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Tran, V. C., Mastantuoni, G. G., Zabihipour, M., Li, L., Berglund, L., Berggren, M., . . . Engquist, I. (2023). Electrical current modulation in wood electrochemical transistor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(118), Article ID e2218380120.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrical current modulation in wood electrochemical transistor
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2023 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 120, no 118, article id e2218380120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The nature of mass transport in plants has recently inspired the development of low-cost and sustainable wood-based electronics. Herein, we report a wood electrochemical transistor (WECT) where all three electrodes are fully made of conductive wood (CW). The CW is prepared using a two-step strategy of wood delignification followed by wood amalgamation with a mixed electron-ion conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The modified wood has an electrical conductivity of up to 69 Sm−1 induced by the formation of PEDOT:PSS microstructures inside the wood 3D scaffold. CW is then used to fabricate the WECT, which is capable of modulating an electrical current in a porous and thick transistor channel (1 mm) with an on/off ratio of 50. The device shows a good response to gate voltage modulation and exhibits dynamic switching properties similar to those of an organic electrochemical transistor. This wood-based device and the proposed working principle demonstrate the possibility to incorporate active electronic functionality into the wood, suggesting different types of bio-based electronic devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2023
Keywords
conductivity, electrochemistry, PEDOT:PSS, transistor, wood
National Category
Polymer Chemistry Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-197080 (URN)10.1073/pnas.2218380120 (DOI)001025817800003 ()37094114 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85153687393 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20230713

Available from: 2023-08-22 Created: 2023-08-22 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
Mastantuoni, G. G., Tran, V. C., Engquist, I., Berglund, L. A. & Zhou, Q. (2023). In Situ Lignin Sulfonation for Highly Conductive Wood/Polypyrrole Porous Composites. Advanced Materials Interfaces, 10(1), Article ID 2201597.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In Situ Lignin Sulfonation for Highly Conductive Wood/Polypyrrole Porous Composites
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2023 (English)In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 2201597Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To address the rising need of sustainable solutions in electronic devices, the development of electronically conductive composites based on lightweight but mechanically strong wood structures is highly desirable. Here, a facile approach for the fabrication of highly conductive wood/polypyrrole composites through top-down modification of native lignin followed by polymerization of pyrrole in wood cell wall. By sodium sulfite treatment under neutral condition, sulfonated wood veneers with increased porosity but well-preserved cell wall structure containing native lignin and lignosulfonates are obtained. The wood structure has a content of sulfonic groups up to 343 mu mol g(-1) owing to in situ sulfonated lignin which facilitates subsequent oxidative polymerization of pyrrole, achieving a weight gain of polypyrrole as high as 35 wt%. The lignosulfonates in the wood structure act as dopant and stabilizer for the synthesized polypyrrole. The composite reaches a high conductivity of 186 S m(-1) and a specific pseudocapacitance of 1.71 F cm(-2) at the current density of 8.0 mA cm(-2). These results indicate that tailoring the wood/polymer interface in the cell wall and activating the redox activity of native lignin by sulfonation are important strategies for the fabrication of porous and lightweight wood/conductive polymer composites with potential for sustainable energy applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2023
Keywords
composites; conductivity; energy; polypyrrole; sulfonated wood
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189462 (URN)10.1002/admi.202201597 (DOI)000865839600001 ()2-s2.0-85139530190 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Wallenberg Wood Science Center - Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

Available from: 2022-10-25 Created: 2022-10-25 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
Brooke, R., Lay, M., Jain, K., Francon, H., Say, M. G., Belaineh, D., . . . Berggren, M. (2023). Nanocellulose and PEDOT:PSS composites and their applications. POLYMER REVIEWS, 63(2), 437-477
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanocellulose and PEDOT:PSS composites and their applications
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2023 (English)In: POLYMER REVIEWS, ISSN 1558-3724, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 437-477Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The need for achieving sustainable technologies has encouraged research on renewable and biodegradable materials for novel products that are clean, green, and environmentally friendly. Nanocellulose (NC) has many attractive properties such as high mechanical strength and flexibility, large specific surface area, in addition to possessing good wet stability and resistance to tough chemical environments. NC has also been shown to easily integrate with other materials to form composites. By combining it with conductive and electroactive materials, many of the advantageous properties of NC can be transferred to the resulting composites. Conductive polymers, in particular poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), have been successfully combined with cellulose derivatives where suspensions of NC particles and colloids of PEDOT:PSS are made to interact at a molecular level. Alternatively, different polymerization techniques have been used to coat the cellulose fibrils. When processed in liquid form, the resulting mixture can be used as a conductive ink. This review outlines the preparation of NC/PEDOT:PSS composites and their fabrication in the form of electronic nanopapers, filaments, and conductive aerogels. We also discuss the molecular interaction between NC and PEDOT:PSS and the factors that affect the bonding properties. Finally, we address their potential applications in energy storage and harvesting, sensors, actuators, and bioelectronics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2023
Keywords
PEDOT; nanocellulose; composites; cellulose; conductive polymers
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-187886 (URN)10.1080/15583724.2022.2106491 (DOI)000842101900001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Vinnova for the Digital Cellulose Competence Center (DCC) [2016-05193]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research [GMT14-0058]; Wallenberg Wood Science Centre

