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  • 1.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Organisering för individualitet: transparenta och opaka aspekter i utvecklingsprocesser2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The doctoral dissertation 'Organising for individuality - transparent and opaque aspects of development processes' deals with the relationship between a company's ability to develop new products and its ability to change the way it organises its product development activities. The dissertation is based on a real time study of two product development and two organizational change processes at Orrefors Kosta Boda AB.

    The company has a tradition of innovative product development based on a high degree of individuality. In this study, individuality refers to situations where differences between individuals' (i.e. designers') distinctive features are important for a company's success and not to individuals talents or capabilities per se.

    In studying and analysing the product deveopment processes an (opaque) underlying thought structure appears in terms of a tension between 'a separating and a unifying logic of effectiveness'. The two logics of effectiveness constituted underlying assumptions and answers to the question of how to be an innovative and commercially successful company in the high quality glass industry.

    The product development was conducted in an "inescapable" tension of separating and unifying, indicating that the separating and unifying logics of effectiveness should - in the context of product development - be viewed as a 'neccessary relation of incompatibility' rather than mutually exclusive.

    In spite of two attempts to change the organising of the product development in the company, the measures taken did not alter any fundamental conditions of the product development within the company, and therefore not the problems the change initiatives were designed to address.

    In the literature on product development and innovation scholars require research with an approach that links structural conditions to action and interaction. Using Archer's (1995) morphogenetic perspective to relate product development to organizational change, this dissertation is an attempt to do this.

  • 2.
    Bergstedt, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Boreal vegetation responses to forestry as reflected in field trial and survey data and the quality of cover estimates and presence/absence in vegetation inventory2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has two main focuses; first, the response of forest ground layer flora on forestry, mainly harvesting and secondly, the quality of the vegetation assessment methods, cover estimates by eye and presence/absence data.

    The effect of harvesting intensity was evaluated with survey data from permanent plots as well as vegetation data from a field trial fourteen years after harvesting. Both data sets confirmed that response of ground layer flora increased with increasing logging intensity. Thereby, indicating that survey data is possible to use in research. From the survey data set, existence of a time lag was evident for several species and also a threshold level was evident in cutting intensity needed to affect a number of species. Logging had a modest, but significant positive effect on the change in species number per plot. Species turnover was influenced by the proportion of Picea abies in the tree canopy; site productivity; and logging intensity. In the field trial scarification had a strong effect that was different from the one created by cutting.

    In plant ecology cover estimate by eye and presence/absence recording are the two most frequent methods used. The methods were evaluated with survey data and a field trial.

    In the first data set vegetation was recorded independently by two observers in 342 permanent 100-m2 plots. Overall, one third of each occurrence was missed by one of the two observers, but with large differences among species. Species occurring at low abundance tended to be frequently overlooked. Observer-explained variance in cover estimates was <10% in 15 of 17 species.

    In the second data set, 10 observers independently estimated cover in sixteen 100-m2 plots in two different vegetation types. The bias connected to observer varied substantially between species. The estimates of missing field and bottom layer had the highest bias, indicating that missing layers are problematic to use in analysis of change. Experience had a surprisingly small impact on the bias connected to observer. Analyses revealed that for the statistical power, cover estimates by eye carries a higher information value than do presence/absence data when distinguishing between vegetation types, differences between observers is negligible, and using more than one observer had little effect.

    List of papers
    1. The impact of logging intensity on field-layer vegetation in Swedish boreal forests
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of logging intensity on field-layer vegetation in Swedish boreal forests
    2001 (English)In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, Vol. 154, no 1-2, p. 105-115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between logging intensity and changes in ground cover vegetation was studied in 16 species and groups of species recorded at 10- or 11-year intervals in mature conifer-dominated forests. The 789 plots located in northern and central Sweden had been surveyed by the National Forest Inventory and the National Survey of Forest Soil and Vegetation. Thirty-seven percent of the plots had been subjected to a thinning or clear-cutting between the inventories. A principal components analysis showed that, of the variables considered, logging intensity had the highest explanatory power regarding change in ground cover vegetation between the inventories (the other variables were sum of temperatures, age of stand, timber volume, percentage Pinus sylvestris and site productivity). A multivariate direct gradient analysis technique (Redundancy analysis) showed that the logging intensity significantly affected the change in cover. This analysis also ranked the species in their responsiveness to logging. Epilobium angustifolium, narrow-leaved grasses and broad-leaved grasses, increased most with logging intensity. The response was not linear and only detectable at high logging intensities (>80%). In contrast, Vaccinium myrtillus seemed to decrease linearly with increased logging intensity. There was several years time-lag in the response to logging of E. angustifolium, V. myrtillus and narrow-leaved grasses. Several species and groups of species seemed unaffected by the logging. In sample plots unaffected by logging the cover of most species decreased.

    Keywords
    Clear cut, Community, Cutting, Multivariate analysis, Sweden, Thinning
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13278 (URN)10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00642-3 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-05-07 Created: 2008-05-07 Last updated: 2018-07-03
    2. Composition of vegetation after a modified harvesting and propagation method compared with conventional clear-cutting, scarification and planting: evaluation 14 years after logging
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composition of vegetation after a modified harvesting and propagation method compared with conventional clear-cutting, scarification and planting: evaluation 14 years after logging
    2008 (English)In: Applied Vegetation Science, ISSN 1402-2001, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 159-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Question: How does the vegetation of boreal forests respond to harvesting and scarification?

    Location: 650 m a.s.l., central Sweden (61°38' N).

    Methods: The response of boreal forest vegetation to cutting and scarification was studied in a field trial, which consisted of three treatments plus conventional harvesting as a control in a complete block design with four replicates. The cutting was done 14 years prior to vegetation inventory and scarification and planting were conducted the first or second years after cutting.

    Results: The species most abundant at higher cutting intensities were crustose lichens, Cladonia spp., Cladina arbuscula, Polytrichum spp. and pioneer mosses, the grass Deschampsia flexuosa, and the tree Betula pubescens, A few species had substantially lower abundance in treatments with higher cutting intensity, notably Hylocomium splendens and Vaccinium myrtillus. Scarification had a strong effect that was different from the one created by cutting. In scarification treatments, Polytrichum spp. were the only species with high abundance; most species had low abundance, i.e. Barbilophozia lycopodioides, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pleurozium schreberi, Carex globularis, Empetrum nigrum, Cladina arbuscula, Sphagnum spp.

    Conclusions: Our results elaborate on the details of the well-known effect of cutting on ground-layer flora, and also give support for the profound and long-lasting effect that soil scarification has on forest vegetation.

    Keywords
    Boreal forest, Cutting intensity, Field trial, Forest understorey, Logging, Propagation, Sweden
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13279 (URN)10.3170/2007-7-18343 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-05-07 Created: 2008-05-07 Last updated: 2014-10-08
    3. Turnover of ground layer species in Swedish boreal forests and its response to logging
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Turnover of ground layer species in Swedish boreal forests and its response to logging
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13280 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-05-07 Created: 2008-05-07 Last updated: 2010-01-13
    4. Systematic and random variation in vegetation monitoring data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systematic and random variation in vegetation monitoring data
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 19, p. 633-644Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Question: Detecting species presence in vegetation and making visual assessment of abundances involve a certain amount of skill, and therefore subjectivity. We evaluated the magnitude of the error in data, and its consequences for evaluating temporal trends.

    Location: Swedish forest vegetation.

    Methods: Vegetation data were collected independently by two observers in 342 permanent 100-m2 plots in mature boreal forests. Each plot was visited by one observer from a group of 36 and one of two quality assessment observers. The cover class of 29 taxa was recorded, and presence/absence for an additional 50.

    Results: Overall, one third of each occurrence was missed by one of the two observers, but with large differences among species. There were more missed occurrences at low abundances. Species occurring at low abundance when present tended to be frequently overlooked. Variance component analyses indicated that cover data on 5 of 17 species had a significant observer bias. Observer-explained variance was < 10% in 15 of 17 species.

    Conclusion: The substantial number of missed occurrences suggests poor power in detecting changes based on presence/absence data. The magnitude of observer bias in cover estimates was relatively small, compared with random error, and therefore potentially analytically tractable. Data in this monitoring system could be improved by a more structured working model during field work.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, 2008
    Keywords
    Forest, Observer error, Permanent plot, Statistical power, Sweden
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-11872 (URN)10.3170/2008-8-18423 (DOI)
    Note
    Original publication: Milberg, P., Bergstedt, J., Fridman, J., Odell, G & Westerberg, L., Systematic and random variation in vegetation monitoring data, 2008, Journal of Vegetation Science, (19), 633-644. http://dx.doi.org/10.3170/2008-8-18423. Copyright: Opulus Press, http://www.opuluspress.se/index.phpAvailable from: 2008-05-22 Created: 2008-05-22 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    5. In the eye of the beholder: bias and stochastic variation in cover estimates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>In the eye of the beholder: bias and stochastic variation in cover estimates
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13282 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-05-07 Created: 2008-05-07 Last updated: 2010-01-13
  • 3.
    Björklöf, Sune
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Byggbranschens innovationsbenägenhet: En studie om den svenska byggbranschens inställning till innovationer och branschens beredskapatt hantera innovationsfrågor1986Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The attitude of the building sector towards innovation and its intellectual and organizational preparedness for dealing with the issues of innovation is the aim of this study. The core question can be formulated as follows: Why does a building company accept certain innovations but not others? The fundamental ideas of the study are rooted in the central European tradition of the historico-qualitiative school of thought. Another basic idea for the thesis is Dewcy’s and Bcntley's theory of transactional cognition introduced in Sweden by Hanssen under the term ""field concept" according to which the content and object of knowledge are seen as an entirety. The reason for approaching the problem qualitatively. that is through not highly structured interviews based on the author's long personal experience in the sector, is its compound and many face ted nature a long with the fact that verbal discussion is firmly grounded in building sector tradition.

    Innovations has to pass trough three different filters. These filters are at the point where the innovation enters the company, during the bid preparation process and upon the absorption of the innovation into the project. Important factors influencing the passage through these filters arc papyrophobia, the old boy network (OBN) and the structure of the production system. Papyrophobia is expressed in a general reluctance to deal with theoretical issues and documentation. OBN denotes an informal communication network. Production is run by and within project organizations. i.e. repetitive ad hoc aggregates independent of the parent organization. These factors in combination with time and financial pressure obstruct the possibility of creating a research tradition.

    Characteristic features of the socio-cultural tradition of the sector are that it is male dominated, that the educational system classifies those working in the field according to trade and profession, and that the strong position of production aspects have brought to the forefront the energetic practitioner. His values are strictly professional. Information is to a great extent transmitted orally. There is strength in the ability of Swedish construction firms to plan and improvise within an established frame. However, a certain streak of marginalism with the potential of inhibiting innovation does exist in their pattern of action. Also typical of the tradition is the ideal of the free entrepreneur and the organization of large companies as confederations of a number of small and medium size firms. Finally, a fundamental cultural feature of the construction industry is openness. News spreads rapidly to a competitor.

    Innovations are disseminated in several ways, but one dominant pattern persists that cannot be seen in other industries. While the projects are important for testing and diffusion of innovations, the companies arc more intrumental in propagating information of innovations. The building materials industry's R&D work follows a pattern similar to that of production companies in other sectors.

