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Thermal study of an indium trisguanidinate as a possible indium nitride precursor
Carleton University, Canada.
Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7171-5383
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5341-2637
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 36, no 1, article id 01A101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tris-N,N,-dimethyl-N,N -diisopropylguanidinatoindium(III) has been investigated both as a chemical vapor deposition precursor and an atomic layer deposition precursor. Although deposition was satisfactory in both cases, each report showed some anomalies in the thermal stability of this compound, warrenting further investigation, which is reported herein. The compound was found to decompose to produce diisopropylcarbodiimide both by computational modeling and solution phase nuclear magnetic resonance characterization. The decomposition was shown to have an onset at approximately 120 degrees C and had a constant rate of decomposition from 150 to 180 degrees C. The ultimate decomposition product was suspected to be bisdimethylamidoN, N,-dimethyl-N,N -diisopropylguanidinato-indium(III), which appeared to be an intractable, nonvolatile polymer. Published by the AVS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
A V S AMER INST PHYSICS , 2018. Vol. 36, no 1, article id 01A101
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144248DOI: 10.1116/1.5002634ISI: 000418961400001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-144248DiVA, id: diva2:1173640
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish foundation for Strategic Research through the project "Time-resolved low temperature CVD for III-nitrides" [SSF-RMA15-0018]; COST Action [MP1402]; COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology); Vinnova VINNMER Marie Curie incoming mobility program (Vinnova Grant) [2015-03714]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO Mat LiU) [2009 00971]; Swedish Research Council (VR Grant) [2016-05137_4]; Wenner-Gren foundations

Available from: 2018-01-12 Created: 2018-01-12 Last updated: 2023-02-24
In thesis
1. A Study of Group 13-Nitride Atomic Layer Deposition: Computational Chemistry Modelling of Atomistic Deposition Processes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Study of Group 13-Nitride Atomic Layer Deposition: Computational Chemistry Modelling of Atomistic Deposition Processes
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The crystalline solids aluminium nitride (AlN), gallium nitride (GaN) and indium nitride (InN), together with their alloys, are of huge interest in the semiconductor industry. Their bandgaps span an extensive range from 6.0 eV for AlN to 0.7 eV for InN, with GaN in between at a bandgap of 3.6 eV. Thus, with bandgap tuning from infrared (IR) to ultraviolet (UV) they are well suited for photoelectric applications such as light emitting diodes (LED). The higher bandgaps of AlN and GaN compared to that of silicon (1.1 eV) makes them suitable for high power applications while the high electron mobility of InN makes it attractive for high frequency transistors. Since aluminium, gallium, and indium belong to group 13, their nitrides are termed group 13-nitrides (13Ns).  

The deposition techniques chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to produce thin films upon a substrate through reactions by suitable precursor molecules in the gas phase or at the surface. These techniques have successfully deposited thin films of 13Ns using commercially available precursors, e.g., trimethyl aluminium (TMA), trimethyl gallium (TMG) and trimethyl indium (TMI) as metal precursor and ammonia (NH3) as nitrogen precursor. However, the chemistry between these precursors is not well developed, as evidenced by the large nonstoichiometric ratio between the metal and nitrogen precursors, in the order of 1:100-1:105. This is not sustainable for mass production of these materials, as significant amounts of precursor gas are wasted and must either be cleaned from the exhaust or be released into the atmosphere. In my thesis, the gas phase decomposition and the surface adsorption of these precursors and alternatives are investigated by computational approaches.  

Gas phase decomposition of ammonia is investigated by kinetic modelling at relevant temperature and pressures. At these conditions, a very small fraction of the initial ammonia molecules can decompose within the expected residence time for the gases in the process. The conclusion is that the low reactivity of ammonia is intrinsic and is not due to decomposition into unreactive nitrogen and hydrogen gas. Methylamines as alternative nitrogen precursors are explored for CVD of GaN. Although these are more reactive in the gas phase, their lower surface reactivity compared to ammonia limits their use as a replacement for ammonia in 13N CVD. The origin of the surface reactivity of ammonia in thermal ALD of AlN and GaN, in comparison to the lack of reactivity on InN, is explored. Comparing GaN and InN surface chemistry, the surface adsorption process on InN is less favourable than on GaN as well as being many orders of magnitude slower, indicating that the lack of any reported thermal ALD process on InN arises from the low reactivity of ammonia towards the InN surface.  

The resulting surface terminations after ammonia dosing determines how the metal precursors adsorb and react. A series of nitrogen rich surface terminations of the 13Ns is investigated by density functional theory (DFT) modelling and their stability and prevalence at different temperature and pressures are determined from statistical thermodynamics. At low temperatures the surfaces are terminated by hydrogen bonding amino groups while at high temperatures the surface is bare, with the transition temperature between the two structures decreasing from AlN to GaN to InN. TMA can adsorb onto the amino terminated surface and loses ligands by decomposing. Subsequent TMA molecules are found to decompose in two ways depending on how close it adsorbed to an already adsorbed and decomposed molecule.  

A suitable alternative class of metal precursor for 13N ALD are molecules with nitrogen to metal bonds, such as formamidinates, amidinates, trisguanidinates, or triazenides. Ammonia will have an easier process to break the weaker metal nitrogen bond compared to a metal carbon bond. The gas phase decomposition of a trisguanidinate precursor is investigated but it is shown to be likely to decompose during volatilization, limiting its use as an InN ALD precursor.  

My thesis consists of detailed atomistic simulations of the deposition of AlN, GaN and InN thin films. The simulations in cooperation with experimental work are used to elucidate the detailed atomistic mechanisms occurring during the process. It gives insight into the shortcomings of the current processes and precursors and can be used as a basis for how to improve them, rendering the 13N a suitable material in a sustainable large-scale production for a variety of semiconductor applications. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2023. p. 73
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2295
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-191935 (URN)10.3384/9789180750738 (DOI)9789180750721 (ISBN)9789180750738 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-03-29, Planck, F-building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 09:15 (English)
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Available from: 2023-02-24 Created: 2023-02-24 Last updated: 2023-02-27Bibliographically approved

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