liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
123 1 - 50 of 117
rss atomLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
  • Schultze, Felix
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Coteaching chemical bonding with Upper secondary senior students: A way to refine teachers PCK2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how an experienced chemistry teacher gains and refines her pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) by cooperating with two grade 12 students (age 18) as coteachers while teaching chemical bonding in a grade 10 Upper secondary class. The study has been conducted from a sociocultural perspective, especially Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) (Vygotsky, 1978). Other theoretical concepts and models that has framed this study are Shulman´s Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and Pedagogical reasoning and action model (Shulman, 1986, 1987). When analysing the data, Magnusson, Krajcik, and Borko´s (1999) model of PCK and the 2017 Refined consensus model of PCK (Carlson, Daehler, et al., in press) was used. Empirical data was collected by video- and audio recorded lessons, coreflection sessions, coplanning sessions and interviews. During 10 weeks, about 28 hours of video and audio recordings was collected. Selected parts of the material were transcribed and analysed in order to answer two questions: (1) How can chemistry teachers refine their PCK when coteaching together with senior students in an Upper secondary science class? (2) How do Upper secondary senior student coteachers´ conceptual knowledge of representations and chemical bonding shape a teacher’s foundation of personal PCK (pPCK) when teaching chemical bonding in an Upper secondary science class?

    The results relating to research question one indicates that the coteachers contributed with their own learning experiences to help the teacher understand how students perceive difficult concepts. The coteachers were mediating between the teacher and the students, thus bridging the gap between the teacher and the students’ frames of references. The experienced chemistry teacher improved her understanding of students´ thinking about themselves as learners of chemical bonding. Regarding the second research question, the findings showed that the creative process of reconstructing concepts of chemical bonding in the coplanning sessions meant that these were a useful tool for developing new teaching strategies and to further develop representations such as drama to illustrate chemical bonding. Together, the teacher and student coteachers, constructed a new representation that better illustrated polar covalent bonding.

    Taken together, these results provide important insights into how the chemistry teacher´s pPCK was refined and how the coteachers contributed to improve instructional strategies.

    List of papers
    1. Coteaching with senior students – a way to refine teachers’ PCK for teaching chemical bonding in upper secondary school
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coteaching with senior students – a way to refine teachers’ PCK for teaching chemical bonding in upper secondary school
    2018 (English)In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 688-706Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACTDuring the last decade there has been on-going discussions about students’ declining interest and low achievement in science. One of the reasons suggested for this decline is that teachers and students have different frames of reference, whereby teachers sometimes communicate science in the classroom in a way that is not accessible to the students. There is a lack of research investigating the effects of coteaching with senior students in science in upper secondary schools. To improve teaching and to narrow the gap between teachers’ and students’ different frames of references, this study investigates how an experienced chemistry teacher gains and refines her pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) by cooperating with two grade 12 students (age 18) as coteachers. The teacher and the two coteachers coplanned, cotaught and coevaluated lessons in chemical bonding in a grade 10 upper secondary class. Findings indicate that the coteachers contributed with their own learning experiences to help the teacher understand how students perceive difficult concepts. In such way, the coteachers were mediating between the teacher and the students, thus bridging the gap between the teacher and the students’ frames of references. The teachers’ PCK was refined which in turn lead to improved teaching strategies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2018
    National Category
    Learning
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152777 (URN)10.1080/09500693.2018.1436792 (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
  • Sköld, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre. Institutionen för organisation och entreprenörskap, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Ahl, Helene
    Avdelningen för psykologi och pedagogik , Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Jönköping University.
    Berglund, Karin
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Institutionen för stad och land, Avdelningen för landsbygdsutveckling, Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Kvinnors företagande i landsbygdskommuner med fokus på Småland och Öland: En kvantitativ kartläggning inom ramen för forskningsprojektet ”Kvinnors företagande för en levande landsbygd”2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En livskraftig landsbygd med tillgång till arbetskraft, arbetstillfällen och välfärdsservice är en aktuell samhällsfråga. Företagandets omfattning på landsbygden är en aspekt som kan ha betydelse för landsbygdskommunernas sårbarhet. Syftet med rapporten är att utveckla kunskap om kvinnors entreprenörskap på landsbygden, som kan ligga till grund för att stimulera landsbygdsutveckling, jämställdhet och vidare forskning, exempelvis genom kvalitativa forskningsmetoder.

    Med hjälp av en databasstudie beskrivs och analyseras omfattningen och karaktären av kvinnors företagande på landsbygden. Till viss del studeras också likheter och skillnader i företagandet mellan kvinnor födda i Sverige och kvinnor födda utomlands, samt mellan kvinnor och män.

    Företagandet är mer omfattande bland de sysselsatta kvinnorna på landsbygden än bland de sysselsatta kvinnorna i tätorterna. Skillnaderna i omfattningen av kvinnors företagande är små mellan olika typer av landsbygdskommuner – de som är avlägset belägna, mycket avlägset belägna eller belägna nära en större stad. Resultaten indikerar snarare att det är kommunernas företagskaraktär eller tradition av företagande som avgör andelen företagare per sysselsatta. Kartläggningen pekar mot att arbetslöshet kan vara ett incitament för företagande – något starkare för de utlandsfödda kvinnorna än för kvinnorna födda i Sverige. Skogsförvaltning och blandat jordbruk är bland de vanligaste näringsgrenarna för både kvinnor och män på landsbygden. I övrigt är dock företagandet mycket könssegregerat med avseende på bransch. De tio vanligaste näringsgrenarna för kvinnor och män skiljer sig markant åt. Kvinnors företag är mest representerade i Hår- och kroppsvård, Restaurangverksamhet, Redovisning och bokföring, Konsultverksamhet avseende företags organisation, Fysioterapeutisk verksamhet samt Litterärt och konstnärligt skapande. Mäns vanligaste näringsgrenar är mer relaterade till landsbygdens kontext av mark- och naturresurser. Kvinnors företag är små, 76 procent är soloföretag och lönsamheten varierar stort. De näringsgrenar där kvinnors företag redovisar högst lönsamhet är i de numerärt mansdominerade näringsgrenarna inom tillverkningsindustrin. Resultaten indikerar därmed könssegregering och hierarki med avseende på arbets- och resursfördelning.

    Kvinnor på landsbygden är mer benägna att vara företagare än anställda om de är gifta, har hemmavarande barn eller en utbildningsnivå lägre än den eftergymnasiala. Det kan tolkas som att företagandet är en lösning för att kombinera arbetsliv med ansvar för hem och barn. De företagande kvinnornas disponibla inkomster är i genomsnitt lägre än för kvinnor med anställning, för män som är företagare och för män med anställning. Att vara gift innebär för kvinnor en lägre disponibel inkomst, men för män en högre disponibel inkomst jämfört med att att inte vara gift. Resultaten visar dock att det inte är de individrelaterade faktorerna som mest bidrar till skillnader i disponibel inkomst, utan, näringsgren och antalet sysselsatta. Manligt könskodade näringsgrenar och stora företag ger högre inkomst. Den övergripande slutsatsen är att företagandet på landsbygden är traditionellt könssegregerat och hierarkiserat, i fråga om resursfördelning.

  • Olsson, Nelly
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Norström Darlin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    En studie av lexikon och gestproduktion hos barn med respektive utan språkstörning genom utförandet av ordförrådstestet PiNG2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Edling, Isabelle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Söderqvist Sandin, Nicole
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Högteknologiskt samtalsstöd som gruppaktivitet för personer med demenssjukdom2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dementia means significant cognitive decline in language, memory and executive functions. Dementia is associated with progressive communication difficulties, which can result in reduced quality of life. To promote quality of life, the communicative environment, participation in group activities and cognitive stimulation have great significance. Cognitive stimulation can delay, slow or prevent symptoms of dementia. Furthermore, information and communication technology (ICT) has promising results in relation to dementia. However, research including psychosocial intervention are limited, which motivates present study.

    The present study is the first Swedish study which purpose was to promote social interaction for people with dementia through conversational sessions as a group activity when using the communication aid CIRCA (Computer Interactive Reminiscence and Communication Aid). Further purpose was to contribute to the understanding of high technological communication aids’ potential to facilitate and support communication for people with dementia. Five individuals with dementia were recruited from a residential care home. The study comprises a seven-session CIRCA-based group activity, and the material consist of seven hours and fifteen minutes recordings. The analysis included mapping of conversational topics where particularly interesting interactive phenomena were selected that were considered representative of the interaction.

    The results showed that the conversational sequences could relate to the content of CIRCA, the management of the tablet or were as a result of the content in CIRCA. Characteristic interactional phenomena were enjoyable group dynamics with laughter, humour, singing and social inclusion where participants contributed with information, personal experiences and asked each other questions. Furthermore, a symmetric interaction emerged between participants and between participants and the facilitator. The participants considered the group sessions in use of CIRCA to be enjoyable, amusing, informative and provided conversational topics and simplified the conversations in comparison to without communication aid.

    The results indicate that CIRCA has promising potential to be utilized as a group activity for people with dementia. CIRCA could be applicable in residential care homes where caregivers’ opportunities to socialize one-to-one is limited. Furthermore, the multimedia of CIRCA can offer a variation that may cater to several individuals interests. CIRCA could constitute a group intervention to promote activity, interaction and social relationships, that could improve the quality of life of people with dementia.

  • Anderjon, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry.
    Gymnasiekemin, förr och nu: En historisk överblick hur gymnasiekemin har förändrats över tid och hur detta kan ha bidragit till elevers förståelse för kemi2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Public defence: 2018-12-07 10:15 Ada Lovelace, B-Huset, Linköping
    Veibäck, Clas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tracking the Wanders of Nature2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Target tracking is a mature topic with over half a century of mainly military and aviation research. The field has lately expanded into a range of civilian applications due to the development of cheap sensors and improved computational power. With the rise of new applications, new challenges emerge, and with better hardware there is an opportunity to employ more elaborated algorithms.

    There are five main contributions to the field of target tracking in this thesis. Contributions I-IV concern the development of non-conventional models for target tracking and the resulting estimation methods. Contribution V concerns a reformulation for improved performance. To show the functionality and applicability of the contributions, all proposed methods are applied to and verified on experimental data related to tracking of animals or other objects in nature.

    In Contribution I, sparse Gaussian processes are proposed to model behaviours of targets that are caused by influences from the environment, such as wind or obstacles. The influences are learned online as a part of the state estimation using an extended Kalman filter. The method is also adapted to handle time-varying influences and to identify dynamic systems. It is shown to improve accuracy over the nearly constant velocity and acceleration models in simulation. The method is also evaluated in a sea ice tracking application using data from a radar on Svalbard.

    In Contribution II, a state-space model is derived that incorporates observations with uncertain timestamps. An example of such observations could be traces left by a target. Estimation accuracy is shown to be better than the alternative of disregarding the observation. The position of an orienteering sprinter is improved using the control points as additional observations.

    In Contribution III, targets that are confined to a certain space, such as animals in captivity, are modelled to avoid collision with the boundaries by turning. The proposed model forces the predictions to remain inside the confined space compared to conventional models that may suffer from infeasible predictions. In particular the model improves robustness against occlusions. The model is successfully used to track dolphins in a dolphinarium as they swim in a basin with occluded sections.

    In Contribution IV, an extension to the jump Markov model is proposed that incorporates observations of the mode that are state-independent. Normally, the mode is estimated by comparing actual and predicted observations of the state. However, sensor signals may provide additional information directly dependent on the mode. Such information from a video recorded by biologists is used to estimate take-off times and directions of birds captured in circular cages. The method is shown to compare well with a more time-consuming manual method.

    In Contribution V, a reformulation of the labelled multi-Bernoulli filter is used to exploit a structure of the algorithm to attain a more efficient implementation.Modern target tracking algorithms are often very demanding, so sound approximations and clever implementations are needed to obtain reasonable computational performance. The filter is integrated in a full framework for tracking sea ice, from pre-processing to presentation of results.

  • Glad, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Malmborg, Anna Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    "Dom här mötena liknar inga andra (.) det kan du lugnt ge dig på": En samtalsanalys av arbetsmötets institutionella samtal2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att fördjupa kunskapen om arbetsmöten mellan kollegor där problemlösning är centralt. Genom detaljerade samtalsanalyser beskrivs samtalets organisering som framgår i samtalens samtalsfaser. Studien har en etnometodologisk ansats för att genomföra en samtalsanalys. Datainsamlingen har skett genom att filma fyra arbetsmöten som sedan observerats för att identifiera olika samtalsfaser som därefter transkriberats. Resultatet har analyserats med Goffmans dramaturgiska perspektiv och Bions gruppteori.   Tidigare forskning visar att studier av arbetsmöten kollegor emellan är eftersatt, därför är kunskapen eftersatt om vad som karakteriserar sådana möten som samtalspraktiker.       Studien visar att man i kollegiala arbetsmöten skapar konsensus genom att ha ett professionellt förhållningssätt vid problemlösning och för att acceptera förklaringar till varför man arbetar som man gör. Man tar inte personlig ställning utan förklarar ställningstagande med regelverk och organisationens policy. Studiens resultat synliggör dolda inslag som kan förekomma i kollegiala samtalskulturer som får konsekvenser för organisering av arbetsmöten och deras utfall.   

  • Public defence: 2018-12-13 09:00 Belladonna, Linköping
    Kiwi, Mahin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dementia across cultural borders: Reflections and thought patterns of elderly Iranians with dementia in Sweden, their relatives and staff at a culturally profiled nursing home2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Today’s multicultural society has resulted in major changes, with healthcare undergoing significant modifications. Healthcare workers and patients are increasingly confronted with “cultural” backgrounds other than their own. The world’s population is ageing, and the number of people with dementia is growing, resulting in a growing number of older people with a foreign background whose care needs have increased at different rates. Migration does not only mean moving from one place to another; it also involves the transition of an individual’s lifestyle, life views, social and economic adjustments that may lead to certain changes. These transitions from the “old” to the “new” way of life and from a life without dementia to a life with dementia involve making sense of life’s changes.

    Aim: The aim of study I was to explore the experiences and perceptions of dementia among Iranian staff working in a culturally profiled nursing home (CPNH). The aim of studies II and III was to explore relatives’ decisions to end caregiving at home, and Iranian families’ and relatives’ attitudes towards CPNHs in Sweden. The aim of study (IV) was to explore how the residents with dementia at the CPNH expressed the feeling of “home”.