Available from: 2022-08-31 Created: 2022-08-31 Last updated: 2023-11-21Bibliographically approved
Yang, H., Gueskine, V., Berggren, M. & Engquist, I. (2022). Cross-Linked Nanocellulose Membranes for Nanofluidic Osmotic Energy Harvesting. ACS Applied Energy Materials, 5(12), 15740-15748
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-Linked Nanocellulose Membranes for Nanofluidic Osmotic Energy Harvesting
2022 (English)In: ACS Applied Energy Materials, E-ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 15740-15748Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Osmotic energy generated from the salinity gradient is a kind of clean and renewable energy source, where the ion-exchange membranes play a critical role in its operation. The nanofluidic technique is emerging to overcome the limitations of high resistance and low mass transport of traditional ion-exchange membranes and thus improve osmotic power conversion. However, the currently reported nanofluidic materials suffer from high cost and complicated fabrication processes, which limits their practical application. Here, we report low-cost nanocellulose membranes that can be facilely prepared by a chemical cross-linking approach. The obtained membranes exhibit excellent ion transport characteristics as high-performance nanofluidic osmotic power generators. The control of cross-linker dosage enables the simultaneous tunability of the surface charge density and size of nanofluidic channels created between the interwoven cellulose nanofibrils. The maximum osmotic power generated by the membrane is reached when the cross-linker weight content is 20 wt %. Furthermore, the cross-linked nanocellulose membranes exhibit long-term working stability in osmotic energy harvesting under a wide range of pH values (3.2-9.7). This nanocellulose membrane derived from green and sustainable natural materials demonstrates a promising potential for renewable osmotic energy harvesting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2022
Keywords
nanocellulose; membrane; osmotic energy; nanofluidic; ion selectivity
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-190788 (URN)10.1021/acsaem.2c03308 (DOI)000899478400001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Digital Cellulose Center (Swedish Innovation Agency VINNOVA); Wallenberg Wood Science Center (Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation); Karl-Erik Onnesjo Foundation

Available from: 2023-01-02 Created: 2023-01-02 Last updated: 2024-02-13Bibliographically approved
Zabihipour, M., Tu, D., Forchheimer, R., Strandberg, J., Berggren, M., Engquist, I. & Ersman, P. A. (2022). High-Gain Logic Inverters based on Multiple Screen-Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors. Advanced Materials Technologies, 7(10), Article ID 2101642.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Gain Logic Inverters based on Multiple Screen-Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors
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2022 (English)In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 2101642Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organic electronic circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are attracting great attention due to their printability, flexibility, and low voltage operation. Inverters are the building blocks of digital logic circuits (e.g., NAND gates) and analog circuits (e.g., amplifiers). However, utilizing OECTs in electronic logic circuits is challenging due to the resulting low voltage gain and low output voltage levels. Hence, inverters capable of operating at relatively low supply voltages, yet offering high voltage gain and larger output voltage windows than the respective input voltage window are desired. Herein, inverters realized from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate-based OECTs are designed and explored, resulting in logic inverters exhibiting high voltage gains, enlarged output voltage windows, and tunable switching points. The inverter designs are based on multiple screen-printed OECTs and a resistor ladder, where one OECT is the driving transistor while one or two additional OECTs are used as variable resistors in the resistor ladder. The inverters performances are investigated in terms of voltage gain, output voltage levels, and switching point. Inverters, operating at +/-2.5 V supply voltage and an input voltage window of 1 V, that can achieve an output voltage window with similar to 110% increment and a voltage gain up to 42 are demonstrated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2022
Keywords
novel inverter designs; organic electrochemical transistors; PEDOT; PSS; printed organic electronics; tunable voltage gain
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-184558 (URN)10.1002/admt.202101642 (DOI)000779587100001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish foundation for Strategic Research (Silicon-Organic Hybrid Autarkic Systems)Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research [SE13-0045]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Wallenberg Wood Science Center); European UnionEuropean Commission [825339, 964677]; onnesjo Foundation