    The building sector's readiness to follow and work with innovation issues can generally be rated as low. The confinement of interest to production aspects combined with the marked open· ness provides ample room for the materials manufacturers and companies outside the sector to introduce new products and materials. In the long run, it is the gradual change in this assortment that will transform building techniques and technology. Change is generated by other sectors.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Logistiskt förändringsarbete: olika ansatser för operativ utveckling2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade organizations have been under an increasing pressure to master change, where some key words are increased variability, competition, insecurity and complexity. The new competitive situation sets new and increasing demands on logistical development work and those who conduct it.

    An analysis of the logistic research from a perspective of change indicates that the research has primarily met the new !ogistical challenges with systematic knowledge development regarding the change content. The research answers questions of what and why, but the contributions about how changes are implemented have traditionally been very weak. Because of this, there is a need for research focusing on the mere process of change and that develops knowledge about how we can effectively conduct change. The overall purpose is to develop knowledge about how work for !ogistical change can be rendered more efficient.

    In the theoretical frame of reference it becomes clear that the logistical research is primarily founded in the linear model of change. Through the borrowing of theories from the two research areas Strategic Change and Learning Organization, two additional models of change can be identified. The first model regards changes as social processes and is hence called "the process model". The second model views change as circular and is therefore called "the circular model".

    The analysis shows that the linear model best reproduces the mechanisms in less extensive changes, where such changes occur within the frame of existing mental models. When the extension of changes increases, the process mode! captures the mechanisms of the processes better, especially the political aspects concerned. The circular model best depicts the processes in the most extensive changes, where new mental models are developed and converted to the operational level.

    The research results indicate that the outcome of change depends on the correlation between a change's context, content and process over time. Consequently there is no best approach to operational development; rather every kind of change has to be dealt with differently. In the dissertation three approaches of change are typified, each grounded in one of the three models of change. The first approach is termed "solution driven" and is based on the linear model. The second approach, named "programmed process", is grounded in the model of process and the third, called "learning approach", views changes as circular learning processes. Rendering more effective logistical change implies that it needs to be based on the model or models of change that can best live up to the demands and mechanisms of change.

  • 5.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Industrial buying behavior in the Middle East: a cross national study1990Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tackles industrial buying behavior in a socio-cultural context. The main purpose is to explore the influence of socio-cultural forces on industrial buying behavior in the Middle Eastern selected countries: Iran, Syria and the United Arab Emirates.

    A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, called triangulation (integrative) approach is used. The empirical data upon which the study stands, consists of: 108 in-depth interviews, 7 case studies, 4 document analysis and 279 questionnaires. Qualitative and quantitative analysis are carried out as complementary. Factor analysis and regression analysis are the statistical techniques used for quantitative analysis.

    A conceptual and analytical model for analysis of socio-cultural characteristics in Islamic nations has been developed. Accordingly, socio-cultural traits of Islamic nations consist of values from: tribalism, Islamic religion and westernization systems-TIW model. Each system, in turn, consists of three dimensions. Tribalism consists of macrocosmic perception, microcosmic perception and familism; Islam consists of practicality, determinism and time horizon; westernization consists of Western techniques and technology, Western life style, and male/female equality.

    A multidimensional process model for purchasing industrial capital goods has also been developed. This model includes the stages of purchasing process as well as technical, commercial and social dimensions. The process includes stages for "decision-making" and for implementation of purchasing decision.

    Socio-cultural characteristics and industrial buying behavior in the studied countries are analyzed and compared; similarities and differences are discussed. These similarities and differences are found to be related to variations of their socio-cultural traits.

    The influence of socio-cultural forces on industrial buying behavior has been examined. Tribalism has been found to have influence on all dimensions of buying behavior; westernization has influence on technical dimension. However, Islam, surprisingly proves to have limited influence on the commercial and technical dimensions. Tribalism (familisrn dimension) has dominated the social dimension. This is why business in the Middle East is generally based upon interpersonal relationships.

  • 6.
    Dahlgaard, Su Mi Park
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The human dimension in TQM: learning, training and motivation2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this dissertation is to study and to explore the human dimension in TQM with focus on learning, training and motivation. The exploration of the evolution of TQM depict the theory of TQM as shaped from a narrow mechanistic apporach to a more humanistic apporach with focus on the human dimension thgough Japanese managerial practices inspired by ideas from western theoreticians.

    One contribution of this dissertation lies in a discussion and identification of TQM as an ongoing process of fusion between western and eastern ways of seeing, interpreting, understanding, thinking and doing. As a result of this ongoing process of fusion, the synthetic theory of TQM came to embrace both a rationai/logical approach and a holistic/dynamic approach. The rationai/logical approach is a heritage from the western tradition transmitted by western theoreticians' ideas, and the holistic/dynamic/ humanistic approach is a heritage of eastern tradition, transmitted by Japanese practices. The strength of TQM, which at the same time can be a disadvantage, lies in this dual or multiple frameworks of an objectivist-rationalistic and a subjectivist-relativistic view. The framework of TQM is, thus, holistic as well as atomistic/reductionistic, human as well as mechanistic, and dynamic as well as static.

    Another contribution of this dissertation is the development of an alternative model for understanding human motivation. The 'Trinity model'¨is a step to incorporate spiritual needs into models of human motivation inspired by, my interpretation of, the view of learning and training in the TQM framework. The proposed motivaton model is in accordance with three overall and innate desires, and portrays human motivation as driven by biological, psychological and spiritual desires/need. The spiritual dimension comprises ethical elements, like trust, faurness, openness, helpfulness, searching for and creating meaning, which earlier have not been explicit recognized in models for human motivation.

  • 7.
    de Paula, Andes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dynamics of corporate strategy from a value chain perspective: A study of the Swedish telecom and construction industries during the 90’s2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in sectors and industries have brought new challenges to corporations as well as been important driving forces for the dynamics in strategy at the corporate level. With the dramatic developments of the 1990’s in mind, such as multilateral free-trade agreements, liberalization, privatization, sharp industry growth/decline, increased competition and globalization, in particular within the telecom and the construction industry, this study contributes to describing and understanding strategic change at the corporate level as well as changes in the division of work within value chains. Strategy is defined as intentions, decisions and actions that relate to bundling and unbundling at different strategic levels, aiming to establish and reestablish a value chain position. Thus, outsourcing, M&As, modularization and systems development and sales are important strategic components which are examined from a value chain perspective. From a value chain perspective, the purpose of this study is to describe and understand strategic change at the corporate level in the telecom and construction industries during the 1990’s. More specifically this study shall contribute to describing and understanding (i) the dynamics of and between M&As, outsourcing, modularization and systemization, as well as (ii) industrial and financial drivers to strategic change.

    The conclusions describe strategic change from a value chain perspective using three descriptive patterns, including an increasing degree of specialization and need for interorganizational coordination across the value chain. In addition, outsourcing and modularization of systems and an increased scope of offering through systemization and BOT-projects, result in the fact that due to M&As the horizontal boundary of the firm sometimes goes beyond the industry scope while the vertical scope is often narrowed through outsourcing. The conclusions also focus on understanding the content of strategic change, that is to say the dynamics of and between mergers and acquisitions, outsourcing, modularization and system sales. These findings are summarized in nine explanatory patterns. These patterns show that the strategic decisions of bundling and unbundling at the corporate and functional level through mergers and acquisitions, outsourcing, systemization and modularization are guided by an industrial as well as a financial logic. By considering the descriptive and explanatory patterns found this study, the conclusions also include what to expect during the next decade with regard to corporate strategy from a value chain perspective in five predictive patterns.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Företagets immateriella investeringar: En begreppsutredning = Intangibles as an object for capital investment1985Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Normally the concept of capita! investment refers to tangibles. The resource allocation process deals in this case with the problem of acquiring different kinds of "physical facilities". However, if the concept of capita! investment is made to apply to intangibles, the question of definition becomes confusing. The concept of intangibles is almost indescribable, at least when it comes to defining an empirical content. Almost every expenditure can be regarded as an investment. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to determine the concept of intangibles and thereby lay the foundations fora discussion of intangibles as an object for capita! investment.

    To solve the problem of conceptualization, an empirical study was carried out. The focus of the study was on intangibles and the manner in which these are treated in capital Investment processes. In total six different investment processes were investigated.

     In the concept analysis it is argued, that the distinguishing quality of intangibles is that they can only be defined as an idea or a mental construction. The economic resources are necessarily connected with individuals in the organization and with routine activities. Therefore, the activity to develop and to maintain the resources is accentuated. It is also emphasized that the purpose of the investment is to build up earning capacity. The essential characteristic of this capacity is that all factors interact in the final service or product and in producing cash inflow.

    It is further argued, that the concept should be given a meaning that includes the possibility of (ex-post) revenue measurement. Consequently, an economic term, "expenditure-allocation", is chosen. In this denomination the profit center is the object of evaluation. This implies a management responsibility which comprises and extends over different business functions. The evaluation is also based upon a strategic argumentation.

    As a concept "expenditure-allocation'' emphasizes that costs, written off when they are incurred, have a strategic dimension. The word is an expression of how the expenditures in one period are allocated between and within different business functions. In the context of strategic argumentation and evaluation it is also an expression of how expenditures (ex-ante) are allocated to different periods.

    Finally, the concept of "expenditure-allocation" will be related to three theoretical contexts  First, the concept is discussed with reference to Bower (1970) and his descriptive mode!. Second, the context is marginalism or the marginalist mode! of business behavior. Third the question is whether the elements of the "expenditure - allcoation" should be deferred or not.

  • 9.
    Forslind, Helén
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Return to Sender: Essays on Extended producer Responsibility2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis to increase the understanding of how Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) affects the economy. EPR is a principle stating that producers should be responsible for the environmental impact of their products throughout the life cycle. In four out of five essays, scrapping of end-of-life vehicles in Sweden is used as an example.

    In Essay I the interdependency of the consumers’ and the producers’ responsibilities are stressed. It is concluded that the financial solution should be separated from the producer in order to ensure that future liabilities can be met.

    The main contribution of Essay II is that an increased premium will result in an increased number of returned vehicles. In Essay III it is shown that when the environmental harm is constant and relatively low, a deposit-refund system is preferred to an unfounded system. In cases where high environmental harm occurs the optimal choice would be a system combining both deposits and fines.

    Essay IV concludes that a funded system would have been a better way to finance the premium than an unfunded system in terms of higher rate of return. In Essay V the analysis is no longer limited to ELVs, and a model with endogenous growth is applied to the case where all the products in the economy are covered by EPR. It is found that both the growth and the level of output is favoured by the choice of a funded scheme.

    List of papers
    1. Implementing extended producer responsibility: the case of Sweden’s car scrapping scheme
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementing extended producer responsibility: the case of Sweden’s car scrapping scheme
    2005 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 619-629Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the consequences of implementing extended producer responsibility (EPR). The analysis identifies to what extent EPR creates economic incentives, and what the financial consequences are. The case of car scrapping in Sweden is used as an example. EPR gives rise to two responsibilities; the consumer has the responsibility to return the product, the end-of-life vehicle, and the producer has the responsibility to handle the end-of-life management. EPR implicitly assumes that consumers will fulfil their responsibility without any economic incentive. This has no empirical support in the literature. The consumers will bear the costs associated with dismantling although the producer is responsible for the payment. This responsibility gives rise to a major future financial liability.

