose of the study, concerning ice hockey supporters, was to observe the activities at the gallery and on the ice and simultaneously register the cheers as verbatim as possible. Of special interest was to identify deviant supporters within the cheering section and the interplay between this group and the larger group, that in order to interpret the activities at the cheer section in terms of self-regulation. However, the interplay with the opponent supporter group, police forces and with the actual match events was in the main focus in order to inquire how cheer songs and rhymes can be used as signs of social identity of a support group.

    There are some lessons to be learned from this study. First, cheers seem to be a good indication of the prevalent social identity in a supporter group. Second, attempts from minor military groups to seduce the lager group can be broken off by self- regulation. The cheerleader seems to be important in such peace-making processes. By introducing supportive cheers, the large group can bring a rebellious group back to a peaceful identity. Third, external interventions by police officers or security guards may, in some cases, activate an aggressive group’s self-regulative behaviour, which means attempts to maintain.

  • 11.
    Granström, Kjell
    Institutionen för pedagogik och psykologi, Linköpings universitet.
    Katedern. En möbel laddad med många symboliska betydelser1994Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Mental models and teacher ethics in group decisions1992Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Private communication between students in the classroom in relation to different classroom features1995Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Pupils' perceived performances and satisfaction as a function of frame factors in the classroom.1997Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Stora och små undervisningsgrupper : Forskning om klasstorlekens betydelse för elevers och lärares arbetssituation1998Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Strategier och organisation för utvärdering inom skolan : Hur man i tre kommuner försöker förstå skolans arbete och villkor1998Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Utvärdering och kvalitetsgranskning av skolans vardagsarbete : Verksamheten sedd ur ett lärarperspektiv1996Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Uvärdering och kvalitetsgranskning av skolans vardagsarbete: Verksamheten sedd ur ett lärarperspektiv1999Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Granström, Kjell
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Einarsson, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Utmaningar och provokationer i lärares vardagsarbete. 1998Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Granström, Kjell
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Guvå, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hylander, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology.
    Reclaim the streets: En analys av strategiska händelser i samband med olovliga gatumanifestationer2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Rapporten beskriver två olovliga manifestationer som utspelade sig samma dag i Linköping och Stockholm. Dessa händelser observerades och beskrivs i rapporten  – från förarbetet till avslutning  – i form  av ett antal berättelser (narrativer). Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vad som kan hända i interaktionen  mellan  polisen  och aktivister  vid aktioner  genomförda  utan polisens tillstånd. Utöver observationer har även data samlats in genom olika former   av  kontakt   med  polis   och  aktivister.   Även   om  storleken   på manifestationerna skilde sig åt var det gemensamma att båda var anordnade i en "Reclaim the streets"-anda.

    Analysen baseras på erfarenheter från Göteborgsdemonstrationerna 2001, där mekanismer   som   kan   leda   till  "krig"   och   till  "fred"   lyftes   fram. Erfarenheterna från Linköping och Stockholm  är båda bra exempel  på och illustration  av  att  "fredsskapande"  är  möjligt i  samband  med  olovliga manifestationer  i stil  med de Reclaim  the street aktiviteter  som beskrivits i denna rapport.

  • 21.
    Granström, Kjell
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Guvå, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hylander, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Riots and Disturbances: How riots start and how order is secured2009Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Granström, Kjell
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Guvå, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hylander, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Salemmanifestationerna 2004: Ett samspel med flera geografiska och ideologiska fokus2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Denna studie handlar om de olika demonstrationer eller manifestationer som skedde i samband med den nationalistiska  s.k. Salemmanifestationen.  Till skillnad  från  tidigare  rapporter,  där  krigs-  och  fredsskapande processer studerades mellan demonstranter och polisen (Granström, 2002; Granström, Guvå, Hylander & Rosander, 2005), är denna av lite annan art då det handlar om politiska  grupper  med klart  motsatta åsikter  och intressen,  där polisen agerar som tredje part för att skilja grupperna åt. Data samlades in genom observation av 5 olika händelser under en och samma dag – både med fokus på demonstranter  och på polisen.  Utöver  detta  har  även intervjuer  med demonstranter och polisen genomförts. Det övergripande syftet med studien var att skapa kunskap om de processer som uppstår när polis möter anta- gonistiska demonstrantgrupper som framför sina budskap offentligt.