Available from: 2022-04-26 Created: 2022-04-26 Last updated: 2023-08-17Bibliographically approved
Isacsson, P., Jain, K., Fall, A., Chauve, V., Hajian, A., Granberg, H., . . . Wågberg, L. (2022). Production of energy-storage paper electrodes using a pilot-scale paper machine. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 10(40), 21579-21589
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Production of energy-storage paper electrodes using a pilot-scale paper machine
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 10, no 40, p. 21579-21589Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The global efforts in electrifying our society drive the demand for low-cost and sustainable energy storage solutions. In the present work, a novel material concept was investigated to enable fabrication of several 10 meter-long rolls of supercapacitor paper electrodes on a pilot-scale paper machine. The material concept was based on cationized, cellulose-rich wood-derived fibres, conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, and activated carbon filler particles. Cationic fibres saturated with anionic PEDOT:PSS provide a conducting scaffold hosting the activated carbon, which functions as the active charge-storage material. The response from further additives was systematically investigated for several critical paper properties. Cellulose nanofibrils were found to improve mechanical properties, while carbon black enhanced both the conductivity and the storage capacity of the activated carbon, reaching a specific capacitance of 67 F g(-1). This pilot trial shows that "classical" papermaking methods are fit for the purpose and provides valuable insights on how to further advance bio-based energy storage solutions for large-scale applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189081 (URN)10.1039/d2ta04431e (DOI)000859988400001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Innovation Agency VINNOVA [2016-05193]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research [GMT14-0058]

Available from: 2022-10-11 Created: 2022-10-11 Last updated: 2023-05-24Bibliographically approved
Say, M. G., Sahalianov, I., Brooke, R., Migliaccio, L., Glowacki, E. D., Berggren, M., . . . Engquist, I. (2022). Ultrathin Paper Microsupercapacitors for Electronic Skin Applications. Advanced Materials Technologies, 7(8), Article ID 2101420.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultrathin Paper Microsupercapacitors for Electronic Skin Applications
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2022 (English)In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 8, article id 2101420Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ultrathin devices are rapidly developing for skin-compatible medical applications and wearable electronics. Powering skin-interfaced electronics requires thin and lightweight energy storage devices, where solution-processing enables scalable fabrication. To attain such devices, a sequential deposition is employed to achieve all spray-coated symmetric microsupercapacitors (mu SCs) on ultrathin parylene C substrates, where both electrode and gel electrolyte are based on the cheap and abundant biopolymer, cellulose. The optimized spraying procedure allows an overall device thickness of approximate to 11 mu m to be obtained with a 40% active material volume fraction and a resulting volumetric capacitance of 7 F cm(-3). Long-term operation capability (90% of capacitance retention after 10(4) cycles) and mechanical robustness are achieved (1000 cycles, capacitance retention of 98%) under extreme bending (rolling) conditions. Finite element analysis is utilized to simulate stresses and strains in real-sized mu SCs under different bending conditions. Moreover, an organic electrochromic display is printed and powered with two serially connected mu-SCs as an example of a wearable, skin-integrated, fully organic electronic application.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2022
Keywords
cellulose; e-skin; microsupercapacitors; paper electrodes; spray coating
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-182200 (URN)10.1002/admt.202101420 (DOI)000738966600001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|European Research Council (ERC) under the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programEuropean Research Council (ERC) [949191]; city council of Brno, Czech Republic