    Keywords
    Extended producer responsibility; Car scrapping; Economic incentives
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14261 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2003.12.017 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-01-31 Created: 2007-01-31
    2. The Effect of a Premium in the Swedish Car Scrapping Scheme: An Econometric Study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of a Premium in the Swedish Car Scrapping Scheme: An Econometric Study
    2008 (English)In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 43-55Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to handle the increasing problem of abandoned end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Sweden, an incentive system was introduced in 1975. One of the cornerstones of the system is a premium received by the owner when an ELV is returned for dismantling. The premium is intended to create an economic incentive to return the ELV. The European Union (EU) directive regarding extended producer responsibility for ELVs does not demand any incentive system. This study applied time series econometrics to model the relationship between the number of returned ELVs and the size of the premium using Swedish data. The main contribution of this study is that a positive relationship between the number of returned ELVs and the size of the premium was established. The results indicate that an increased premium would result in an increased number of returned ELVs. This implies that the efficiency of the EU directive could be increased if combined with an incentive system.

    Keywords
    econometrics, incentives in industry, automobiles, scrapping, European Union, Vehicles, premiums, transportation, economic models, Sweden, end-of-life vehicles, extended producer responsibility, public policy, time series econometrics
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14262 (URN)
    Note

    DOI does not work: 10.1007/s10018-007-0138-6

    Available from: 2007-01-31 Created: 2007-01-31 Last updated: 2018-03-09
    3. The Economics of Environmental Law Enforcement: End-of-Life Vehicles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Economics of Environmental Law Enforcement: End-of-Life Vehicles
    2007 (English)In: European Journal of Law and Economics, ISSN 0929-1261, E-ISSN 1572-9990, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 223-236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abandoned End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) have been an environmental concern for a long time in a number of countries. This article examines different ways to address the issue by changing the incentive structure for agents. Following (Polinsky A. M., & Shavell, S. (2000). The Economic theory of public enforcement of law. Journal of Economic Literature, 38, 45–76.) a model is used to compare a fine-based system with a deposit-refund system; a combination of the two is then considered. It is shown that when the environmental harm is relatively low and constant, a deposit-refund system is preferred. When cases of high environmental harm are included, the optimal choice would be a combined system.

    Keywords
    End of life vehicles, Extended producer responsibility, Law enforcement, Fine based system, Deposit-refund system, Environmental harm
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14263 (URN)10.1007/s10657-007-9017-7 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-01-31 Created: 2007-01-31 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Financing a Car Scrapping Premium: A Comparison between a Pay-as-you-go System and a Funded System
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Financing a Car Scrapping Premium: A Comparison between a Pay-as-you-go System and a Funded System
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet medavhandlingen är att studera hur ekonomin påverkas av utökatproducentansvar. Utökat producentansvar är ett sätt attinternalisera miljökostnader i marknadspriset. Producentansvaretför bilar, så som det implementerats i den svenska lagstiftningen,har lagts till den tidigare lagtiftningen utan några störreanpassningar. Effekterna av detta har inte tidigare utretts. Förstanalyseras dess konsekvenser i en översiktiglig artikel. Därefterföljer en ekonometrisk artikel vars syfte är att testa effekten avden nuvarande bilskrotningspremien. Det visade sig att en höjdpremie ökar antalet återlämnade fordon. Sedan används en rättsekonomisk ansats för att förutsättningslöstanalysera nedskräpningsproblematiken.Därefter jämförs två atlernativa sätt att finansiera premien, ettfonderat system jämförs med ett "pay-as-you-go" system. The purpose of this thesis is to encrease the understanding of howExtended Producer Responsibility (EPR) affects the economy. EPR isa principle stating that producers should be responsible for theenvironmental impacts of their products throughout the life cycle.In foru out of five essays, scrapping of end-of-life vehicles inSweden is used as an example.

    Keywords
    extended producer responsibility, end-of-life vehicles, economic incentives, growth, producentansvar, pantsystem, tillväxt
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14264 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-01-31 Created: 2007-01-31 Last updated: 2009-05-14
    5. Does the financing of extended producer responsibility influence economic growth?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does the financing of extended producer responsibility influence economic growth?
    2009 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 297-302Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The question of how the financing of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) affects the overall performance of the economy is important as products covered by EPR comprise an increasing part of the economy. in this paper, an Overlapping Generations (OLG) model with endogenous growth is applied to the case and a comparison between two financing schemes, an insurance solution and a pay-as-you-go (PAYG) solution, is made with respect to the effect on the level of production, the growth rate, the impact of a productivity shock and the risk exposure. It is found that in the case of a funded solution, both the level of production and the growth rate in production is higher than in the PAYG case, and the short-run effect of productivity shock is bigger. The policy indication is clear: EPR should be attached to a financing scheme if welfare is to be maximised.

    Keywords
    Extended producer responsibility; Financing; Overlapping generations model; Pay-as-you-go system; Public policy
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16855 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2008.07.002 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-02-21 Created: 2009-02-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13
  • 10.
    Forslund, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The existence of logistics quality deficiencies and the impact of information quality in the dyadic order fulfillment process2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring logistics quality is related to meeting customer expectations and needs, regardless of what those may be. Both over- and under-performance of logistics quality were found in previous studies. Diverging perceptions of logistics performance between customer and supplier were also fo.und in previous studies. The importance of defining relevant performance metrics was found in performance management theory, where defining is the basis for measurement, analysis and improvement. From quality management theory the idea of working With quality deficiencies was borrowed. Quality deficiencies are a metric supporting a performance management approach. A possible explaining variable for logistics quality deficiencies to study was information quality of order information. The overall research question of this study was "How can logistics quality deficiencies be used as a basis of performance management in the dyadic order fulfillment process and how is information quality related to logistics quality deficiencies? With a positivistic, hypothetic/deductive and quantitative approach the research question was addressed. Survey was chosen as the data generating method. The population to address was the dyadic order fulfillment process between Swedish manufacturing companies with over 100 employees in four industries represented by purchasing managers, and their most important Swedish supplier, represented by the purchasing manager's contact person. 136 dyads were captured which corresponded to a response rate of 36%.

    Four types of logistics quality deficiencies (LQDs) were found. External performance LQDs were found on all nine studied dimensions (promised lead time, on-time delivery, rush orders when needed, promised inventory availability, undamaged deliveries, accurate orders, accurate invoices, availability of delay information and convenient order placement procedures) of logistics quality. Inter-organizational interpretation LQDs were found to exist on six out of nine dimensions. This gap was however positive in suppliers over-target customers' expected logistics quality. Internal performance LQDs were found on all nine dimensions. Inter-organizational perception LQDs were found on all nine dimensions. Suppliers rate their performance higher than customers do. Information quality in the dyadic order fulfillment process was assessed for order and forecast information. Information quality deficiencies (IQDs) were found for both order and forecast information. Inter-organizational perception IQDs were found. The impact of information quality on internal performance LQDs was also studied. Some impact of information quality on internal performance LQDs was altogether found.

    The dyadic research perspective applied is a valuable expansion of the commonly used logistics methodology. To logistics performance measurement theory, a new approach for process-based logistics performance measurement was shown. The study has stressed the importance of collaborative definition of relevant performance metrics in the dyad, as a basis for performance management. Together with scales for measuring deficiency types, descriptive contributions were made. By studying the impact of information quality, also explanative contribution was given. Quality management theory was expanded by showing a new application for quality deficiencies. Practical contribution is a new awareness of the mechanisms in the order fulfillment process, together with an understanding of the state of communication in important dyads. This could be the foundation for practical logistics performance measurement applications were better metrics could avoid diverging perceptions and better synchronize measurement systems and targets.

  • 11.
    Grundström, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gaining influence in standard-setting processes: a discussion of underlying mechanisms in 3G mobile telephony technology development2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The environment in which companies operate is such that standards become increasingly important due to the built-in rigidities resulting from previous technology investments and network externalities. The research question is: How can a market-leading company gain influence on the formation of standards perceived as vital for the company-s continued business? The purpose of the dissertation is to explore, describe, and characterise how such influence may be gained; it thus aims to reveal some of the mechanisms underlying a technology standard-setting process. Market-leading here is interpreted as the company wanting to lead the development of the market by influencing the standards that will prevail in it, thereby aiming to secure market leadership (in measurable terms).

    The dominant design concept, including technical, commercial, and procedural dimensions, serves as the basis for the theoretical discussion. From the review of literature it is concluded that the dominant design concept marginally addresses the emergence of a dominant design. Therefore the present study takes on a company "inside-out" perspective to examine how underlying mechanisms may be revealed.

    The empirical data address the third generation (3G) mobile telephony core and access networks or the 3G infrastructure, which can be treated as the core technologies for the new 3G system. The data stem mainly from interviews with individuals involved in the process at Ericsson, the mobile telephony systems developer. One outcome of the research is a case that describes the story of 3G infrastructure standard setting from Ericsson's view.

    On the basis of empirical data and theoretical framework, four foci are developed and used for analysis of the data. The foci developed are people and their relations, organizations and their relations, technology perception, and influencing others.

    The point of departure is that the technology dimension is of utmost importance in this type of standard-setting process where a system of core technologies is chosen. After exploring and describing the process from the inside-out perspective, however, the overall finding from the research is that human behaviour plays the central role as individuals constitute the process by advocating and negotiating technology, form the organizations, embody the relations (including various types of network), and influence others in the market. Since people are at the core of standard-setting processes, a truly managerial issue is how to use the right people for the right tasks with proper timing during the process.

    The findings from the 3G study are also related to the findings made in earlier research in a broader contextual analysis.

    Critical to managing the standard-setting process is an understanding of where to fit a given standard into the technical hierarchy and the standards hierarchy. The maturity of the industry also needs to be analysed and addressed. It is concluded that each standard-setting process is a mix of de jure and de facto standard-setting mechanisms with "in-between arenas" and that there are a number of sub-processes.

    A model characterising the roles of people with various functions over time and in a standard-setting process constitutes the main outcome of the research. This model constitutes three different functions (technical, tactical, strategic) and three process stages (research, formal standardisation, informal standardisation) thereby characterising nine different roles. 

    List of papers
    1. The role of personal networks in the development of industry standards: a case study of 3G mobile telephony
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of personal networks in the development of industry standards: a case study of 3G mobile telephony
    2004 (English)In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 283-293Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Industry standards affect the diffusion and adoption of new technology and the competitiveness of individual players but their development is not under the direct control of individual actors. Examines the role and importance of personal networks in the development of industry standards on the basis of a case study of Ericsson’s involvement in the development of standards for 3G mobile telephony. Notes how relations among parties and many types of forums stemming from previous development and marketing involvement affect the complex set of interactions shape the bottom-up self-organizing way in which standards emerge. The case study has implications for our understanding of the way standards develop and for managers attempting to influence the outcomes.

    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-23192 (URN)10.1108/08858620410516763 (DOI)2601 (Local ID)2601 (Archive number)2601 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2018-10-18
    2. Relations among actors forming dominant design: highlights from the 3G mobile telephony development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relations among actors forming dominant design: highlights from the 3G mobile telephony development
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper organisational actors to which a systems manufacturing company within the mobile telecommunication sector has its relations in order to set a dominant design are discussed. It is concluded that a company has to have a good understanding of previous technological developments and the impact thereof on present activities. Moreover it needs a high sensitivity for on-going actions in its network in order to follow-up and act on events and signals obtained and initiated.