    Resultatet visar att när grupper som har antagonistiska budskap demon- strerar  kan  fred  upprätthållas  om  samtliga  grupper  har  en intention  att genomföra fredliga  manifestationer,  grupperna hålls åtskilda  i tid och rum samt  om  polis  och  demonstranter  förhåller  sig  fredsskapande gentemot varandra  och upprätthåller  en dialog.  Vidare,  att det inte  räcker med en enstaka provokation, en kaotisk situation, en stereotyp kategorisering för att det ska uppstå konfrontation mellan grupper utan det är just kombinationen av mellan  alla  tre krigsskapande  processer som är avgörande. Om krigs- skapande handlingar möts av icke-handlingar kan det även ha en påtagligt fredsskapande funktion.  Det betyder att krigsskapande  handlingar  från en grupp inte behöver "neutraliseras" med aktivt fredsskapande handlingar från den andra gruppen. Ett passivt eller avvaktande förhållningssätt kan leda till att  krigsrisken   rinner   ut  i sanden.  Detta  gäller   för  såväl  poliser   som demonstranter. Slutligen, när en grupp beter sig som om den hade tilltro till en annan grupp  kommer den andra gruppens medlemmar  att förstärkas i sin kollektiva tilltro till den första gruppen.

  • 23.
    Granström, Kjell
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Näslund, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology.
    Lekmannateorier om orsaker till oroligheter och kravaller i samband med stora demonstrationer2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of a democratic society political demonstrations take place occasionally, such arrangements are usually carried out orderly and peacefully. However, in some cases such mass events result in confrontations and riots. Most riot research has concentrated on the activists or to some degree the police forces and their actions and strategies. The behaviour of demonstrators or police officers may sometimes, to an outsider appears strange. In order to understand means and measures taken by a group you need to know something about the nature of assumptions, expectations and stereotypes kept by the confronting groups. Each group has implicit theories about the other group. Such naive theories have been called lay theories. These types of theories or assumptions govern peoples’ attitudes and their behaviour. Consequently, in order to understand peoples’ actions it is necessary to take part of their lay theories.

    This study accounts for lay theories among police officers, traditional demonstrators and post-modern demonstrators, the last group often called autonomous groups. The different groups’ narratives disclose that their lay theories to same degree coincident, but also differ. Probably the character of these differences is an important explanation why riots break out.

  • 24.
    Granström, Kjell
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Groupthink och motståndsarbete: Ett bidrag till motståndsarbetets epistemologi1995Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Granström, Kjell
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Stiwne, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    A bipolar model on groupthink : An expansion of Janis' concept groupthink.1994Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Guvå, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    En analys av Göteborgskommitténs betänkande Göteborg 2001 (SOU 2002:122)2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Föreliggande rapport är en granskning av det statliga betänkande som görs i samband med de händelser som äger rum vid EU-mötet i Göteborg år 2001. Syftet är att analysera kommitténs slutsatser och förslag utifrån en vetenskaplig studie av dessa händelser de s.k. Göteborgskravallerna som görs på institutionen för beteendevetenskap vid Linköpings Universitetet.

    I likhet med internationell forskning visar Linköpingsstudien att kravaller kan ses som ett resultat av växelverkande processer mellan polis och demonstranter vilka antingen kan leda till krig eller fred. Demonstranter utgör från början inte en homogen "massa" utan består av många olika grupperingar av vilka s.k. postmoderna demonstranter urskiljer sig som en specifik kategori. Eftersom de skiljer sig från traditionella demonstranter i olika avseenden riskerar de att kategoriseras och behandlas som tillhöriga en fientligt inställd provokatörsgrupp.

    I rapporten visas bl.a. att kommittén bygger sina förslag på en onyanserad uppdelning av demonstrationer i en fredlig (modern) grupp och en fientlig provokatörsgrupp och därmed missar frågan om hur man kan möta en ny rörelse av politiskt intresserade ungdomar inom ramen för ett demokratiskt samhälle.

  • 27.
    Guvå, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Kravaller och social identitet: en forskningsöversikt2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    This paper is an overview of psychological theories on riots, from old perspectives to more recent ones. The old theories describe and explain riots in terms of a groupmind, that is, a view in which the participants loose their identity and become a crowd. Theories that are more recent focus on the change of identity instead of deindividuation – from a personal identity to a social identity, or from one social identity to another. The social identity adopted is a result of an intergroup process in which different groups, for example, the police and demonstrators, become each other’s social context.