    Method: This thesis is based on more than one year’s fieldwork. The empirical material is based on interviews and observations. Three groups of participants were interviewed and observed: 10 people with dementia (IV), 20 family caregivers and relatives (II and III, respectively) and 34 staff members (I). The interviews were conducted in Persian/Farsi, Azerbaijani, English and Swedish. The choice of language was always up to the participants. All the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim in the respective languages and then translated later into Swedish. The analysis of the material was based on content analysis blended with ethnography.

    Results: Study I shows that people from different culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds could have different perceptions of what dementia entails. A lack of knowledge concerning dementia affects how staff approach these people.

    Study II shows that the CPNH is crucial when deciding to cease caregiving at home. It is important to ensure that relatives with dementia are cared for by someone who speaks the same mother tongue. The results indicate that positive feelings of relief or comfort are dominant responses among the participants, some of whom even feel pride in the high standard of care provided by the home.

    In Study III, most participants based their views on a comparison between the CPNH and Iranian nursing homes after the Islamic Revolution. Negative views of the nursing home were evaluated alongside what the respondents considered to be typically Iranian. In Study IV, the results show that people with dementia’s personal experiences of home played a great role, and although none of the participants felt at home, all of them stated that the CPNH was a place to live in.

    Conclusion: Perceptions of dementia can be based on cultural and traditional understanding, although this can shift through transition and knowledge accumulation. A lack of knowledge concerning dementia and residents’ sociocultural background, generational differences and incoherence, aligned with staff members’ different sociocultural backgrounds, created many challenges. The staff wanted to learn more about dementia, to be able to manage daily communication with the residents. On another point, the staff admitted that only being able to speak a person’s native language was not enough to claim that they were actually communicating. Family caregivers’ decisions to end caregiving at home involve mutuality, capability and management, but decision-making sometimes has nothing to do with violating a person’s autonomy and is more about protecting the person. The family caregivers do care for frail elderly family members. What has changed due to a transition is the structure and construction of family caregiving. The consequences of communication difficulties between staff and the residents have led to a small degree of social involvement, which in turn affects residents’ daily social state. Overall, many family members stated that the CPNH resembled Iran too much, which disturbed them.

    The residents thought of home as a geographical location, but also connected it with both positive and negative feelings. Furthermore, the CPNH reminded some of the residents of the nicer side of life back home in Iran, while for others it brought back sad experiences and memories from the past. Nevertheless, the nursing home, due to memories and experiences of life in Iran, “home”, was a place to be and to live.

    List of papers
    1. Frankly, None of Us Know What Dementia Is: Dementia Caregiving Among Iranian Immigrants Living in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Frankly, None of Us Know What Dementia Is: Dementia Caregiving Among Iranian Immigrants Living in Sweden
    2015 (English)In: Care Management Journals, ISSN 1521-0987, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 79-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In quite a short amount of time, Sweden has gone from being a relatively homogeneous society to a multicultural one, with a rapid expansion of immigrants having culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds growing old in Sweden. This is particularly interesting in relation to studying age-related dementia diseases. Research shows that not only do CALD persons with dementia diseases tend to mix languages, have difficulties with separation of languages, or revert to speaking only their native tongue as the disease progresses, but they also show tendencies to experience that they live in the cultural environment in which they were brought up, rather than in the current Swedish one. In this article, we explore findings in relation to one such CALD group in Sweden, Iranians. The article is empirically driven and based on data gathered in 2 separate settings with specific ethnocultural profiles, offering dementia care with Middle Eastern, Arab, and/or Persian profile. Observations were carried out in combination with semistructured in-depth interviews (n = 66). By using a combination of content and ethnographic analysis, 4 main findings related to ethnocultural dementia care were elucidated. These include (a) a wider recognition of people from different CALD backgrounds possibly having different perceptions of what dementia is, (b) a possibility that such ascribed meaning of dementia has a bearing on health maintenance and health-seeking behavior as well as the inclination to use formal services or not, (c) choosing to use formal service in the forms of ethnoculturally profiled dementia care facility seems to relate to being able to “live up to ideals of Iranian culture,” and (d) “culture,” however ambiguous and hotly debated a concept it is, appears to be a relevant aspect of people's lives, an aspect that is both acquired as well as ascribed to oneself and to others. As such, we argue that culture needs to be further addressed in relation to dementia care in multicultural societies because ascribing culture boxes people in as well as out. In addition, ethnocultural contextualization of dementia care needs to be understood in relation to this because it affects the care provided.

    Keywords
    dementia, caregiving, illness, ethnoculturally profiled care
    National Category
    Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119110 (URN)10.1891/1521-0987.16.2.79 (DOI)
    Projects
    Ethnic diversity and dementia: cultural, social and linguistic aspects
    Funder
    Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
    Available from: 2015-06-09 Created: 2015-06-09 Last updated: 2018-11-20
    2. Deciding upon Transition to Residential Care for Persons Living with Dementia: why Do Iranian Family Caregivers Living in Sweden Cease Caregiving at Home?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deciding upon Transition to Residential Care for Persons Living with Dementia: why Do Iranian Family Caregivers Living in Sweden Cease Caregiving at Home?
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, ISSN 0169-3816, E-ISSN 1573-0719, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 21-42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown how filial piety is strong among people of Iranian background and that traditional Iranian culture result in most families’ preferring to care for their elderly (and sick) family members at home. While acknowledging this, this article highlights what living in diaspora could mean in terms of cultural adaption and changing family values. By interviewing people with Iranian background living in Sweden (n = 20), whom all have been former primary caregivers to a relative living with dementia, we are able to show how the decision to cease caregiving at home is taken, and what underlying factors form the basis for such decision. Results indicate that although the existence of a Persian profiled dementia care facility is crucial in the making of the decision, it is the feeling of ‘sheer exhaustion’ that is the main factor for ceasing care at home. And, we argue, the ability to make such a decision based upon ‘being too tired’ must be understood in relation to transition processes and changes in lifestyle having an affect upon cultural values in relation to filial piety. Because, at the same time the changes on cultural values might not change accordingly among the elderly who are the ones moving into residential care, resulting in them quite often being left out of the actual decision.

    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Nursing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152760 (URN)10.1007/s10823-017-9337-1 (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
    3. Iranian relatives' attitudes towards culturally profiled nursing homes for individuals living with dementia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iranian relatives' attitudes towards culturally profiled nursing homes for individuals living with dementia
    2017 (English)In: Dementia, ISSN 1471-3012, E-ISSN 1741-2684, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses Iranian family members attitudes towards the culturally profiled nursing home, their relationships with the staff, the obstacles, their hopes and their fears. This study is based on qualitative research using 29 semi-structured interviews with family members who had previously been informal caregivers, as well as using fieldwork, all in the same nursing home. The interviews were analysed by the three steps of content analysis. The results show the identification of three main categories with nine main subcategories. The categories and subcategories in the table clarify and explain how the interviewees tended to compare the situation in Iran with that in Sweden, how they perceived the situation in Sweden and finally how they also saw the culturally profiled nursing home.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2017
    Keywords
    culturally profiled nursing home; nursing home
    National Category
    Nursing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144853 (URN)10.1177/1471301217743835 (DOI)29192514 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2018-02-05 Created: 2018-02-05 Last updated: 2018-11-20Bibliographically approved
  • Hospers, Gert Jan
    et al.
    University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Syssner, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Verheul, Wouter Jan
    TU Delft, Netherlands .
    How the Dutch deal with demographic decline2015In: Workshop Exploring the Future of Suburban Neighbourhoods under Conditions of Declining Growth, Friday, 14th November 2014, KunstSalon, Köln / [ed] Tine Köhler & M agdalena Leyser-Droste, Dortmund: ILS Research Institute for Regional and Urban Development , 2015, p. 17-21Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For the past few years, there has been much attention paid to demographic decline in the Netherlands. Initially, the shrinkage of an area’s population was considered as a marginal phenomenon in the peripheral regions, such as Limburg, Groningen and Zeeland. However, now, it is recognized as an omnipresent phenomenon. According to the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, up to 2030 a quarter of the Dutch municipalities will experience a population decline of more than 2.5% (PBL 2014). Furthermore, this decline will not remain limited to areas on the edges of the Netherlands. For example, villages within the Randstad conurbation are already having to deal with that now. There is also a demographic decline in the large cities such as Rotterdam and Almere. Here, we usually see that one district is growing at the expense of another.

  • Faryna, Krzysztof Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Cellulosalack– partiell bättring av lakuner på cellulosaytbehandlingar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The reason to write about cellulose lacquer is that from year to year there are more and more furniture withsuch transparent coatings that come to the conservation and restoration workshops. The furniture comesmainly from the 1950´s and 1960´s (when it was one of the most common type of transparent finishes) butalso from the 1920´s and 1930´s. Today the furniture from the 20th century has become antiques and soughtafter on the market. Therefore, they are still valuable with their original coatings that would need to be protectedand preserved.This type of transparent finishes causes many problems for the conservator, but I have concentratedon how to partially improve the lacunae that you can interpret here as a break in continuity, gaps in transparentcoatings (the word comes from Latin – lacuna, lacunae).Earlier, the most common method of restoring a furniture with damaged transparent coatings was toremove the old and add a whole new one. In modern times, it is obvious that it is not very environmentallyfriendly and healthy to clean up and add new nitrate cellulose laquer, with conservation attitude is better torepair old finishes that are original. One should learn how to handle such transparent coatings problems.Therefore, there is a need to find methods and materials that help fill gaps effectively. I have also evaluatedthem based on preserving and restoration ground rules.Through practical experiments, based on written sources as well as on my and my supervisors experiencein this area, I have presented and evaluated some methods of filling lacunae in my bachelor thesis.

  • Arques, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Den interaktiva skrivtavlans effekt på elevattityder i matematikundervisning: En litteraturstudie om elevers inställning till den interaktiva skrivtavlan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att undersöka vilken effekt den interaktiva skrivtavlan har på elevattityder. De fyra elevattityderna som identifieras definierades med hjälp av Tapias (1996, 2004) arbete med Attitudes Towards Mathematics Instrument (ATMI), och fokuserar på vad elever tycker och känner om matematik.

    Litteraturstudien visar att elevernas attityder mot matematiken påverkas av användandet av en interaktiv skrivtavla i matematikundervisningen. Studien visar att två av fyra attityder påverkas positivt av den interaktiva skrivtavlan, en attityd visade otydliga effekter, och en attityd visade på en för liten effekt för att tillåta några slutsatser.

  • Al-Egli, Fares
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems.
    Mohamed Moumin, Hassan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems.
    Control, Design, and Implementation of Quasi Z-source Cascaded H-Bridge Inverter2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about control, design and implementation of a low voltage-fed quasi Z-source three-level inverter. The topology has been interesting for photovoltaic-systems due to its ability to boost the incoming voltage without needing an extra switching control. The topology was first simulated in Simulink and later implemented on a full-bridge module to measure the harmonic distortion and estimating the power losses of the inverter. An appropriate control scheme was used to set up a shootthrough and design a three-level inverter. The conclusion for the report is that the quasi Z-source inverter could boost the DC-link voltage in the simulation. But there should be more consideration to the internal resistance of the components for the implementation stage as it gave out a lower output voltage than expected. 

  • Nilsson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Lärares syn på tallinjen i matematikundervisningen: En kvalitativ intervjustudie av lärares arbete med tallinjen inom matematikundervisningen i årskurs 1–32018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att ge en inblick i hur lärare ser på och använder sig av tallinjen som stöd för elevers förståelse av matematik, vilket gör att arbetet utgår ifrån frågeställningarna: Hur använder sig lärare av tallinjen i matematikundervisning och hur ser lärare på tallinjens betydelse för elevers lärande i matematik?Studien omfattar kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer av sex lärare som undervisar i åk 1–3.Arbetet har sedan analyserats utifrån tematisk analys med utgångspunkt i taluppfattning. Resultatet visar att lärarna arbetar med tallinjen inom olika områden av matematik, framförallt taluppfattning, addition, subtraktion samt multiplikation. Lärarna menar att tallinjen hjälper eleverna att få en bättre förståelse av tal även om den inte passar alla elever.

  • Alirezaie, Marjan
    et al.
    Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik , Örebro Universitet.
    Hammar, Karl
    Högskolan i Jönköping, JTH, Datateknik och informatik.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nyström, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanova, Valentina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    SmartEnv Ontology in E-care@home2018In: SSN 2018 - Semantic Sensor Networks Workshop: Proceedings of the 9th International Semantic Sensor Networks Workshopco-located with 17th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2018) / [ed] Maxime Lefrançois, Raúl Garcia Castro, Amélie Gyrard, Kerry Taylor, CEUR-WS , 2018, Vol. 2213, p. 72-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this position paper we briefly introduce SmartEnv ontology which relies on SEmantic Sensor Network (SSN) ontology and is used to represent different aspects of smart and sensorized environments. We will also talk about E-carehome project aiming at providing an IoT-based health-care system for elderly people at their homes. Furthermore, we refer to the role of SmartEnv in Ecarehome and how it needs to be further extended to achieve semantic interoperability as one of the challenges in development of autonomous health care systems at home.

  • Ljungberg, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Evaluation of an Ozone Cabinet for Disinfecting Medical Equipment2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The spreading of infection is a significant and well-known problem in all healthcare environments today. The most prevalentways that infection spreads are either by direct contact between two individuals where one has an infection, or with anintermediate person or object as an infection carrier. This thesis aims to evaluate a method that could operate to disinfect thetype of medical equipment which is not suited to be disinfected by the commercially existing methods.

    In keeping with the long term goal of preventing the spread of infection, this project evaluates an ozone cabinet according to itsantimicrobial properties and investigates if the cabinet is suited to work as a disinfectant for some chosen test objects. Theobjects were borrowed from different hospital institutions at Motala Lasarett and the antimicrobial effect was evaluatedaccording to the reduction of colony forming units (CFUs) of samples taken from the object's surfaces after the treatment.

    The results show that the ozone cabinet is not able to kill bacterial spores (Geobacillus stearothermophilus), but could be veryefficient at killing living bacteria. Concentration setting 4 (56 ppm) in combination with a treatment period of at least 40minutes proves bacterial reductions varying between 83-98 %. Nevertheless, the sources of error are numerous and there is agreat variation between identical runs which indicates that more studies need to be performed in order to obtain clearer results.