    Keywords
    Standardisation, relations, actors, R&D, embeddedness
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89645 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-02-28 Created: 2013-02-28 Last updated: 2018-10-18
    3. First, second or third wave of technology: should it matter to managers?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>First, second or third wave of technology: should it matter to managers?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When a company wishes to introduce a new technology what kind of stakeholders exists within a technology and market process where there seemingly are a lot of network externalities and installed base effects? How does the defmition of the technology affect the interdependencies created between such stakeholders in the early development phase, i.e. the standardisation process? The purpose is to discuss from the perspective of a technology developing company how different stakeholders and their forums for interaction interfere with and support each other. The case herein presents how Ericsson managed the interaction with the stakeholders and their forums during the early phase of 30 development. The analysis focuses on the arenas and the relations and the people involved in the standardisation process, and five concluding reflections regard: negotiation and power, opinions in compromise, absent customer, informal and formal arenas, multiple human skills.

    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89646 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-02-28 Created: 2013-02-28 Last updated: 2018-10-18
    4. Obtaining opinion leadership in the third wave: 3G mobile telephony as (CO)3
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Obtaining opinion leadership in the third wave: 3G mobile telephony as (CO)3
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Opinion leadership theory normally applied on the adoption of consumer goods is evaluated for a third wave complex system as regards identity of opinion leaders and the character of the activities a company undertakes in its efforts to act as an opinion leader. The third wave complex system development process studied is the standardisation of the core network and radio access portions of the 30 mobile telephony system and this from the perspective of a large mobile systems developer. Based on the increased technical and market complexity compared to the second wave, it is concluded, contrary to existing opinion leadership theory, that the opinion leaders for third wave complex systems come from within the existing social system and that the opinion leadership is competence-oriented, collaboration-oriented and community-oriented.

    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89647 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-02-28 Created: 2013-02-28 Last updated: 2018-10-18
  • 12.
    Holm, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Law and Legal Philosophy. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Den avtalsgrundade lojalitetsplikten: en allmän rättsprincip2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are a number of legal principles regulating contract law, of which good faith (bona fides) is one. In the Nordic countries the equivalence is the principle ofloyalty. The acceptance of this principle within Swedish contract law has increased during the last two decades, but the principle has not yet been subject to codification. The scope of it has yet to be developed in order to establish its framework. The aim of this thesis is primarily to analyse the premises and conclusions of the legal justification of the principle, scientifically as well as judicially. This dissertation discusses a number of aspects ofthis principle ofloyalty. Most market transactions are connected with certain assumptions about risks. To enable cost efficient market exchange a certain amount of trust between the parties is required. The law can to a certain degree protect justified assumptions about risk by extending agreements with implied terms. In case a party breaches such a term damages may be claimed or some other sanction may be imposed. The principle can be used in the interpretation process involving contracts. It relates in particular to the determination of implied terms within contractual agreements, in order to protect the reasonable expectations of the contract parties. The principle of loyalty also obliges a party to make sure that the person and the property of the other party do not suffer any damage during the performance.

  • 13.
    Huge Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Logistics systems for recycling: on the influence of products, structures, relationships and power2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental trend, and environmental legislation, has during the past decade grown stronger, and with it the focus on environmental issues within many fields of research and practice. This has implications for logistics, and the focus in this dissertation is on the logistics systems that are needed to realise recycling of end-of-life products: logistics systems for recycling (LSRs). LSRs have been studied regarding two parts; the collection and the post-collection system.

    To identify influence of physical components (product properties and structures of LSRs) and co-operative behaviour (relationships and interorganizational power) on effectiveness and efficiency of LSRs, four studies of different parts of the LSR were conducted, comprising all the roles shown in figure I. The cases comprised paper and electronics recycling.

    The findings of the research suggest the following:

    • Product complexity, variety and handling properties can restrict the possibilities of reaching effectiveness and efficiency in LSRs through economies of scale. The value of both recycled paper and recycled electronics can under certain conditions be influenced by the effectiveness and the efficiency of LSRs.
    • The material flow structures of the studied LSRs are converging, and cost effectiveness as well as capacity efficiency can be increased through co-ordination between LSRs and forward logistics systems.
    • Mutual long-term ambition and longer time frames of contracts in vertical relationships between actors in the same LSR can improve their performance. Horizontal relationships between actors of different LSRs provide opportunities for attaining higher effectiveness and efficiency.
    • Power bases identified as influential for the performance of LSRs were not only relative to size and ownership, but also to expertise on logistics and recycling, and superior information access. Trust building and power use co-exist in LSRs, but intentional trust building was more visible in short term relationships in legislation driven recycling of low and volatile goods volumes, than in market/technology driven recycling of large and stable goods volumes.

    The relatively high importance of high customer service levels over low costs in collection LSRs for legislation driven recycling, where goods volumes are small and volatile, was identified. A model was introduced comprising a second decoupling point, where the logistics strategy would shift from agile to lean; at the recycler, instead of at the point of the end-customer, something which is generally perceived in the literature.

    The physical components and co-operative behaviour of LSRs can both reinforce each other's influence on the performance of LSRs, or counteract each other's effect.

    Reinforcement:

    • Product standardisation increases handling efficiency in an LSR and facilitates the recycling process, and it can also facilitate horizontal co-operation, thus increasing LSRs' effectiveness and efficiency.
    • Co-ordination between LSRs and forward logistics systems and horizontal co-operation can enhance the effectiveness and the efficiency of LSRs.

    Counteraction:

    • A high level of logistics as well as product knowledge can enhance the efficiency and the effectiveness of LSRs, but the two competencies can also counteract with one another.
    • High and stable goods volumes promote high efficiency and cost effectiveness but may also lower the managerial efficiency within the system.
  • 14.
    Isaksson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Logistics Service Providers Going Green: A Framework for Developing Green Service Offerings2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental impact has increasingly become a “buzzword” and an important topic. This topic has been integrated into the agenda of many companies worldwide, and this dissertation focuses on the transportation and logistics industry. Environmental concerns have gained increased attention among many logistic service providers (LSPs) due to the environmental impact from their operations, and they have been identified of having a significant role in reducing the environmental burden in the supply chain. An environmental approach of the LSPs' business has also been identified as a way to achieve competitive advantage and provide market opportunities where the development and marketing of new products and services associated with green issues are suggested as important aspects for future growth. However, considering the scarcity of research regarding this topic, a study that reveals potential aspects in the development of green service offerings can bridge the knowledge gap and provide opportunities for further research within this field. The purpose of this dissertation is therefore to develop and explain a framework for LSPs’ development of green service offerings. The purpose is addressed by first investigating LSPs' service development from a general perspective in order to, in a second stage, reach a better understanding of the implications when integrating green aspects in LSPs' service development efforts.

    Theoretically, this dissertation departed from service marketing literature or more specifically new service development (NSD) research. This resulted in a conceptual framework including key dimensions and aspects regarding a company’s NSD efforts and activities. From this foundation, the theoretical framework was developed further based on research regarding LSPs' service development and innovation management. Finally the framework was extended with green logistics literature as well as research regarding LSPs' green development and influences on their service offerings.

    Empirically, this research is mainly based on qualitative data from an in-depth case study on a large LSP active on the Swedish market. In addition, empirical data from a multiple case study and a questionnaire survey conducted for the Licentiate thesis were used in order to enrich the analysis regarding the LSPs' development of green service offerings. The analysis followed a stepwise approach where literature and empirical data were analysed.

    One of the main results in this dissertation is the framework for LSPs' new service development, consisting of five dimensions: NSD culture, NSD strategy, NSD process focus, IT use and expertise and NSD knowledge and skills. The NSD framework presents a holistic view of the LSPs’ NSD efforts by revealing different dimensions, their roles and relations to each other as well as the pre-requisites to take into consideration in the development of new services. Thus, the different NSD dimensions should not solely be viewed as isolated dimensions; instead, there is a need for LSPs to have a holistic view and understanding of the NSD activities’ reciprocity.

    Another main result concerns the adaption of the NSD framework to green service development. The results reveal some pre-requisites relevant for LSPs to consider in their efforts to develop green service offerings and are summarised in the following main dimensions:

    • Creating green awareness in the NSD culture – encourage participation regarding green initiatives within the organisation, defining a “common picture” in order to facilitate collaboration efforts and knowledge exchange concerning green expertise. The support from top management was also identified of having an influencing impact. Defining the strategic approach of green service offerings – integrate a green concern in the overall business strategy and to define the strategic role and incentives for developing green service offerings. The results also suggest LSPs to adapt green NSD efforts to different business contexts and market possibilities to match existing resources and skills with customers’ green requirements, and to perform a segmentation of customers’ environmental work and ambitions to increase the understanding of customers’ green attitudes and requirements.
    • Create processes and routines to facilitate spreading of green knowledge – highlights the relevance of a process focus for spreading green knowledge both from an external and internal perspective. It involves e.g. adoption of certifications, procedures for environmental calculations and documentation as well as routines to spread and integrate green knowledge among employees as well as identification of customers’ green requirements.
    • Improve green internal knowledge and build green collaborations – provide training and education to increase the level of green awareness and knowledge among employees as well as customers and strive for collaboration efforts both internally and externally to utilise each other’s knowledge and resources towards the development of green service offerings.
    • Increase transparency of green information both internally and externally – improve green information transparency to build both internal and external trust and increase possibilities to effectively use other actors’ knowledge and resources to develop environmental improvements in the supply chain. Integration of IT expertise and synchronisations of IT systems to facilitate and support environmental work and development of green service offerings.
    List of papers
    1. Logistics Service Providers going green: insights from the Swedish market
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Logistics Service Providers going green: insights from the Swedish market
    2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years pressures on the logistics and transport industry to involve and engage more in environmental work have increased. Governmental awareness of environmental impact has led to an increased pressure on the logistics and transport industry to reduce the emissions incurred by their operations. In addition, customers have become more interested and demanding regarding green initiatives in their purchasing of transport services. Although logistics service providers (LSPs) are becoming more aware of environmental problems, the development of green initiatives in the logistics and transport industry is described in the literature as being in its infancy phase. Considering the scarcity of studies on LSPs’ green initiatives, a study that reveals potential factors influencing the adoption of green initiatives may be helpful to fill the knowledge gap and provide opportunities for further research in this field.

    The purpose of this licentiate thesis is therefore to describe how different factors can affect the adoption of green initiatives among LSPs, and how the adoption of green initiatives can be reflected in the service offering. This includes identifying different kinds of triggers, drivers and barriers, as well as firm characteristics and describing how these factors can affect the adoption of green initiatives. Furthermore, ways in which the adoption of green initiatives can be reflected in the service offering are exemplified in order to answer the second part of the purpose.

    The theoretical base in this licentiate thesis can be linked to general environmental logistics literature, sustainable service, and product development research. The research in this study is in its nature explorative and empirical data have been obtained from a cross case study of six companies, and a survey study investigating LSPs active on the Swedish market.

    Based on the findings from the analysis, the LSPs studied have commenced to adopt green initiatives since they experience the pressure to adapt to future expectations and, understand the consequences. This will enable the LSPs to respond to the increasing and more global competition. Although increased competiveness seems to act as a trigger, the role of competitors as a driver affecting the adoption of green initiatives among LSPs are neither stressed in the case study nor singled out in the survey study as a significant driver. Increased, interest from customers and decisions from top management are both highlighted as triggers for LSPs to start adopting green initiatives, in the literature as well as among the LSPs studied.