  • 28.
    Guvå, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Och de tre skola bliva ett: Om elevhälsans tre spår2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Syftet med denna rapport är att beskriva tankarna bakom och med Elevhälsan som en ny verksamhetsform i skolans värld. Enligt det lagförslag som ligger skall olika kompetenser samverka utifrån en samsyn på barns lärande och utveckling i syfte att skapa bästa möjliga förutsättningar för varje enskild elev att nå skolans kunskapsmål. Begreppet elevhälsa ska omfatta såväl skolans lärmiljö som individens psykiska och fysiska hälsa samt sociala situation utifrån antagandet att lärande och hälsa påverkas av samma generella faktorer samtidigt som de påverkar och påverkas av varandra.

    De kompetenser som föreslås samverka är medicinsk, omvårdnads, psykologisk, psykosocial och (special)pedagogisk. Dessa kompetenser representeras idag av olika yrkesgrupper, som inte är nya i skolans värld. Var och en har sin historia, sin tradition, sina perspektiv och sina intressen när de går in i Elevhälsan som en ny verksamhetsform. De kan sägas utgöra elevhälsans tre spår; skolhälsovård (skolläkare och skolsköterska), elevvård (psykolog och kurator) samt det (special)pedagogiska spåret (specialpedagog, speciallärare). För att förstå vilka "spår" detta eventuellt kommer att sätta i den nya elevhälsan beskrivs här varje kompetens professionella ursprung och framväxt.

  • 29.
    Guvå, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Polisens arbete i samband med demonstrationer som övergått till kraveller2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Denna rapport belyser polisens arbete i samband med demonstrationer som resulterat i kravaller. Intervjuer har gjorts med ett antal poliser som tjänstgjort under Göteborgskravallerna. Bearbetning och analys bygger på antagandet att kravaller är ett intergrupprelaterat fenomen mellan demonstranter och poliser. Denna studie visar bl. a att det som händer mellan demonstranter och poliser och som leder till kravaller kan ses som ett eskalerande förlopp i flera steg, där inomgruppsprocesser växelspelar med mellangruppsprocesser.

    Till skillnad från vanligt polisarbete arbetar polisen under en demonstration i grupper, där man såväl uniformerar som formerar sig på ett för uppgiften särskilt sätt. Om enskilda poliser låter sig triggas av enskilda demonstranter (individnivå) och det ger upphov till en konfrontation, leder detta till att andra kollegor i gruppen går in (intragruppnivå) mot demonstranterna som på motsvarande sätt går på polisen som grupp (intergruppnivå). I detta läge kommer andra grupper av poliser till undsättning, vilket i sin tur leder till att slutligen alla poliser slåss mot alla demonstranter (organisationsnivå).

  • 30.
    Guvå, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Polisens riskbedömning och dess konsekvenser i samband med demonstrationer: en analys av salemdemonstrationer och några europeiska masshändelser2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Denna  rapport   belyser  polisens  arbete  i samband  med  de  s.k.  Salem- demonstrationerna  med  fokus  på den riskbedömning  som görs och dess konsekvenser   för    polisens    hantering    av   demonstranter    utifrån   en hotbildsanalys    av    deras   intentioner.    En    historisk    beskrivning    av Salemhändelserna  från  2001-2006  utgör  underlag  för  en teoretisk  analys i syfte att förstå och förklara varför demonstrationer kan utvecklas till fredliga manifestationer  alternativt  eskalera  till kravaller  beroende på hur  polisen bedömer och hanterar olika risksituationer under en demonstration.