  • Johns, Rasmus Johns
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and Integrated Computer Systems.
    Intelligent Formation Control using Deep Reinforcement Learning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, deep reinforcement learning is applied to the problem of formation control to enhance performance. The current state-of-the-art formation control algorithms are often not adaptive and require a high degree of expertise to tune. By introducing reinforcement learning in combination with a behavior-based formation control algorithm, simply tuning a reward function can change the entire dynamics of a group. In the experiments, a group of three agents moved to a goal which had its direct path blocked by obstacles. The degree of randomness in the environment varied: in some experiments, the obstacle positions and agent start positions were fixed between episodes, whereas in others they were completely random. The greatest improvements were seen in environments which did not change between episodes; in these experiments, agents could more than double their performance with regards to the reward. These results could be applicable to both simulated agents and physical agents operating in static areas, such as farms or warehouses. By adjusting the reward function, agents could improve the speed with which they approach a goal, obstacle avoidance, or a combination of the two. Two different and popular reinforcement algorithms were used in this work: Deep Double Q-Networks (DDQN) and Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO). Both algorithms showed similar success.

  • Öhman, William
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Ta det piano med klaveret: Åtgärdsproblematik vid konservering av hammarklaver från 1770-talet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I explore the preservation problems occurring in English square pianos from 1770. I have investigated three aspects:

    1. Which materials do the instruments normally consist of?
    2. Which are the common types of damage?
    3. What conservation ethics are widely considered among instrument conservators and restorers?

    With the information from these three questions have I formulated treatment suggestions and general aspects to be aware of when preserving early square pianos. The most important suggestion is not to make any treatment without reflection. It´s also important to be aware of problems regarding storage, humidity, emissions, materials and tuning when preserving an early square piano. I consider these aspects in formulating treatment suggestions to conserve instruments as historical documents and to restore them to playable state. The treatment suggestions can also help and guide conservators without special knowledge of instruments toward better preservation of early square pianos. This thesis aims therefore to improve the care of this fragile cultural heritage.

  • Berglund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Stark, starkare, starkast: en jämförelse av fasta tappar och centrumtappar med utgångspunkt i tappens dimensioner, inpassning, komprimering, antal och limning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I have in my thesis compared the strength of mortise and tenon joints and dowel joints in wooden furniture. I´ve made the comparison based on five parameters: the dimensions of the tenon or dowel, the fit of the tenon or dowel, the compression of the tenon or dowel, the number of tenons or dowels and the gluing of the tenon or dowel. The bigger question has been, “is the mortise and tenon joint or the dowel joint the strongest?” The goal has been to go through different theories regarding these two types of joinery and making a foundation to help cabinet makers and designers to make conscious decisions regarding their choices of these two types of joinery. Through studies of literature and visiting workshops I´ve gathered knowledge that lies as a foundation for a test of strength of different joinery made in the material testing facility of Linköping University. The test was based on a scenario of joining the back leg and side rim of a chair. The test shows, from the given definitions, that mortise and tenon joints are without exceptions stronger than dowel joints. It also shows that double tenons better will distribute the load and make for a stronger and tougher joint. Dowel joints will get tougher with an increased number of dowels but it will not necessarily make for a stronger joint. The fit and compression of the tenon or dowel will affect the joints strength.

  • Petrini, Rebecca
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Frick-Meijer, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Ny form på given roll: ett arbete om att inte bli vid sin läst2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hantverkare, formgivare och produktutvecklare, när är vi vad och när är vi allt? Vad definierar skillnaden och vad krävs av oss för att kunna kliva in i en profession som inte är huvudinriktningen på vår programutbildning?

    I det här arbetet söker vi klarhet på dessa frågor. Först genom tryckta källor, där vi sammanfattar vad som definierar de i sammanhanget mest centrala yrkesidentiteterna hantverkare, designer, formgivare och produktutvecklare. Detta ger oss en tydligare överblick på vad som särskiljer och vad som flyter samman vad gäller identiteternas uppgifter i en produktionsprocess. För att problematisera bearbetar vi historia, normer och genus som faktorer vilka påverkar vår syn på oss själva i vår yrkesroll och relationen till andra yrkeskategorier.

    Genom en empirisk fallstudie tar vi reda på vår egen ståndpunkt i förhållande till våra samarbetspartners i ett gemensamt projekt. Efter att ha ingått i samarbeten har vi låtit oss själva och våra partners reflektera kring processen, resultatet, rollfördelning och upphovsrätt.

    Genom vårt insamlade material framgår tydligt att rollfördelningar och yrkesidentiteter kan vara komplext att fastställa. Inte minst i vår egen utbildningsmiljö på Malmstens LiU. Både för tydliga och diffusa gränsdragningar kan komplicera och leda till problematik kopplat till prestige. Vi konstaterar vi att vi som hantverksstudenter tycks mer identitetssökande än de designstudenter vi talat med. Vår slutsats är att detta bottnar i en syn på just hantverkaren som någon med lägre kulturell status. Vi argumenterar för alternativa vägar med mer flytande gränser och mindre fokus på att varje profession ska bli vid sin läst.

  • Schütz, Katina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Grafiska kommunikationsverktyg för tapetseraren: Att enkelt förmedla ett komplext hantverk2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis “Graphic tools of communication - Unfolding the complexity of the upholsterers craft” I examine how upholsterers can use graphic communication to mediate the complex and often hidden handcraft.Handcraft is already hard to charge and the fact that parts of the work is not even visible for the customers does not make the whole thing any easier. What I have become aware of during the process of writing is that this has also been a way for me to prevent the disappearance of the traditional and unique handcraft that upholstery is. By going in to the basics of graphic communication and the different parts that it contains like typography, photography, illustrations and layout, I am given the ability to create a simple and structured template for a printed document which I can give my future customers to inform them about what work has been done on their own piece of furniture. In that way they will become aware of the extensive process that the craft involves and understands what he or she is actually paying for when buying my expertise.I reckon this way of communication can contribute in spreading knowledge about crafts, such as upholstery.

  • Ward, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems.
    Digital hydraulics in aircraft control surface actuation: Modelling and evaluation of digital hydraulic systems with focus on performance and energy efficiency2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis has been to compare and analyse the use of digital hydraulic actuators in place of traditional actuators in aircraft control surface manipulation. Digital hydraulic actuator referring to a hydraulic actuator where the power has been discretized using discrete on/off-valves. For this purpose three simulation models have been used. The first model consists of a benchmark model, designed to represent a digital hydraulic actuator acting on a mass under the influence of an external spring load. The discretization in this case comes from the fact that three separate pressure levels have been used to power a four-chambered tandem piston, resulting in 81 possible force combinations.The second simulation model represents a 6 degrees of freedom aircraft model parametrised to behave like a F16 fighter aircraft. The purpose of this model has been to serve as a means to implement the digital actuator in an aircraft. The third model has been heavily based on the F16 model but re-parametrised such that it represents a delta canard aircraft. The actuators in the aircraft models was initially mounted on the control surface primarily dedicated for the manoeuvre which was simulated, in this case a step in altitude, meaning that the control surface was the elevon.As it would turn out the digital actuator had trouble achieving the precision required in order to adequately fly the aircraft at a low enough energy consumption. As such the idea took form to implement a hybrid design where the digital actuator would be paired with a proportional actuator on a separate control surface, flaperons. The digital actuator would then only require to be positioned in a close enough position and once there lock in place, leaving the proportional actuator to handle the fine tuning and trim of the aircraft. It would appear that by using the hybrid actuator design the energy consumption during the right circumstances could be reduced by as much as 40% for the delta canard configuration and 30% for the F16 case.

  • Hultman, Kristin
    et al.
    Department of Physiotherapy, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Fältström, Anne
    Department of Physiotherapy, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Öberg, Ulrika
    Futurum – The Academy of Healthcare, County Council Jönköping, Sweden.
    The effect of early physiotherapy after an acute ankle sprain2010In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ankle sprain is one of the most common injuries treated in emergency departments (ED). In clinical practice, these injuries are expected to heal by themselves, often without any treatment other than short information about the RICE regime (rest, ice, compression and elevation). Still, remaining symptoms are reported to occur in 30% of the cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of early physiotherapy intervention after an acute ankle sprain. Sixty-five patients were recruited from the ED at a general hospital in Sweden (mean age 35 years; 30 women), and allocated into an intervention group with early physiotherapy or a control group. Both groups were evaluated 6 weeks and 3 months after their injury. As primary outcome, the disease-specific Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) was used. The patients also rated their physical activity ability and how satisfied they were with their ankle on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The intervention group made significant improvements compared with the control group at both evaluations measured with FAOS and the VAS questions. These findings indicate that early physiotherapy intervention has a positive effect on patient-focused foot and ankle function after an acute ankle sprain. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

  • Bogren, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Engstrand, Jim
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Stress - nu och i framtiden: En studie om socionomstudenters stress under studietiden och deras förväntade stress inför det framtida arbete2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka socionomstudenters nuvarande stress under utbildningstiden samt den stress som de känner inför deras framtida arbete. Det empiriska materialet samlades in genom en enkätundersökning där respondenterna fick beskriva sig själva genom bakgrundsfrågor samt svara på attitydfrågor om hur väl påståenden avseende stämde överens med deras situation. Den teori vi har använt är Karaseks Krav och Kontrollmodell som berör begreppet stress i förhållande till en individs krav och kontroll.

    Vårt resultat visar att socionomstudenter upplever en relativt hög stressnivå under studietiden. Deras stressnivå hade ett samband med kön, deras familjesituation, vilken termin de studerar på samt om de arbetar utöver studierna eller ej. Kvinnorna som svarade visade en tendens till en högre upplevd stress än de män som svarade. De som bodde hos sina föräldrar eller ensamma med barn visade en högre nivå av stress under utbildningen än de som bodde ensamma eller med partner. De som gick i första terminen hade högst medelvärde av stress utav alla terminer. Däremot hittade vi inget samband mellan socionomstudenters upplevda stress och deras ålder.

    Resultatet visar att socionomstudenter även känner en relativt hög nivå av förväntad stress inför arbetslivet. Denna stress har även ett samband med studenternas kön, ålder och om de jobbar utöver studierna. Kvinnor tenderar till att ha en högre förväntad stress än män. Ju äldre socionomstudenterna var desto mindre stress kände de inför arbetslivet. De som jobbade utöver studierna visade en lägre grad av förväntad stress än de som inte jobbade extra. Däremot hittade vi inget samband med studenternas förväntade stress och vilken termin de studerade samt om de hade genomfört en verksamhetsförlagd utbildning under deras studietid. 

    Ett samband fanns mellan den upplevda stressen under utbildningen och den förväntade stressen inför arbetslivet, ju högre stress socionomstudenterna känner under utbildningen desto högre stress känner de inför arbetslivet.

    Nyckelord: Socionomstudenter, Upplevd stress, Förväntad stress, Attityd, Index, Enkät, Socialt arbete, Utbildning

  • Jansdotter, Klara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Asplund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Det hemliga sällskapet: En kvalitativ studie av socionomstudenters konstruktion av socionom som social identitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta självständiga examensarbete på kandidatnivå redogör för hur socionomstudenter vid Göteborgs Universitet konstruerar socionom som en social identitet. Datainsamling skedde genom fokusgrupper med totalt sju deltagare från olika terminer vid socionomprogrammet, materialet har bearbetats med tematisk analys och analyserats med hjälp av social identitetsteori. Studien fann att informanterna konstruerar sig själva som en del av gruppen socionomer, ett nedvärderat sällskap med en unik förståelse, med gemensamma karaktäristika som är tydligt särskild från andra sociala grupper. Resultatet belyser en konstruktion av socionomer som sammanbundna och stärkta av samhällets bristande uppskattning och förståelse för dem, som ett hemligt sällskap. Studien föreslår vidare forskning kring hur gränsdragningar för ett för stort personligt engagemang kan bli en del av socionomutbildningen, likväl forskning om hur socionomers arbete kan göras mer begripligt för allmänheten. 

  • Haikola, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Views of BECCS among modelers and policymakers2018In: Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage: From global potentials to domestic realities / [ed] Mathias Fridahl, Brussels: Liberal European Forum , 2018, p. 17-31Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chapter 3 (“Views of BECCS Among Modelers and Policymakers”) moves from exploring the magnitude of BECCS deployment in climate scenarios to outlining caveats raised by modelers themselves. The chapter addresses how modelers navigate the landscape of political and academic pressures to deliver timely, insightful, and relevant policy advice despite inherent and crucial uncerttainties and increasing model complexity. Based on interviews with modelers, the chapter discusses perspectives on uncertainty, the communication of IAM results, and the models’ relationship to reality. The chapter also discuss views of BECCS among policymakers whom generally want to give relatively low priority to investments in BECCS. Failing to invest in the future delivery of BECCS, combined with today’s lack of mitigation ambition, limits future generations’ maneuvering room to resolve the climate crisis.

  • Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmberg, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Manifesto for Management in Future Industrial Ecosystems for Complex Intelligent Systems2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    THE CHALLENGE: Extensive research efforts are ongoing to ensure long-term competitiveness for Swedish system building industry, such as WASP[1] (Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program), where technology development, including software development, for future intelligent systems is addressed. This development has potentially major consequences for organizations that develop, provide, and utilize future complex and intelligent systems. Maintaining some of these systems’ functions will be crucial to many functions in society, such as various infrastructure like transport systems, communications systems, and healthcare. The development is disruptive in character and changes the conditions for the actors in the system-building industry (see WASP’s Technology Foresight 2018). Closely related to this technology development, a number of management challenges are emerging, such as:

    The emergence of ecosystems for dynamic and intelligent platform-based systems. This overthrows traditional principles of organizational design that are often based on direct mirroring of the system architecture (also referred to as "mirroring hypothesis" / Conway's law), where a typical situation is that there is a responsible organizational unit for each subsystem in the system. In the face current developments, new perspectives on the links between the system architecture and the organization need to be developed as a result of the emergence of ecosystems, new types of layered system architectures, the intelligent evolution of systems, the creation of training data, and the emergence of new types of actors such as data factories.

    Complexity beyond human cognitive understanding creates a need to re-evaluate existing insights into bounded rationality (Simon, 1972) into a new understanding of rationality that recognizes that human cognition and the intelligence of systems are strongly interwoven. Such rationality may be understood as generative and open and potentially culminates in a paradigm shift in management knowledge. Based on this, new management approaches need to be developed, e.g. how emerging complexity can be embraced (Garud et al., 2013).