    The role of customers and top management also seem to be prominent drivers in the further green development. By adopting green initiatives, LSPs strive to win new customers and there is also a desire to improve customer relationships. Furthermore, the engagement and support from top management can be crucial for how successfully the adoption of green initiatives is integrated into the company and received by the employees. In addition, among the LSPs studied, their employees can be considered as an essential driver and a resource when adopting green initiatives.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. p. 82
    Series
    Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1518
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73991 (URN)LiU-TEK-LIC- 2012:03 (Local ID)978-91-7519-970-2 (ISBN)LiU-TEK-LIC- 2012:03 (Archive number)LiU-TEK-LIC- 2012:03 (OAI)
    Presentation
    2012-01-27, Rum 3B:955, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
    Opponent
    Supervisors
    Available from: 2012-01-18 Created: 2012-01-18 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
    2. Developing sustainable logistics services
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing sustainable logistics services
    2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual NOFOMA Conference : Logistics and Supply Chain Management in a Globalised Economy / [ed] Jan Stentoft Arlbjørn, Kolding, Danmark, 2010, p. 985-1000Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper: Logistics companies need to take account of environmental aspects into their services to strengthen their position on the market and meet the increased demands from the society. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present a framework for how to consider sustainability in the development of logistics services. The paper also aims at developing a research agenda for further research needs regarding how logistics companies can include the environmental aspect in their service offerings.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on a literature review that has its origin in sustainable service and product development. This is compared with literature about development of offerings for logistics companies. The results from the literature studies are then analyzed in order to identify a research agenda and to present a framework containing aspects of sustainable service offerings of relevance from a logistics company perspective.

    Findings: The paper suggests how logistics service offerings can be enhanced through sustainable service and product development literature. A framework consisting of aspects to address in the development of sustainable offering for logistics firms is presented.

    Research limitations/implications: The findings should be considered as conceptual, and provides a basis for further empirical based research

    Practical implications: The results provide a basis for logistics companies, to build upon in their continuing efforts to develop and enhance more sustainable services to their customers.

    What is original/value of paper: A large amount of literature can be found concerning sustainable development of offerings. However, literature concerning the development of sustainable services is not that available and there is a large lack regarding the connection to logistics companies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Kolding, Danmark: , 2010
    Keywords
    Environmental logistics, Service offering, Sustainability, Literature review, Logistics Service
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-62685 (URN)978-87-92471-05-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    22nd NOFOMA Conference, Logistics and Supply Chain Management in a Globalised Economy, June 10-11, Kolding, Denmark
    Available from: 2010-12-02 Created: 2010-12-02 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
    3. Green Initiatives in the Transport and Logistics Service Industry: An Exploratory Case Study of Logistics Service Providers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Green Initiatives in the Transport and Logistics Service Industry: An Exploratory Case Study of Logistics Service Providers
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of business operations on the natural environment is an area in which societies and governments have become more proactive. This specifically affects logistics service providers (LSPs) where the core business has a significant environmental impact. That is why transport and logistics companies are increasingly being asked to respond to the challenges of green issues by implementing more environmentally sustainable strategies. Hence environmental research specific to LSPs has been neglected despite the fact that these companies have assumed a more critical role in the wider supply chain. In order to generate more structured knowledge and understanding of the green initiatives undertaken by LSPs, this paper explores the level of awareness and actual initiatives undertaken, as well as the drivers and barriers these companies encounter in this area today. This has been done through a multiple case study approach investigating a sample of LSPs operating in Sweden, Italy and Ireland. The results of the case study identify the environmental attitude of LSPs and how they are responding to the green pressures on their businesses. Managerial and research implications – in particular, a set a propositions are derived from the study.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73989 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-18 Created: 2012-01-18 Last updated: 2015-06-02Bibliographically approved
    4. Understanding efficiencies behind logistics service providers' green offerings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding efficiencies behind logistics service providers' green offerings
    2013 (English)In: Management Research Review, ISSN 2040-8269, E-ISSN 2040-8277, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 216-238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Awareness of environmental impacts on society is increasing among companies. In order to turn environmental problems into business opportunities, many companies are beginning to consider how environmental, or green aspects can be integrated into their service offerings. This opportunity can be of specific interest to logistics service providers, whose core business is an environmental impact in itself. The purpose of this article is to indicate where green-labelled logistics service providers are positioned today in their development, and to seek the underlying rationale in development of green service offerings.

    Design/methodology/approach – This article takes a logistics service provider's perspective and is based on a multiple case study of six companies. The analysis is based on cross-case analysis, and empirical, as well as theoretical, pattern matching.

    Findings – The attitude towards a green approach differs among the case companies: while some are working towards a green integration throughout the entire business, others offer green alternatives to the original service offering. The results point to possible explanations for these differences, and include differences in range of service offerings, size, and to different management principles for green aspects.

    Practical implications – The article can inspire logistics service providers in their continuing work to integrate green initiatives into the company. By introducing alternative green approaches in the development of service offerings, logistics service providers can match their own business and context with alternative rationales.

    Originality/value – While most of the green logistics research focuses on the logistics system's characteristics, this article offers initial insights into how the integration of green aspects into logistics services can impact logistics service providers.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013
    Keywords
    Green logistic service offering, logistics service providers, new service development, pattern matching.
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73990 (URN)10.1108/01409171311306382 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-04-08 Created: 2012-01-18 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    5. The Challenge andAdoption of Green Initiatives for Transport and Logistics Service Providers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Challenge andAdoption of Green Initiatives for Transport and Logistics Service Providers
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 16th Annual Logistics Research Network Conference: Smarter Logistics: Innovation for Efficiency, Performance and Austerity / [ed] Ben Waterson, 2011, p. 1-10Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The role of logistics service providers (LSPs) has started to change both when it comes to content and complexity and LSPs have been identified to have potential to become more value-adding actors in supply chains. This applies when LSPs begin to transform their operations and strategy to become more effective from a green perspective. In response, the purpose of this paper is to develop a base for further investigations of green initiatives carried out by LSPs and analyse if the green initiatives implemented are dependent on firm characteristics of the LSPs, as well as drivers and barriers experienced.

    Research approach: A questionnaire survey has been launched and it is still ongoing. The survey investigates a sample of LSPs operating on the Swedish and the Italian market. The questionnaire is derived from the researchers’ earlier research projects based on case studies and literature reviews. Data and information collected through the questionnaire allow identifying current and future green initiatives, influencing factors (drivers and barriers) and firm characteristics. The analysis suggests how these dimensions depend on each other.

    Findings and Originality: The survey is still ongoing and the paper will present the first results of the research. The first results discern different green initiatives and the type of drivers and barriers affecting these companies. Prior research has focused on the perspective of the buyer of green logistics services and little attention has been paid to the role of green initiatives in the strategy of LSPs, their impact on customer relationship and performance, the role of ICT as well as drivers and barriers affecting such initiatives.

    Research impact: The expected contribution of this paper is to illustrate and give a deeper knowledge of how LSPs respond to changing market conditions when it comes to green pressures from society. This study may provide a broad base for further research on LSPs’ continued strategy development and adaption to future green requirements both from customers and government.

    Practical impact: The paper will describe the way LSPs have started to adopt and manage green initiatives into their operations. Furthermore, the study will also provide a deeper understanding among practitioners of how logistics green services can be approached and also what drives and inhibits that process. 

    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73681 (URN)978-1-904564-36-2 (ISBN)
    Conference
    The 16th Annual LRN Conference 7-9 September, Southampton, United Kingdom, 2011
    Available from: 2012-01-13 Created: 2012-01-11 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
  • 15.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How to deal with the encroachment costs in road investment CBA2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An important basis for decisions regarding road investments is Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA), where all costs and benefits should be taken into account and expressed in monetary terms. A valuation of the cost for the encroachment caused by a new road in, for example, a recreation area or a residential area is, however, missing in road investment CBA. The purpose of this thesis is to develop approaches to deal with the encroachment costs. More specifically two approaches are developed.

    One approach is ”cost transfer” for typical cases. With this approach the encroachment cost is estimated ex post for a number of existing roads within each typical case. The results are to be used to estimate a calculation formula to use for CBA of planned road investments where the encroachment can be referred to a particular typical case. The typical case ”barrier to water” was chosen for a pilot study with the aim of developing the method for data collection, and study what is most important for the encroachment cost per affected individual.

    The other approach is a method, developed in the thesis, for estimating the encroachment cost ex ante for each specific object. The method is called COPATS, ”Combined Opinion Poll and Travel Survey”. It makes use of the fact that roads mean both positive and negative effects to a different degree for the affected people. Data of the residence location, visiting frequency in the encroachment area and travel pattern is collected by a postal questionnaire before deciding on a road investment. In the same questionnaire it is also asked whether the respondent is for or against the planned road. The encroachment cost can be estimated from the respondents´ balancing of the benefit of travel time savings, and possibly some other positive effects, against the negative encroachment caused by the planned road.

    A conclusion is that both alternatives seem to be possible ways of including encroachment costs as part of road investment CBA. To estimate calculation formulas for cost transfer in some common typical cases, a large number of further encroachment cost studies must though be made. COPATS is closer to practical application, but needs to be further developed in collaboration with road planners.

  • 16.
    Javefors Grauers, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Profession, genus och företagarpar: en studie av advokater och köpmän2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of supermarket owners (Javefors Grauers 1999) showed that the woman and the man in the family business were unequal in terms of e.g. ownership, salaries, and domestic work. Furthermore, that the woman in the business couple was not visible as a supermarket owner. The results were interpreted as an outcome of the gender system (Hirdman 1990). The dissertation deals with the question whether the outcome of the gender system is modified towards equal terms if the business couple runs a family business within a profession that requires a higher education.

    In order to illuminate if professional membership modifies the outcome of the gender system, a study of professional business couples where both spouses are lawyers was conducted. The results of the study were compared with the results from the study of supermarket owners. The comparison shows that the professional membership amongst business couples to a certain degree contributes in modifying the outcome of the gender system. Despite there was a traditional gender pattern of differentiation among the lawyers e.g. in domestic work sharing, the findings taking together and especially the visibility of the female lawyers point towards that family business in terms of business couple in a profession actually works towards equality between the spouses. The female lawyers were visible as business women but the female supermarket owners were not. The visibility of the female lawyer is explained by the legitimacy she receives through her professional knowledge and acknowledged profession. When a legal advisor has applied for and been admitted to the Law Society she becomes visible as a lawyer to those who have an interest in her professional competence. Professional membership amongst business couples seems to modify the outcome of the gender system and thereby to make family business a vehicle of equality.

  • 17.
    Jonsson, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Kunskapsbildning i samverkan mellan forskning och praktik: en studie av interaktiv kunskapsbildning avseende kommunchefers chefskap2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest in 'knowledge-building in co-operation between research and practise'. Practitioners as well as researchers seek opportunities to co-operate in order to develop and utilise knowledge. This growing interest seems to depend on several circumstances; e.g. increasing competition concerning grant for research but also in the belief that there is a substantial value in knowledge that has been developed in co-operation between practice and research.

    The dissertation shows how knowledge building in co-operation between research and practice can turn out in a case concerning 'city managers management'. The case shows the results of such a co-operation, the process of knowledge building and how co-operation between research and practice can be organised.

    In the dissertation 'knowledge-building in co-operation between research' and practice is viewed in tenns of three 'action systems', namely (1) a research system in which the researcher works with theoretical knowledge-building, (2) a practice system in which the practitioner mostly works as a practical actor and (3) a dialogne system in which the researcher and practitioner meet in order to co-operate in lrnowledge-building. These action systems are related to each other in a model, which can be used for both practical and theoretical purposes.