Available from: 2022-01-11 Created: 2022-01-11 Last updated: 2023-06-22Bibliographically approved
Wang, X., Say, M. G., Brooke, R., Beni, V., Nilsson, D., Lassnig, R., . . . Engquist, I. (2022). Upscalable ultra thick rayon carbon felt based hybrid organic-inorganic electrodes for high energy density supercapacitors. Energy Storage, 4(5), Article ID e348.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Upscalable ultra thick rayon carbon felt based hybrid organic-inorganic electrodes for high energy density supercapacitors
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2022 (English)In: Energy Storage, ISSN 2578-4862, Vol. 4, no 5, article id e348Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low weight, small footprint, and high performances are essential requisites for the implementation of energy storage devices within consumer electronics. One way to achieve these goals is to increase the thickness of the active material layer. In this work, carbonized and graphitized rayon felt, a cellulose-derived material, is used as a three-dimensional current collector scaffold to enable the incorporation of large amount of active energy storage materials and ionic liquid-based gel electrolyte in the supercapacitor devices. PEDOT:PSS, alone or in combination with active carbon, has been used as the active material. Three-dimensional supercapacitors with high per unit area capacitance (more than 1.1 F/cm(2)) have been achieved owing to the loading of large amount of active material in the felt matrix. Areal energy density of more than 101 mu Wh/cm(2) and areal power density of more than 5.9 mW/cm(2) have been achieved for 0.8 V operating voltage at a current density of 1 mA/cm(2). A nanographite material was found to be beneficial in reducing the internal serial resistance of the supercapacitor to lower than 1.7 omega. Furthermore, it was shown that even after 2000 times cycling test, the devices could still retain its performance with at least 88% coulombic efficiency for all the devices. All the materials are readily available commercially, environmentally sustainable and the process can potentially be upscaled with industrial process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2022
Keywords
active carbon; organic-inorganic hybrid supercapacitors; PEDOT; PSS; rayon carbon felt; ultra thick electrodes
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-185260 (URN)10.1002/est2.348 (DOI)000793126300001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse; Onnesjo foundation; Stiftelsenfor Strategisk Forskning; VINNOVA

Available from: 2022-05-24 Created: 2022-05-24 Last updated: 2023-08-22Bibliographically approved
Brooke, R., Edberg, J., Crispin, X., Berggren, M., Engquist, I. & Jonsson, M. (2019). Greyscale and Paper Electrochromic Polymer Displays by UV Patterning. Polymers, 11(2), Article ID 267.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greyscale and Paper Electrochromic Polymer Displays by UV Patterning
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2019 (English)In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrochromic devices have important implications as smart windows for energy efficient buildings, internet of things devices, and in low-cost advertising applications. While inorganics have so far dominated the market, organic conductive polymers possess certain advantages such as high throughput and low temperature processing, faster switching, and superior optical memory. Here, we present organic electrochromic devices that can switch between two high-resolution images, based on UV-patterning and vapor phase polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films. We demonstrate that this technique can provide switchable greyscale images through the spatial control of a UV-light dose. The color space was able to be further altered via optimization of the oxidant concentration. Finally, we utilized a UV-patterning technique to produce functional paper with electrochromic patterns deposited on porous paper, allowing for environmentally friendly electrochromic displays.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
conductive polymers; PEDOT; patterning; electrochromic; electrochromic displays; paper displays; digital cellulose; cellulose; paper electronics; electrochromism; vapor phase polymerization
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155591 (URN)10.3390/polym11020267 (DOI)000460296000081 ()2-s2.0-85061197759 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Wenner-Gren Foundations; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009 00971]; Vinnova

Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Shiran Chaharsoughi, M., Tordera, D., Grimoldi, A., Engquist, I., Berggren, M., Fabiano, S. & Jonsson, M. (2018). Hybrid Plasmonic and Pyroelectric Harvesting of Light Fluctuations. Advanced Optical Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid Plasmonic and Pyroelectric Harvesting of Light Fluctuations
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2018 (English)In: Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN 2162-7568, E-ISSN 2195-1071Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

State-of-the-art solar energy harvesting systems based on photovoltaic technology require constant illumination for optimal operation. However, weather conditions and solar illumination tend to fluctuate. Here, a device is presented that extracts electrical energy from such light fluctuations. The concept combines light-induced heating of gold nanodisks (acting as plasmonic optical nanoantennas), and an organic pyroelectric copolymer film (poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene)), that converts temperature changes into electrical signals. This hybrid device can repeatedly generate current pulses, not only upon the onset of illumination, but also when illumination is blocked. Detailed characterization highlights the key role of the polarization state of the copolymer, while the copolymer thickness has minor influence on performance. The results are fully consistent with plasmon-assisted pyroelectric effects, as corroborated by combined optical and thermal simulations that match the experimental results. Owing to the tunability of plasmonic resonances, the presented concept is compatible with harvesting near infrared light while concurrently maintaining visible transparency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2018
Keywords
Gold nanodisks, Plasmonic heating, Pyroelectric copolymers, Solar energy harvesting
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148574 (URN)10.1002/adom.201701051 (DOI)000434349300001 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Wenner-Gren Foundations; Swedish Research Council [2015-05070]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; AForsk Foundation; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Lin

Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2021-02-02Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5365-6140

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