  • Karlsson, Axel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques.
    Wångblad, Christian
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques.
    En kvantitativ jämförelse av opensource-navigeringsprogram med OpenStreetMap som kartdatabas2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under detta arbete testades och utvärderades navigeringsverktyg mot varandra för att sedan se om de, tillsammans med kartsystemet OpenStreetMap, kunde fungera som substitut till programmet Google Maps och användas för att navigera vid en rutt. Navigeringssystemen som jämfördes hade alla öppen källkod och det gick att sätta upp och köra lokalt på en personlig dator med hjälp av stickprovsdata för att navigera i olika delar av världen.

  • Jansen, Philip
    et al.
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Reijers, Wessel
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Douglas, David
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Sattarov, Faridun
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Gurzawska, Agata
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Kapeller, Alexandra
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Brey, Philip
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Benčin, Roc
    Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Slovenia.
    Warso, Suzanna
    Helsi nki Foundation for Human Rights, Finland.
    Braun, Robert
    nstitute for Advanced Studies Vienna, Austira.
    SATORI A reasoned proposal for shared approaches to ethics assessment in the European context2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a comprehensive proposal for a common ethics assessment framework for research and innovation (R&I) in the European Union member states. It details recommendations for good practices for ethics assessment, which includes the development of ethics assessment units and the protocols of these units. More specifically, the report presents a general toolkit for ethics assessment of R&I, as well as specialised tools and toolkits for specific types of organizations that deal with ethics assessment, and for different scientific fields. In addition, the report offers recommendations for the general institutional structure of ethics assessment in the EU and its member states. Due to the length of this report, a summary of its findings and recommendations is available. There are also several annexes that expand on particular sections of the report. These a nnexes are also available on the website of the SATORI project.

    In chapter 2, we analyse the stakeholders’ expectations about the intended outcome of the SATORI project: a shared European framework for ethics assessment of R&I. This analysis is based on 153 interviews with different kind s of stakeholders, including both et hics assessors and non - assessors. Both benefits and obstacles were identified and are listed in this chapter. Furthermore, three main challenges are identified: the differences in ethics/values, the need for stakeholder buy - in, and the need for the ethics assessment framework to be a long - term process. Nonetheless, it is found that a significant majority of interviewees were positive or conditionally positive towards the desirability of a common approach to ethics assessment in R&I.

    In chapter 3, we propose a framework of ethical issues and principles, which are applicable to a broad array of types of scientific R&I. The research areas discussed in depth are the natural sciences, the engineering sciences, and the medical and life sciences, information and communication technology (ICT), Internet research, the social sciences, and the humanities. It provides a basis of ethical issues and principles that apply to all types of research. It also specifies the principles and issues that apply to specific research contexts. This chapter also includes a section on how potential conflicts between ethical principles may be resolved.

    In chapter 4, we outline recommendations for best practice in Ethics Assessment Units (EAUs). These recommendations are structured around a series of parameters common to all EAUs that review R&I activity. These parameters include the appropriate composition of an EAU, the appointment, training, and expertise of its members, the procedures for performing assessment, and how to assess the quality and efficiency of the EAU’s work. The cultural and organisational factors that may affect the work of an EAU are also briefly considered. The chapter concludes with a summary of the recommendations presented within it.

    In chapter 5, we offer a short overview of the Common Framework for Ethical Impact Assessment (EIA) that is described further in Annex 1. This chapter can be used by governance bodies to set up new regulations with regard to ethics assessment in R&I , research funding organisations to set up new procedures for conducting EIAs in the projects they fund , and by local research organisations and companies for establishing internal procedures for conducting an EIA of the R&I projects they organise.

    In section 6, we present recommendations for specialised forms of ethics assessment and guidance. Specifically, we outline standards, tools and best practices for (1) policy - oriented assessment and guidance of new developments and practices in R&I (with a focus on governmental organisations, national ethics committees, and civil society organisations); (2) guiding, assessing and supporting ethical professional behaviour by scientists and innovators; an d (3) the ethics assessment of innovation and technology development plans.

    In chapter 7, we discuss ethics assessment (EA) and ethics guidance (EG) in the context of four specific types of organisation: universities, civil society organisations, industry and research funding organisations.

    In chapter 8, we outline proposals for the institutional structure of ethics assessment in eight types of organisations that perform ethics assessment in the EU member states: universities, national science academies, RFOs, RECs, NECs, academic and professional organisations, CSOs, and companies. In addition, we present recommendations for the institutionalisation of ethics assessment in selected European countries.

    I n chapter 9, we assess the compatibility of existing ethics assessment frameworks with the SATORI framework. This covers international regulations and guidelines as well as the approaches to ethics assessment in the United States and China.

    Finally, in chapter 10, we present a summary of the recommendations contained in this report, and conclude in chapter 11 with a list of the annexes to this report.  

  • Sandberg, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Institutionally Shaped Response to the Introduction of National Guidelines: Case Studies in the Swedish Regional Health Policy Arena2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore the institutionally shaped response to the introduction of the national guidelines on the Swedish regional health policy arena. The thesis consists of two case studies. Adapting a qualitative approach, the data is based on individual interviews and these were analysed thematically. The first paper explores the response by four Swedish regional health authorities to the introduction of the National Guidelines for Cardiac Care, while the second paper aims to broaden the understanding of how the national guidelines are used for strategic purposes among politicians.

    As illustrated in this thesis, organizations will respond, adjust and react to external pressure according to conditions shaped by the institutional context. Key findings here are that the national guidelines are a complex policy instrument that, beyond being able to be used in an instrumental fashion by the medical managment, can also serve a legitimizing function for political decision-makers.

    The goals of the national guidelines, i.e. equal and efficient care, and the uncertainty about who, among multiple stakeholders, is responsible for the guidelines in the regional health authority, is a source of ambiguity and potential conflict. Those who are potentially responsible represent different rationales – a political rationale and a scientific rationale. The dominating scientific rationale of the national guidelines can create instability, when pushing towards the use of explicit priority-setting.

    Priority-setting in the institutional setting of a regional health authority has strong elements of becoming “wicked problems” since the dilemma of prioritization remains regardless of ambitions to apply a “technocratic fix”. A wicked problem is characterized by high complexity and being persistently hard to solve (Williams et al. 2012). A recurring dilemma is that priority-setting still contains many wicked problems, as social values and political considerations remain important parts of the policy process. One weakness of the national guidelines, identified in this thesis, is that the guidelines discuss each service area separately, and thereby reinforce a silo mentality in the Swedish health policy arena.

    To sum up, the national guidelines create a multifaceted and complex response in the Swedish health policy arena where different rationalities collide, and where conflicts appear and are dealt with within the regional health authorities.

    List of papers
    1. Management by Knowledge in Practice: Implementation of National Healthcare Guidelines in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Management by Knowledge in Practice: Implementation of National Healthcare Guidelines in Sweden
    2015 (English)In: Social Policy & Administration, ISSN 0144-5596, E-ISSN 1467-9515, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 911-927Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the last ten years, the concept of management by knowledge has gained growing attention inSwedish healthcare, as well as internationally. In Sweden, the most prominent example ofmanagement by knowledge is the National Guidelines, aimed at influencing both clinical andpolitical decision-making in the health sector. The objective of this article is to explore the response among four Swedish county councils to the National Guidelines for Cardiac Care (NGCC). Empirical material was collected through 155 expert interviews with the target groups of the NGCC, politicians, administrators and clinical managers. Analysis of the responses to this multifaceted policy instrument was addressed by drawing on implementation theory (Matland 1995) and institutional theory (Oliver 1991). The NGCC are primarily based on the voluntary diffusion of norms. The county councils are a long way from having adapted all the means suggested by the National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW): explicit prioritization, healthcare programmes and dialogue between the various actor groups. The high degree of ambiguity in the content of the NGCC, the inherent conflict and the multiplicity and uncertainty in the context of the county councils, have often resulted in avoidance and compromise. The strategic responses we observe can be viewed as an attempt to balance multiple constituents and achieve the various internal organizational goals. The ambiguity and conflict inherent in the policy of the NGCC influence the strategic responses made by the organization. The question remains how far management by knowledge can be applied in a political context.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2015
    Keywords
    Policy implementation; Institutional pressure; Strategic responses; Swedish National Guidelines
    National Category
    Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113304 (URN)10.1111/spol.12102 (DOI)000368267400006 ()
    Available from: 2015-01-15 Created: 2015-01-15 Last updated: 2018-11-09Bibliographically approved
    2. The dilemma of knowledge use in political decision-making: National Guidelines in a Swedish priority-setting context
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The dilemma of knowledge use in political decision-making: National Guidelines in a Swedish priority-setting context
    2018 (English)In: Health Economics, Policy and Law, ISSN 1744-1331, E-ISSN 1744-134XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of evidence to support allocative policy decisions in health care. This study is based on interviews with politicians in four regional health authorities in Sweden. Drawing on theories of strategic use of knowledge, the article analyses how politicians perceive and make use of expert knowledge represented by the National Guidelines, embracing both a scientific and a political rationale. As health care is an organisation with a dual basis for legitimacy – at the same time a political and an action organisation – it affects knowledge use. We investigate how the context of health care priority setting influences the conditions for knowledge use among regional politicians. Our findings illustrate the dilemma of political decision-makers and how they prefer to use expert knowledge. The politicians use this policy instrument in a legitimising fashion, as it will fit into the current political debate on more equal care. As an instrument for resource allocation the politicians noted that ‘facts’ per se could not provide them with a sufficient basis for legitimising their governing of health care. The dualistic organisational context makes knowledge important as a political weapon in negotiations with the medical profession.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Cambridge University Press, 2018
    Keywords
    Expert knowledge, Policy making, Health policy, knowledge utilization
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149919 (URN)10.1017/S1744133118000233 (DOI)29986792 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85049867288 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2018-11-09Bibliographically approved
  • Hedin, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    Evaluation of an Appearance-Preserving Mesh Simplification Scheme for CET Designer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To decrease the rendering time of a mesh, Level of Detail can be generated by reducing the number of polygons based on some geometrical error. While this works well for most meshes, it is not suitable for meshes with an associated texture atlas. By iteratively collapsing edges based on an extended version of Quadric Error Metric taking both spatial and texture coordinates into account, textured meshes can also be simplified. Results show that constraining edge collapses in the seams of a mesh give poor geometrical appearance when it is reduced to a few polygons. By allowing seam edge collapses and by using a pull-push algorithm to fill areas located outside the seam borders of the texture atlas, the appearance of the mesh is better preserved.

  • Public defence: 2018-11-30 13:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Haage, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Forensic Toxicological Aspects of Tramadol: Focus on Enantioselective Drug Disposition and Pharmacogenetics2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most difficult parts in forensic toxicology is to interpret obtained drug concentrations. Was it therapeutic, toxic or even lethal to the particular individual that the blood sample was drawn from? Concentrations of opioid drugs are especially difficult to interpret, because of large interindividual differences in innate and acquired tolerance.

    Tramadol is a complex drug. Not only is it an opioid, it is also a racemic drug with the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of the parent compound and metabolites showing different pharmacological effects. Further, it is metabolized by polymorphic enzymes, which may affect the amounts of metabolites formed and possibly the enantiomer ratios of the parent compound and its metabolites. It has been speculated that particularly the (+)/(-)-enantiomer ratio of O-desmethyltramadol is related to the risk of adverse effects, and it has been shown that the ratio is affected by CYP2D6 genotype.

    The overall aim of the thesis was to evaluate if forensic interpretations of tramadol, regarding toxicity and time since drug administration, may be improved by the use of genotyping and enantioselective concentration determination of tramadol and its three main metabolites.

    To simultaneously quantify the enantiomer concentrations of tramadol, Odesmethyltramadol, N-desmethyltramadol and N,O-didesmethyltramadol in whole blood, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) method was developed and validated. Genetic variation in CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP3A4 (encoding the tramadol metabolizing enzymes), ABCB1 (encoding a transport protein) and OPRM1 (encoding the μ-opioid receptor) was investigated, using pyrosequencing, xTAG, and TaqMan analysis. The methods were applied to the blood samples of two study populations; 19 healthy volunteers administered a therapeutic, single tramadol dose, and 159 tramadol positive autopsy cases.

    The most important finding was the positive correlations between all four enantiomer ratios and time since tramadol administration in the healthy volunteers. All enantiomer ratios except the one of tramadol was also affected by the CYP2D6 genotype, which was apparent among the autopsy cases as well. Genetic variation in CYP2D6 and possibly CYP2B6 was shown to have an impact on tramadol pharmacokinetics, although no association to neither drug related symptoms nor tramadol related causes of death was found. Tramadol intoxications were predominantly characterized by low age (median 26 years) and male sex, often with a history of substance abuse and with other drugs (at fairly low concentrations) detected in blood.

    In conclusion, enantiomer concentration determination combined with genotyping seems promising regarding estimations of time since drug administration, although is of low value concerning interpretations of toxicity in autopsy cases.