  • 18.
    Jonsson, Seth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strategic sourcing in the age of e-business: prerequisites in manufacturing industries2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic sourcing (i.e. relationship, sourcing and negotiation strategies) has, by the introduction of the Internet and e-business, get hold of a variety of possibilities supporting the classical sourcing guiding principle, such as electronic marketplaces, reversed e-auctions, online communication tools, software agents and the like. E-business regenerates in addition the negotiation character. By combining the operational and strategic views and care for a cautiously implementation, due to the exclusive demands in the specific company, purchasing and sourcing may improve fundamentally, as might happen in competitive companies as well. Such steps increase the possibilities to get reductions in total costs when managing existing operational processes, and not just achieve some short-term price benefits. Further, this includes the strategic aspects of getting a balance between the need of developing suppliers in emerging markets, local and distant sourcing, and adversarial and relationdriven solutions, thanks to strategic moves interlinked to a professional e-business strategy. Nevertheless, the purchasing and supply fundamentals are ongoing, which purchasing management firmly has to address.

    The diversity of e-business is also its definitely strength. Applications to generate business value, noticed in this thesis, are connected to geographical range, reduced communication costs, alternative business-information flows, complex bid matching, digitized negotiation models, multi-item negotiations, support interlinks, and/or transparency control. However, what is common with these potentials and directions are that they also may be used to greatly improve classical strategic sourcing. Strongly competing suppliers, foreign sourcing, market pricing, and parallel sourcing are all classical characteristics of the purchasing profession.

    Nevertheless, I would like to underline fmnly that collaboration strategies are as well central on a number of specific areas, as has also been proven in my research. It is on the other hand important to recall that many needs within the purchase range do not hold the strategic content and consequently must not be solved within a collaboration strategy. Another aspect to emphasize is that e-business improves the possibilities to crossfunctional work and to integrate different levels of the organization; both subjects essential to the internal value transfer from the purchasing and supply function.

    My research has coped with several fields of assessment where specific requisites have been enlightened, such as supplier involvement attributes, mission-critical supplies, supplier requirements, and complexity in supplies. We may now reflect on which direction that is most favorable. As I recognize, e-business has exposed a breathtaking entry and so far generated more questions than answers. This is why the propositions are formulated as a part of the results.

    List of papers
    1. Förhandlingsstrategiska val i olika inköpssituationer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Förhandlingsstrategiska val i olika inköpssituationer
    2000 (Swedish)Book (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Linköpings Universitet, 2000. p. 87
    Series
    Research in management series, ISSN 1100-391X ; 9901
    Keywords
    Affärsförhandlingar, Arbetsledning, Beslutsfattande, Beslutsmetoder, Företagsekonomi, Företagsledning, Ledning, Planeringsmetoder
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89655 (URN)91-7219-678-5 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2013-02-28 Created: 2013-02-28 Last updated: 2014-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Utvecklade leverantör - kundrelationer: Supply Link Management
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utvecklade leverantör - kundrelationer: Supply Link Management
    2002 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
    Alternative title[en]
    Developing supplier - customer relationships : Supply Link Management
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsprojektets syfte är att beskriva och analysera hur en ökad produkt- och produktionsspec ialisering hos tillverkande företag päverkar innehållet i, och inriktningen i relationen till leverantörer. Särskilt fokuseras de frågor som är relevanta när informationsteknik (IT) används som ett strategiskt hjälpmedel, i syfte att utveckla integrerad logistikverksamhet mellan affärspaner. Forskningsfrågorna pekar på problemställningar kring hur IT kan användas operativt och strategiskt för att koordinera och styra materialnöden i länken mellan leverantörer och köpande företag, här beskrivet som supply l ink management med en IT-ansats. Problemställningarna speglar vilken roll IT har för partnerskapsinriktade samarbeten för integrerad logistikverksamhet i olika typer av allianser. Vidare identifieras frågor kring förändrade förutsättningar för företagens affärsprocesser i samband med att IT möjliggör en global logistikplattform för kundföretag och leverantörer.

    En kombination av tjugo öppna halvstrukturerade samt tio strukturerade intervjuer har genomförts. Elva intervjuer har bandats och skrivits ut for djupare analys. Även skriftlig dokumentation har inhämtats och delgivits forskarna. Inom ramen för projektet har det funnits en referensgrupp samt en styrgrupp med forskare och ansvariga foretagsrepresentanter. Sju formella möten har genomförts där dels projektets innehåll fortlöpande stämts av, dels riktlinjer för fonsatt utveckling diskuterats. Till mötena har underlag för diskussion skapats i form av tre skrivna företagsrapporter. Forskare och företagsrepresentanter har samverkat i en interaktiv forskningsdesign där förtrogenhetskunskap successivt byggts upp och utnyttjats.

    Resultaten pekar på att e-business applikationer genererar lojalitetseffekter som är av omedelbar relevans för operativa och forsörjningsstrategiska överväganden au utveckla integrerad logistikverksamhet och samarbete mellan leverantörer och kunder. Olika lojalitetseffekter kan aktualiseras beroende på hur få retagen väljer att utveckla relationerna. Ytterligare resultat markerar hur Internet-teknikens tillämpning i allianser spelar en väsentlig roll för insourcing av kompetenser, åtgärder for all öka kundupplevt värde respektive operativ effektivitet. Policyrelevanta implikationer kan identifieras där IT stärker och stabiliserar logistikens funktion för mindre leverantörer i nätverk. Förändrade försörjningsstrategier och logistikstruktur bryter om leverantörshierarkier, och genererar genomgripande omflyttningar i värdekedjan. IT kan även möjliggöra en effektiv kommunikationsplattform samt en utvidgad roll för systemleverantörer med framskjuten position.

    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the research project is to describe and analyse how product and manufacturing specialisation influences the content and alignment of supplier-customer relationships with a specific focus on the role of IT as a strategic instrument in developing integrative logistics operations. The research questions emphasise the role of IT in collaborative partnerships described as supply chain management with an IT-approach. As a part of the case study design, the collection of qualitative empirical data was gathered from multiple sources during a period of one year and incorporates the perspectives of respondents from both ends of the focal supply link. Altogether, a combination of 20 semi-structured and 10 structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with a total of 20 respondents, supplemented by written documents. As a part of the interactive research design, a project management group with researchers and key informants have been frequently engaged in reviewing and discussing a number of preliminary case study reports. The continuos dialogue with representatives from the companies has also illuminated the research focus on issues relevant for managerial concerns. The empirical findings point at the significance of recognising loyalty effects in developing integrative logistics operations. In addition to improved operational effectiveness and strategic positioning, the Internet enables insourcing of alliance management, as well as creating multifaceted value-engendered links between partners. Furthermore, policy implications are identified as IT strengthens the functions of logistics in small supplier networks, and also enables an effective communication platform, which expand the role of first-tier systems suppliers in transformational logistics flow-structures.

    Publisher
    p. 120
    Series
    Vinnova Rapport VR, ISSN 1650-3104 ; 18
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89653 (URN)91-89588-66-5 (ISBN)
    Funder
    Vinnova, 2001-02409
    Available from: 2013-02-28 Created: 2013-02-28 Last updated: 2013-03-12
    3. Charge the relationships and gain loyalty effects: turning the supply link alert to IT opportunities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Charge the relationships and gain loyalty effects: turning the supply link alert to IT opportunities
    2003 (English)In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 144, no 2, p. 257-269Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze interconnected effects related to the use of IT, and in so doing, provide an understanding of integrative logistics operations in a supply chain link. We take a theoretical point of departure in the three factors of relationship investments, formalization and trust. Thereafter we will expand and elaborate these factors by discussing embedded elements and mechanisms, related to relationships and loyalty, which result in an outlined model for empirical research focused on operational and strategic partnerships. Based on an empirical analysis we propose that the use of IT, expressed as digitization, can be seen as a driving force for bridging a gap between the actual and potential pattern of integrative logistics operations in a supply chain link. Digitization activates mechanisms in trust, commitment, and solidarity, which are related to loyalty and simultaneously enable heterogeneous influences in relationship characteristics.

    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-33245 (URN)10.1016/S0377-2217(02)00392-2 (DOI)19244 (Local ID)19244 (Archive number)19244 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Internet technology to achieve supply chain performance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internet technology to achieve supply chain performance
    2005 (English)In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 403-417Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to explore how the internet introduces opportunities for customer value and effectiveness when developing integrative logistics operations between alliance partners in a supply chain link.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on the expressed interest from the researched companies how to take advantage of the internet in building competitive business processes in the supply chain. The quest for external customer-value creation becomes a critical managerial task in strengthening the strategic position of the supply chain. The study seeks to integrate the use of theories of marketing, strategic sourcing, core competencies, and transaction costs, in a supply chain perspective.

    Findings – Applying the internet with solely a focus on cost reduction could lead to high supply chain effectiveness without realizing potential customer value-perception opportunities. Also, assuring strategic consistency when leaning on cooperation is a critical supply management subject. Finally, the internet is a driving force in managing alliances.

    Research limitations/implications – The framework of the value-delivery system and the concept of value shortfalls, as theoretical understanding and managerial implications, deserve to be taken into certain consideration in future studies of supply chain performance.

    Practical implications – The managerial implications point out three potential routes in the internet use: as a strategic collaborative posture to compete with superior external customer-value delivery; in increasing supply chain efficiency and gradually shifting attention toward customer-perceived value; in extracting economic value through continual refinements of current logistics operations.

    Originality/value – A systemic value-delivery view where the value-exchange process is illustrated with delivery performance, actual achievement, and value shortfall.

    Keywords
    Delivery services, Distribution management, Integration, Internet, Supply chain management
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-50361 (URN)10.1108/14637150510609426 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12
    5. A supply chain view on electronic commerce impact on value, relations and loyalty: field survey e-B2B project
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A supply chain view on electronic commerce impact on value, relations and loyalty: field survey e-B2B project
    2003 (English)Book (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2003. p. 81
    Series
    IMIE Working Paper Series, ISSN 1403-4638 ; 1
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89656 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-02-28 Created: 2013-02-28 Last updated: 2018-08-02Bibliographically approved
    6. Business negotiations in the electronic commerce world
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business negotiations in the electronic commerce world
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The changes in business negotations, when transforming more activites into Internet electronic commerce, are the primare focus in the article. Three interaction models are the basis of the discussion: face-to-face negotiations, reverse e-auctions, and e-agents. Data are examined with a negotiation strategy model, previously evolved by the author. The findings indicate that automated negotiations have a great potential to support or rearrange the long-established negotiation design. Using the e-auction model competently adds up to supplier base competitiveness, better prices, and lowered administrative costs. E-agents are inspiring and may create a future evolution in e-negotiation, although they still are at an infancy stage.

    Keywords
    negotiation, electronic commerce, electronic reverse auction, electronic agent, sourcing, buyer-supplier relationship
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89651 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-02-28 Created: 2013-02-28 Last updated: 2013-02-28
  • 19.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The integration of e-business into mature and established companies: a business model approach2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose ofthis dissertation is to explore and analyse the implications of the integration of e-business into mature and established companies and how e-business can contribute to business development. Changes in general and e-business in particular have the potential to penetrate different areas of a company and thus we ought to analyse how e-business is integrated into the entire company (both strategically and operationally) if we aim to understand how this happens. By using a holistic business model framework it is argued that we get a more complete picture and understanding of the integrating e-business.

    The study is based on three case studies of mature and established, so-called bricks-and-mortar, companies that use e-business in various ways and to various extents.