  • 31.
    Guvå, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Professionellas föreställningar om elevhälsans retorik och praktik2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport handlar om vad olika yrkesgrupper inom skolans elevhälsoarbete ger begreppet elevhälsa för innebörd. Studien ingår i ett forskningsprojekt som finansieras av Vetenskapsrådet om Kunskapsintegration och professionellt lärande, mångprofessionellt samarbete och förhandling av innebörder inom skolans elevhälsoarbete. Syftet är att få ökad kunskap om hur samverkan och lärande kring komplexa elevärenden gestaltas i mångprofessionella team i skolan. En av frågeställningarna är vilken innebörd begreppet "elevhälsa" ges av olika aktörer i Elevhälsan samt av skolans övriga aktörer. I denna rapport, som bygger på fokusgruppsintervjuer med skolläkare, skolsköterskor, psykologer, kuratorer, specialpedagoger, rektorer och lärare, visas att det inte föreligger några större skillnader i synsätt mellan olika yrkesgrupper. Däremot finns det skillnader mellan hur man ser på elevhälsa på ett retoriskt och ett praktiskt plan. Det råder samstämmighet mellan de olika yrkesgrupperna om att elevhälsan borde arbeta med förebyggande och hälsofrämjande insatser på ett mer generellt plan, men att man i praktiken arbetar mer med individärenden.  Även där är man överens om att detta arbete borde utgå från ett salutogent perspektiv, som fokuserar på vilket stöd eleven är i behov av i skolan för sitt lärande och välmående, men att det i praktiken oftast handlar om att utreda och remittera barn utifrån ett patogent synsätt.

  • 32.
    Guvå, Gunilla
    et al.
    Institutionen för pdagogik och psykolgi, Linköpings universitet.
    Hylander, Ingrid
    Institutionen för pdagogik och psykolgi, Linköpings universitet.
    Att tillägna sig grounded theory1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Grounded Theory has been known since 1969, when Anselm Strauss and Barney Glaser wrote The discover of Grounded Theory, it' s use within psychological research has not been very salient. The authors of this report have applied Grounded Theory to two different studies (a) Tumings and tuming points in psychological consultation processes (b) The School psychologist as a collaborator. The research process is described through four different phases qualitatively different from each other (a) identifying indicators (b) concept formation ( c) pattem development and (d) Theory construction. Examples from the two studies conceming collection of data, coding, comparative analysis and memo writing are given through the different phases. It is suggested that these different phases have logical similarities with different statistical methods of analysis. The differences between qualitative concepts and quantitative concepts are discussed. Critical arguments of Grounded Theory and suggestions for - developing the method are presented. Finally it is stated that the method is appropriate and useful in psychological research when the researcher is concerned with contradictory phenomena that might be explained by psychological processes, and that the way to learn the method is to do it.

  • 33.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology.
    Steiners teori om grupprocess och produktivitet1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this report is to describe and scrutinize Steiner’s (1972) theory of group processes and productivity.

    Group work is not just one simply defined activity but several activities with different conditions. Steiner (1972) has, based on type of problems, identified different forms of group work; additive disjunctive, conjuctive, discretionary, compensatory or complementary group work. Sjödin (1991) and Granström & Einarsson (1995) show in an expansion of Steiner’s theory that a group may handle a task in line with Steiner’s different forms of group work.

  • 34.
    Hau, Stephan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Communication as the most important Police Strategy at the Football World Cup Final 20062008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    In 2006 a group of Swedish researchers from Linköping University observed a high- risk match during the Football World-Cup Finals in Germany. The match between Germany and Poland took place in Dortmund, and during the entire day observations were performed at different locations in the city [cf. Granström & Hylander (2008), Guvå & Rosander (2008), Hau & Näslund (2008)].

    In this report, information is summarised that focuses on the strategies and tactics of the police in Dortmund for this match as well as for the entire World championship tournament. Data was gathered by interviews with police officers in Dortmund and Frankfurt/Main, Germany. The purpose of this presentation is to account for police strategies and considerations that resulted in a mainly peaceful and orderly major football event.

  • 35.
    Hylander, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Elevhälsans professioner: egna och andras föreställningar2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    This report is part of a research project "Integration of knowledge and interprofessional learning. Multiprofessional collaboration and negotiation of meaning in relation to student health". Multiprofessional teams have a long history in Swedish schools but recently a new type of multiprofessional teams was proposed by the Swedish Government integrating health services, psychosocial services with special education. The aim of the present study was to create more understanding about the social representations of professional services from multi professional school teams by exploring each profession’s social representation of their services and their social representations of the other professions’ services. Fourteen focus groups were interviewed and data were analyzed with content analyses (Graneheim & Lundman, 2003). Most professional groups had a common representation of their own service as health promoting but did not expect health promotion from the other professions to the same extent. Results are discussed in reference to Social Representation Theory, (Moscovici, 1969), Theory of professions (Abbot, 1988) and Social Identity Perspective (Brewer, 2003).

    The study was supported by a grant from The Swedish Research Council.