    List of papers
    1. Pharmacogenetic aspects of tramadol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics after a single oral dose
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pharmacogenetic aspects of tramadol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics after a single oral dose
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 238, p. 125-132Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The major purpose of this study was to elucidate if genotyping can facilitate interpretations of tramadol (TRA) in forensic case work, with special regard to the estimation of the time of drug intake and drug related symptoms (DRS). The association between genetic polymorphisms in CYP2D6, OPRM1 and ABCB1 and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of TRA was studied. Nineteen healthy volunteers were randomized into two groups receiving a single dose of either 50 or 100 mg of orally administrated TRA. Blood samples were collected prior to dosing and up to 72 h after drug intake. The subjects were asked to report DRS during the experimental day. We found a positive correlation between the metabolic ratio of O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) to TRA and the time after drug intake for both CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizers and extensive metabolizers. For the only poor metabolizer with detectable ODT levels the metabolic ratio was almost constant. Significant associations were found between the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and three of the investigated ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms for TRA, but not for ODT and only in the 50 mg dosage group. There was great interindividual variation in DRS, some subjects exhibited no symptoms at all whereas one subject both fainted and vomited after a single therapeutic dose. However, no associations could be found between DRS and investigated polymorphisms. We conclude that the metabolic ratio of ODT/TRA may be used for estimation of the time of drug intake, but only when the CYP2D6 genotype is known and taken into consideration. The influence of genetic polymorphisms in ABCB1 and OPRM1 requires further study.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Tramadol; Pharmacokinetics; Pharmacodynamics; CYP2D6; ABCB1; OPRM1
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106838 (URN)10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.03.003 (DOI)000334580700025 ()24709712 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-05-28 Created: 2014-05-23 Last updated: 2018-11-09Bibliographically approved
    2. Quantitation of the enantiomers of tramadol and its three main metabolites in human whole blood using LC-MS/MS.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitation of the enantiomers of tramadol and its three main metabolites in human whole blood using LC-MS/MS.
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 119, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The analgesic drug tramadol and its metabolites are chiral compounds, with the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers showing different pharmacological and toxicological effects. This novel enantioselective method, based on LC-MS/MS in reversed phase mode, enabled measurement of the parent compound and its three main metabolites O-desmethyltramadol, N-desmethyltramadol and N,O-didesmethyltramadol simultaneously. Whole blood samples of 0.5g were fortified with internal standards (tramadol-(13)C-D3 and O-desmethyl-cis-tramadol-D6) and extracted under basic conditions (pH 11) by liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatography was performed on a chiral alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) column preceded by an AGP guard column. The mobile phase consisted of 0.8% acetonitrile and 99.2% ammonium acetate (20mM, pH 7.2). A post-column infusion with 0.05% formic acid in acetonitrile was used to enhance sensitivity. Quantitation as well as enantiomeric ratio measurements were covered by quality controls. Validation parameters for all eight enantiomers included selectivity (high), matrix effects (no ion suppression/enhancement), calibration model (linear, weight 1/X(2), in the range of 0.25-250ng/g), limit of quantitation (0.125-0.50ng/g), repeatability (2-6%) and intermediate precision (2-7%), accuracy (83-114%), dilution integrity (98-115%), carry over (not exceeding 0.07%) and stability (stable in blood and extract). The method was applied to blood samples from a healthy volunteer administrated a single 100mg dose and to a case sample concerning an impaired driver, which confirmed its applicability in human pharmacokinetic studies as well as in toxicological and forensic investigations.

    Keywords
    Enantiomer; LC–MS/MS; N, O-didesmethyltramadol; N-desmethyltramadol; O-desmethyltramadol; Tramadol
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125284 (URN)10.1016/j.jpba.2015.11.012 (DOI)000370211900001 ()26625281 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies:The National Board of Forensic Medicine in Sweden funded this work.

    Available from: 2016-02-19 Created: 2016-02-19 Last updated: 2018-11-09
    3. Enantioselective pharmacokinetics of tramadol and its three main metabolites; impact of CYP2D6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 genotype
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enantioselective pharmacokinetics of tramadol and its three main metabolites; impact of CYP2D6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 genotype
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives, ISSN 2052-1707, Vol. 6, no 4, article id e00419Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Tramadol is a complex drug, being metabolized by polymorphic enzymes and administered as a racemate with the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of the parent compound and metabolites showing different pharmacological effects. The study aimed to simultaneously determine the enantiomer concentrations of tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol, N-desmethyltramadol, and N,O-didesmethyltramadol following a single dose, and elucidate if enantioselective pharmacokinetics is associated with the time following drug intake and if interindividual differences may be genetically explained. Nineteen healthy volunteers were orally administered either 50 or 100 mg tramadol, whereupon blood samples were drawn at 17 occasions. Enantiomer concentrations in whole blood were measured by LC-MS/MS and the CYP2D6,CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genotype were determined, using the xTAG CYP2D6 Kit, pyrosequencing and real-time PCR, respectively. A positive correlation between the (+)/(-)-enantiomer ratio and time following drug administration was shown for all four enantiomer pairs. The largest increase in enantiomer ratio was observed for N-desmethyltramadol in CYP2D6 extensive and intermediate metabolizers, rising from about two to almost seven during 24 hours following drug intake. CYP2D6 poor metabolizers showed metabolic profiles markedly different from the ones of intermediate and extensive metabolizers, with large area under the concentration curves (AUCs) of the N-desmethyltramadol enantiomers and low corresponding values of the O-desmethyltramadol and N,O-didesmethyltramadol enantiomers, especially of the (+)-enantiomers. Homozygosity of CYP2B6 *5 and *6 indicated a reduced enzyme function, although further studies are required to confirm it. In conclusion, the increase in enantiomer ratios over time might possibly be used to distinguish a recent tramadol intake from a past one. It also implies that, even though (+)-O-desmethyltramadol is regarded the enantiomer most potent in causing adverse effects, one should not investigate the (+)/(-)-enantiomer ratio of O-desmethyltramadol in relation to side effects without consideration for the time that has passed since drug intake.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2018
    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152586 (URN)10.1002/prp2.419 (DOI)000442994300006 ()29992026 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052511964 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-11-09 Created: 2018-11-09 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved
  • Pesquita, Catia
    et al.
    University of Lisbon.
    Ivanova, Valentina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lohmann, Steffen
    Fraunhofer IAIS, Germany.
    Lambrix, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Framework to Conduct and Report on Empirical User Studies in Semantic Web Contexts2018In: Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management 21st International Conference, EKAW 2018, Nancy, France, November 12-16, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Catherine Faron Zucker, Chiara Ghidini, Amedeo Napoli, Yannick Toussaint, Cham, 2018, p. 567-583Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semantic Web technologies are being applied to increasingly diverse areas where user involvement is crucial. While a number of user interfaces for Semantic Web systems have become available in the past years, their evaluation and reporting often still suffer from weaknesses. Empirical evaluations are essential to compare different approaches, demonstrate their benefits and reveal their drawbacks, and thus to facilitate further adoption of Semantic Web technologies. In this paper, we review empirical user studies of user interfaces, visualizations and interaction techniques recently published at relevant Semantic Web venues, assessing both the user studies themselves and their reporting. We then chart the design space of available methods for user studies in Semantic Web contexts. Finally, we propose a framework for their comprehensive reporting, taking into consideration user expertise, experimental setup, task design, experimental procedures and results analysis.

  • Dufvenberg, Marlene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Adeyemi, Fisayo
    Department of Clinical and Rehabilitation Services, Faculty of Health Science and Medicine, Bond Institute of Health and Sport, Bond University, Robina, Australia.
    Rajendran, Isabelle
    Department of Clinical and Rehabilitation Services, Faculty of Health Science and Medicine, Bond Institute of Health and Sport, Bond University, Robina, Australia.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Abbott, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Clinical and Rehabilitation Services, Faculty of Health Science and Medicine, Bond Institute of Health and Sport, Bond University, Robina, Australia.
    Does postural stability differ between adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and typically developed?: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis2018In: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders, ISSN 2397-1789, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Postural stability deficits have been proposed to influence the onset and progression of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). This study aimed to systematically identify, critically evaluate and meta-analyse studies assessing postural stability during unperturbed stance with posturography in AIS compared to typically developed adolescents.

    Methods

    Studies from four electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, PEDro) were searched and case-control methodological quality assessed using a risk-of-bias assessment tool and a posturography methodological quality checklist. Pooled data regarding centre of pressure (COP) parameters such as sway area, Mediolateral (ML) and Anteroposterior (AP) position and range were compared for AIS and typically developed adolescents using Cohen’s d effect size (ES) and homogeneity estimates.

    Results

    Eighteen studies for quality analysis and 9 of these for meta-analysis were identified from 971 records. Risk-of-bias assessment identified 6 high, 10 moderate and 2 low risk-of-bias studies. The posturography methodological quality checklist identified 4 low, 7 moderate and 7 high-quality studies. Meta-analysis was performed for sway area whereas ML and AP are presented in three different meta-analyses due to divergent measurement units used in the studies: ML position 1 (MLP1), ML position 2 (MLP2) and ML range (MLR); AP position 1 (APP1), AP position 2 (APP2) and AP range (APR). Cohen’s d showed a medium ES difference in sway area 0.65, 95% CI (0.49–0.63), whereas ML showed no (MLP1, MLP2) and large (MLR) ES differences; MLP1 0.15, 95% CI (0.08–0.22); MLP2 0.14, 95% CI (0.08–0.19); and MLR 0.94, 95% CI (0.83–1.04). Cohen’s d for AP showed small ES (APP1) and large ES difference (APP2 and APR); APP1 0.43, 95% CI (0.31–0.54); APP2 0.85, 95% CI (0.72–0.97); and APR 0.98, 95% CI (0.87–1.09). Cochran’s Q and Higgins I2 showed homogeneity between studies.

    Conclusions

    There is moderate quality evidence for decreased postural stability in AIS measured as COP parameters sway area, ML and AP range with a positional shift posteriorly in the sagittal plane. The findings support studying postural stability in early stage AIS and also prospectively identify cause and effect of the curvature as well as effectiveness of postural control interventions in the prevention of scoliosis progression.

  • Lundström, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Spontaneous symmetry breaking for dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in multiwell potentials2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in multiwell potentialsplaced to form dierent geometrical structures are studied theoretically inorder to determine how the ground state population of the particles in thepotential wells changes depending on the relative strength of the particlesdipole moment. In the analytical limit (neglecting intersite tunneling), asymmetry-breaking change in the number of wells that are populated byparticles is observed for all studied systems for a certain value of the rela-tive strength of the particles dipole moment. The numerical calculationsfor nonzero intersite tunneling show a non-degenerate bifurcation whichis not seen in the analytical limit.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-14 13:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Vavruch, Ludvig
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Deformity in Three Dimensions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional deformity of the spine. Even though it has been known for centuries, treatment of the deformity has focused on correcting only in the frontal plane. In the last decades, the need for three-dimensional assessment regarding scoliosis has been highlighted to better understand the cause and the principles of treating scoliosis. The overall aim of this dissertation is to provide knowledge to assess scoliosis as a three-dimensional problem.

    The severity of scoliosis is measured with the Cobb angle from standing radiographs. Computed tomography (CT) examinations are used throughout this thesis. The first paper investigates the difference in Cobb angle measured from standing radiographs and supine CT examinations. The standing radiographs had larger Cobb angles with a mean difference of 11° and a linear correlation between the two examinations from 128 consecutive patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) planned for surgery.

    The second paper compares the axial shape of vertebrae in 20 patients with AIS with a reference group. Clear asymmetry was observed in all vertebrae – superior and inferior end vertebrae as well as the apical vertebra – compared with corresponding vertebrae among the reference group. The asymmetry was most pronounced in the apical vertebra. A novel parameter, frontal vertebral body rotation (FVBR), was introduced to describe the internal rotation of the vertebrae in the axial plane.

    Pelvic incidence (PI) is a measurement of the position of the sacrum in relation to the femoral heads. This is relevant in scoliosis because PI determines the pelvic configuration acting as a foundation to the spine. PI has traditionally been measured from standing radiographs. The third study investigates PI three-dimensionally, based on low-dose CT examinations, in 37 patients with Lenke type 1 or 5 curves compared with a reference group. A significantly higher PI was observed in patients with Lenke type 5 curves compared with the reference group and patients with Lenke type 1 curves.

    Severe AIS is treated with corrective surgery. Two approaches are available: the predominant posterior approach and the anterior approach. In the fourth paper, these two approaches are evaluated with regard to three-dimensional correction, how well the correction is maintained over a 2-year follow-up and patient-reported outcome measures. Twenty-seven patients treated with the posterior approach and 26 patients treated with the anterior approach, all with Lenke type 1 curves, were included. Fewer vertebrae were fused in the anterior group, but the posterior group had a better correction of the deformity in the frontal plane. No difference was observed regarding three-dimensional correction and patient-reported outcome measures.

    AIS is truly a complex three-dimensional deformity. More research is needed to fully comprehend the complexity of the scoliotic spine.

    List of papers
    1. A Comparison of Cobb Angle: Standing Versus Supine Images of Late-Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparison of Cobb Angle: Standing Versus Supine Images of Late-Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis
    2016 (English)In: Polish Journal Of Radiology, ISSN 1733-134X, Vol. 81, p. 270-276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Scoliosis is traditionally evaluated by measuring the Cobb angle in radiograph images taken while the patient is standing. However, low-dose computed tomography (CT) images, which are taken while the patient is in a supine position, provide new opportunities to evaluate scoliosis. Few studies have investigated how the patient's position, standing or supine, affects measurements. The purpose of this study was to compare the Cobb angle in images from patients while standing versus supine.less thanbr /greater thanMaterial/methods: A total of 128 consecutive patients (97 females and 21 males; mean age 15.5 [11-26] years) with late-onset scoliosis requiring corrective surgery were enrolled. One observer evaluated the type of curve (Lenke classification) and measured the Cobb angle in whole-spine radiography (standing) and scout images from low-dose CT (supine) were taken on the same day.less thanbr /greater thanResults: For all primary curves, the mean Cobb angle was 59 (SD 12) while standing and 48 (SD 12) while in the supine position, with a mean difference of 11 (SD 5). The correlation between primary standing and supine images had an r value of 0.899 (95% CI 0.860-0.928) and an intra-class correlation coefficient value of 0.969. The correlation between the difference in standing and supine images from primary and secondary curves had an r value of 0.340 (95% CI 0.177-0.484).less thanbr /greater thanConclusions: We found a strong correlation between the Cobb angle in images obtained while the patient was standing versus supine for primary and secondary curves. This study is only applicable for patients with severe curves requiring surgical treatment. It enables additional studies based on low-dose CT.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Medical Science International, 2016
    Keywords
    Scoliosis; Spine; Supine Position
    National Category
    Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145863 (URN)10.12659/PJR.895949 (DOI)27354881 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2018-03-20 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2018-11-07Bibliographically approved
    2. Vertebral Axial Asymmetry in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vertebral Axial Asymmetry in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.
    2018 (English)In: Spine Deformity, ISSN 2212-1358, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 112-120.e1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Study Design

    Retrospective study.

    Objectives

    To investigate parameters of axial vertebral deformation in patients with scoliosis compared to a control group, and to determine whether these parameters correlated with the severity of spine curvature, measured as the Cobb angle.

    Summary of Background Data

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common type of spinal deformity. Many studies have investigated vertebral deformation, in terms of wedging and pedicle deformations, but few studies have investigated actual structural changes within vertebrae.

    Methods

    This study included 20 patients with AIS (Lenke 1–3, mean age: 15.6 years, range: 11–20). We compared preoperative low-dose computed tomography(CT) examinations of patients with AIS to those of a control group matched for age and sex. The control individuals had no spinal deformity, but they were admitted to the emergency department for trauma CTs. We measured the Cobb angles and the axial vertebral rotation (AVR), axial vertebral bodyasymmetry (AVBA), and frontal vertebral body rotation (FVBR) for the superior end, inferior end, and apical vertebrae, with in-house–developed software. Correlations between entities were investigated with the Pearson correlation test.