    Traditionally e-bus iness has primarily been used for cost reduction purposes especially regarding transaction costs. These relatively simple solutions, "low-hanging fruits", have all but been exhausted and thus companies turn their attention to more complex and value-adding solutions and ideas. As e-business becomes more complex it also becomes more integrated into the companies and the day-to-day activities. This also demands more interaction and integration with business processes as well as external actors such as customers. E-business has the potential to intluence companies in all dimensions of the business model framework forwarded here; in the Operative platforms, in the Offering. and regarding the Market positions. Furthermore. it is argued that much of companies' contemporary business development has a clear e-business ingredient.

  • 20.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Managing across organisations: intra- and interorganisational aspects of supplier involvement in product development projects2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Supplier involvement in product development is widely regarded as an essential strategy, benefiting product development tinle, costs, and product quality. However, this strategy also increases the dependencies between the buyer and the involved supplier and has therefore implications for coordinating supplier involvement. The aim of this thesis is to examine intra- and interorganisational aspects of supplier involvement in product development projects and, based on a contingency perspective, to develop a conceptual framework for understanding coordination of supplier involvement in and throughout product development projects.

    The need for coordination of dependencies is reinforced by the existence of diverging expectations. This concerns different perspectives on i.e. project management, technical solutions, and product functionalities. Organisational coordination structures facilitate coordination of dependencies and diverging expectations. A contingency approach suggests that a range of coordination structures is necessary for addressing different situations of dependence and diverging perspectives.

    The issues of intraorganisational coordination, interorganisational coordination, and coordination throughout the development project are investigated based on a multiple case study consisting of a study of six product development projects at the packaging company Tetra Brik, and seven mini-cases at Swedish and Dutch companies operating in different industries. The case companies develop relatively complex products, that are produced in rather low to medium volumes. Furthermore, systems integration is an important aspect in product development.

    An important aspect of intraorganisational coordination concerns the interface between the purchasing and the engineering department. Several purchasing involvement configurations are identified. These include purchasing coordinators and the degree of involvement of purchasing specialists in the development project.

    Three main approaches are identified for the interorganisational coordination of supplier involvement in product development projects. An iutegrative approach, project integration coordination, has the highest potential to address a high need for coordination. Disconnected sub-project coordination disconnects the supplier task from the overall project and is therefore able to coordinate a lower degree of dependence. Ad hoc coordination is an informal coordination structure for incidental coordination of supplier involvement in the development project.

    The investigation of supplier involvement throughout the project focuses attention on two issues. First, an integrated approach can precede and facilitate a disconnected approach to coordination in the project. Second, project integrated coordination is sometinles accompanied by some elements of disconnected sub-project coordination.

    Intra- and interorganisational coordination have some cost implications. These costs tmderlie the necessity for a contingency approach to coordination. As the task characteristics, degree of supplier involvement, and moment of supplier involvement are important in determining the degree of dependence in the project, supplier coordination must be determined from situation to situation, based on the need for coordination.

  • 21.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Managerial challenges in environmental innovation: case studies in the electrical equipment and automotive sectors2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is a compilation of five papers that analyse and discuss the managerial challenge of environmental innovation. Environmental innovation seeks to integrate environmental features into products and thus bring new products with better environmental performance to the market. The dissertation reports on three case studies within the electrical equipment and automotive sectors. The first case refers to development of an innovative new gasoline-electric hybrid power train; the second case refers to the development of a new industrial gas turbine, comprising advanced new burner technology; and the third case describes the introduction of new technology for small-scale distributed electricity generation. On the basis of concepts and theoretical models derived from literature on innovation management, the dissertation offers two alternative ways to conceptualise environmental innovation. Firstly, environmental innovation is conceptualised as product development. This is useful to analyse the inner dynamics of R&D organisations and it hightlights the need to adapt organisations and managerial practices to the specific requirements of the development task. Secondly, environmental innovation is conceptualised as the introduction of new technology. Here, two alternative perspectives are discussed. The incumbents' perspective illustrates that environmental innovation may be perceived as a potential threat for existing manufacturers within the established industry and it is used to discuss their strategic responses. The entrants' perspective shows how the definition of early markets and applications is complicated for suppliers who are engaged in environmental innovation. The dissertation argues that environmental innovation is characterised by extensive complexity both in terms of technological complexity and complexity in shaping of demands on technological progress. It concludes that is is important for managers to create an ability to deal with complexity. Based on empirical findings, three possible approaches are outlined: simplification, interaction and experimentation.

    List of papers
    1. Environmental innovation in auto development: managing technological uncertainty within strict time limits
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental innovation in auto development: managing technological uncertainty within strict time limits
    2001 (English)In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 26, no 2-3, p. 101-115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing industry is facing increasingly stringent demands on environmental compliance and the auto industry is particularly exposed to pressure from public and authorities in this area. The purpose of this article is to provide an empirical analysis on how the application of new technologies in order to comply with environmental demands may change the product development process within the auto industry. Experiences from the development of Toyota Prius, the worlds first mass-produced car based on a hybrid power train, are presented and analysed. The analysis shows that technological uncertainty made it necessary to move beyond the prevailing lean product development approach. The article concludes by suggesting a strategy consisting of three fundamental elements in order to control technological uncertainty in innovative and time-focused product development projects up-front testing, intense horizontal communication, and clear and challenging objectives.

    Keywords
    hybrid vehicles, product development, innovation management, technological uncertainty, environmental innovation
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-43012 (URN)10.1504/IJVD.2001.001932 (DOI)70699 (Local ID)70699 (Archive number)70699 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. Planned or experience-based processes for eco-design innovation: exploring product development driven by environmental performance targets
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Planned or experience-based processes for eco-design innovation: exploring product development driven by environmental performance targets
    2001 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, ISSN 1466-2132, E-ISSN 1741-511X, Vol. 1, no 1/2, p. 164-178Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-design research suggests that environmental considerations should be integrated with product development with no or only minor changes to existing development processes. These processes are expected to be systematic, predictable and thoroughly planned. This paper explores if this assumption is still valid when requirements on environmental performance call for more innovative product development. An analytic model is derived from innovation management literature and used to analyse the development of a new industrial gas turbine, a project for which challenging emission level targets meant that new combustion technology had to be applied. The main conclusion is that the application of new technology is followed by changes of the development process, meaning that development becomes guided by real-time experiences rather than by formal plans.

    Keywords
    eco-design, innovation management; product development, technology development, industrial gas turbine, development process, green design
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35221 (URN)10.1504/IJETM.2001.000746 (DOI)25788 (Local ID)25788 (Archive number)25788 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2018-03-23
    3. Architectural or modular innovation? Managing discontinuous product development in response to challenging environmental performance targets
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architectural or modular innovation? Managing discontinuous product development in response to challenging environmental performance targets
    2003 (English)In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    By adopting challenging targets on environmental performance, pro-active industrial firms may push themselves towards discontinuous product innovation. Such innovation can be understood as being either architectural, i.e. arranging components in new ways, or modular, i.e. introducing new technologies in specific components or subsystems. We argue that these two dimensions of discontinuous change call for some specific managerial responses. Architectural innovation challenges the whole engineering organisation, making it necessary to focus development efforts on technological interfaces, whereas modular innovation has a more isolated effect, making specialisation and co-ordination over organisational boundaries particularly important. Altogether, our analysis highlights the importance of adapting the project organisation to the development task and addressing part-whole relationships when managing innovation in established products and systems, something that becomes increasingly important in the strive towards sustainable development.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Imperial collage press, 2003
    Keywords
    product development, discontinuous innovation, environmental performance, organisation
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66058 (URN)10.1142/S1363919603000714 (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-03-02 Created: 2011-03-02 Last updated: 2017-12-11
    4. Sticking to your knitting or changing business model? Discontinuities and capabilities in electrical power generation equipment manufacturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sticking to your knitting or changing business model? Discontinuities and capabilities in electrical power generation equipment manufacturing
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study distributed electricity generation as a potential technological discontinuity, and the response strategies pursued by incumbent electrical manufacturers in the face of this threat. A discontinuity grid is developed, where we position various technological response strategies. The empirical study shows that the major firms are undertaking different response strategies. We discuss this heterogeneity as a consequence of divergent capability endowments and the uncertainty prevailing. We also suggest technology acquisition to be easier than technology exploitation for incumbent firms.

    National Category
    Humanities
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89681 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-03-01 Created: 2013-03-01 Last updated: 2018-06-08
    5. Commercializing cleaner new technologies: the case of microturbine generators
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Commercializing cleaner new technologies: the case of microturbine generators
    2003 (English)In: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 349-362Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a study of the emerging microturbine industry, this paper argues that recent trends towards preventive and product-oriented industrial environmental management are problematic from the technology suppliers’ perspective. This is especially evident in the suppliers’ initial efforts to define markets and applications during early stages of commercialization. The distinction between product innovation driven by explicit or perceived user needs and innovation in environmental technology driven by regulatory demands has become blurred. This means that suppliers have had to interact simultaneously with both users and regulators in order to articulate the demand and acceptance for the new technology.

    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46493 (URN)10.1080/09537320310001601522 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
  • 22.
    Nehler, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Activity-Based Costing: avbildning, integration & nytta2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral dissertation provides an extensive analysis of Activity-Based Costing, one of the most discussed management accounting models during the 90's. The aim of the study is to analyse the prerequisites for the design, integration and use of Activity-Based Costing systems. Three perspectives are used in the analysis:

    Correspondente perspective - referring to the ability of integrated ABC-systems to depict the reality they intend to describe.

    Integration perspective - referring to the possibilities of integrating ABC-systems with other systems in an organisation.

    Usefulness perspective - referring to the user needs for activity-based information, the value/usefulness of activity-based information and the method's effects on user behaviour.

    The results of the dissertation show that an effective ABC-system has a low degree of sophistication, allocation and integration. Yet such ABC-systems have a higher information value compared to more complex systems. These simple integrated ABC-systems also show positive volume and standardisation effects. This dissertation contributes with empirical descriptions of advanced integrated Activity-Based systems and models that are generated from each of the above mentioned analytical perspectives. Moreover, the dissertation's synthesis is presented as a three dimensional model showing the effective ABC-system. Finally, a two-piece model is suggested as a possible solution to the problems associated with the ABC-model.

  • 23.
    Norlén, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Law and Legal Philosophy. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Oskälighet och 36 § avtalslagen2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Section 36 of the Swedish Contracts Act stipulates that a term of a contract can be modified or set aside, if it is "unreasonable". The thesis discusses the meaning of the prerequisite "unreasonable" and how the meaning can and should be defined, using the means of legal science. Normative ethics is thereby introduced as a supplementary source of norms, and scientific works regarding contract law in other European countries are regarded, as well as the Principles of European Contract Law.

    One chapter deals primarily with legal theory, in particular how a position regarding a legal matter can be justified. The role of normative ethics, especially virtue ethics, in legal science is discussed in that context and "the virtues of the contractual relationship" are identified (for example justness, honesty, carefulness). The following chapter focuses on the relationship between those virtues and some principles of contract law (for example the principle of trust, the principle of loyalty), and it is being maintained that the value basis for the virtues on the one hand and the principles on the other hand is largely the same. It is also being maintained that there are strong arguments in favour of letting the virtues and principles affect the definition of the prerequisite "unreasonable" in section 36.

    In the last major chapter, four cases are used as starting points of a discussion regarding various situations, in which "unreasonable" has to be defined. The impact on the definition of "unreasonable" of the previously introduced virtues and principles is discussed, as well as the significance of various circumstances. The duty of disclosure, the significance of balance between the rights and duties of the parties under the contract and the importance of events occurring after the conclusion of the contract are some of the issues, which are treated.