  • 36.
    Hylander, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fokusgrupper som kvalitativ datainsamlingsmetod1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fokusgrupper  kan  betraktas som  en  kvalitativ data  insamlingsmetod  som ligger  någonstans  mitt  emellan  ostrukturerade  intervjuer  och  deltagande observationer, (Morgan, 1997). Under många år har fokusgrupper emellertid associerats med marknadsundersökningar och betraktats som ett snabbt och billigt sätt att erhålla maximal information om kundbeteende. Metoden har sitt ursprung i sociologisk och massmedial forskning från 40-talet. Därefter kan den sägas ha gjort en närmast halv sekel lång utflykt till marknaden, för att i mitten på 80-talet återvända i den socialvetenskapliga forskningens hägn.

    Robert Merton lanserade på 40-talet begreppet fokuserad intervju (Merton, Fiske  &  Kendall,  1956;  1990)  när  han  tillsammans  med  Paul  Lazarsfeld bedrev    masskommunikationsforskning    i    Boston.    Metodens    nyvunna popularitet avspeglas i det faktum attT he Focused Interview som utgavs 1956 kom i nytryck 1990.

    Syftet med Fokusgrupper inom beteendevetenskaplig forskning är att samla in kvalitativa  data.  Metoden  används  bl.a.  när  man  vill  studera  attityder, värderingar   och   komplexa   fenomen   som   uppstår   i   social   interaktion. Fokusgruppsintervjun   kan   användas   som   enda   insamlingsmetod,   men vanligare  är  att  den  kompletterar  andra  insamlingsmetoder,  i  exempelvis inledningsskedet i en studie av ett okänt område.

     

    Den fokuserade intervjun karakteriseras av att de personer som intervjuas har en gemensam upplevelse. De har t.ex. lyssnat på ett gemensamt program, sett  en  film  eller  läst  en  pamflett.  Forskaren  gör  en  innehålls-  eller situationsanalys av materialet som leder till vissa hypoteser. Utifrån dessa konstrueras  en  intervju  guide  (Merton et  al.,  1990).  Syftet  med  den fokuserade intervjun är att intervjupersonerna ska stimuleras till så många konkreta, specifika och personliga svar som möjligt som samtidigt avspeglar såväl kognitiva som affektiva och värderingsmässiga aspekter. Intervjuaren är icke-styrande i Carl Rogers efterföljd. Den fokuserade intervjun är inte särskilt anpassad till grupper men metoden användes även som gruppmetodik, vilket framgår  i  ett  av  kapitlen  i  nytrycket  av The  Focused  Interview.  Enligt ursprunget består en grupp av 10-12 personer, med liknande bakgrund, för att garantera en öppen dialog. Framförallt anser Merton att likhet i utbildning är viktigt för att alla ska våga uttrycka sig.

  • 37.
    Hylander, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Handledning och konsultation: jämförelse mellan två professionella psykologiska processer1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    This report adresses the two concepts of Supervision and Consultation.

    Consultation is defined according to the tradition within Human Service Consultation and particularly to  Gerald Caplans`Mental Health Consultation. It  is proposed that Gerald Caplans` way of differentiating between 4  types of consultation, can be used in a more general way to include various types of consultationmodels from other traditions. For consultation 5 main criteras are synthezised from different definitons of consultation. For supervision, an overview of different types of supervision is presented. A comparison in regard to the main criterias is made between the two processes most difficult to separate, i.e. psychological (consultee centered case) consultation and   "on the job supervision", when the supervisor has no administrative power. Two concepts salient to the supervison process, learning alliance and educational diagnoses are also discussed.

    It is proposed that analyzing the basic function of the relation between the client and the consultee, in real life, is always prior to defining the indirect helping process e. g. separating the process of supervision from the process of consultation.

    Finally a third process named "role structuring" is presented, separate from both supervision and psychological consultation. Role structuring is  used when the relation between client and consultee is semi professional, or when the professional limits of this relation is only vaguely defined .

  • 38.
    Hylander, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Massrörelser,massaktioner och social identitet.2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The primary aim of this review is to explore the concept of identity as it is used in texts about mass movements and mass actions. A second aim is to find useful conceptualisations for analysing demonstrators’ group affiliation as well as the impact of these affiliations on actions when demonstrations turn into violence. Two main traditions are presented: (a) The sociological social-psychology tradition of identity resting upon symbolic interactionism and (b) the psychological social-psychology tradition of social identity mostly referring to social cognitive theories. It is argued that the way these two traditions have developed and approached each other during the last decade has made it possible to integrate them in the same study in order to explain slightly different perspectives of group members’ identity formation.