    Results

    The average Cobb angles were 49.3° and 1.3° for the scoliotic and control groups, respectively. The patient and control groups showed significant differences in the AVRs of all three vertebra levels (p < .01), the AVBAs of the superior end and apical vertebrae (p < .008), and the FVBR of the apical vertebra (p = .011). Correlations were only found between the AVBA and FVBR in the superior end vertebra (r = 0.728, p < .001) and in the apical vertebra (r = 0.713, p < .001).

    Conclusions

    Compared with controls, patients with scoliosis showed clear morphologic differences in the midaxial plane vertebrae. Differences in AVR, AVBA, and FVBR were most pronounced at the apical vertebra. The FVBR provided valuable additional information about the internal rotation and deformation of vertebrae.

    Level of Evidence

    Level III.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keywords
    Scoliosis; Morphology; Three-dimensional; Vertebral rotation; Low-dose CT
    National Category
    Orthopaedics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145864 (URN)10.1016/j.jspd.2017.09.001 (DOI)29413732 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85032338953 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-03-20 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2018-11-07Bibliographically approved
    3. Three-dimensional pelvic incidence is much higher in (thoraco)lumbar scoliosis than in controls
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three-dimensional pelvic incidence is much higher in (thoraco)lumbar scoliosis than in controls
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: European spine journal, ISSN 0940-6719, E-ISSN 1432-0932Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The pelvic incidence (PI) is used to describe the sagittal spino-pelvic alignment. In previous studies, radiographs were used, leading to less accuracy in establishing the three-dimensional (3D) spino-pelvic parameters. The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences in the 3D sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) subjects and non-scoliotic controls.

    Methods

    Thirty-seven female AIS patients that underwent preoperative supine low-dose computed tomography imaging of the spine, hips and pelvis as part of their general workup were included and compared to 44 non-scoliotic age-matched female controls. A previously validated computerized method was used to measure the PI in 3D, as the angle between the line orthogonal to the inclination of the sacral endplate and the line connecting the center of the sacral endplate with the hip axis.

    Results

    The PI was on average 46.8° ± 12.4° in AIS patients and 41.3° ± 11.4° in controls (p = 0.025), with a higher PI in Lenke type 5 curves (50.6° ± 16.2°) as compared to controls (p = 0.042), whereas the Lenke type 1 curves (45.9° ± 12.2°) did not differ from controls (p = 0.141).

    Conclusion

    Lenke type 5 curves show a significantly higher PI than controls, whereas the Lenke type 1 curves did not differ from controls. This suggests a role of pelvic morphology and spino-pelvic alignment in the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis. Further longitudinal studies should explore the exact role of the PI in the initiation and progression of different AIS types.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Heidelberg: Springer, 2018
    Keywords
    Idiopathic scoliosis, Sagittal alignment, Pelvic incidence, Three-dimensional analysis, Computed tomography
    National Category
    Orthopaedics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152573 (URN)10.1007/s00586-018-5718-6 (DOI)30128762 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85051834138 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved
  • Brink, Rob C.
    et al.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, G05.228, University Medical Center Utrecht, P.O. Box 85500, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands..
    Vavruch, Ludvig
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Schlösser, Tom P. C.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, G05.228, University Medical Center Utrecht, P.O. Box 85500, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands..
    Abul-Kasim, Kasim
    Division of Neuroradiology, Diagnostic Centre for Imaging and Functional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden..
    Ohlin, Acke
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden..
    Tropp, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Castelein, René M.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, G05.228, University Medical Center Utrecht, P.O. Box 85500, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands. r.m.castelein@umcutrecht.nl..
    Vrtovec, Tomaž
    Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia..
    Three-dimensional pelvic incidence is much higher in (thoraco)lumbar scoliosis than in controls2018In: European spine journal, ISSN 0940-6719, E-ISSN 1432-0932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The pelvic incidence (PI) is used to describe the sagittal spino-pelvic alignment. In previous studies, radiographs were used, leading to less accuracy in establishing the three-dimensional (3D) spino-pelvic parameters. The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences in the 3D sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) subjects and non-scoliotic controls.

    Methods

    Thirty-seven female AIS patients that underwent preoperative supine low-dose computed tomography imaging of the spine, hips and pelvis as part of their general workup were included and compared to 44 non-scoliotic age-matched female controls. A previously validated computerized method was used to measure the PI in 3D, as the angle between the line orthogonal to the inclination of the sacral endplate and the line connecting the center of the sacral endplate with the hip axis.

    Results

    The PI was on average 46.8° ± 12.4° in AIS patients and 41.3° ± 11.4° in controls (p = 0.025), with a higher PI in Lenke type 5 curves (50.6° ± 16.2°) as compared to controls (p = 0.042), whereas the Lenke type 1 curves (45.9° ± 12.2°) did not differ from controls (p = 0.141).

    Conclusion

    Lenke type 5 curves show a significantly higher PI than controls, whereas the Lenke type 1 curves did not differ from controls. This suggests a role of pelvic morphology and spino-pelvic alignment in the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis. Further longitudinal studies should explore the exact role of the PI in the initiation and progression of different AIS types.

  • Zetterberg Löwgren, Zacharias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Andersson, Adam
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    De tillräckliga: HR-medarbetares väg till status2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore how HR employees experience their own profession, their status, and the strategic value that they contribute to the organization. Through a historical view of the HR profession, and the transformation that took place during the late 1900s, we examine the changes that helped to create the HR profession we see today. This process gives us the foundation of what this study seeks to explore. The discussion that takes place later on is inspired by a sociological perspective, as well as the tools originated by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, which are used to analyze the reality of our interviewees. We conduct the study using a qualitative approach where HR generalists and HR specialists are interviewed about their perceived status (or lack thereof). HR employees with a title such as HR manager or HR supervisor have been excluded, since most of the previous studies already covered their experience regarding status and strategic value. The result shows that the HR employees participating in the study experience status and strategic value mainly through the assistant role that they have been appointed, acting as the right hand of the managers they are helping. However, by studying the transformation of HR, along with the data collected through the interviews, we find that there is a difference between how HR as a professional group acquire status, and how HR employees - the generalists and specialists - acquire status. 

  • Hansen, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Jakobsson, Josefine
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Delaktighet i aktivitet bland personer med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning i samband med och efter pension från daglig verksamhet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background​: Daily activity centre is an LSS initiative for people of working age. Retirement can often cause reduced participation in activity and few studies relate to how the person should be involved in his own retirement decision. Purpose​: To describe how people with intellectual disabilities perceive occupational participation after and in conjunction with retirement from a daily activity centre. Method​: An empirical study using a qualitative method, with a combined criteria and snowball sampling method resulted in eleven interviews. The interview guide had its theoretical foundation in the Model of Human Occupation. Transcribed data was analysed by systematic text condensation. Result​: The first theme presents positive and negative perceptions of participation in retirement. In general, there was a diffuse perception of why the retirement occurred. The next theme includes participation in the residence that was associated with making independent decisions. The third theme emphasizes that occupational participation was promoted by performing activities that were meaningful before retirement. The final theme distinguishes participation in social contexts as important for well-being and the perception of belonging. Discussion​: In order for the participants to achieve an optimal retirement transition, individualized preparations are required. The importance of decision-making can be related to experience from institutional care. The society provided accessible activities which offered variety in the physical and social environment. Conclusion​: Preparation, successive transition, opportunities to engage in decision-making and join a social network were important to perceptions of occupational participation after retirement.

  • Mousa, Talin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Det indirekta besittningsskyddet avseende lokaler: Särskilt om hur värderingsmetoderna tillämpas och dess komplicerade rättsläge2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det indirekta besittningsskyddet utgör ett skydd för en hyresgäst till en lokal, som först aktualiseras när hyresvärden på obefogade grunder säger upp hyresgästen. Eftersom lokalhyresgästen inte har rätt till förlängning av sitt hyreskontrakt efter avtalstidens utgång, finns skyddet för att stärka hyresgästens ställning. Syftet med det indirekta besittningsskyddet är att skydda hyresgästens ekonomiska värden som hen har skapat genom sitt arbete och sina kapitalinsatser. Lagstiftaren ville att skyddet skulle ha en preventiv effekt, vilket föranledde att hyresvärden kunde bli skadeståndsskyldig om hen sa upp hyresgästen på obefogade grunder. Det finns fyra grunder som är acceptabla för hyresvärden att tillgå och som föranleder att hyresvärden inte blir skadeståndsskyldig gentemot hyresgästen. Grunderna stadgas i 12 kap. 57 § 2 st. jordabalken (JB) och om hyresvärden vill säga upp hyresgästen och någon av grunderna föreligger, undgår hyresvärden skadeståndsskyldighet.Det intressanta är hur ersättningen bestäms när hyresvärden säger upp hyresgästen på obefogad grund. Hyresgästen har då rätt till skadestånd enligt 12 kap. 58b § JB. En del av skadeståndet utgår alltid oavsett den skada hyresgästen har åsamkats och det består av en årshyra. Om hyresgästen lider en skada som är större än en årshyra har hen rätt till det fullt ut om hen kan bevisa det. Ersättningen över årshyran vilar således på skadeståndsrättsliga principer. Hyresgästens skadestånd delas upp i flyttningskostnader, värdeminskning på dennes egendom, förlust av värdet på vissa ändringsarbeten och rörelseskada. Rörelseskadan är tämligen problematisk eftersom hyresgästen har att uppskatta rörelsens värde för att få ersättning för den fjärde ersättningsposten. Reglerna för hur hyresvärden ska uppskatta rörelsens värde baseras på expropriationsrättsliga grunder.Vid uppskattningen av hyresgästens rörelse har hen att fritt välja bland olika värderingsmetoder. Hyresgästen får välja den värderingsmetod som är mest förmånlig, men den måste samtidigt motsvara den faktiska skadan som hyresgästen har vållats. Praxis har visat vilka tillämpningssvårigheter som förekommer. Det finns en stor problematik och osäkerhet både bland hyresgästerna men även hos domstolarna. Frågan är dels vilken värderingsmetod hyresgästen bör använda, dels hur värderingsmetoderna skiljer sig i teorin och praktiken och hur det kommer sig.

  • Friman, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage: From global potentials  to domestic realities2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book explores the role of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) in climate governance. It starts by discussing BECCS’ global mitigation potential, as depicted in the idealized world of climate scenarios. Chapter 2 shows that almost all climate scenarios compatible with the high likelihood of limiting global warming to 2°C deploy BECCS. While excluding BECCS from these models’ technology portfolios does not necessarily make 2°C compatible scenarios impossible, it does mean that the projected cost of meeting that goal increases. 

    In this context, based on interviews with integrated assessment modelers, chapter 3 illustrates how the use of the word “projected” is deliberate and significant. The modelers insist that they are dealing with projections, not predictions. At the same time, this modesty is contrasted to a core willingness to wield political influence. 

    Chapter 4, which applies a crude method to map European point sources of biogenic CO2, indicates that the scenarios for Europe can be associated with factual potentials. The European pulp and paper industry emitted approximately 60–66 Mt of biogenic CO2 in 2015. To a lesser extent, there is also potential to capture biogenic CO2 from the production of electricity, heat, and biofuels. 

    While R&D into BECCS has previously been framed as a “slippery slope” triggering objectionable consequences, for example, concerning food security, chapter 5 argues that realizing BECCS should instead be seen as an uphill struggle. This conclusion gains support in chapter 6, which maps existing policy incentives for BECCS. This exercise reveals an almost complete lack of political initiatives to deploy BECCS, indicating that the climate scenarios’ large-scale xi  deployment of BECCS could be seen as detached from reality. 

    The book ends with chapter 7, which illustrates how UN and Swedish climate policy objectives have indeed influenced companies to get involved in planning for negative emissions, but also shows how the lack of policy incentives has put “sticks in the wheel” when it comes to affirmative investment decisions. While some funding sources for R&D and capital expenditures are highlighted, the primary concern is the lack of market pull that would provide revenues to cover operational expenditures. 

    This book highlights the many caveats involved in moving from the theoretical potentials identified at the global scale to economically viable potentials facing investors at the business scale. It concludes that overcoming the challenges associated with realizing the theoretical potentials will be daunting, a true uphill struggle. Yet, with appropriate policy incentives, BECCS may still come to play an important role in the struggle to limit global warming to well below 2°C.

  • Selin, Erika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    På väg mot en automatiserad avkodningsförmåga: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med lärare i årskurs 1-32018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har sju lärare som undervisar i årskurs 1-3 intervjuats om hur de arbetar för att elever ska ha möjlighet att träna ordavkodning och nå en automatiserad nivå. Ett särskilt fokus sätts på elever som har svårigheter med avkodning. De semistrukturerade intervjuerna har transkriberats och analyserats med hjälp av tematisk analys.

    Studiens resultat visar att lärarna är väl medvetna om att elever behöver läsa mycket text för att uppnå en automatiserad avkodning. Arbete läggs på att inspirera och motivera elever till att läsa. Det finns stora likheter i hur lästräning genomförs i de intervjuade lärarnas klassrum. Till stor del bygger läsaktiviteterna på att eleverna själva tar ansvar för att läsa och utveckla sin förmåga. Elever som av olika anledningar upplever svårigheter med avkodning, behöver extra mycket stöd och träning. I studien framkommer att det finns betydande skillnader mellan skolornas resurser och möjligheter att möta och stötta dessa elever. Det största hindret för att elever ska kunna utveckla en automatiserad avkodningsförmåga, anses vara bristen på tid för läraren att lyssna och ge återkoppling på elevers läsning.

  • Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vetenskaplig kunskap och bildning för samhällets framtida digitalisering: ett nationellt centrum: Utredningsrapport 2018-11-052018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitalisering innehåller en potential för fortsatt förändring i och av samhället. Samtidigt har digitalisering många former och uttryck och det är inte självklart att goda sidor realiseras. Utredningen, som bygger på studier av tidigare forskning, intervjuer och enkäter, visar med tydlighet att det finns ett behov av vetenskaplig kunskap och bildning för att nå en mera reflekterad praktik gällande samhällets digitalisering. Det framkommer ett antal glapp i mötet mellan nuvarande digitaliseringsforskning och -praktik som gör att den kunskap om digitalisering som genereras inom både forskningen och inom praktiken inte tillräckligt ömsesidigt och aktivt tas tillvara. Med sådana glapp riskerar vi att inte nyttja den potential som finns i digitalisering inom både privat och offentlig sektor; att inte tillräckligt lära av generell kunskap, sammanhang och heller inte av framgångsmönster eller misstag i praktiken. För att framgångsrikt kunna adressera dessa glapp ställs höga krav både på praktiken, på den vetenskapliga kunskapsgenereringen och på den bildning som finns idag och i framtiden. Digitalisering är därmed både kunskapskrävande och kunskapsdrivande. Att samla en förmåga att kunna adressera dessa glapp är centralt för att vi som nation skall kunna nå de intentioner om att bli bäst på att nyttja digitaliseringens möjligheter som allt oftare artikuleras. Här krävs en medveten, långsiktig och samlad satsning på forskning om digitalisering bortom enskilda ämnen och specifika tillämpningsområden. En mångdisciplinär forskning med en samtidig ämnesmässig legitimitet har en viktig roll att spela för att bidra till en reflekterad digitaliseringspraktik. Relevant och vederhäftig utbildning på grundläggande och på avancerad nivå, forskarutbildning samt fort- och vidareutbildning likaså. Sammantaget skall detta resultera i en hantering av digitalisering som en kvalificerad praktisk kunskap guidad av såväl nyttoorientering som av klassiska bildningsideal. Ett nationellt centrum för vetenskaplig kunskap och bildning om samhällets digitalisering kan anta dessa utmaningar och stå för en relevant, möjliggörande, men också kritisk, och rigorös forskning för att ta sig an de ”stora frågorna”. Ett sådant centrum, organiserat med en mindre kärna, och ett omfattande nätverk av forskning och utbildning om digitalisering baserat i Sverige, kan ta en samordnande och tankeledande roll i arbetet. Centret kan vara den kunskapsgenerator och -resurs som krävs för att ta det svenska samhällets digitalisering, och dess olika sektorer, till nästa och nödvändiga nivå av framgång.

  • Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    La Fleur, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hållbar Region Etapp 1: Energibolag och fastighetsbolag i samverkan2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Projekt Hållbar region har som syfte att visa hur energibolag och fastighetsbolag tillsammans kan driva utvecklingen till en hållbar och resurseffektiv region med minskad primärenergianvändning och minskad klimatpåverkan för fastighetsägare och energibolag. Projektet drivs av Linköpings universitet i nära samarbete med projektets partner och består av forskning av det sammansatta energisystemet av energibolag och större fastighetsbolag. Utifrån olika framtida scenarioalternativ studeras olika åtgärders effekt på pimärenergi och klimatpåverkan för det totala regionala energisystemet.

    Partner

    Under etapp 1 av projektet har, utöver Linköpings universitet, två energibolag samt fem större fastighetsägare varit aktiva inom projektet. Dessa är:

    • Akademiska Hus 
    • E.ON Sverige AB
    • Fastighets AB L E Lundbergs
    • Lejonfastigheter AB
    • AB Stångåstaden
    • Tekniska verken i Linköping AB
    • ÖrebroBostäder AB

    Genomförande

    Projektet har genomförts med gemensamma workshops samt med systemoptimering av det sammankopplade fjärrvärmesystemet av både tillförsel och efterfrågan. Modelleringar har utförs i programmen OPERA, IDA ICE och MODEST. Workshoparna har fungerat som kreativa övningar där utmaningar och behov identifieras och där sedan tidiga projektresultat har spridits och diskuterats. I workshoparna har det underlag som legat till grund för projektets frågeställningar itereras och förfinas kontinuerligt. Beräkningar har sedan utförts genom systemoptimeringar av frågeställningar baserat på det underlag som framkommit vid workshoparna. I samtliga workshopar har representanter från partner inom projektet deltagit.

    Resultat

    Resultatet från projektet kan sammanfattas i följande punkter:

    • Klimatskalsåtgärder samt introduktion av FTX i de fjärvärmeanslutna fastigheterna i studien (fall 3) leder till halverat fjärrvärmebehov och ökade utsläpp av globala CO2eq med ca 1 300 ton för en bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • Klimatskalsåtgärder samt FTX i de värmepumpsanslutna fastigheterna leder till minskat elbehov med 38% och minskade utsläpp av CO2eq med ca 13 000 ton för en sammanlagd bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • När FTX introduceras samtidigt som klimatskalsåtgärder genomförs i de fjärrvärmeanslutna fastigheterna i studien minskar effektbehovet med 28%.
    • När FTX introduceras samtidigt som klimatskalsåtgärder genomförs i de värmepumpsanslutna fastigheterna minskar effektbehovet med 37%.
    • Byte av värmekälla från fjärrvärme till värmepump leder till ökade globaka utsläpp av CO2eq med ca 22 000 ton för en bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • Byte från fjärrvärme till värmepump i de fastigheter som genomfört både klimatåtgärder samt introducerat FTX ökar de globala utsläppen av CO2eq med ca 8 000 ton för en bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
    • Om 500 000 nya fastigheter, med en sammanlagd bostadsyta på 50 000 000 m2, byggs enligt BBRs krav på nära-nollenergibyggnader innebär uppvärmning med fjärrvärme istället för uppvärmning med värmepump att kraftbalansen förbättras med motsvarande ca 1 900 GWh/år.
    • 1 kWh fjärrvärme har inte samma värde som 1 kWh el. För att ta hänsyn till att el är en mer högvärdig energibärare bör en primärenergifaktor på 2,5 användas för el. När primärenergi inkluderas i jämförelse mellan att värma en fastighet med fjärrvärme eller med värmepump leder alternativet med fjärrvärme till en lägre energianvändning, och följaktligen till lägre globala emissioner av CO2eq.

    Fortsatt arbete - etapp 2

    Projekt Hållbar region fortsätter med en etapp 2 där fokus kommer att ligga på tjänstedrivna affärsmodeller samt studier av hinder och drivkrafter för att genomföra identifierade lönsamma åtgärder för energibolag och fastighetsägare.

  • Mäkinen, Sami
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work.
    Ollila, Ofelia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work.
    Pornografi och Sexualitet: En tvärsnittsstudie om studenters attityder2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka studenters attityder till pornografisk film och sexualitet, både i vilken grad de upplever att pornografisk film sänder ett budskap till allmänheten samt i vilken grad de upplever att det påverkat deras egen sexualitet.

    Studiens resultat visar på en spridning av respondenternas uppfattningar. Majoriteten av respondenterna instämde delvis med att pornografisk film sänder ett budskap vad gäller den sexuella aktörens utseende och beteende, samt i vilka situationer som sex förväntas och är lämpligt. Respondenterna instämde helt med att pornografisk film gav en bild av vilka sexuella handlingar som förväntades vara upphetsande och vilka sexuella handlingar en sexuell aktör förväntades att göra. Vad gäller respondenternas upplevelse av att pornografisk film har påverkat deras egen sexualitet visade resultatet en spridning även här: 49% tog helt eller delvis avstånd, 43% instämde helt eller delvis, och 8% varken tog avstånd eller instämde med påståendet. Slutligen visade korrelationsanalyser av resultatet samband mellan respondenternas uppfattning och deras könsidentitet, nuvarande pornografikonsumtion, ålder vid pornografisk debut, samt föräldrarnas ursprung. Ett tydligt resultat utifrån dessa analyser var att män samt regelbundna konsumenter av pornografisk film inte upplevde att pornografisk film angav ramarna för sexualitet i lika stor utsträckning som kvinnor eller de som vid studiens tidpunkt sällan eller aldrig konsumerade pornografisk film. Korrelationsanalyserna fann inga signifikanta resultat mellan studiens index och bakgrundsfaktorerna ålder, civilstånd, trosuppfattning, om respondenten haft sin samlagsdebut och i så fall vid vilken ålder.

  • Brambila-Macias, Sergio
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahllöf, Lisbet
    Swedish Environmental Institute GothenburgSweden.
    Eriksson, Karin
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Development of an environmental evaluation tool in the transport sector and its impact on decision-making in the early stages of design2018In: Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products and Policies: From science to innovation / [ed] Enrico Benetto, Kilian Gericke, Mélanie Guiton, 2018, p. 381-389Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to government policies and regulations as well as customer and societal demands, organizations around the world are looking for ways to manage their economic, environmental and social sustainability. One of the most frequently used standards for organizations seeking to manage their environmental responsibilities is ISO 14001. This framework, however, is generic because it can be used by any organization irrespective of sector, activity or core values. Therefore, implementation of generic guidelines might result in the use of alternative tools that respond better to specific organizational needs and that provide outcomes that can be useful for decision-making. Through case study methodology, this paper shows how Volvo Group, a world-leading producer of transport solutions, developed an internal environmental evaluation tool called Environmental Screening (EnvS) to improve the environmental performance of its solutions.

  • Brambila-Macias, Sergio
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bridging the gap between engineering design and marketing: insights for research and practice in product/service system design2018In: Design Science, ISSN 2053-4701, Vol. 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, product/service systems (PSSs) have become a research issue in several disciplines, such as engineering design and marketing. The inherent interdisciplinary nature of this research issue has however remained unexploited. In order to bridge these silos and foster more interaction across relevant disciplines, this research examines PSSs from an interdisciplinary angle by analyzing how engineering design and marketing inform one another, as well as presents insights for PSS design. The research is carried out using a three-stage process for analyzing and evaluating interdisciplinary research: first, through a systematic literature review to identify relevant papers and their level of utilization across disciplines; second, by using a qualitative thematic analysis looking for different perspectives in order to find themes to bridge the gap between the disciplines; and third, by providing a research agenda to advance research by moving from silos to synergy. The results show a limited use of theories, frameworks, methods and tools across disciplines thus far, while the major contribution of this article lies in the implications derived for PSS design for academics and practitioners alike, which are categorized into seven specific themes: business orientation, collaboration, cost aspects, flexibility, performance indicators, requirements and services.

  • Wasserbaur, Raphael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Analysing interplays between PSS business models and governmental policies towards a circular economy2018In: Procedia CIRP, 2018, Vol. 73, p. 130-136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insights about the interplay between business models of an enterprise and policies by governments in a circular economy (CE) context are limited. To fill the gap, this paper aims to analyse and learn from the interplays reported in the literature beyond the CE context. It focuses on product/service system (PSS) business models, and uses a systematic literature review. Six types of policies and nine components of a PSS business model are introduced in the analysis. Results show that frequently observed types of interplays are regulatory policies versus value proposition, revenue model, and cost model; economic policies versus revenue model and cost model. On the other hand, rarely reported types are the interplays with three types of polices co-regulation, information-based, and agreement-based policies. Future research includes broadening the scope in order to get a more complete picture as well as relating the proposed approach to the current EU context.

  • Public defence: 2018-12-10 13:15 TP2, Täppan, Norrköping
    Lidén, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Concurrent planning of railway maintenance windows and train services2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficiency in public and freight transportation systems is of great importance for a society. Railways can other high capacity and relatively low environmental impact, but require that several technical systems are tuned and operate well. Specifically there is a tight interdependency between infrastructure and trains. The consequences are that all subsystems must be maintained and that the coordination of infrastructure activities and train operations is essential.

    Railway infrastructure maintenance and train services should ideally be planned together, but practice and research about railway scheduling has historically focused mainly on train operations and timetabling while maintenance planning has received less attention | and little research have considered the joint scheduling of both types of activities. Instead the traditional approach has been a sequential and iterative planning procedure, where train timetabling often has precedence over infrastructure maintenance.

    This thesis studies how maintenance windows, which are regular time windows reserved for maintenance work, can be dimensioned and jointly scheduled with train services in a balanced and efficient way for both maintenance contractors and train operators. Mathematical methods are used, with the aim of advancing the knowledge about quantitative methods for solving such coordination problems.

    The thesis contributes with new optimization models that jointly schedule maintenance windows and train services, investigates the solving efficiency of these models, and studies crucial extensions of the planning problem | primarily for the consideration of maintenance resources. Furthermore, the models are applied to, verified and validated on a demanding real-life problem instance. The main results are that integrated and optimal scheduling of maintenance windows and train services is viable for problems of practical size and importance, and that substantial maintenance cost savings can be achieved with such an integrated approach as compared to a traditional sequential planning process.

    The thesis consists of an introduction and overview of the research, followed by six papers which present: (1) A cost benefit model for assessment of competing capacity requests at a single location; (2) An optimization model for integrated scheduling of both maintenance windows and train services; (3) Mathematical reformulations that strengthen the optimization model; (4) Extensions for handling resource considerations and cyclic schedules; (5) A case study for a major single track line in Sweden; and (6) A mathematical study of length-restricted sequences under cyclic conditions.  

    List of papers
    1. Dimensioning windows for railway infrastructure maintenance: Cost efficiency versus traffic impact
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dimensioning windows for railway infrastructure maintenance: Cost efficiency versus traffic impact
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 32-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration is introducing a new regime, called maintenance windows, for allocating train free slots reserved for maintenance tasks on the railway infrastructure. In this paper, a model for the assessment and the dimensioning of such maintenance windows is presented, which considers marginal effects on both the maintenance cost and the expected train traffic demand. The aim is to establish quantitative measures that can be used for comparing conflicting capacity requests from infrastructure maintenance and traffic operations on railway networks. The model is demonstrated in a cost benefit analysis for a real life case study on the Swedish Northern Main Line.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Maintenance planning; Cost benefit analysis; Railway infrastructure
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126777 (URN)10.1016/j.jrtpm.2016.03.002 (DOI)
    Projects
    Efficient planning of railway infrastructure maintenance
    Funder
    Swedish Transport Administration, TRV 2013/55886
    Available from: 2016-04-05 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2018-11-05Bibliographically approved
    2. An optimization model for integrated planning of railway traffic and network maintenance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An optimization model for integrated planning of railway traffic and network maintenance
    2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 74, p. 327-347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Railway transportation systems are important for society and have many challenging and important planning problems. Train services as well as maintenance of a railway network need to be scheduled efficiently, but have mostly been treated as two separate planning problems. Since these activities are mutually exclusive they must be coordinated and should ideally be planned together. In this paper we present a mixed integer programming model for solving an integrated railway traffic and network maintenance problem. The aim is to find a long term tactical plan that optimally schedules train free windows sufficient for a given volume of regular maintenance together with the wanted train traffic. A spatial and temporal aggregation is used for controlling the available network capacity. The properties of the proposed model are analyzed and computational experiments on various synthetic problem instances are reported. Model extensions and possible modifications are discussed as well as future research directions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keywords
    Railway scheduling, Maintenance planning, Optimization
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics Computer Sciences Computational Mathematics Computer Systems Other Computer and Information Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132961 (URN)10.1016/j.trc.2016.11.016 (DOI)000392038500020 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Transport Administration [TRV 2013/55886]

    Available from: 2016-12-06 Created: 2016-12-06 Last updated: 2018-11-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Resource considerations for integrated planning of railway traffic and maintenance windows
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource considerations for integrated planning of railway traffic and maintenance windows
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract This paper addresses the coordination of railway network maintenance and train traffic. The work extends a previously developed optimization model by considering maintenance resource constraints for crew availability and work time regulations. The aim is to find a long term tactical plan that minimizes the total cost of maintenance and train operations, where train services and train free windows are scheduled such that maintenance can be carried out by a pool of crew resources, which are divided into bases and have limitations on maximum working hours per day and minimum rest time between these working days. A mixed integer linear programming model along with computational experiments are presented which show that these resource considerations can be correctly handled with a moderate increase in model size and solution time.