  • 24.
    Pehrsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strategic planning and environmental judgements: the performance in SBU organized industrial groups1985Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Formal Strategic Planning, FSP, has become an instrument to find long-term directions under profitability constraints in industrial companies. This instrument is used to decentralize decisions and more effectively adapt to unstable environments. FSP must, however, to some extent be adjusted to unique situations of single organizational units. Such adaptation implies that anti-planning biases could be avoided and that premises for efficient FSP become more favorable. Furthermore, if FSP is seen as a way to orient units towards unstable environments, then it is necessary to know how planning actors judge their environments in FSP. When this is clear to a satisfactory degree, it is easier to concentrate on crucial matters.

    This doctoral thesis presents a model of outline of main FSP activities, diagnoses and formulations, and planning styles in organizational units. If the applied motivational type is adapted to needs for FSP in the various phases of implementation, FSP can be utilized as an effective instrument to guide strategically A model is also presented for general managers uncertainty in judging the environment. In order to deal with uncertainty, time horizons for judgements ought to be adapted to the uncertainty in each sector of the environment. Relatively short horizons generally ought to be applied to the business climate sector and relatively long horizons to established competitors.

    The performance in industrial groups, which are organized according to Strategic Business Units, SBU's, is accentuated. In longitudinal in-depth studies of the Swedish international groups ASEA, Ericsson and Gunnebo, primarily qualitative data have been used to obtain a holistic perspective of FSP. A complementary cross-sectional study has been carried out in the ASEA Group. Multi-variate analysis has been applied to quantitative data.

  • 25.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sales coordination in multinational corporations: development and management of key account programmes2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the dissertation is to describe and analyse the orgamsmg of sales and marketing in large scale and complex organisations and particularly how key account management programmes are developed, organised and managed.

    This means that the focus is on the development context in which the sales organisation operates, how key account management (KAM) programmes are organised, the coordination they contribute to, and how the KAM programmes are designed to manage the dyadic seller-buyer relationships.

    In particular this purpose includes two major parts:

    • Describing and analysing how KAM programmes evolve in large industrial organisations
    • Describing and analysing how KAM programmes are initiated and developed in seller-buyer relationships

    The method employed has been a multiple-case study based on five individual buyer-seller relationships in two different KAM programmes within ABB. The empirical material has been analysed primarily by the use of organisational and marketing theories.

    Driving forces for the developments of KAM's are marketing strategies, i.e. the focus on systems selling, international selling and the focus on customer share; purchasing strategies, i.e. the coordination of corporate purchas.ing nationally and internationally, and functional buying; and finally organisational contingencies, i.e. that high degree of divisionalisation underscores the importance of coordination.

    Overall organisational structures and management focus strongly affects the formation of KAM programmes and the content of the sales coordination. Marketing strategy in the form of segment marketing is used to structure KAM programmes. Buyer action to coordinate purchasing results in the considerable importance of sales coordination and thus KAM programmes, whereas solely seller-initiated programmes have more organisational adaptations.

    There are large discrepancies between individual KAM's particularly based on customer contingencies and preferences. Generally speaking, the main efforts are aimed at commercial, social, logistical and technical activities. KAM's result in improved working relationships that become more formal, greater coordination and subsequently a more integrated sales organisation.

  • 26.
    Salzer, Miriam
    Linköping University, Department of Arts, Craft and Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Identity Across Borders: A Study in the "IKEA-World"1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How do people construct shared views of what the organization is all about in the international, complex; company? Within a cultural perspective, organizational identity can be tmderstood as organizational members' shared views and definitions of the organization. As people make sense of actions, events, decisions, etc., shared meanings develop which provide organizational members with a sense of organization. Through an ethnographic study in the corporate setting of lKEA I have tried to create an understanding of the processes tluough which organizational identities become constructed across borders.

    In the study it is shown how organizational members through the processes of sense-making construct collective self-views. By drawing borders against the outside world, mirroring themselves and talking to the self, organizational members come to create definitions of what the organization is all about. In the international, complex organization, these processes take place in different national contexts and in various local spheres of meaning. In order to offset divergent views and differentiation of meanings, managers try to create a global supra-identity through the fabrication of culture. At the same time, however, there is a heterogenization of meanings as predefined meanings from the top are constantly interpreted, rejected, recreated or adopted in the local spheres. Thus, in the complex organization, there are many collective selfviews and multiple identities. The organization, then, is to be Wlderstood as an arbitrary boundary around a set of spheres of meaning that overlap and interact.Index

  • 27.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Time-limited and complex interaction: studies of industrial projects2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral dissertation reports on four case studies of industrial project organizations: The studies cover product development and construction projects at ABB, Ericsson and Volvo. Generally, the studies aim at exploring the time-limited and complex character of project interaction. Particularly, they focus on three aspects of time-limited interaction, i.e. deadlines as control mechanisms, the effects of temporary relationships and the problems due to differences in time orientation among project actors.

    Deadlines are analyzed in their capacity to promote global reflection and rethinking especially in projects of a concurrent nature. Temporary relationships are analyzed in contexts of clients and contractors in project-based industries and between individuals and organizations in professional project-intensive industries. Time-limited and complex interaction in project organizations is also investigated by analyzing differences in time orientation among project actors. By utilizing the concept of pacing, it is submitted that time orientation problems are frequently at the core of project management and perhaps particularly difficult in inter-firm settings.

    This dissertation consists of eight papers and an extended summary where different aspects of the time-limited dimension are analyzed. One of the papers also suggests a categorization of the schools of thought currently prevailing in project management research.

  • 28.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Swedish tribalism and Tanzanian agency: preconditions for trust and cooperation in a small-business context2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-business cooperation has increasingly been recognized as important for economic development, not only in Sweden but also in developing countries like Tanzania. This dissertation deals with preconditions for horizontal small-business cooperation, taking a point of departure in the literature on trust. The context dependence of these issues is acknowledged by identifying influential rules of the game in two different settings.

    The dissertation is based on two separate studies of a longitudinal character, one in Sweden and one in Tanzania. Male and female small-business owners were interviewed and observed during meetings and seminars. A detailed account of cooperative endeavors in each of the two countries is first presented and based on that a comparative analysis is conducted. Not only differences, but also interesting similarities, between the Swedish and the Tanzanian context are identified. Constraints resembling tribal conflict were not exclusive to Tanzania and individual efforts (agency) in Tanzania enabled trust and cooperation despite severe institutional constraints. Based on the studies, a conceptual framework and a metaphor of preconditions for trust and cooperation are developed. Finally, implications with regard to how smallbusiness cooperation could be supported are discussed.

  • 29.
    Tomicic, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reaching agreement in a management team: a study of social influence2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the question of how agreements are reached without consensus in management teams. It is argued that agreements should be viewed as a social influence phenomenon and that attention should be directed to the process of reaching agreements. The issues of who is involved in the process and who is kept out; who is allowed to exert influence and who is not, are central to an understanding of how agreements are reached, The thesis is based on a study of a management team at a production unit in a multinational company. The overall character of the team's agreement-reaching processes is described in terms of an 'organisational conformity' mode of influence, and agreements are characterised as social agreement or compromise agreement. This mode of influence mediates differences of opinion into agreement mainly by reducing both the number of active participants and the expression of differences of opinion. Implicit 'rules of the game', mirroring general ideas of organising, guide social interaction and communication during the reaching of agreements. These rules are of particular importance for understanding the way that the 'organisational conformity' mode of influence mediates differences of opinion. Hierarchy, distribution of responsibility, and encouragement of action are three organising ideas in this mode of social influence. Rules of the game are partly an outcome of the way that the organising logic is translated. The business contexts and members of the team affect how the general ideas are translated into rules of the game.

  • 30.
    Vik, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Engagemang och styrning: Om relationen individ-organisation i preklinisk läkemedelsutveckling2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This doctoral dissertation deals with organizational commitment and control in preclinical pharmaceutical development. The study is based on interviews with 47 individuals. The purpose of the dissertation is to problemize and analyze the control of highly uncertain, knowledgeintensive, and complex development processes, as related to individuals' organizational commitment. One contribution of the study is its rather extensive study on the concept of organizational commitment, its content, foundations, and focus. The manifestations of commitment are discussed within the framework of the umbrella concept organizational citizenship behavior.

    The key conclusions on organizational commitment are those that shed light on individuals who are intensely focused on research. Their strong relationship to the content of their work and their deep commitment to their research tasks and to the groups they associate with their research work is crucial. The importance of the intellectual components, the intrinsic stimulation, the feelings, and the self-satisfaction are stressed.

    Control is discussed using the distinction between the cooperation and the coordination problems The high level of uncertainty and the significant difficulties involved in creating rules and regulations, assessing performance and activities contradict the use of bureaucratic control forms to bring about cooperation. Despite the difficulties, the problem of opportunism appears to be small and there seems to be a widespread orientation toward cooperation. It is also difficult to explain this orientation on the basis of the equity-based clan or the social-integrative clan. The author' s proposal of explaining the inclination toward cooperation with the symbiotic clan. The symbiotic clan is based on the individual's possibilities to realize himself and his values in a scientific environment that is perceived as favorable. The symbiotic clan can also contribute to an explanation of the coordination problem. Further, it is stressed that knowledge is developed in the project in learning cycles, in which the alternation between deep involvement and reflective moments tends to follow a rhythm characteristic of the project. lnstead of triggering this alternation by specific events or a strict deadline, as in eventbased or time-based pacing we are faced with knowledge-based pacing.

  • 31.
    Wall, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The importance of transport costs for spatial structures and competition in goods and service industries2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation deals with market definition and demarcation, and discusses competition and market form classification in the spatial economy. The analytical tool for this study is an extended Location Theory model. A distinguishing characteristic of the spatial model of plant dispersion by market forces developed in the present thesis is the addition of the unit-value (e.g., the value per ton or cubic meter) of the commodity in question as a determinant of the long-run equilibrium solutions for a particular industry as to plant density, output volmne per plant and so on. Two ratios are the main determinants:

    • The unit-value of the commodity (a) relative to the transport costs per unit-kilometer (c), alc
    • The degree of economies-of-scale in production (b) relative to the density of demand (d), bld

    In the model, the character of competition is determined not by the number of firms, but by the ratios alc and bld. These ratios are used in the first application of the model; a two-dimensional matrix in which the four market forms- perfect competition, monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic competition - fit in as special cases. In addition to shedding new light on the traditional market form taxonomy; with the help of the model the following questions are discussed:

    1. Which industries tend to cluster, and which indushies tend to be spatially dispersed
    2. Why different market forms apply to different dispersed industries
    3. How market forms may change over time

    Empirical evidence has been gathered in Sweden and the U.S.A. The results give some support to the model's predictions as to the spatial structure of different industries.

    The second application of the model is as a tool for Cost-Benefit Analysis of improvements in transport infrastructure so far as goods transport is concerned. The pioneering paper here is Mohring & Williamson (1969), in which the balancing of the nmnber of plants and the average transport distance by a multi-plant monopolist is mode led. Total benefits of road investment are of two kinds:

    • Transport cost savings for the existing goods transport
    • Industrial Re-Organization Benefits

    Mohring & Williamson (1969) concluded that the latter benefits constitute only a small fraction- about 10%- of the total benefits of road investments. By the present model, a similar result is obtained for a cost-minimizing multi-plant monopolist. In a competitive market, which is not studied in Mohring & Williamson (1969), the present model predicts the Industrial Re-Organization Benefits to be some five times larger - and the "welfare triangle" represents only a fraction thereof.

1 - 31 of 31
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