  • 39.
    Hylander, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samverkan: professionellas föreställningar på elevhälsoarenan2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Multiprofessional teams have a long history in Swedish schools but recently a new type of multiprofessional service was proposed by the Swedish government in order to integrate two existing parallel services (school health care and psychosocial care) with special education into one service with the aim of promoting health, learning and wellbeing in schools. This report is part of a research project "Integration of knowledge and interprofessional learning. Multiprofessional collaboration and negotiation of meaning in relation to student health" The aim of the present study was to explore the professional representations of collaboration within  school based multi professional teams. In total fourteen focus groups with professions from primary school (1-9), school paediatricians, school nurses, school psychologists, school social workers, special education teachers and principles were interviewed, adding up to 82 interviewees. A qualitative and mainly inductive, content analyses according to Graneheim & Lundman, (2003) was used. Representations of interprofessional collaboration are described in terms of (a) disciplinary domains (knowledge and experience) and (b) physical arenas (team meetings). The results are described in reference to the different professional groups and analysed from three theoretical perspectives: Social Representation Theory (Moscovici, 1969), Theory of professions (Abbot, 1988) and Social Identity Perspective (Brewer, 2003).

  • 40.
    Hylander, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ahlstrand, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Föreställningar om elevhälsans ledning och organisering2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    This report is part of the research project Integration of knowledge and professional learning. Multi-professional collaboration and negotiation of meaning in relation to student health. The aim of the project was to extend knowledge about school based student health teams’ partnership, collaboration and interprofessional learning. This report focuses on professionals’ representations of how student health services are organized and managed. Four models of student health organization and management were delineated.

    These models differ in several aspects of importance for the meaning and "gestalt" of student health services. The professional groups typically preferred one or the other of these organizational models and differed in their interpretation of their advantages and disadvantages. One important difference was if they preferred a local school-based organization or a central organization.

  • 41.
    Jern, Stefan
    Strömstad Akademi, Nordiskt institut för avancerade studier, Strömstad.
    Den välfungerande arbetsgruppen – version 2.0: om beteenden, tankar, processer och strukturer som leder till god gruppfunktion2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to present a critical review of research and practice based knowledge about factors conductive to ”good functioning” of working groups in the light of the evolving and changing knowledge of developmental processes in groups. Conceptions of work group effectiveness are critically evaluated and new formulations presented. Factors such as two-way causality, theoretically based, definitions of team goals, time spans, feedback loops and the importance of the working group´s socio-ecology are stressed. The analysis results in an integrative model taking into account developmental, group and goal types, process/structure and socioecological context factors. Finally eight central issues for future research are presented.

  • 42.
    Jern, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hempel, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gruppdagbok i forskning och praktik: en metod för gruppstudier2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    This paper describes a new method for collection of group data called Group Diary. Document studies in psychology are presented as a background to the new method, which was developed in the educational setting of Problem Based Learning. Examples of related research methods in organisational and gender psychology form a setting for the introduction to the procedures of the Group Diary. This is based on the idea that group members themselves collect data acting as recorders and subsequently discuss and synthesise the notes. Data are supplied in the form of results of this work  - reports - and the notes taken by the recorders. The method is  presented as a tool for  learning,  research and consultation. Furthermore methodological issues such as the degree of control and supervision  required  in data collection,  the relation  between individual and collective  diaries,  the diary as product  and process, analysis  and data processing are elucidated. The pros and cons of the Group Diary in research, the epistemology of the method, ethics and the precision and quality of data are critically discussed, after presentation of five studies, done by the authors, on group formation and development.  The method is considered a valid and economical   alternative   to  traditional  observation   methods,  especially   for studies that require collection of data over time as in e.g. research on group development. Finally, future measures for validation of the method are pointed out.