    Keywords
    Railway scheduling, Maintenance planning, Optimization
    National Category
    Civil Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145558 (URN)10.1016/j.jrtpm.2018.02.001 (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-03-06 Created: 2018-03-06 Last updated: 2018-11-05
  • Nordenstam, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Corporate and city GHG inventories: Impact on global CO2 emissionswhen considering electricity and CHP-based district heating2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One initiative to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions involves developing standards for GHG inventories. Companies and cities (regions) can use GHG inventories to compile and report their GHG emissions. Standards for corporate and city GHG inventories often claim that GHG inventories can be used for identifying emissions opportunities, building reduction strategies and setting, measuring and reporting emissions targets. Attributional emissions factors are generally used in corporate and city GHG inventories. For purchased electricity, heat and steam, this means using average emission factors for regional or national production of each energy carrier. Also contractual emissions factors can be used. Changes in emissions from affected production elsewhere are not included. For purchased electricity and district heating (DH), a GHG inventory can be improved by lowered purchases or by purchasing a different energy carrier.

    Furthermore, combined heat and power (CHP) technology can help reduce global GHG emissions in the supply and conversion of energy, as CHP production is more efficient than conventional separate production of electricity and heat. In CHP production, excess heat from electricity production is utilised for heating buildings, hot water, industry processes etc., either directly or through DH systems.

    This thesis analyses how emissions reduction measures based on corporate or city GHG inventories, carried out using GHG Protocol standards, affect global CO2 emissions when electricity or CHP-based DH is affected. The incentive of a GHG inventory to a company purchasing electricity and DH, and to a city regarding purchases and production of electricity and DH in its region, is analysed. This is done for GHG inventories conducted in a nation where electricity produced within the nation is regarded as CO2-lean (Sweden) and in a nation where it is more CO2-rich (Germany). The indirect incentive to the DH company to change its production, in order to improve the GHG inventory of its customers and of the city where the DH system is located, is also analysed. Consequential analyses are used to assess how global CO2 emissions are affected by changes in purchases or production of electricity and DH that are incentivised by the GHG inventories studied. These consequential analyses include changes in emissions from affected electricity production elsewhere.

    The results show that the strength of incentive to reduce purchase of electricity or CHP-based DH by a company or in a city can differ between GHG inventories and consequential analysis. This is most clear when electricity produced within the nation is regarded as CO2-lean (Sweden) while affected electricity production elsewhere is CO2-rich. For replacing purchases of CHP-based DH with electricity, or vice versa, the incentive in a GHG inventory can be the reverse of that in a consequential analysis. Moreover, the incentive to lower the use of electricity is lost when contractual emissions factors with zero emissions, such as renewable electricity guarantees of origin (RE-GOs), are used. In addition, purchase of electricity RE-GOs, which have a large surplus and no requirement of additionality, is less likely to cause a corresponding increase in production of renewable electricity.

    Furthermore, when the highest emission reduction per Euro invested is sought (e.g. when investment resources are limited), the investment ranking of a heat-only boiler and a CHP plant can differ depending on whether the focus is on improving a city GHG inventory or lowering global CO2 emissions. Moreover, if the DH company improves (reduces) the average emissions factor for DH, it improves the GHG inventory of its customers and of the city where they are located. In a DH system based on bio-fuelled CHP production, the average emissions factor for DH improves when CHP electricity production is lowered to the extent that production of heat at the oil-fuelled heat-only boiler (used for peak heat production) is minimised. However, according to consequential analysis, this would lead to an increase in global CO2 emissions.

    Based on the results of this thesis, it is concluded that measures which include changes in purchases or production of electricity or CHP-based DH can increase global CO2 emissions when based on how corporate or city GHG inventories in general value CO2 emissions of electricity and DH. It is therefore unfortunate that GHG Protocol standards for corporate and city GHG inventories advocate basing emissions reduction decisions on GHG inventories. There is nonetheless an obvious risk of reported and communicated GHG inventories being used as a basis for emissions reductions decisions. If the aim is actual reduction of global CO2 emissions, average or purchased emissions factors should not be used for purchased electricity and CHP-based DH when assessing, reporting or communicating the impact of companies and cities (regions) on CO2 emissions. Instead, a consequential approach should be used for climate evaluation of purchased electricity and DH.

    List of papers
    1. Energy conservation measures in buildings heated by district heating - A local energy system perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy conservation measures in buildings heated by district heating - A local energy system perspective
    2010 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 3194-3203Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The extensive energy use in the European building sector creates opportunities for implementing energy conservation measures (ECMs) in residential buildings. If ECM are implemented in buildings that are connected to a district heating (DH) system, the operation of DH plants may be affected, which in turn may change both revenue and electricity production in cogeneration plants. In this study a local energy system, containing a DH supplier and its customer, has been analysed when implementing three ECMs: heat load control, attic insulation and electricity savings. This study is unique since it analyses economic and CO2 impacts of the ECMs in both a user and a supplier perspective in combination with a deregulated European electricity market. Results show that for the local energy system electricity savings should be prioritised over a reduction in DH use, both from an economic and a global CO2 perspective. For the DH supplier attic insulation demonstrates unprofitable results, even though this measure affects the expensive peak load boilers most. Heat load control is however financially beneficial for both the DH supplier and the residences. Furthermore, the relation between the fixed and variable DH costs is highlighted as a key factor for the profitability of the ECMs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2010
    Keywords
    Energy conservation measures; District heating; Combined heat and power; Optimisation; Residential buildings
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58169 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2010.04.001 (DOI)000280017300008 ()
    Note
    Original Publication: Kristina Difs, Marcus Bennstam, Louise Trygg and Lena Nordenstam, Energy conservation measures in buildings heated by district heating - A local energy system perspective, 2010, Energy, (35), 8, 3194-3203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2010.04.001 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2010-08-11 Created: 2010-08-09 Last updated: 2018-11-05
    2. Considering investment resources when assessing potential CO2 reductions of CHP - a case study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Considering investment resources when assessing potential CO2 reductions of CHP - a case study
    2017 (English)In: 15TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING (DHC15-2016), ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2017, Vol. 116, p. 273-284Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combined heat and power (CHP) can increase electricity production efficiency and decrease global CO2 emissions. Studies have shown large unrealised economic CHP investment potentials. An assessment of profitable CO2 reduction based solely on net present value (NPV) implicitly assumes unlimited investment resources. This study analysed the impact of the assumption of unlimited/limited investment resources on the assessment of profitable reduction potential of global CO2 emissions due to CHP investment. The correlation between changes in direct and global fossil CO2 emissions was also analysed. This was done by evaluating alternative CHP and heat-only boiler investments in a district heating system. When investment resources were unlimited, NPV was used to determine whether an investment was profitable and to rank the profitability of the investment. When investment resources were limited, equivalent annual annuity ratio (EAAR) was used to rank the investments profitability and determine whether its level of profitability was acceptable. The results showed that the profitability ranking of an investment can change depending on whether investment resources are considered unlimited or limited. Moreover, an investment with positive NPV may be regarded as insufficiently profitable when investment resources are limited. This could have an important impact on profitable CO2 reduction potential. Furthermore, when CHP investments are considered, local views on CO2 emissions may be counterproductive for global CO2 emission reductions. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2017
    Series
    Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102
    Keywords
    CHP; district heating; CO2 emissions; GHG; reduction potential; investment resource
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140076 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.05.074 (DOI)000406743000025 ()
    Conference
    15th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling (DHC)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Tekniska verken i Linkoping AB

    Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2018-11-05
    3. Corporate greenhouse gas inventories, guarantees of origin and combined heat and power production - Analysis of impacts on total carbon dioxide emissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corporate greenhouse gas inventories, guarantees of origin and combined heat and power production - Analysis of impacts on total carbon dioxide emissions
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 186, p. 203-214Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard (Corporate Standard) and the EU frameworks of guarantees of origin (GO) and emissions disclosure of energy carriers are intended to inform decision -making and reduce GHG emissions. This study analyses how decisions on purchases of electricity and district heating and decisions on combined heat and power (CHP) production are incentivised by the Corporate Standard and EU frameworks. It also analyses how the EU frameworks relate to CO2 emissions reductions through CHP production. Using a consequential CO2 assessment method for comparison, the study shows that purchasing decisions supported by the Corporate Standard or the GO scheme can increase total CO2 emissions. It also shows that the Corporate Standard and EU frameworks can counteract CHP production and its contribution to CO2 emissions reduction. We recommend that consequential GHG assessment methods be used for emissions reduction decisions, including when designing policy instruments aimed at emissions reduction. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018
    Keywords
    GHG; Carbon accounting; Guarantee of origin; Combined heat and power; District heating; Emissions reduction incentive
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147893 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.034 (DOI)000430785600019 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Tekniska verken i Linkoping AB

    Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2018-11-05
  • Sobron, Alejandro
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On Subscale Flight Testing: Applications in Aircraft Conceptual Design2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Downscaled physical models, also referred to as subscale models, have played an essential role in the investigation of the complex physics of flight until the recent disruption of numerical simulation. Despite the fact that improvements in computational methods are slowly pushing experimental techniques towards a secondary role as verification or calibration tools, real-world testing of physical prototypes still provides an unmatched confidence. Physical models are very effective at revealing issues that are sometimes not correctly identified in the virtual domain, and hence can be a valuable complement to other design tools. But traditional wind-tunnel testing cannot always meet all of the requirements of modern aeronautical research and development. It is nowadays too expensive to use these scarce facilities to explore different design iterations during the initial stages of aircraft development, or to experiment with new and immature technologies.

    Testing of free-flight subscale models, referred to as Subscale Flight Testing (SFT), could offer an affordable and low-risk alternative for complementing conventional techniques with both qualitative and quantitative information. The miniaturisation of mechatronic systems, the advances in rapid-prototyping techniques and power storage, as well as new manufacturing methods, currently enable the development of sophisticated test objects at scales that were impractical some decades ago. Moreover, the recent boom in the commercial drone industry has driven a quick development of specialised electronics and sensors, which offer nowadays surprising capabilities at competitive prices. These recent technological disruptions have significantly altered the cost-benefit function of SFT and it is necessary to re-evaluate its potential in the contemporary aircraft development context.

    This thesis aims to increase the comprehension and knowledge of the SFT method in order to define a practical framework for its use in aircraft design; focusing on low-cost, short-time solutions that don’t require more than a small organization and few resources. This objective is approached from a theoretical point of view by means of an analysis of the physical and practical limitations of the scaling laws; and from an empirical point of view by means of field experiments aimed at identifying practical needs for equipment, methods, and tools. A low-cost data acquisition system is developed and tested; a novel method for semi-automated flight testing in small airspaces is proposed; a set of tools for analysis and visualisation of flight data is presented; and it is also demonstrated that it is possible to explore and demonstrate new technology using SFT with a very limited amount of economic and human resources. All these, together with a theoretical review and contextualisation, contribute to increasing the comprehension and knowledge of the SFT method in general, and its potential applications in aircraft conceptual design in particular.

    List of papers
    1. Design and Testing of a Low-Cost Flight Control and Data Acquisition System for Unstable Subscale Aircraft
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and Testing of a Low-Cost Flight Control and Data Acquisition System for Unstable Subscale Aircraft
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 30th Congress of The International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS), September 25-30, Daejeon, South Korea., Bonn: The International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences , 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research on subscale flight testing methodologies at Linköping University is performed by using various platforms, some of them with advanced configurations. These have been previously flown in open-loop under direct commands from the pilot. However, the interest in flying some of these platforms with relaxed stability and the investigation of multi-surface control allocation techniques motivated the implementation of a simple low-cost flight control system based on commercial-off-the-shelf components. The work described in this paper evaluates the simplest available solutions that provide control augmentation for small, longitudinally unstable, free-flying models. This work also tries to define a reliable, fail-safe system architecture that can be implemented in more advanced platforms. Moreover, data acquisition and analysis are evaluated with the aim of applying system identification techniques.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bonn: The International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, 2016
    Keywords
    subscale, flight testing, flight control, data acquisition, relaxed stability
    National Category
    Aerospace Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142393 (URN)978-3-932182-85-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    30th Congress of The International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS), Daejeon, Korea, September 25-30, Daejeon, South Korea.
    Projects
    MSDEMO
    Available from: 2017-10-30 Created: 2017-10-30 Last updated: 2018-11-05
    2. Subscale Flight Testing of a Generic Fighter Aircraft
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Subscale Flight Testing of a Generic Fighter Aircraft
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 30th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS) / [ed] The International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, Bohn, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent technological advances in mechatronics enhance the possibilities of utilizing subscale flight testing as a tool in the development of aircraft. This paper reports the current status of a joint Swedish-Brazilian research project aiming at exploring these possibilities. A 13\% scale fighter aircraft is used as a test bench for developing methods and procedures for data acquisition. The aircraft is equipped with an instrumentation system assembled from off the shelf components as well as open source hardware and software.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Bohn: , 2016
    Keywords
    subscale, free flight test, demonstrator, data acquisition
    National Category
    Aerospace Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142398 (URN)978-3-932182-85-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    30th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS), September 25-30, Daejeon, South Korea
    Projects
    MSDEMO
    Available from: 2017-10-30 Created: 2017-10-30 Last updated: 2018-11-05