  • 43.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The meaning of support from co-workers and managers in teams when working2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of a post-doc research project on factors that promote work motivation and occupational self-efficacy in organizations in Sweden and Canada. The purpose of this report was to investigate the relations between support for autonomy and competence by managers and co-workers and employees’ work motivation, occupational self-efficacy, and team commitment. Research has shown that support for autonomy from managers has positive effects, but it has not examined how co-worker support for autonomy can affect employees’ experiences and the relative importance of both sources of support. In two studies, one with a sample of 45 employees in a Swedish private research oriented company (6 females and 39 males) and one with a sample of 235 Swedish care givers (214 females and 21 males) completed surveys. Results showed that employees perceived high levels of motivation and self-efficacy. Study 2 also showed that employees perceived greater support for autonomy from co-workers than from managers but greater support for competence from managers. As in previous studies, support from managers was significantly positively related to employees’ outcomes. However, results also showed that co-worker support predicted these outcomes over and above the effects of managerial support and that support for autonomy was related to motivation while support for competence was related to self-efficacy. Moreover, the effects of support from co-workers were significantly stronger than those obtained from managers for self-efficacy. Finally, motivation and self-efficacy predicted team commitment for care givers in study 2, while support from manager was related to normative team commitment in study 1. The implications of these results for how organizations may optimize employees’ functioning through teamwork are discussed.

  • 44.
    Näslund, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Handledning för yrkesverksamma: definitioner och centrala aspekter1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a reveiw of litterature on clinical and peer supervision. It takes on a broad international stance with research from clinical super- vision in education, counseling, psychotherapy and social work. Definitions and demarcations vis-á-vis therapy and education are made and the report conceptualizez fundamental aspects of clinical and peer super-vision. The report emphasizes research findings and comparisons between the Swedish and the American traditions of clinical supervision are carried out.

    Conclusions about similarities between different kind of clincal supervision are drawn. The report discusses how fundamental aspects must be discussed before, during and after the sessions in order to make an agreement about the supervision. In Sweden it is common with peer supervision, mostly in groups, from same places of work. One of the major problems discussed in the report is the question of how to differentiate peer supervision from clinical supervision of students.

  • 45.
    Näslund, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kurt Lewins socialpsykologi och dynamisk gruppsykologi: En jämförelse och diskussion om ledarens betydelse för förändring av en grupps arbete1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents field theory and group perspective by Kurt Lewin. It also presents psychodynamic theory of small groups. Leadership and the leaders role in group change is in focus. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in Lewinian field theory. This paper argues that there are many similarities between Lewinian social psychology and psychodynamic theory about small groups. From a field theoretical perspective you can say that different fields (eg Lewinian social psychology and dynamic theory) are positive against a new gestalt.

    The paper also tries, with help from above presented theories, to answer the question; are leaders, or gatekeepers, capable of changing small groups? Both Lewinian and group dynamic theory says yes, but under different circumstances. Group dynamic theory focus is on the "life space" while focus in Lewinian field theory is on the "life space" and the "social space".

  • 46.
    Näslund, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Education and Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Education and Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Professionell utveckling hos lärare genom handledning1998Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Vuxnas engagemang vid ungdomars tävlande: Om innebörder av vuxnas tillrop och gester vid en fotbollsträning2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adults in general and parents in particular have since at least Second World War been interested how youths spare time activities. One part of that interest manifests itself as engagement  for sports activities, individual or team sport. Such an engagement can be a great support for a child as well for a team. Conversely parents’ engagement could become a problem for a child as well as a team (The Manufacturers Life Insurance Company and The National Association for Sport & Physical Education, 1977). These questions have been under discussion in Sweden for a long time as well (Zäll, 1984). During the first year 2000’s different research have for example examined what sorts of climate are to be found around youth training soccer. Fundberg (2003) followed a soccer team of boys for two years and contributed with thick descriptions about how masculinity where constructed in such an activity. Later on Fallby (2006) separates motivation climate from performance climate and wishes that more trainers would adopt a performance climate.

    The main purpose of this study was to observe and register how grownups engagement was expressed during a soccer tournament in Sweden under the summer 2009 via a descriptive approach. Of particular interest was to identify how parents as well as trainers uttered their engagement before, under and after the soccer games.

    There are some lessons to be learned from this study. Firstly that parents acts supportive while trainer acts instructive. Some old ideas about the shouting parent are thereby challenged but the idea about the directing trainers is still standing strong. Secondly, how parents as well as trainers used verbal as well as non verbal language to support and instruct their teams during the tournament. Thirdly, that giving, demanding and scornful strategies where used from parents as well as trainers during under the games.

    To summon up this rapport contribute with a qualified content in order to use for parents as well as trainers to help them reflect upon their own engagement before and during boys and girls soccer tournaments.

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